The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Hot container composting
"What is in-vessel composting?". Zero Waste Scotland. 2015-08-10. Retrieved 2016-10-08. "In-Vessel Composting". www. ... Reducing organic waste in landfills reduces methane. By composting we turn what would've been greenhouse gases in our ... Hot container composting (also referred to as in-vessel composting for larger industrial batches) is different to cold ... http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/vessel-composting-ivc "How To Compost". The Farmer's Almanac. Retrieved 2017-08-31. "HotBin ...
Air pollution in Germany
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) - Categorized as either methane or non-methane. Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse ... Mobile sources include motor vehicles, marine vessels, and aircraft.. *Controlled burn practices in agriculture and forest ... Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane.. *Military resources, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare ...
Teesside oil terminal
The vapour from the top of each vessel is respectively methane, ethane, propane, butane and iso-butane. Propane is used as a ... Methane is used as fuel gas on the plant. Ethane, propane and butane are liquefied and sent to insulated storage tanks prior to ... The plant is capable of processing 64,000 barrels/day (10,175 m3/d). It comprises a series of fractionation vessels: de- ... The vessels operate at successively lower pressures and higher temperatures. ...
He devised experiments such as the ignition of methane by an electric spark in a closed vessel. Volta also studied what we now ... he found methane at Lake Maggiore, and by 1778 he managed to isolate methane. ... He researched and discovered methane after reading a paper by Benjamin Franklin of the United States on "flammable air". In ... and pioneer of electricity and power who is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane. He ...
The 27.500 cbm vessels can carry methane, LNG, ethylene and ethane, propane, and butane. The vessels have a total length ... "I had no vessels, no activity and no money. I went from 7,400 employees to one". Shipping Watch. Shipping Watch. 2018-06-18. " ... Because the vessels are relatively small, they are mostly deployed on short haul trades. Eight semi-refrigerated multi-gas ... Evergas took delivery of the first VLEC in 2019 and has since then deployed the vessels on the US -China trade. Evergas has ...
... process vessels, test vessels, containment vessels and surge vessels. Storage tank "Hortonsphere® Pressure Vessels, CB&I". ... Cryogenic storage is also possible for LNG, methane, ethylene, hydrogen, and oxygen. Gases that may be stored include hydrogen ... CB&I accounts for a large proportion of spherical pressure vessels in the world. They are used extensively for LPG, as well as ... CB&I built the first field-erected spherical pressure vessels in the world at the Port Arthur, Texas refinery in 1923, and ...
Now the vessel is gassed up and warm. The tanks are still at ambient temperature and are full of methane. The next stage is ... returning the vessel to a gassed up and warm state. The vessel can then be cooled again for loading. If the vessel is to return ... Once the tanks are warmed up, the inert gas plant is used to remove the methane from the tanks. Once the tanks are methane free ... Cool-down can take roughly 20 hours on a Moss vessel (and 10-12 hours on a membrane type vessel), so carrying a heel allows ...
Timeline of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
July 27 Towing vessel Pere Ana C pushing the barge Captain Beauford collides with Louisiana-owned oil and natural gas rig C177 ... May 8 - BP reports that methane is freezing at the top of the dome making it ineffective. May 9 - Tar balls reported on Dauphin ... May 10 - After failed containment dome BP announces plans to apply five feet in diameter containment vessel nicknamed "top hat ... container dome is lowered over the largest of the well leaks and pipe the oil to a storage vessel on the surface. ...
Emission Control Area
The purpose of the protocol was to reduce and to control the emissions coming from the marine vessels' exhausts that pollute ... Those gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. The ... The regulations apply to all marine vessels 400 gross tonnage or above. MARPOL requires the ship industry to use the EEDI ... over 130 kW of output power other than the engines used solely for emergency purposes not in respect of the marine vessel's ...
The residual hydrogen, methane, ethane, and some propane is used as refinery fuel gas. The hydrogen sulfide removed and ... Most of the hydrogen-rich gas from the gas separator vessel is recycle gas, which is routed through an amine contactor for ... Any excess gas from the gas separator vessel joins the sour gas from the stripping of the reaction product liquid. The liquid ... The resulting mixture of liquid and gas enters the gas separator vessel at about 35 °C and 3 to 5 atmospheres of absolute ...
The US fishing vessel Nordic Pride sinks in the Bering Sea, west of the Pribilof Islands. Another US fishing vessel, Starlite, ... A methane gas explosion in Los Angeles leads to subway construction along the city's most important corridor, Wilshire ... The US fishing vessel Ocean Bounty sinks during a storm in the Gulf of Alaska south of Cape Saint Elias. A United States Coast ...
The synthetic methane produced by the MINERVE demonstrator (0.6 Nm3 / h of CH4) is recovered as CNG fuel, which is used in the ... A pre-commercial demonstration project with a 10,000-liter reactor vessel was executed between January and November 2013 in ... The power to methane method is to combine hydrogen from an electrolyzer with carbon dioxide and convert the two gases to ... The synthetic methane generated from electricity can also be used for generating protein rich feed for cattle, poultry and fish ...
Total base number
An appropriate aliquot of the sample is pipetted directly into the titration vessel, and isobutyl vinyl ether and toluene ... The solution is then titrated with Trifluoro methane sulfonic acid (TFMSA) to a single thermometric endpoint. A conductometric ... A conductivity cell is placed in the titration vessel. The sample solution is titrated with alcoholic hydrochloric acid. Mid- ...
Climate change mitigation
Cattle (21%) account for two-thirds of the methane emitted by livestock, followed by buffalo (3% of methane total), sheep (2 ... Maersk, the largest container shipping line and vessel operator in the world, warns of stranded assets when investing into ... Methane has a high immediate impact with a 5-year global warming potential of up to 100. Given this, the current 389 Mt of ... Methane emissions, which have a high short-term impact, can be targeted by reductions in cattle and more generally by reducing ...
2014 in science
Levels of atmospheric methane - a powerful greenhouse gas - had been stable for a decade, but recently began rising again. This ... "Growing a Blood Vessel in a Week". University of Gothenburg. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. ... NASA reports finding methane in polar clouds in the atmosphere of Titan, moon of the planet Saturn. 26 October - Iranian ... These blood vessels were implanted in patients to connect the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. Scientists from Harvard ...
Flotta oil terminal
The methane and ethane are removed from the top of the vessel and used as fuel gas with the surplus burned in the flare. The ...
The reaction is conducted in a reformer vessel where a high pressure mixture of steam and methane are put into contact with a ... and finally to methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) - thereby improving the fuel gas quality (methane number ... Steam methane reforming (SMR) and autothermal reformer (ATR) are two industrial examples of the primary and secondary reformers ... POX is typically much faster than steam reforming and requires a smaller reactor vessel. POX produces less hydrogen per unit of ...
... methane, or LPG. Single-stage P2G systems to produce methane also exist, such as reversible solid oxide cell (ReSOC) technology ... A pre-commercial demonstration project with a 10,000-liter reactor vessel was executed between January and November 2013 in ... The synthetic methane generated from electricity can also be used for generating protein rich feed for cattle, poultry and fish ... The carbon dioxide gas produced as by product from these plants can be recycled in the generation of synthetic methane (SNG). ...
Greenhouse gas monitoring
Measuring methane emissions is a crucial aspect of climate change research, as methane is among the most impactful gaseous ... The air sample is dried by passing it through multiple dry ice traps and then collecting it in a five liter vessel. The ... The DIAL takes vertical scans above methane sources and then spatially separates the scans to accurately measure the methane ... Methane and nitrous oxide are measured by other instruments. Greenhouse gases are measured from space such as by the Orbiting ...
Corium (nuclear reactor)
The reactor vessel failure may be caused by heating of its vessel bottom by the corium, resulting first in creep failure and ... In contact with water, hot boron carbide from BWR reactor control rods forms first boron oxide and methane, then boric acid. ... A pool of corium formed at the bottom of the reactor vessel, but the reactor vessel was not breached. The layer of solidified ... Melt-through of the reactor vessel may take from a few tens of minutes to several hours. After breaching the reactor vessel, ...
Adsorbed natural gas
If a suitable adsorbent is used, it is possible to store more gas in an adsorbent-filled vessel than in an empty vessel at the ... It contains mostly methane and ethane. These light gases have very high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures, and their ...
Buoyancy compensator (aviation)
Twelve of the vessel's gas cells were filled with a propellant gas instead of lifting gas with a total volume of 30,000 cubic ... Zeppelins often used a different gas mixture of propylene, methane, butane, acetylene (ethyne), butylene and hydrogen. The LZ ...
Timeline of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (May 2010)
May 8 BP reports that methane is freezing at the top of the dome making it ineffective. Unified Command noting low level ... May 10 After failed containment dome BP announces plans to apply five feet in diameter containment vessel nicknamed "top hat". ... container dome is lowered over the largest of the well leaks and pipe the oil to a storage vessel on the surface. BP begins ...
In species with well-developed septa, the blood circulates entirely within blood vessels, and the vessels in segments near the ... The bacteria convert inorganic matter - such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from hydrothermal vents, or methane from ... while in the forward ends of many earthworms some of the vessels that connect the upper and lower main vessels function as ... Networks of capillaries in the body wall and around the gut transfer blood between the main blood vessels and to parts of the ...
Most of the hydrogen-rich gas from the gas separator vessel returns to the suction of the recycle hydrogen gas compressor and ... A side reaction is hydrogenolysis, which produces light hydrocarbons of lower value, such as methane, ethane, propane and ... The overhead offgas product from the stabilizer contains the byproduct methane, ethane, propane and butane gases produced by ... requires the reactor vessel to be externally heated. This contributes both to costs and the emissions of the process. Catalytic ...
In order for it to be released and break out the air and gas such as methane, H2S and CO2 from the mud to the surface, the ... It can be horizontal, vertical or round vessel. A vacuum action is created to pull in the gas cut mud. When the liquid enters ... The vacuum pump moves the escaping gas from the vessel discharging it to the rig's flare or environmental control system. This ...
Deepwater Horizon oil spill
The oil contained approximately 40% methane by weight, compared to about 5% found in typical oil deposits. Methane can ... Next, it placed a 125-tonne (280,000 lb) containment dome over the largest leak and piped the oil to a storage vessel. While ... Play media At approximately 7:45 pm CDT, on 20 April 2010, high-pressure methane gas from the well expanded into the marine ... To assist with the efforts the captains had to register their ships with the Vessels of Opportunity; however, an issue arose ...
Thermal conductivity detector
Detection of helium loss from the helium vessel of an MRI superconducting magnet. Also used within the brewing industry to ... Used within the Energy Industry to quantify the amount (Calorific Value) of Methane within Biogas Samples Used within the Food ...
Fermented anaerobically for a few weeks at typical room temperatures in an airtight vessel, the organic matter is altered and ... carbon dioxide and methane, in proportions determined by the method of decomposition) and as heat (in aerobic decomposition) ... To recover them, and to avoid drowning the fermentation, runoff is captured from the fermentation vessel, either through a tap ... As an adjective, it qualifies any related noun, such as bokashi bin (a household fermentation vessel), bokashi soil (after ...
Upstream (petroleum industry)
Example: Offshore oil/gas production facilities, Drilling rigs, intervention vessel. List of oil exploration and production ... Coalbed Methane Basic Information Archived 2012-12-05 at the Wayback Machine "Archived copy". Archived from the original on ...
Domes of frozen methane may be warning signs for new blow-outs
"Every year we go back to the dome area with our research vessel, and every year I am anxious to see if one of these domes has ... But the methane is bubbling from these domes. This is actually one of the most active methane seep sites that we have mapped in ... 500m wide and 10m high, the methane domes on the Arctic Ocean floor are containing huge amounts of methane. Illustration: Pavel ... Under the ice sheet the methane became stored as hydrate, a solid form of frozen methane. ...
Bahia de Bizkaia Regasification Plant - Hydrocarbons Technology
Wired Honeybees Show Harmful Impacts of Pesticides on Navigation - Yale E360
As Oil Industry Swoons, Tar Sands Workers Look to Renewables for Jobs - Yale E360
New Alfa Laval PureCool, developed with engine designer WinGD, enables up to 50% methane slip reduction
Methane slip - the next compliance target?. As a growing number of vessels turn to LNG as fuel, many shipowners are concerned ... Since methane has a higher global warming potential than CO2, even this small source of emissions may come into focus in ... Up to 50% methane slip reduction. The effectiveness of iCER with PureCool is nothing short of remarkable. Trials at WinGDs ... Methane slip regulations are a possibility on the horizon, but Alfa Laval and global Swiss engine developer WinGD have already ...
Chemical Database: Methane, trinitro- (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
This page contains information on the chemical Methane, trinitro- including: 5 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal ... Vessel. Excep. Non Bulk. Bulk. Pass air/rail. Cargo air only. Loc. Other. (1). (2). (3). (4). (5). (6). (7). (8A). (8B). (8C). ... Methane, trinitro-. Identifications. *CAS Number: 517-25-9*Synonyms/Related:*Methane, trinitro-*NITROFORM*Trinitromethane* ... Methane, trinitro- (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Methane, trinitro- ...
A 1.604-g sample of methane (CH 4 ) gas and 6.400 g oxygen gas are scaled into a 2.50-L vessel at 411°C and are allowed to...
Interpretation: A given mass of a sample of methane gas and gas oxygen is given to be present sealed in a 2.50. L. vessel at ... A 1.604-g sample of methane (CH4) gas and 6.400 g oxygen gas are scaled into a 2.50-L vessel at 411°C and are allowed to reach ... A 1.604-g sample of methane (CH 4 ) gas and 6.400 g oxygen gas are scaled into a 2.50-L vessel at 411°C and are allowed to ... Methane can react with oxygen to form gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor, or methane can react with oxygen to form gaseous ...
Autoignition of Methane and Natural Gas in a Simulated Diesel Environment
A constant-volume combustion vessel is used for the experiments. Results are presented for the pressure and temperature ranges ... This work presents the autoignition delay time characteristics of methane and natural gas under simulated diesel engine ... From a pragmatic point of view, it is shown that the use of methane or natural gas as a compression-ignited diesel fuel is ... First, there is little effect on the autoignition delay time of natural gas as the vessel pressure is increased from 5 to 55 ...
1/3 of risk for dementia attributable to small vessel disease, autopsy study shows
Fracking prompts global spike in atmospheric methane 14.08.2019 , European Geosciences Union ... But the unexpected finding that a third of the risk for dementia is related to small vessel disease also provides an additional ... But a third of the risk for dementia (33 percent) was associated with damage to the brain from small vessel disease. ... Montine and his colleagues believe that, and are now studying in more detail, this small vessel damage is the cumulative effect ...
영어 리서치 하이라이트 | 네이처 리서치
Air pollution in Germany - Wikipedia
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) - Categorized as either methane or non-methane. Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse ... Mobile sources include motor vehicles, marine vessels, and aircraft.. *Controlled burn practices in agriculture and forest ... Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane.. *Military resources, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare ...
EMBER METHANE PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY PRODUCES HYDROGEN WITHOUT CO2 EMISSIONS | TNO
Integration of downstream processes and purification with the reactor vessel;. *The impact of impurities (eg. H2S) on the ... Methane pyrolysis technologies like the EMBER Molten metal methane pyrolysis technology have been around for a long time. ... Ember methane pyrolysis. To develop a CO2 emission-free society, hydrogen should be produced without CO2 emission. Today this ... With methane pyrolysis processes the problem of CO2 production (which is emitted in atmosphere or captured & stored) can be ...
Reversal of endothelial dysfunction reduces white matter vulnerability in cerebral small vessel disease in rats | Science...
Old methane and modern climate change. *. Working Life. Stepping down to step forward ... Cerebral small-vessel disease and decline in information processing speed, executive function and memory. Brain 128, 2034-2041 ... Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) affects the small perforating arterioles in the brain and is the leading cause of vascular ... A to H) Immunofluorescent images from brain deep white matter and graph (I) showing number of blood vessels (CD34+, red) with ...
Making use of methane - ColoradoBiz Magazine
Vessels estimates he talked with 10 to 15 utilities.. The crux of Vessels problem was that electricity from methane costs more ... Forming Vessels Coal Gas Co., Vessels began shopping his idea of tapping the methane already being vented by coal mines to ... "One of my pet peeves is that agriculture methane is good, but coal mine methane is bad," says Vessels. "Because we hate ... Vessels describes a "turning curve" as opposed to a turning point. Crucial was making it clear that the methane-capture project ...
Composite Thesis Nov 2005 Part1 | Teoría de control | Reactor químico
TCC Temperature of vessel SEP. LC Level control of SEP. CC Concentration (of methane) control, purge stream.. TCQ Temperature ... vessel was larger, but the rate setting would be less. Once this change had been made,. the loop stabilized.. Since the vessel ... 3) Gas purge is manipulated by controlling the methane composition in the. recycle (CC). Xmtr: 40 to 70% methane.. 4) Energy ... methane and 40 mol% hydrogen. The rest of the gas (3990 lb-mol/hr) is recycled back to. the front-end mixer. The purge stream ...
Gulf Oil Spill: NSF Awards Rapid Response Grant to Study Impact of Oil and Methane on Microbes | NSF - National Science...
The team is aboard the research vessel F.G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico on an oceanographic research cruise that will ... Its also unique as it has introduced both oil and methane gas into the deep, cold waters of the Gulf of Mexico. ... A wake of oil is left behind an oceanographic research vessel ferrying scientists into the Gulf.. Credit and Larger Version ... A wake of oil is left behind an oceanographic research vessel ferrying scientists into the Gulf.. Credit and Larger Version ...
Frontiers | Aerobic and Anaerobic Methanotrophic Communities Associated with Methane Hydrates Exposed on the Seafloor: A High...
Diversity analyses based on 16S rRNA and methane-related functional genes, as well as carbon isotopic analysis of methane and ... Diversity analyses based on 16S rRNA and methane-related functional genes, as well as carbon isotopic analysis of methane and ... Using the HP core device, we incubated sediment and overlying water associated with methane hydrate-exposed on the seafloor of ... These laboratory-measured rates at 10 MPa were generally in agreement with previously reported rates of methane oxidation in ...
Evidence Emerges that BP Gulf Disaster Not Over - Salem-News.Com
The reason is that methane gas, when mixed with the turbulent salt water at the bottom of the Gulf, creates a powerful ... Scientific researchers on several vessels reported these occurrences. For the most part they were under reported or ignored ... Government officials and BP spokesmen dismissed the reports saying that natural fissures leak methane and oil into the Gulf all ... Fissures opened and megatons of methane began bursting into the Gulf. Oil also hemorrhaged into the waters. ...
The Oil Drum | Tech Talk - Venezuela, heavy crudes, API gravity and refinery gains
LNG shipping vessels use the boil off methane as engine fuel in DIESEL engines. ... It is my understanding that imported LNG is pure methane and, in the USA, must be mixed with domestic NG before use in homes, ... It is the storage vessel that differs.. in both cases the gas in vapour form at the point of injection. LNG also constantly ...
Production of aromatics from methane - ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc.
... a feed containing methane is supplied to one or more reaction zone(s) containing catalytic material operating under reaction ... In a process for converting methane to aromatic hydrocarbons, ... As used herein the term "settling bed" means a zone or vessel ... Methane feed 27 is introduced into the reactor 22 adjacent the base thereof via line 27. The product and unreacted methane ... Methane. Benzene. Benzene. Methane. Benzene. Benzene. Total Benzene. Total. (hr−1) for. conversion. yield (%). selectivity. ...
CH4 gas measurement Videos | Environmental XPRT
Patent US5968232 - Method for ammonia production - Google Patents
The ammonia exiting vessel 31 can contain all of the argon and methane removed from the synthesis gas. The argon can be ... It may also be desired to remove a portion of the gas present in vessel 31 to purge the argon and methane from the ammonia ... During the passage of the fluid down through the vessels at higher pressure, the ammonia, argon and methane are desorbed from ... The gas, partially depleted in ammonia passes up through and into vessel 11 where it joins with fresh feed entering the vessel. ...
Eu:CROPIS - " Euglena gracilis : Combined Regenerative Organic-food Production in Space" - A Space Experiment Testing...
The reaction requires high pressure and temperature, causing heavy and bulky reaction vessels. Methane is an end product with ... This is why the payload is housed in a pressurized vessel. The vessel, a DLR technology development, is made of carbon fiber ... The second layer is an aramid fabric and the third layer is the pressure vessel itself. During testing, the system was found ... In the upper part, the primary payload is located inside the pressurized vessel. The outer hull and the top plate of the ...
Vaping just one time damages blood vessels and vascular function • Earth.com
Just one use of an electronic cigarette can damage the blood vessels, according to a new study from the University of ... How bacteria can convert methane into a sustainable fuel Methanotrophic bacteria are known for their incredible ability to ... Just one use of an electronic cigarette can damage the blood vessels, according to a new study from the University of ... To measure vascular response, the team constricted the vessels of the thigh with a cuff and then examined how soon the blood ...
Methane Seepage Has Been Occurring For Millions Of Years | Science 2.0
Thereve been some recent environmental claims about methane seepage, flaming tapwater, but what were not staged have been due ... It is a seismic instrument that is towed behind a research vessel. It recorded the sediments beneath these pockmarks. P-Cable ... Where does the methane come from? The methane is stored as gas hydrates, chunks of frozen gas and water, up to hundreds of ... How is the methane released? By using this method, scientists were able to identify two major events of gas emission throughout ...
Declining Renewable Costs Drive Focus on Energy Storage | News | NREL
But the salts are corrosive, so research is ongoing to the ideal containment vessel. Instead of salt, Ma is using sand to store ... It will store the renewable methane produced from the Southern California Gas bioreactor. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. The ... The project, a first in the United States, relies on microorganisms that convert hydrogen and carbon dioxide into methane. The ... methane can be stored in the companys pipeline for use later. Crews install a natural gas storage vessel next to the ...
Patent WO1997038336A1 - Conformable, embossable retroreflective sheeting - Google Patents
Bis(4-isocyanotocyclohexyl) methane (67.48 grams; 0.515 equivalents; Bayer Coφ., Pittsburgh, PA), xylene (67.5 grams) and two ... and two drops of dibutyltin dilaurate were added to the reaction vessel. The reaction was heated under reflux for three hours, ... Bis(4-isocyanotocyclohexyl) methane (74.93 grams; 0.572 equivalents; Bayer Coφ., Pittsburgh, PA), xylene (147.5 grams) and ... methane (Hι2MDI, available from Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh, PA), diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI, available from Bayer Corp., ...
Patente US4717395 - Gas separations using membranes comprising sulphonated polyether sulphone - Google Patentes
The membrane affixed to the frame can then be sealingly engaged in the conventional manner in a vessel so that the membrane ... In still another embodiment, nitrogen is separated from natural gas or light hydrocarbons, such as methane. It is to be noted ... The skilled artisan will recognize that the structure which supports the membrane can be an integral part of the vessel or even ... In the separation of nitrogen from methane, the permeabilities of nitrogen under preferred conditions are 0.02 10-10 or greater ...
Greenhouse gasHydrateAmounts of methaneHydrogenEmissionsSources of methaneSedimentsBacteriaBlood VesselsSeepMicrobesSeafloorAmount of methaneHydratesHydrocarbonsCarbon dioxide and methane gasMethanolAnaerobicPermafrostAmmoniaConcentrationsPotentSeepsAboardAtmosphereLandfillsNitrogenGasesOxidation of methaneClimateScientistsGiant methaneMarine methaneProduce methaneConsume methaneConstant-volume combustion vesselOxygenSteamPartial oxidationFermentationMeltsCoalVolume of the vesselWaterReaction vesselReductionReactor vesselSmall vessel diseaseContainmentProducesClathrateArcticMixtureReactResearchersFrozenPressure vesselsResearch vesselsMicrobial communitiesCrystalsGulf
- Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming . (wikipedia.org)
- As is well known, methane (CH 4 ) is the greenhouse gas whose anthropogenic increase comes second only to CO 2 in its 20th Century effect on climate. (realclimate.org)
- It is often stated that methane is 'roughly 20 times more powerful' as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 and this can refer to one of two (very different) metrics. (realclimate.org)
- IMPORTANCE Cold seep sediments are complex and widespread marine ecosystems emitting large amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, and other hydrocarbons. (asm.org)
- Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, seeps naturally from the sea floor in many places around the planet, including in the Gulf of Mexico. (livescience.com)
- Methane is 23 times worse as a greenhouse gas. (greencarcongress.com)
- Thawing permafrost threatens to destabilize the stored methane -a greenhouse gas- and send it into the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
- Deep beneath the ocean, off the coast of Washington, Oregon, and northern California, scientists have discovered roughly 500 bubbling vents spewing methane, a potent greenhouse gas. (pbs.org)
- Methane vents are a potentially important, but unaccounted for, source of methane in global greenhouse gas budgets," said Nicole Raineault, director of science operations at Ocean Exploration Trust, the nonprofit that made the discovery. (pbs.org)
- But the feedback loop-where methane from undersea vents bubbles to the surface and acts as a greenhouse gas, causing further ocean warming that in turn melts methane hydrate and releases more methane gas-is still hypothetical, Thurber said. (pbs.org)
- We wanted to find out whether methane is getting through the water column to the ocean's surface and into the atmosphere - if so, how much - and determine what contribution it's making to global greenhouse gas," said Dr Mountjoy. (scoop.co.nz)
- The abundance of methane in oxygen-rich surface waters became known as the "methane paradox," a curiosity with potential implications for global warming given that the greenhouse gas moves easily from supersaturated water into the atmosphere. (the-scientist.com)
- 28] Methane is a potent greenhouse gas with a higher global warming potential than CO2. (envirolink.org)
- Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and huge amounts of methane will escape from the mine for years to come following closure. (environmental-expert.com)
- The animals themselves generate methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, in their digestive tracts. (reuters.com)
- Under the ice sheet the methane became stored as hydrate, a solid form of frozen methane. (innovations-report.com)
- They are hydrate and methane saturated relics of the last ice-age. (innovations-report.com)
- Using the HP core device, we incubated sediment and overlying water associated with methane hydrate-exposed on the seafloor of the Joetsu Knoll, Japan, at 10 MPa and 4°C for 45 days in the laboratory. (frontiersin.org)
- And the containment vessel failed because it filled up with rock-hard methane hydrate crystals. (abovetopsecret.com)
- the solid form of methane hydrate is very hard, it looks like a diamond but it contains a trapped CH3 molecule. (abovetopsecret.com)
- Methane Hydrate, not enough has been said about this, in fact the media has been avoiding expanding on this. (abovetopsecret.com)
- A vast source of methane is found in gas hydrate deposits, which form naturally dispersed throughout ocean sediments and arctic permafrost. (nature.com)
- It is imperative for the development of safe methane extraction and carbon dioxide sequestration to understand how methane and carbon dioxide co-occupy the same hydrate structure. (nature.com)
- Mixed hydrate, which forms during the exchange process, is more locally disordered than methane or carbon dioxide hydrates. (nature.com)
- They also calculated that the potential amount of methane hydrate and free methane gas beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet could be up to 4 billion metric tons, a similar order of magnitude to some estimates made for Arctic permafrost . (atheistnexus.org)
- The predicted shallow depth of these potential reserves also makes them more susceptible to climate forcing than other methane hydrate reserves on Earth . (atheistnexus.org)
- Unfortunately, those accumulations of methane clathrate hydrate eventually filled the well caps, and thereby prevented them from sealing the well. (livescience.com)
- Marine sediments contain an estimated 500 to 10,000 Gt (1 Gt = 10 15 g) of methane carbon, primarily in the form of gas hydrate ( 26 ). (asm.org)
- She said that methane takes different forms depending on temperature and pressure-at a depth of 500 meters or below along the Cascadia Margin, it occurs in the form of methane hydrate, a water-methane ice. (pbs.org)
- It doesn't take very many degrees of ocean warming to basically melt [the methane hydrate]," said Lisa Levin, director of the Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (pbs.org)
- Methane clathrate, also known commonly as methane hydrate, is a form of water ice that contains a large amount of methane within its crystal structure. (envirolink.org)
- 15. A process for inhibiting methane hydrate formation in crude oil. (sumobrain.com)
Amounts of methane4
- 500m wide and 10m high, the methane domes on the Arctic Ocean floor are containing huge amounts of methane. (innovations-report.com)
- significant amounts of methane also seep from unnatural sources, such as oil wells. (livescience.com)
- As news of the rig's release of large amounts of methane spread throughout the scientific community and general public, a wave of wild speculation about its ultimate impacts grew. (livescience.com)
- Using the new deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu", we obtained 365 m of core sediments that contained approximately 2% organic matter and considerable amounts of methane from offshore the Shimokita Peninsula in Japan at a water depth of 1,180 m. (nih.gov)
- TNO has been working on the EMBER technology which is a methane pyrolysis technology that produces hydrogen without CO2 emission. (tno.nl)
- The standard processes to produce hydrogen are steam methane reforming or partial oxidation processes. (tno.nl)
- The costs of producing hydrogen are similar to the conventional steam methane reforming processes. (tno.nl)
- The energy value of the methane is used in hydrogen production. (tno.nl)
- C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. (patents.com)
- The storage costs per kilowatt hour are estimated at €0.10 for hydrogen and €0.15 for methane. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2013 the round-trip efficiency of power-to-gas-storage was well below 50%, with the hydrogen path being able to reach a maximum efficiency of ~ 43% and methane of ~ 39% by using combined-cycle powerplants. (wikipedia.org)
- Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC) and its partners will deploy the world's first solar hydrogen production station using landfill gas (LFG) (methane) as a feedstock at the Fleet Street landfill in Regina, Saskatchewan. (greencarcongress.com)
- The plant (SHEC Station #1), based on SHEC's Dry Fuel Reformation process-will use an array of 30 modules each of which comprises a solar mirror array and advanced solar concentrator and shutter system, and two thermocatalytic reactors to convert methane, carbon dioxide, and water into hydrogen. (greencarcongress.com)
- SHEC feeds carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) into a reactor heated by a solar mirror array where the gases react to form hydrogen gas (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). A water cooled iris dilates to control the amount of radiant energy directed to this reaction phase. (greencarcongress.com)
- Hydrogen production is near the theoretical maximum at approximately 66% in the product gas stream with a 98.2% mol conversion of the feed methane. (greencarcongress.com)
- Converting CH4 + 2 H2O to CO2 + 4 H2 converts a mole of methane at 213 kcal/mol into 4 moles of hydrogen at 70.6 kcal/mol is an increase in energy of about 1/3. (greencarcongress.com)
- SHEC claims 3.9 volumes of hydrogen per volume of methane, so they are getting most of that boost. (greencarcongress.com)
- The thermal cracking process increases the chemical energy of the products, so the hydrogen has about 29% more energy than the methane input. (greencarcongress.com)
- the reformer where the methane is converted to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. (dakotagas.com)
- the methanator where they react with hydrogen to form methane. (dakotagas.com)
- dryers and cold box remove water and methane along with excess nitrogen so that the hydrogen and nitrogen ratio equals three to one. (dakotagas.com)
- Further, she says, Lost City microbes appear to live off bountiful methane and hydrogen. (nsf.gov)
- Methane, the hydrocarbon with the highest hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, represents a particularly high-energy substrate for some of the microorganisms-specifically, the methanogens, which synthesize the compound for growth in anaerobic conditions. (arcus.org)
- The US navy has patented a technique to enslave millions of bacteria solely for producing gases like hydrogen and methane. (thenextweb.com)
- For example, Clostridium acetobutylicum produces hydrogen, while Methanocelleus bourgensis produces methane. (thenextweb.com)
- This schematic shows the components of a CHAMP cylinder-piston assembly used to create hydrogen from methane and steam via variable volume catalytic reaction. (phys.org)
- Everyone remembers the Miller-Urey experiment , where a mixture of "primordial" gases (water, methane, ammonia, hydrogen) was subjected to repeated electric sparks and heat in a closed vessel. (sciencemag.org)
- Three processes for the production of Hydrogen are being discussed namely Steam Methane Reforming, Solar Electrolysis and Thermochemical Decomposition of Water. (wikiversity.org)
- In Steam Methane Reforming (SMR), methane reacts with steam to yield Hydrogen and Carbon dioxide. (wikiversity.org)
- The residual hydrogen, methane, ethane, and some propane is used as refinery fuel gas. (airforums.com)
- Since methane has a higher global warming potential than CO2, even this small source of emissions may come into focus in meeting IMO's ambitious climate goals. (gcaptain.com)
- For starters, it would force us to get much more serious about tackling the sources of methane emissions. (atheistnexus.org)
- Russian scientists have discovered spots in the Arctic Ocean where mass emissions of methane can be observed. (atheistnexus.org)
- Indeed, IPY researchers along the Siberian coast observed substantial emissions of methane from ocean sediments. (eurekalert.org)
- Additionally, lag times for CI connection/disconnection along with methane emissions from LNG undermine their feasibility for Short Sea Shipping (SSS). (mdpi.com)
- The high demand for LNG bunkers can be attributed to the abilities of LNG to considerably reduce carbon emissions, methane slip, and air pollution. (openpr.com)
- Scope 1 includes direct emissions from sources within a facility, and for 2019 has been updated to remove previously included third-party vessels per industry guidance. (chevron.com)
- All six Kyoto GHGs-carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride, perfluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons-are included in Chevron's Scope 1 emissions. (chevron.com)
- Oil major BP announced that it will deploy continuous measurement of methane emissions in its future BP-operated oil and gas processing projects as part of its ambitious programme to detect, measure and reduce methane emissions. (safety4sea.com)
- The data gathered from the new technology will be used to help BP tackle methane emissions and develop the best practices, following its aim on delivering and improving BP's methane intensity target of 0.2% from its upstream operations. (safety4sea.com)
- Moreover, the technology represents a major leap in the oil and gas industry as it will enable the detection, quantification and reduction of methane emissions. (safety4sea.com)
- This new technology will help us do that by detecting methane emissions in real time. (safety4sea.com)
- These vessels are powered by M-type, electronically controlled, gas injection (MEGI) engines which are more fuel efficient than other engine types used in LNG shipping, producing fewer emissions. (shell.com)
- Abandoned mine methane (AMM) projects produce energy (thermal and electrical) with the added bonus of reducing atmospheric emissions of methane. (environmental-expert.com)
Sources of methane3
- The reason that AD biogas has now become a valued commodity is that fossil fuel sources of methane gas have risen so much in price that (with some encouragement from government grants and tax breaks) biogas methane can be cheaper. (anaerobic-digestion.com)
- This would be even more slick if other sources of methane were thermally 'hopped up' to stretch them. (greencarcongress.com)
- Which has been shown to be able to distinguish between biological and non-biological sources of methane. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
- Microbial methane oxidation rates in ocean and freshwater systems reveal how much of emitted methane from the sediments is oxidized to CO2 and how much can reach the atmosphere directly. (awi.de)
- Methane release from seafloor sediments is moderated, in part, by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) performed by consortia of archaea and bacteria. (asm.org)
- These biofilms are a novel, but apparently widespread, aggregation of cells represented by the ANME-1 clade that occur in methane-rich marine sediments. (asm.org)
- 2% of the global atmospheric methane flux ( 39 ), with most sedimentary methane being microbially oxidized to carbon dioxide in anoxic sediments by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). (asm.org)
- Globally, AOM consumes ∼90% of the methane produced in marine sediments ( 39 ). (asm.org)
- AOM consortia depend on sulfate and methane and thus typically occur at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT), a biogeochemical horizon where seawater sulfate and methane from the underlying anoxic sediments converge. (asm.org)
- Very far from anoxic sediments, very far from shore, it's not obvious where the methane comes from," he says. (the-scientist.com)
- Phylogenetic and enzymatic diversity of deep subseafloor aerobic microorganisms in organics- and methane-rich sediments off Shimokita Peninsula. (nih.gov)
- Hackbusch, S. (2014): Abundance and activity of methane oxidizing bacteria in the River Elbe Estuary , Master thesis, Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena. (awi.de)
- VITAL Earth of Brecon has worked with Shropshire-based trailer maker Harry West on the construction of a 40cu m tippable stainless steel vessel, through which air is blown to maintain aerobic fermentation of pre-chopped materials by bacteria. (fwi.co.uk)
- The vast majority of methane released from these reserves is consumed by archaea [single-celled microorganisms] and bacteria initially in the sediment and then in the water column as the methane is released," Thurber said. (pbs.org)
- Some of the bacteria that consume methane use oxygen to break it down, and Levin said that one concern is whether methane oxidation in the water column is "using up the oxygen" in the areas where vents are found. (pbs.org)
- The biological survey of the gas flares zone has secured a major advance for science, with observations suggesting that chemoautophic species (those that depend for food on a symbiosis with bacteria that use the methane) can occur at relatively shallow depths, Dr Rowden says that this means the scientific understanding of the life that inhabits the area of these gas seeps needs to be re-evaluated, and a new model formulated. (scoop.co.nz)
- Four years later, researchers found an archaeon that produces the starting material for this decomposition, methylphosphonic acid, and, in 2014 researchers identified marine bacteria that use the molecule to make methane. (the-scientist.com)
- The bacteria utilize the seeping methane in their metabolism and make up about 60% of the tubeworms' weight. (arcus.org)
- HAY diets also had a higher metabolic H recovery and methane production (+35%) suggesting more efficient inter-species H transfer between bacteria, protozoa and methanogens. (frontiersin.org)
- The endothelium is a thin membrane that lines the inside surface of blood vessels and is critical for proper blood circulation. (earth.com)
- Study lead author Dr. Alessandra Caporale said the findings suggest that vaping can cause significant changes to the inner lining of blood vessels. (earth.com)
- But the solvents, flavorings and additives in the liquid base, after vaporization, expose users to multiple insults to the respiratory tract and blood vessels. (earth.com)
- The researchers also found that the fruit helps relax blood vessels within just two hours of eating it. (naturalnews.com)
- During vasodilation, the walls of the blood vessels relax. (smartglobalhealth.org)
- This is actually one of the most active methane seep sites that we have mapped in the Arctic Ocean. (innovations-report.com)
- In the thermogenic seep community, high levels of transcripts indicative of syntrophic anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction were detected. (asm.org)
- In the biogenic methane seep, genes from an ANME-1 lineage that are potentially involved in polysulfide reduction were highly expressed, suggesting a novel bacterium-independent anaerobic methane oxidation pathway coupled to polysulfide reduction. (asm.org)
- Despite this ecological importance, our understanding of microbial functions and methane oxidation pathways in cold seep ecosystems is poor. (asm.org)
- With the rig spilling 52,700 barrels of oil per day into the Gulf, we now realized it was also releasing far more methane than any other previously studied natural methane seep. (livescience.com)
- These consortia occur as isolated cells and aggregates within the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) of diffusion and seep-dominant environments. (asm.org)
- Seep-dominant environments contain ample sulfate and methane that support biofilms or mats with cell densities of the AOM aggregates that exceed 10 10 cells cm −3 ( 20 ). (asm.org)
- It appears that the entire coast off Washington, Oregon, and California is a giant methane seep," said Robert Ballard, founder of Ocean Exploration Trust, in a statement. (pbs.org)
- By sampling methane gas within the ocean and collecting photographs and graphic imagery with NIWA's deep-towed imaging system, Dr Mountjoy and marine ecologist Dr Ashley Rowden were also able to build a picture of the fate of the gas flares, and acquire a deeper understanding of the ecology at the relatively shallow seep sites. (scoop.co.nz)
- As the sub drifted over the bottom of Japan's Nankai Trough - a hotbed of understudied microbes living off methane bubbling up from tectonic faults - Imachi spotted a nest of small clams against a whitish microbial mat, suggestive of an active methane seep below. (sciencenews.org)
- The Japanese research vessel Shinkai 6500 dove 2,500 meters into the Nankai Trough off of Japan's Kii peninsula to sample the microbial diversity in the sediment around a methane seep in 2006. (sciencenews.org)
- The team is studying the factors regulating the activity of microbes in the water column, including nutrient availability, methane concentration, trace metals and vitamins, and the impact of oil on key microbial processes, including the oxidation of methane. (nsf.gov)
- Our laboratory experiments tell us that these sub-ice environments are also biologically active, meaning that this organic carbon is probably being metabolized to carbon dioxide and methane gas by microbes. (atheistnexus.org)
- Scientists know that some of the Gulf's naturally released methane is eaten by microbes, but they are still trying to determine how much of this released methane ever reaches the atmosphere, where it may influence climate. (livescience.com)
- New methane seeps also could affect global warming if they occur in an area where the microbes that eat the methane are not yet present, he said. (pbs.org)
- Certain microbes express genes in a methane-production pathway, offering an explanation for puzzlingly high levels of the gas in some lakes. (the-scientist.com)
- But the source of methane underlying the paradox remained unsolved until David Karl at the University of Hawaii and colleagues discovered that laboratory-grown aerobic marine microbes can break down methylphosphonate and produce methane ( Nat Geosci , 1:473-78, 2008). (the-scientist.com)
- or perhaps aerobic microbes are releasing methane like those in the ocean. (the-scientist.com)
- Deep beneath the seafloor, methane is in a slushy, crystalline form. (newsday.com)
- Dr Mountjoy says the team identified methane gas in the sediment and in the ocean, and vast areas of methane hydrates - ice-like frozen methane - below the seafloor. (scoop.co.nz)
- The field was named Lost City in part because it sits on a seafloor mountain named the Atlantis Massif, and because researchers were using the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's vessel Atlantis when the area was discovered. (nsf.gov)
Amount of methane2
- We think the largest and worst amount of methane is similarly sequestered under the shallow Arctic sea of East Siberia. (ecoshock.org)
- According to her explanation, if a large amount of methane erupted from the ground underwater, it would quickly form into tiny bubbles rather than a ship-sinking giant mass of gas. (coasttocoastam.com)
- The methane is stored as gas hydrates, chunks of frozen gas and water, up to hundreds of meters under the ocean floor. (science20.com)
- Methane may be obtained from hydrates by exchange with hydrocarbon byproduct carbon dioxide. (nature.com)
- Pair distribution functions (PDFs) provide atomic-scale structural insight into intermolecular interactions in methane and carbon dioxide hydrates. (nature.com)
- We present experimental neutron PDFs of methane, carbon dioxide and mixed methane-carbon dioxide hydrates at 10 K analyzed with complementing classical molecular dynamics simulations and Reverse Monte Carlo fitting. (nature.com)
- In fact, so much methane gushed from the well that some of it collected as solid, crystal-like structures - known as clathrate hydrates - in well caps that rig operators used in attempts to seal the well. (livescience.com)
- Scientists aboard the Russian vessel Professor Logachev obtained samples of the gas hydrates within the pingoes in 2006. (arcus.org)
- People have to realize just how dangerous these methane hydrates are over a longer term than 10 years. (envirolink.org)
- This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree. (patents.com)
- Natural gas contains methane and other hydrocarbons, which are the principal sources of heat energy when natural gas is burned. (madehow.com)
- Seeps emitting biogenic methane harbored microbial communities dominated by archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers of phylogenetic group 1 (ANME-1), whereas seeps producing fluids containing a complex mixture of thermogenic hydrocarbons were dominated by ANME-2 lineages. (asm.org)
- Methane seeps are widespread in marine environments, particularly in continental margins where deeply buried organic matter is progressively transformed to hydrocarbons ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- So when BP's Deepwater Horizon rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, and the Macondo prospect began releasing hydrocarbons, we suspected that the resulting oil spill would be accompanied by a large methane release. (livescience.com)
- These light hydrocarbons, dominated by methane but also including ethane, propane, and butane, originate at considerable depth below the Earth's surface in a thermogenic hydrocarbon-generating region where organic matter is turned into oil and gas at relatively high temperatures and pressures. (arcus.org)
Carbon dioxide and methane gas1
- This digestion process stabilizes the sludge by converting much of the organic material into water, carbon dioxide and methane gas. (nyc.gov)
- Solid Catalysts for the Selective Low-Temperature Oxidation of Methane to Methanol. (docme.ru)
- Angewandte Chemie DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902009 Methane Oxidation Solid Catalysts for the Selective Low-Temperature Oxidation of Methane to Methanol** Regina Palkovits, Markus Antonietti, Pierre Kuhn, Arne Thomas, and Ferdi Schth* The development of catalyst systems for the direct lowtemperature oxidation of methane to methanol has been one of the major challenges in catalysis over the last decades. (docme.ru)
- We report herein on the development of solid catalysts for the direct low-temperature oxidation of methane to methanol reaching high activity at high selectivity and stability over several recycling steps, which could provide a breakthrough for this reaction. (docme.ru)
- In the process, a crude oil contaminated with the inhibitor is maintained in a vessel at inhibitor removal conditions to produce a treated crude oil having a reduced methanol concentration. (sumobrain.com)
- Diversity analyses based on 16S rRNA and methane-related functional genes, as well as carbon isotopic analysis of methane and bicarbonate, indicated the stimulation of both aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophy driven by members of the Methylococcales , and ANME, respectively: i.e., aerobic methanotrophy was observed upon addition of oxygen whereas anaerobic processes subsequently occurred after oxygen consumption. (frontiersin.org)
- These anaerobic methanotrophs often form aggregates with sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria , where they are believed to symbiotically reduce sulfate and oxidize methane by the net reaction SO 4 2− + CH 4 → HS − + HCO 3 − + H 2 O. (asm.org)
- For example, anaerobic processes consume only 37% of methane from the Haakon-Mosby mud volcano ( 30 ), leaving a large proportion of the methane to escape into the overlying water. (asm.org)
- Anaerobic biodegradation tests of poly(lactic acid) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using a new evaluation system for methane fermenta. (nih.gov)
- And we appear to be approaching some irrevocable tipping points that will create powerful negative feedback loops, the most worrisome being the release of methane stores at the bottom of the ocean and locked into sub-Arctic permafrost. (atheistnexus.org)
- Now that we appreciate how dangerous methane is, we've just discovered an overlooked reservoir holding as much as Arctic permafrost, but even more vulnerable to evaporating. (atheistnexus.org)
- IPY research has also identified large pools of carbon stored as methane in permafrost. (eurekalert.org)
- 26] Furthermore, there are believed to be another 400 gigatonnes of carbon in methane clathrates in permafrost regions  with 10,000 to 11,000 gigatonnes worldwide. (envirolink.org)
- The tracer-method using 3H-CH4 provides a way to measure MOX-rates even in water with low methane concentrations without needing any specific instrumentation. (awi.de)
- Valentine calculates that if 5,000 barrels a day were leaking then some 7,500 tons of methane would have entered the Gulf in 27 days, driving methane concentrations to three times normal levels in a 2,000-square-mile, one-kilometer-deep stretch of the Gulf. (motherjones.com)
- Diffusion-dominant SMTs are well-defined, occur as deep as several meters below the surface, and have moderate methane concentrations (∼1 mM) and reduced sulfate concentrations ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- Methane levels are supersaturated on ocean surfaces, meaning they are higher than expected given atmospheric concentrations. (the-scientist.com)
- In the laboratory, they incubated water samples from the upper levels of nearby Lake Stechlin, a clear body of water in northwestern Germany that reaches 70 meters deep, and observed methane concentrations increase ( PNAS , 108:19657-61, 2011). (the-scientist.com)
- 27] This is large enough that if 10% of the stored methane were released, it would have an effect equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. (envirolink.org)
- To help better define the relationships between methane seeps and climate change, we had previously conducted many studies of natural methane seeps. (livescience.com)
- The vents, also known as seeps, were discovered along an area known as the Cascadia Margin during June and September expeditions of the research vessel EV Nautilus. (pbs.org)
- We have a fundamental understanding," he said, "but in no way a complete understanding of the fate of methane from methane seeps. (pbs.org)
- The team is aboard the research vessel F.G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico on an oceanographic research cruise that will return to port this coming weekend. (nsf.gov)
- According to the press-service of the expedition aboard The Viktor Buinitsky research vessel, the diameter of some of the 'methane fields' found in the northern part of the Laptev Sea exceeds 1 kilometre. (atheistnexus.org)
- In June 2010, with only two weeks to prepare, we embarked on our first expedition to the oil spill, investigating methane while aboard a research vessel. (livescience.com)
- A team of scientists aboard NIWA's deepwater research vessel Tangaroa returns to Wellington tomorrow[Friday 1 May] with new knowledge about methane 'leaking' into the atmosphere. (scoop.co.nz)
- With methane pyrolysis processes the problem of CO2 production (which is emitted in atmosphere or captured & stored) can be largely resolved because the C atom from the hydrocarbon is converted into valuable solid carbon. (tno.nl)
- Spewed into the atmosphere, methane constitutes what most climate scientists say is a significant threat because of its ability to trap heat in the atmosphere. (cobizmag.com)
- Even though it is modest from natural gas, 60 percent of methane in the atmosphere comes from human activities (such as cow burps and other things) but that is nothing compared to the giga-tons of it trapped under the ocean floor of the Arctic. (science20.com)
- For example, some people predicted that the methane would gradually and harmlessly rise into the atmosphere. (livescience.com)
- He estimated that some 90% of methane released is consumed by these organisms and so does not reach the water's surface and escape into the atmosphere. (pbs.org)
- While methane from the vents may not reach the atmosphere in large amounts, its consumption in the water could affect oxygen levels in the ocean. (pbs.org)
- Methane from landfills is increasingly harnessed to produce electricity, both in Colorado and elsewhere, as is manure from dairies. (cobizmag.com)
- It might be cheaper than solar, and perhaps than wind, or even methane from landfills or feedlots. (cobizmag.com)
- Here in the US, the top methane sources are the decomposition of wastes in landfills, agriculture (from ruminant digestion), and leaks from natural gas drilling and transmission. (atheistnexus.org)
- A new emphasis on methane would require us to get smarter about capturing methane at landfills, reduce the market incentives that encourage Americans' meat-heavy diets, and ensure that methane isn't leaking from fracking operations. (atheistnexus.org)
- Rumen function is generally suboptimal leading to losses in methane and nitrogen. (frontiersin.org)
- Both tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapour are effective greenhouse gases so including these indirect effects made the net effect of methane greater. (realclimate.org)
- The instrument uses Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) technology to measure and record fault gases Methane (CH4), Acetylene (C2H2), Ethylene (C2H4) and moisture found in insulating (mineral) oil. (environmental-expert.com)
Oxidation of methane1
- who demonstrated the selective low-temperature oxidation of methane at temperatures around 200 8C over platinum bipyrimidine complexes in concentrated sulfuric acid. (docme.ru)
- With or without regulations, WinGD's iCER technology with the Alfa Laval PureCool system will help the shipping industry align more fully with climate goals by minimizing methane slip. (gcaptain.com)
- This suggests that when the West Antarctic Ice Sheet melts the methane released will give a big kick, further accelerating climate Destabilization. (atheistnexus.org)
- As devoted investigators of methane, we wanted to learn what would really happen to the methane released by the Macondo prospect - both because of our interest in the relationships between methane releases and climate change and because of our concern for the Gulf's ecological health. (livescience.com)
- Since we have a problem of ocean deoxygenation associated with climate change and warming, it could be that methane [release] is exacerbating the problem," she said. (pbs.org)
- Some people even outlandishly predicted - much to the consternation of many residents of the Gulf coast - that a giant methane bubble would suddenly rise from the bottom of the Gulf and trigger a huge tidal wave. (livescience.com)
- While this series of discoveries offered an explanation for the marine methane paradox, it did not address a similar phenomenon seen in lakes. (the-scientist.com)
- The Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria Maresca's group isolated from Lake Matano express phnJ when methylphosphonate is present and produce methane as long as phosphate isn't around. (the-scientist.com)
- In these environments, AOM aggregates consist of fewer than 10 6 cells cm −3 and consume methane at a rate of 0.001 to 1 nmol cm −3 day −1 ( 29 , 46 ). (asm.org)
Constant-volume combustion vessel3
- A constant-volume combustion vessel is used for the experiments. (sae.org)
- This work reports an experimental and numerical study on spray-wall impingement and liquid film formation in a constant volume combustion vessel. (sae.org)
- The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. (sae.org)
- A 1.604-g sample of methane (CH 4 ) gas and 6.400 g oxygen gas are scaled into a 2.50-L vessel at 411°C and are allowed to reach equilibrium. (bartleby.com)
- Methane can react with oxygen to form gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor, or methane can react with oxygen to form gaseous carbon monoxide and water vapor. (bartleby.com)
- A given mass of a sample of methane gas and gas oxygen is given to be present sealed in a 2.50 L vessel at 411 ° C . These are allowed to reach the equilibrium state. (bartleby.com)
- Oxygen reacted with methane to form H 2 , CO, and CO 2 while in pure Argon methane decomposes to H 2 and coke. (aiche.org)
- Numerous freshwater systems also have methane in their upper, oxygen-rich layers, and, like oceanographers, limnologists didn't know how it got there. (the-scientist.com)
- Natural gas (methane) and steam are drawn into the reaction cylinder through a valve as the piston inside is lowered. (eurekalert.org)
- The piston rises into the cylinder, compressing the steam and methane as the reactor is heated. (eurekalert.org)
- The Dry Fuel process essentially substitutes solar heat for the steam heat used in steam methane reforming. (greencarcongress.com)
- As an example, at 19.5 knots, the new builds will save up to 50-tonnes per day in fuel as compared to conventional steam vessels. (shell.com)
- Catalytic methane partial oxidation (CPOX) to produce syngas for FT is an economic opportunity for micro-refineries. (aiche.org)
- In addition, the participants exhibited improvements in their levels of breath methane, which serves as an indicator of gut fermentation. (naturalnews.com)
- The plant, comprised of 16 high-solids dry fermentation digesters and four in-vessel composting tunnels, began receiving organics from the commercial sector in San Jose in mid-December. (biocycle.net)
- If this ice melts, the methane trapped within is released as a gas that bubbles to the surface. (pbs.org)
- After selling the company in 1998, Vessels went to Great Britain and then Germany, both times to study how methane escaping from coal mines could be put to good use. (cobizmag.com)
- But almost nothing has been done in the United States to harness methane from coal mines. (cobizmag.com)
- Coal mines have long been cursed by methane. (cobizmag.com)
- In 1981, explosion of methane in the now-abandoned Mid-Continental Coal Mine, southwest of Carbondale, killed 15 men. (cobizmag.com)
- Forming Vessels Coal Gas Co., Vessels began shopping his idea of tapping the methane already being vented by coal mines to electrical suppliers in 2005. (cobizmag.com)
- The crux of Vessels' problem was that electricity from methane costs more than electricity produced by burning coal or natural gas. (cobizmag.com)
- One of my pet peeves is that agriculture methane is 'good,' but coal mine methane is 'bad,'" says Vessels. (cobizmag.com)
- The Dry Fuel process can be used with biogas, flare gas and vent gas from the oil and gas industry, stranded gas, coal bed methane and conventional natural gas as well. (greencarcongress.com)
- Abandoned mine methane (AMM) can be recovered from disused coal mines. (environmental-expert.com)
Volume of the vessel3
- The volume of the vessel is 2.50 L . (bartleby.com)
- 7. The process of Claim 1 , further comprising passing a sweep gas through the vapor volume of the vessel. (sumobrain.com)
- 9. The process of Claim 7, wherein the sweep gas passes through the vapor volume of the vessel at a superficial velocity of from 0.2 meters/second to 5 meters/second. (sumobrain.com)
- The reason is that methane gas, when mixed with the turbulent salt water at the bottom of the Gulf, creates a powerful corrosive chemical. (salem-news.com)
- That's because some 40 percent of what's leaking is likely to be methane-most of it dissolved in the water. (motherjones.com)
- Marine vessel , a nautical term for all kinds of craft designed for transportation on water, such as ships, boats or submarines. (wn.com)
- Large outgassings of methane temporarily decrease water density, so stuff which normally floats sinks . (atheistnexus.org)
- The overall objective of the project is an interdisciplinary investigation of fluid and water seepage along selected areas of the European continental margin in the context of dissolved mass and water transport, slope sediment stability, methane utilization, benthic material turnover, and faunal adaptation. (europa.eu)
- There is also an indirect effect on stratospheric water vapour where methane oxidation is a significant source of water in an otherwise very dry region. (realclimate.org)
- Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible pressure vessel using a high-speed Schlieren imaging to visualize the transient water spray. (sae.org)
- The CONVERGE CFD software was used to simulate the water spray obtained experimentally in the vessel. (sae.org)
- The "digested" sludge is what is then transported by pipeline or sludge vessel to a dewatering facility where centrifuges remove much of the water. (nyc.gov)
- The electronic equipment collected data and provided us with water samples from various depths that we could use to test for methane. (livescience.com)
- But these anomalies, as he discussed them, were happening as methane coming up from the ground and into the water out there. (cnn.com)
- Advances in the past 15 years have improved our understanding of the methane cycle in the marine environment, Thurber said, giving us "a pretty good handle" on the basics of how methane is consumed in marine sediment and the water overlying it. (pbs.org)
- Additionally, these tiny bubbles would push the water below the ship upwards as they rose and ultimately just cause the vessel to move away from the scene. (coasttocoastam.com)
- Several years ago, Hans-Peter Grossart of the Leibniz-Institute for Fresh-water Ecology and Inland Fisheries in Germany and colleagues produced evidence supporting the third idea: that methane production can occur in oxic lake water. (the-scientist.com)
- There are 2,000 vessels associated with Shell on the water on any given day, including ships, barges, drilling rigs, supply boats, FPSOs, FSRUs, SBMs and the related operations that take place in ports and terminals. (shell.com)
- This report aims at comparing the characteristics of the two proposed alternatives (Solar electrolysis and Thermochemical Decomposition of Water) to the baseline alternative (Stream Methane Reforming) and evaluating the economic and environmental impacts of each. (wikiversity.org)
- 101 A mixture of CH4(g) and C3H8(g) with a total pressure of 425 torr is prepared in a reaction vessel. (bartleby.com)
- Beyond the methane slip reduction, the iCER solution with PureCool offers engine buyers significant operational benefits - thus creating value even prior to potential compliance regulations. (gcaptain.com)
- Does converting methane that would otherwise go walkabout into H2+CO2 have a net reduction in global warming even releasing the CO2? (greencarcongress.com)
- In addition, the reactor vessel may use carbon fiber containing materials encapsulating oxide ceramic materials as structural elements to contain the materials for growing the Group-Ill nitride crystals at pressures or temperatures necessary for growth of the Group-Ill nitride crystals. (google.com)
Small vessel disease4
- But a third of the risk for dementia (33 percent) was associated with damage to the brain from small vessel disease. (innovations-report.com)
- But the unexpected finding that a third of the risk for dementia is related to small vessel disease also provides an additional reason to control hypertension and diabetes: not only to protect cardiovascular and renal health but also to protect the health of the brain. (innovations-report.com)
- Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) affects arterioles in the brain, increasing risk of stroke and causing symptoms of dementia. (sciencemag.org)
- One of the most common of dementia in the elderly is cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). (sciencemag.org)
- Bulk applies to any solid material, consisting of a combination of particles, granules, or any larger pieces of material generally uniform in composition, that is loaded directly into the cargo spaces of a vessel without any intermediate form of containment. (ecfr.gov)
- LNG produces less CO2 than other fossil fuels when burned, but a small percentage of methane can slip through the engine without being combusted. (gcaptain.com)
- The huge Siberian methane blowholes of 2014 were Methane Clathrate Guns in its smaller effect. (envirolink.org)
- I used to make silver fulminate in my youth, and methane clathrate is VERY similar. (envirolink.org)
- Methane as a ghg is a concern but some kind of runaway caused by a clathrate gun probably is not. (envirolink.org)
- Every year we go back to the dome area with our research vessel, and every year I am anxious to see if one of these domes has become a crater," says lead author of the study Pavel Serov, PhD candidate at CAGE at UiT The Arctic University of Norway. (innovations-report.com)
- So that diagram above for Arctic Methane Planetary Emergency needs a companion diagram: Antarctic Methane Planetary Emergency. (atheistnexus.org)
- Will this pose a shipping hazard to vessels plying the Arctic passage in summer? (atheistnexus.org)
- Worries about the release of this methane and carbon dioxide is linked to arctic shrinkage. (envirolink.org)
- The resulting mixture of liquid and gas enters the gas separator vessel at about 35 C and 3 to 5 atmospheres of absolute pressure. (airforums.com)
- Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. (wikipedia.org)
- CO2(g) + 2H20(g) calculate the partial pressure of methane needed to react completely with the O2 in the vessel. (jiskha.com)
- Apparently it was caused by a methane explosion - another sign that the melting tundra is removing the frozen cap from methane created millions of years ago. (ecoshock.org)
- Metatranscriptome measurements in both communities indicated high levels of expression of genes for methane metabolism despite their distinct microbial communities and hydrocarbon composition. (asm.org)
- For undersea methane reservoirs to affect global warming, Thurber said the gas would need to be released either shallow enough that there is not time for it to be consumed before it reaches the surface or in such large quantities that it overwhelms microbial communities that consume it. (pbs.org)
- A method and apparatus for growing a Group-Ill nitride crystal using multiple interconnected reactor vessels to modify growth conditions during the ammonothermal growth of the Group-Ill nitride crystal, such that, by combining two or more vessels, it is possible to modify the conditions under which the Group-Ill nitride crystals are grown. (google.com)
- Deep sea oil drillers often encounter pockets of methane crystals as they dig into the earth. (newsday.com)
- It's also unique as it has introduced both oil and methane gas into the deep, cold waters of the Gulf of Mexico. (nsf.gov)
- Fissures opened and megatons of methane began bursting into the Gulf. (salem-news.com)
- Government officials and BP spokesmen dismissed the reports saying that natural fissures leak methane and oil into the Gulf all the time. (salem-news.com)
- ON THE GULF OF MEXICO (AP) - The deadly blowout of an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico was triggered by a bubble of methane gas that escaped from the well and shot up the drill column, expanding quickly as it burst through several seals and barriers before exploding, according to interviews with rig workers conducted during BP 's internal investigation. (newsday.com)