The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indiana" is a U.S. state located in the Midwest and cannot be translated into a medical term or definition. If you have any questions about medical conditions, treatments, or terminology, I would be happy to help with those!
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kansas" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It's a state located in the Midwestern United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help!
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Illinois" is a state in the United States and not a term that has a medical definition.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Uridine is a nucleoside, specifically a derivative of pyrimidine, that is composed of a uracil molecule joined to a ribose sugar molecule through a β-N1 glycosidic bond, and has significant roles in RNA synthesis, energy transfer, and cell signaling.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection. (1/2088)

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export. (2/2088)

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

A proline-rich motif within the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins: implications for viral budding. (3/2088)

The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common.  (+info)

Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras. (4/2088)

Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release.  (+info)

Interferon-induced guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mediates an antiviral effect against vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus. (5/2088)

A cDNA encoding the human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) was expressed in HeLa cells using a constitutive expression vector. Stably transfected clones expressing hGBP-1 exhibited resistance to the cytopathic effect mediated by both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and produced less viral progeny than control cells following infection with these viruses. To study the role hGBP-1 plays in the IFN-mediated antiviral effect, cells were stably transfected with a construct expressing antisense RNA for hGBP-1. VSV infection of IFN-alpha-treated antisense RNA-expressing cells produced an amount of virus comparable to that produced in the parental cell line, while EMCV infection of the IFN-alpha-treated transfected cells and VSV and EMCV infection of the IFN-gamma-treated transfected cells produced far more virus than was produced in the parental cell line. These results demonstrate that GBP-1 mediates an antiviral effect against VSV and EMCV and plays a role in the IFN-mediated antiviral response against these viruses.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (6/2088)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus. (7/2088)

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (8/2088)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Vesiculovirus. It is the causative agent of vesicular stomatitis (VS), a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also infect other species including swine, sheep, goats, and humans.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their saliva, as well as through insect vectors such as black flies and sandflies. The incubation period for VS ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which infected animals develop fever, lethargy, and vesicular lesions in the mouth, nose, and feet. These lesions can be painful and may cause difficulty eating or walking.

In humans, VSIV infection is typically asymptomatic or causes mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and headache. Occasionally, individuals may develop vesicular lesions on their skin or mucous membranes, particularly if they have had contact with infected animals.

Diagnosis of VSIV infection is typically made through virus isolation from lesion exudates or blood, as well as through serological testing. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at relieving symptoms, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for VS. Prevention measures include vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control, and biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of infection between animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indiana" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Midwestern United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Vesiculovirus is a genus of enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. They are known to cause vesicular diseases (hence the name) in both animals and humans, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin. The most well-known member of this genus is the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which primarily affects cattle, horses, and pigs, causing oral and foot lesions. However, VSV can also infect humans, resulting in a flu-like illness. Other members of the Vesiculovirus genus include the Isfahan virus, Chandipura virus, and the Piry virus. These viruses are transmitted through insect vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, and can cause significant economic losses in the agricultural industry.

Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also occasionally infect other species including swine, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, and humans. The virus causing VS belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, and is closely related to the viruses that cause rabies and Chandipura virus infection in humans.

The disease is characterized by the formation of vesicles (small fluid-filled blisters) on the oral mucosa (lining of the mouth), tongue, lips, nostrils, coronary bands (at the hooves), and teats. These lesions can cause pain, drooling, difficulty in swallowing, and reluctance to eat or drink. In severe cases, lameness may occur due to coronitis (inflammation of the coronary band).

VS is primarily transmitted through insect vectors such as mosquitoes, black flies, and sand flies, although direct contact with infected animals can also lead to transmission. The incubation period ranges from 2-8 days, after which the animal may start showing clinical signs. Most animals recover within 1-3 weeks, but the disease can result in significant economic losses due to reduced weight gain, decreased milk production, and temporary or permanent loss of ability to work in case of working animals.

Human infections with VS are rare and usually mild, causing flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, headache, and occasionally vesicular lesions on the hands, fingers, and mouth. No specific treatment is required for VS in humans or animals, but supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent secondary bacterial infections.

VS is a reportable disease in many countries, including the United States, due to its potential to mimic other more serious vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and swine vesicular disease (SVD). Accurate diagnosis and prompt reporting are essential for implementing appropriate control measures and preventing the spread of the disease.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

Rhabdoviruses are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the family Rhabdoviridae. They have a wide host range, including humans, and can cause various diseases.

Rhabdoviridae infections refer to the infectious diseases caused by rhabdoviruses. The most well-known member of this family is the rabies virus, which causes rabies, a fatal zoonotic disease that affects warm-blooded animals, including humans. Rabies is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites or scratches.

Other rhabdoviruses can also cause human diseases, such as:

1. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV): It primarily affects livestock, causing vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the feet. However, it can also infect humans, causing flu-like symptoms or a rash around the mouth and hands.
2. Chandipura virus: This rhabdovirus is associated with acute encephalitis, particularly in children. It is transmitted through mosquitoes and has been identified in several countries, including India and Nigeria.
3. Human basalotid fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) receptor-binding virus: This recently discovered rhabdovirus was found to be associated with a case of acute respiratory illness. More research is needed to understand its epidemiology, transmission, and clinical significance.

Prevention and control measures for Rhabdoviridae infections include vaccination against rabies, public education on avoiding contact with potentially infected animals, and personal protective measures such as wearing gloves when handling animals or their tissues.

Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus. It is the causative agent of vesicular stomatitis (VS), a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also infect other species, including swine, sheep, goats, and humans.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions, as well as through insect vectors such as black flies and sandflies. The incubation period for VSNJV ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which infected animals may develop clinical signs such as fever, lethargy, anorexia, and the formation of vesicles or blisters in the mouth, nose, and feet. These lesions can rupture and form ulcers, leading to secondary bacterial infections.

VSNJV is closely related to the Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) and can be difficult to distinguish from other vesicular diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). As a result, any suspected cases of VS must be reported to relevant animal health authorities for confirmation and appropriate action.

While humans can become infected with VSNJV, the majority of cases are asymptomatic or mild, with symptoms similar to those of a flu-like illness such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and mouth sores. There is no specific treatment for VS in animals or humans, and prevention measures include good biosecurity practices, insect control, and vaccination in endemic areas.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Aphthous stomatitis, also known simply as canker sores, is a medical condition that involves the development of small, painful ulcers in the mouth. These ulcers typically appear on the inside of the lips or cheeks, under the tongue, or on the gums. They are usually round or oval with a white or yellow center and a red border.

Aphthous stomatitis is not contagious and is thought to be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, nutritional deficiencies, and injury to the mouth. The ulcers typically heal on their own within one to two weeks, although larger or more severe sores may take longer to heal.

Treatment for aphthous stomatitis is generally focused on relieving symptoms, as there is no cure for the condition. This may include using over-the-counter mouth rinses or topical gels to numb the area and reduce pain, as well as avoiding spicy, acidic, or hard foods that can irritate the ulcers. In some cases, prescription medications may be necessary to help manage more severe or persistent cases of aphthous stomatitis.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Viral interference is a phenomenon where the replication of one virus is inhibited or blocked by the presence of another virus. This can occur when two different viruses infect the same cell and compete for the cell's resources, such as nucleotides, energy, and replication machinery. As a result, the replication of one virus may be suppressed, allowing the other virus to predominate.

This phenomenon has been observed in both in vitro (laboratory) studies and in vivo (in the body) studies. It has been suggested that viral interference may play a role in the outcome of viral coinfections, where an individual is infected with more than one virus at the same time. Viral interference can also be exploited as a potential strategy for antiviral therapy, where one virus is used to inhibit the replication of another virus.

It's important to note that not all viruses interfere with each other, and the outcome of viral coinfections can depend on various factors such as the specific viruses involved, the timing and sequence of infection, and the host's immune response.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Stomatitis, denture is a specific type of stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth) that is caused by ill-fitting or poorly cleaned dentures. It is also known as denture-induced stomatitis. The condition is often characterized by redness and soreness of the oral mucosa, particularly under the denture-bearing area.

The continuous irritation and friction from the denture, combined with the accumulation of microorganisms such as Candida albicans (yeast), can lead to this inflammatory response. Denture wearers, especially those who have been using their dentures for an extended period or those with poor oral hygiene, are at a higher risk of developing denture-induced stomatitis.

To manage this condition, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene, clean the dentures thoroughly, and ensure a proper fit. In some cases, antifungal medications may be prescribed to treat any underlying Candida infection. Regular dental check-ups are also crucial for early detection and prevention of stomatitis, denture.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the nervous system of mammals, including humans. It's caused by the rabies virus (RV), which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus has a bullet-shaped appearance under an electron microscope and is encased in a lipid envelope.

The rabies virus primarily spreads through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites. Once inside the body, it travels along nerve fibers to the brain, where it multiplies rapidly and causes inflammation (encephalitis). The infection can lead to symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, paralysis, coma, and ultimately death if left untreated.

Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but prompt post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes vaccination and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin, can prevent the disease from developing when administered after an exposure to a potentially rabid animal. Pre-exposure vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians and travelers visiting rabies-endemic areas.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. They belong to the larger family of cytokines and are crucial for the innate immune system's defense against infections. Interferons exist in multiple forms, classified into three types: type I (alpha and beta), type II (gamma), and type III (lambda). These proteins play a significant role in modulating the immune response, inhibiting viral replication, regulating cell growth, and promoting apoptosis of infected cells. Interferons are used as therapeutic agents for various medical conditions, including certain viral infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA-directed RNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize RNA molecules using a DNA template in a process called transcription. These enzymes read the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule and use it as a blueprint to construct a complementary RNA strand.

The RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, adding ribonucleotides one by one to the growing RNA chain. The synthesis is directional, starting at the promoter region of the DNA and moving towards the terminator region.

In bacteria, there is a single type of RNA polymerase that is responsible for transcribing all types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA). In eukaryotic cells, however, there are three different types of RNA polymerases: RNA polymerase I, II, and III. Each type is responsible for transcribing specific types of RNA.

RNA polymerases play a crucial role in gene expression, as they link the genetic information encoded in DNA to the production of functional proteins. Inhibition or mutation of these enzymes can have significant consequences for cellular function and survival.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

Oncolytic virotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses genetically modified viruses to selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The virus used in oncolytic virotherapy can replicate inside cancer cells, causing them to rupture and release new viruses that can then infect nearby cancer cells.

The process continues in a cascading manner, leading to the destruction of many cancer cells in the treated area. Additionally, some oncolytic viruses can also stimulate an immune response against cancer cells, further enhancing their therapeutic effect. Oncolytic virotherapy is still an experimental treatment approach and is being studied in clinical trials for various types of cancer.

Oncolytic viruses are a type of viruses that preferentially infect and kill cancer cells, while leaving normal cells relatively unharmed. These viruses can replicate inside the cancer cells, causing them to rupture and ultimately leading to their death. The release of new virus particles from the dead cancer cells allows the infection to spread to nearby cancer cells, resulting in a potential therapeutic effect.

Oncolytic viruses can be genetically modified to enhance their ability to target specific types of cancer cells and to increase their safety and efficacy. They may also be used in combination with other cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve treatment outcomes. Oncolytic virus therapy is a promising area of cancer research, with several clinical trials underway to evaluate its potential benefits for patients with various types of cancer.

Rhabdoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several important human and animal pathogens. The name "Rhabdoviridae" comes from the Greek word "rhabdos," meaning rod, which refers to the characteristic bullet shape of these virions.

The family Rhabdoviridae is divided into six genera: Vesiculovirus, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, Novirhabdovirus, Cytorhabdovirus, and Sphericalvirus. The most well-known member of this family is the rabies virus, which belongs to the genus Lyssavirus.

Rhabdoviruses have a simple structure, consisting of an envelope surrounding a helical nucleocapsid that contains the RNA genome. The virions are typically 100-430 nm in length and 45-100 nm in diameter, with a central electron-dense core surrounded by a less dense matrix protein layer.

Rhabdoviruses infect a wide range of hosts, including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and insects. They typically cause acute infections characterized by fever, lethargy, and other nonspecific symptoms. In severe cases, rhabdovirus infections can lead to serious neurological disorders, such as encephalitis or meningitis, and can be fatal if left untreated.

Transmission of rhabdoviruses occurs through various routes, depending on the specific virus and host. For example, rabies virus is typically transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, while other rhabdoviruses may be spread through contact with contaminated bodily fluids or aerosols.

Prevention and control measures for rhabdovirus infections depend on the specific virus and host. For example, rabies vaccination is effective in preventing infection in humans and animals, while other rhabdoviruses may be controlled through quarantine measures, insect control, or antiviral therapy.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kansas" is not a medical term. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state in the central United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help answer those!

A nucleocapsid is a protein structure that encloses the genetic material (nucleic acid) of certain viruses. It is composed of proteins encoded by the virus itself, which are synthesized inside the host cell and then assemble around the viral genome to form a stable complex.

The nucleocapsid plays an important role in the viral life cycle. It protects the viral genome from degradation by host enzymes and helps to facilitate the packaging of the genome into new virus particles during assembly. Additionally, the nucleocapsid can also play a role in the regulation of viral gene expression and replication.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid is encased within an envelope derived from the host cell membrane, while in others, it exists as a naked capsid. The structure and composition of the nucleocapsid can vary significantly between different virus families.

Interferon type I is a class of signaling proteins, also known as cytokines, that are produced and released by cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. These interferons play a crucial role in the body's innate immune system and help to establish an antiviral state in surrounding cells to prevent the spread of infection.

Interferon type I includes several subtypes, such as interferon-alpha (IFN-α), interferon-beta (IFN-β), and interferon-omega (IFN-ω). When produced, these interferons bind to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response.

The activation of these genes results in the production of enzymes that inhibit viral replication and promote the destruction of infected cells. Interferon type I also enhances the adaptive immune response by promoting the activation and proliferation of immune cells such as T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can directly target and eliminate infected cells.

Overall, interferon type I plays a critical role in the body's defense against viral infections and is an important component of the immune response to many different types of pathogens.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Illinois" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or simply the Golgi, is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae, which are stacked together in a parallel arrangement. These stacks are often interconnected by tubular structures called tubules or vesicles. The Golgi apparatus has two main faces: the cis face, which is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives proteins and lipids directly from the ER; and the trans face, which is responsible for sorting and dispatching these molecules to their final destinations.

The Golgi apparatus performs several essential functions in the cell:

1. Protein processing: After proteins are synthesized in the ER, they are transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo various post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation (the addition of sugar molecules) and sulfation. These modifications help determine the protein's final structure, function, and targeting.
2. Lipid modification: The Golgi apparatus also modifies lipids by adding or removing different functional groups, which can influence their properties and localization within the cell.
3. Protein sorting and packaging: Once proteins and lipids have been processed, they are sorted and packaged into vesicles at the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles then transport their cargo to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.
4. Intracellular transport: The Golgi apparatus serves as a central hub for intracellular trafficking, coordinating the movement of vesicles and other transport carriers between different organelles and cellular compartments.
5. Cell-cell communication: Some proteins that are processed and packaged in the Golgi apparatus are destined for secretion, playing crucial roles in cell-cell communication and maintaining tissue homeostasis.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle involved in various cellular processes, including post-translational modification, sorting, packaging, and intracellular transport of proteins and lipids. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall organismal health.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which are the causative agents of flu in humans and animals. These viruses are enveloped, meaning they have a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, and have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. The genome is segmented, meaning it consists of several separate pieces of RNA, which allows for genetic reassortment or "shuffling" when two different strains infect the same cell, leading to the emergence of new strains.

The viral envelope contains two major glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein is responsible for binding to host cells and facilitating entry into the cell, while NA helps release newly formed virus particles from infected cells by cleaving sialic acid residues on the host cell surface.

Orthomyxoviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, with influenza A viruses being the most virulent and capable of causing pandemics. Influenza B viruses typically cause less severe illness and are primarily found in humans, while influenza C viruses generally cause mild upper respiratory symptoms and are also mainly restricted to humans.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

Uridine is a nucleoside that consists of a pyrimidine base (uracil) linked to a pentose sugar (ribose). It is a component of RNA, where it pairs with adenine. Uridine can also be found in various foods such as beer, broccoli, yeast, and meat. In the body, uridine can be synthesized from orotate or from the breakdown of RNA. It has several functions, including acting as a building block for RNA, contributing to energy metabolism, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. Uridine is also available as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential benefits in various health conditions.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Myxovirus resistance proteins (MX proteins) are a family of large GTPases that play a crucial role in the innate immune response against various viral infections. They were initially discovered as interferon-induced genes that confer resistance to myxoviruses, such as influenza A virus.

There are two main types of MX proteins in humans, MX1 (MXA) and MX2 (MXB), which are encoded by the MX1 and MX2 genes, respectively. Both isoforms share a similar structure, consisting of an N-terminal GTPase domain, a middle domain, and a C-terminal dynamin-like domain. These domains enable MX proteins to hydrolyze GTP, oligomerize, and form higher-order structures that can inhibit viral replication.

MX1 primarily targets negative-strand RNA viruses, such as influenza A virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and rabies virus, while MX2 has been shown to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The antiviral activity of MX proteins is mediated through their interaction with viral components, such as the nucleocapsid or polymerase complexes, leading to the inhibition of viral transcription, replication, or nuclear export.

In summary, Myxovirus resistance proteins are essential components of the innate immune system that provide broad-spectrum antiviral protection against various RNA and DNA viruses by directly targeting and inhibiting their replication processes.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

Ebolavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. It is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire), where the virus was first identified in 1976. There are six species of Ebolavirus, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, and Tai Forest ebolavirus (formerly Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus). The fifth species, Reston ebolavirus, is known to cause disease in non-human primates and pigs, but not in humans. The sixth and most recently identified species, Bombali ebolavirus, has not been associated with any human or animal diseases.

Ebolaviruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of Ebolavirus.

The symptoms of Ebolavirus disease (EVD) typically include fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. The case fatality rate of EVD is variable but has been historically high, ranging from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks depending on the species and the quality of medical care. There are no licensed specific treatments or vaccines available for EVD, although several promising candidates are currently under development.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The Mumps virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Rubulavirus genus. It is the causative agent of mumps, an acute infectious disease characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands.

The Mumps virus has a spherical or pleomorphic shape with a diameter of approximately 150-250 nanometers. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell, which contains viral glycoproteins that facilitate attachment and entry into host cells.

The M protein, located beneath the envelope, plays a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. The genome of the Mumps virus consists of eight genes encoding nine proteins, including two major structural proteins (nucleocapsid protein and matrix protein) and several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication and pathogenesis.

Transmission of the Mumps virus occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected saliva. After infection, the incubation period ranges from 12 to 25 days, followed by a prodromal phase characterized by fever, headache, malaise, and muscle pain. The characteristic swelling of the parotid glands usually appears 1-3 days after the onset of symptoms.

Complications of mumps can include meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and deafness. Prevention relies on vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is highly effective in preventing mumps and its complications.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

Poxviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Poxviridae family of viruses, which are large, complex viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. This family includes several pathogens that can infect humans, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and can rarely cause infection), Monkeypox virus, and Cowpox virus.

These viruses typically cause skin lesions or pocks, hence the name "Poxviridae." The severity of the disease can vary depending on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Smallpox, once a major global health threat, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 thanks to a successful vaccination campaign. However, other Poxviridae infections continue to pose public health concerns, particularly in regions with lower vaccination rates and where animal reservoirs exist.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

"Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes respiratory illness and is known to circulate in humans and animals, including birds and pigs. The "H3N2" refers to the two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H protein is of the H3 variety and the N protein is of the N2 variety. This subtype has been responsible for several influenza epidemics and pandemics in humans, including the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic. It is one of the influenza viruses that are monitored closely by public health authorities due to its potential to cause significant illness and death, particularly in high-risk populations such as older adults, young children, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Viral fusion proteins are specialized surface proteins found on the envelope of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral infection process by mediating the fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, allowing the viral genetic material to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

The fusion protein is often synthesized as an inactive precursor, which undergoes a series of conformational changes upon interaction with specific receptors on the host cell surface. This results in the exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides or domains that insert into the target cell membrane, bringing the two membranes into close proximity and facilitating their merger.

A well-known example of a viral fusion protein is the gp120/gp41 complex found on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The gp120 subunit binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine coreceptors on the host cell surface, triggering conformational changes in the gp41 subunit that expose the fusion peptide and enable membrane fusion. Understanding the structure and function of viral fusion proteins is important for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

A cell-free system is a biochemical environment in which biological reactions can occur outside of an intact living cell. These systems are often used to study specific cellular processes or pathways, as they allow researchers to control and manipulate the conditions in which the reactions take place. In a cell-free system, the necessary enzymes, substrates, and cofactors for a particular reaction are provided in a test tube or other container, rather than within a whole cell.

Cell-free systems can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. They can be used to study a wide range of cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, protein folding, and metabolism. For example, a cell-free system might be used to express and purify a specific protein, or to investigate the regulation of a particular metabolic pathway.

One advantage of using cell-free systems is that they can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes without the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive cell culture or genetic manipulation. Additionally, because cell-free systems are not constrained by the limitations of a whole cell, they offer greater flexibility in terms of reaction conditions and the ability to study complex or transient interactions between biological molecules.

Overall, cell-free systems are an important tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, providing researchers with a versatile and powerful means of investigating the fundamental processes that underlie life at the cellular level.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

... (rVSV vaccines) are vaccines made using recombinant Indiana vesiculovirus. rVSV ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines. If an ... a candidate against the Marburg virus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-based vaccine candidate against ...
"Role of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein in maintaining the viral nucleocapsid in the condensed form found in ... Brown has worked widely on vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus, and human papilloma virus. His research justified ... Newcomb, W W; Tobin, G J; McGowan, J J; Brown, J C (March 9, 1982). "In vitro reassembly of vesicular stomatitis virus ... the view that the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix M (VSV-M) protein plays a vital role in the maintenance of nucleocapsid in ...
For example, polysomal profiling was used in a study to investigate the effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in mammalian ... Neidermyer WJ, Whelan SP (June 2019). "Global analysis of polysome-associated mRNA in vesicular stomatitis virus infected cells ... Polysomes are present in archaea, but not much is known about the structure. in situ (in cell) studies have shown that ... with 3-D polyribosomes being found in sarcoma cells using fluorescence microscopy. Atomic force microscopy used in in vitro ...
The prototypical and best studied rhabdovirus is vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. It is a preferred model system to study ... In 2015 two novel rhabdoviruses, Ekpoma virus 1 and Ekpoma virus 2, were discovered in samples of blood from two healthy women ... Ekpoma virus 1 and Ekpoma virus 2 appear to replicate well in humans (viral load ranged from ~45,000 - ~4.5 million RNA copies/ ... Exposure to Ekpoma virus 2 appears to be widespread in certain parts of Nigeria where seroprevalence rates are close to 50%. In ...
"Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, Indiana Serotype - Multiplication in and Transmission by Experimentally Infected Phlebotomine ... One such virus of medical importance is the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) of the genus Vesiculovirus. Viruses of this genus ... The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. ... Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to ...
His research focused on the vesicular stomatitis virus. Wagner died of cancer in 2001. Wagner attended Columbia College as an ... Much of his research focused on the molecular biology of the vesicular stomatitis virus. With student Alice S. Huang, Wagner ... The journal launched in 1966, and Wagner continued in his role for 15 years, overseeing a large expansion in the size of the ... He served from 1947 to 1949, and became a lieutenant in the navy reserves. After his time in the Navy, Wagner moved to England ...
... particles of vesicular stomatitis virus in electron micrographs and the formalization of DIPs terminology was in 1970 by Huang ... Snapback defections have been observed in vesicular stomatitis virus. Panhandle defections are when the polymerase carries a ... Hackett AJ (September 1964). "A possible morphologic basis for the autointerference phenomenon in vesicular stomatitis virus". ... Mosaic or complex DI genome, in which the various regions may come from the same helper virus genome but in the wrong order; ...
BHK-21 cells are susceptible to human adenovirus D, reovirus 3, and vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain). BHK-21 cells ... Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology. The cells were derived in 1961 ... Lim KI, Lang T, Lam V, Yin J (September 2006). "Model-based design of growth-attenuated viruses". PLOS Computational Biology. 2 ... "Robust kinetics of an RNA virus: Transcription rates are set by genome levels". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1655 ...
... , formerly Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV or VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the ... Davis NL, Wertz GW (March 1982). "Synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus negative-strand RNA in vitro: dependence on viral ... A human case of encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988; ... "Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain". The Journal of ...
"Role of temperature-sensitive mutants in persistent infections initiated with vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of Virology ... and also infections of vesicular stomatitis virus, sendai virus, and persistent newcastle disease virus. Youngner is ... Youngner, J. S.; Quagliana, D. O. (1976-07-01). "Temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus are conditionally ... Youngner studied the role of in-apparent infections in an effort to link a selection of wild type virus to chronic and ...
Barik S, Banerjee AK (1991). "Cloning and expression of the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein gene in Escherichia coli ... Two forms of this protein have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. Activity of the ... 2005). "Concentration of thymidine kinase 1 in serum (S-TK1) is a more sensitive proliferation marker in human solid tumors ... Munch-Petersen B (2005). "Differences in the kinetic properties of thymidine kinase isoenzymes in unstimulated and ...
It is well known as a vector of the vesicular stomatitis virus, which causes the disease vesicular stomatitis in animals, ... Emergence and re-emergence of vesicular stomatitis in the United States. Virus Research 85(2), 211-19. Vesicular Stomatitis. ... The bite of the female fly transmits the vesicular stomatitis virus in mammals. The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to ... One well-studied vesicular stomatitis virus enzootic involving this fly is on Ossabaw Island off the coast of Georgia in the ...
... in 1976; his thesis research focused on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) under the supervision of Dr. David Baltimore and Dr. ... "Maturation of viral proteins in cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of ... "Separate pathways of maturation of the major structural proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of Virology. 21 (3): ... "Analysis of the defects of temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus: intracellular degradation of specific ...
... expresses the surface glycoprotein of the Kikwit 1995 strain of Zaire ebolavirus in a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ... In the eight previous Ebola outbreaks in DRC since 1976, the virus had never before reached a major city. In May 2018, for the ... Health authorities including DRC's Ministry of Public Health used recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus ( ... 2017). "A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (4): 330-41. doi:10.1056/ ...
"Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human ... She has been involved in research uncovering critical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses, and has used ... Hensley joined USAMRIID in 1998 as a research associate in the Pathology Division. She has co-authored over 180 publications in ... Hensley is the subject of a chapter in journalist Richard Preston's 2002 book Demon in the Freezer, which covers the history of ...
... recombinant vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) expressing the glycoprotein of MARV has been used successfully in ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) or filovirus-like particles (VLPs) as all of these candidates could protect nonhuman ... MVD is caused by two viruses; Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV), family Filoviridae. Marburgviruses are endemic in ...
... of the processing intermediates in the synthesis of the complex oligosaccharide units of the vesicular stomatitis virus G ... The SNFG nomenclature has also been adopted as a standard by major databases and journals in the Biomedical Sciences. In 1978, ... Ensure uniform usage of the nomenclature in the literature, thus helping to ensure scientific accuracy in journal and online ... For long-term development of this symbol nomenclature and standardization of glycan representation in the Glycosciences, in ...
"Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in ... Also plays an important role in energy balance regulation by sustaining a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation in obesity, ... In addition, is also required for the induction of a subset of ISGs which displays antiviral activity, may be through the ... In order to establish such an antiviral state, IKBKE forms several different complexes whose composition depends on the type of ...
rVSV-ZEBOV is a live, attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the gene for the native envelope ... Newlink in turn licensed it to Merck in 2014. It was used in the DR Congo in a 2018 outbreak in Équateur province, and has ... Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus (rVSV-ZEBOV), also known as Ebola Zaire vaccine live and sold under ... Marzi A, Ebihara H, Callison J, Groseth A, Williams KJ, Geisbert TW, Feldmann H (November 2011). "Vesicular stomatitis virus- ...
... can refer to: Vesicular stomatitis virus, a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae Vishista Seva Vibhushanaya, a military ...
"Membrane deformations induced by the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus in a minimal system". J Gen Virol. 86 (Pt 12 ... Kopecky SA, Lyles DS (May 2003). "The cell-rounding activity of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein is due to the ... The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known ... Gaudier, Martin; Gaudin, Yves; Knossow, Marcel (2002-06-17). "Crystal structure of vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein". ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was introduced as a vaccine vector in the late 1990s. In most VSV vaccine vectors, attenuation ... June 1998). "Vaccination with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin provides ... The incorporation of several viruses in vaccination schemes has been investigated since the vaccinia virus was created in 1984 ... Marzi A, Ebihara H, Callison J, Groseth A, Williams KJ, Geisbert TW, Feldmann H (November 2011). "Vesicular stomatitis virus- ...
... the addition of self-inactivating plasmids and creating a more universal tropism by pseudotyping a vesicular stomatitis virus ... Many such viruses have been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy, but the lentivirus is unique in its ability to ... There are multiple steps involved in the infection and replication of a lentivirus in a host cell. In the first step the virus ... Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the ...
LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ... It was also reported that by association with lipoprotein in the blood, viruses such as hepatitis C virus, Flaviviridae viruses ... "LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus". Proceedings of the ... Synthesis of receptors in the cell is regulated by the level of free intracellular cholesterol; if it is in excess for the ...
An RNA polymerase in the virion." This paper went on to show that "the virions of vesicular stomatitis virus contain an enzyme ... "Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. An RNA Polymerase in the Virion*". Proceedings of the National ... Huang and Baltimore coauthored a paper with Martha Stampfer titled "Ribonucleic acid synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, ... They studied the inhibition of cellular RNA synthesis by nonreplicating vesicular stomatitis virus, known to infect horses, ...
"Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in ... A key interest in TBK1 is due to its role in innate immunity, especially in antiviral responses. TBK1 is redundant with IKK ϵ ... In contrast, binding to NAP1 and SINTBAD leads to localization in the cytoplasm and involvement in autophagy. Another adaptor ... TBK1 is involved in many signaling pathways and forms a node between them. For this reason, regulation of its involvement in ...
In the context of viral infection vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) challenge of murine peritoneal macrophages was reported to ... In DNA viruses, miRNAs were experimentally verified, miRNAs in viruses are encoded by dsDNAs, examples of such viruses include ... These investigators found that forced expression of miR-155-5p in bone marrow cells resulted in a ~50% decrease in SPI1 (i.e. ... Viruses can exploit host miRNAs to the degree that they use host miRNAs to encode for viral clones for example: miR-K12-11 in ...
In collaboration with Alice S. Huang, Reiss's lab studied viral encephalitis, the pathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ( ... In addition to the department of biology, she has faculty appointments in neural science in NYU's Faculty of Arts and Science, ... in biology, 1972), Sarah Lawrence College (M.S. in human genetics, 1973). She earned a Ph.D. in microbiology from Mount Sinai ... Reiss was editor-in-chief of the journal Viral Immunology (2000-2006) and is currently editor-in-chief of the journal DNA and ...
Huang also moved to MIT to continue her research on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). They became a couple, and married in ... 2 articles by Luke Frankiw published in 2019 and 2020). In an autobiographical piece published in Annual Review Immunology in ... The infectious clone, DNA encoding the genome of a virus, is a standard tool used today in virology. In 1982, with a charitable ... He also continued to pursue fundamental questions in RNA viruses and in 1981, Baltimore and Vincent Racaniello, a post-doctoral ...
... protects against viruses such as encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as well as the hepatitis B virus in ... The receptor is expressed largely in epithelial cells, specifically keratinocytes and melanocytes found in the epidermis. The ... In binding to the receptor, interferon lambdas inhibit cell growth and the cell begins to produce cellular receptors that can ... Cells such as those in the central nervous system, uterus, bone marrow, testis and skeletal muscle have low mRNA levels and do ...
Vesicular Stomatitis. #section tr td {vertical-align:text-top;}. SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Vesicular Stomatitis, Indiana serotype Abbreviation: VSIV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 2 ...
... ... In vivo characterization of a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma ... Jäkel, Melanie (2020): In vivo characterization of a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus for the treatment of Hepatocellular ...
... of Lassa virus antibodies in immunized guinea pigs in study of protective efficacy of lyophilized vesicular stomatitis virus- ... We evaluated the in vitro effects of lyophilization for 2 vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines by using 3 stabilizing ... Protective Efficacy of Lyophilized Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Vaccines in Animal Model On This Page ... Protective Efficacy of Lyophilized Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Vaccines in Animal Model. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ...
CHANGES IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS DURING PROGRESSION OF PROSTATE CANCER. author. Yu, Nanmeng. abstract. ... CHANGES IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS DURING PROGRESSION OF PROSTATE CANCER. Electronic Theses and ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an attractive oncolytic virus. Differing sensitivity to VSV oncolysis of human prostate ... cancer cell lines has been observed in previous experiments. The goal of my experiments was to determine the mechanisms of ...
Role of macrophage oxidative metabolism in resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. In: Infection and Immunity. 1982 ... Significant differences in yields of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) between stimulated clone 16 cells and unstimulated cells ... Significant differences in yields of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) between stimulated clone 16 cells and unstimulated cells ... Role of macrophage oxidative metabolism in resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. / Rager-Zisman, B.; Kunkel, M.; ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus, a rapid replicating OV, was armed to express the Smac protein during virus infection (VSV-S). ... Modulation of the tumor microenvironment by armed vesicular stomatitis virus in a syngeneic pancreatic cancer model. ... Modulation of the tumor microenvironment by armed vesicular stomatitis virus in a syngenei ... One viable strategy for reverting the immunosuppressive conditions is the use of an oncolytic virus (OV) in combination with ...
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines (rVSV vaccines) are vaccines made using recombinant Indiana vesiculovirus. rVSV ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines. If an ... a candidate against the Marburg virus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-based vaccine candidate against ...
Species Reactivity: Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. Immunogen: Recombinant Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus Matrix ... Background: Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. Condensates the ribonucleocapsid core during virus assembly. ... This shut off presumably inhibit interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. ... Cusabio offers custom services through Gentaur in the field of life sciences, specifically in the pr … ...
Drolet Ecology of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in North America 3020-32000-014-00D JEV, Noronha Japanese Encephalitis Virus ... 8064-32000-059-00D Ecology of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in North America 8064-32000-060-00D Countermeasures to Control ... In addition, these scientists will be collaborators on the research work. The research work chosen for the training programs ... A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. ...
Intravital imaging with HIV-1 viral-like particle in mouse model reveals a mechanism for HIV-1 uptake by subcapsular sinus ... locally injected ultraviolet-light inactivated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) rapidly appeared in the lymph and accumulated ... SCSMs (in Boxes) zoomed in middle and right panels. (C) Confocal micrographs of NL4.3-GFP in Mfg-e8+/- LN (upper) and Mfg-e8-/- ... In PCP, we observed an expansion of the CD16+ T cell population, with the highest CD16+ T proportion in a fatal case. In ICI- ...
... often the vectors pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G protein (VSV-G) in trans. Packaging cassette, encodes gag and ... Upon transient transfection of pVSV-G the cell line expresses an envelope glycoprotein from the vesicular stomatitis virus that ... The Envelope cassette delivers envelope protein (often the vectors pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G protein (VSV-G ... The lines offered advantages over previous stable systems in that virus can be produced in just a few days. ...
In this article a novel synthesis method for N-(9- fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)-histidine active ester was established. The ... Therefore, the amino acid protection and activation are the most important steps in peptide synthesis. By using tetrahydrofuran ... DNA carrier with a vesicular stomatitis virus G-peptide greatly enhaances liver-targeted gene expression in mice,"Bioconjugate ... their surface, aviru lence, u sed either in vitro or in vivo [6-8], no ...
However, hMPV is most closely genetically related to avian metapneumovirus (formerly called turkey rhinotracheitis virus). ... is classified in the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae family. ... of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing hMPV fusion protein expressed in recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ... Rates of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and influenza virus in older adults. J Infect ...
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus Active Synonym false false 39453012 Vesicular stomatitis virus, Indiana Active Synonym false ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (organism). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (organism ... Lab Result (Vesicular Stomatitis) 3 , 2 , 1 Lab Test Result (Reportable Conditions) 14 , 13 , 12 , 11 , 10 , 9 , 8 , 7 , 6 , 5 ...
B04 - Viruses. Vesicular stomatitis-Indiana virus. Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. B05 - Fungi. Pneumocystis jiroveci. ...
B04 - Viruses. Vesicular stomatitis-Indiana virus. Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. B05 - Fungi. Pneumocystis jiroveci. ...
This protein did not inhibit influenza virus but conferred resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus. ... J:13136 LINDENMANN J, INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO INFLUENZA VIRUS IN MICE. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1964 Jun;116:506-9 ... The Mx2 gene in BALB/cJ and CBA/J is interrupted by an open reading frame mutation. Mutagenesis correcting the frameshift ... View these features in JBrowse) Transcription Start Site. Location. Distance from Gene 5-end. ...
Seventy-six of the ts mutants exhibited residual multiplication at NPT which was less than 2% of that of the wild-type virus. ... of rabies virus (RV). The criterion used for this selection was the absence of plaque-forming units on CER cells under agarose ... mutants have been isolated from the challenge virus strain (CVS) ... with a rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus of Indiana and ... Genty N., Bussereau F. 1980; Is cytoskeleton involved in vesicular stomatitis virus reproduction?. Journal of Virology 34:777- ...
To provide updated information about Ebola Disease to clinicians working in U.S. hospitals and health clinics. ... Emergency Postexposure Vaccination With Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Vectored Ebola Vaccine After Needlestick. JAMA. 2015 Mar 24- ... The Use of TKM-100802 and Convalescent Plasma in 2 Patients With Ebola Virus Disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. ... In a recent outbreak, unexplained bleeding was reported in only 18% of patients, most often as blood in the stool (about 6%). ...
"1. A genetically manipulated infectious replicating rabies or vesicular stomatitis virus comprising an insertion or deletion in ... negative-stranded virus mutants, rhabdoviridae virus mutants or vesicular stomatitis virus mutants (main request, auxiliary ... A virus mutant according to claim 8, characterized in that the virus mutant is rabies virus." ... vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus.. - On page 1 of the priority document, the title of the invention, " ...
Synthesis and glycosylation in vitro of glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. 1 reference ... Assembly of the Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro ... In vitro cleavage, core glycosylation, and integration into microsomal membranes of sindbis virus glycoproteins ... mRNA-dependent synthesis of authentic precursor to human placental lactogen: conversion to its mature hormone form in ascites ...
We show that overexpression of ADAP2 suppresses dengue virus (DENV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in an Arf6 ... Here we identify ArfGAP with dual pleckstrin homology (PH) domains 2 (ADAP2) as a gene upregulated by type I IFN treatment in a ... Taken together, this study identifies ADAP2 as an ISG that exerts antiviral effects against RNA viruses by altering Arf6- ... Utilizing two techniques--light-sensitive neutral red (NR)-containing DENV and fluorescence assays for virus internalization-- ...
Aim of this study was to analyze different immune compartments in different age groups and whether humoral imm... ... Purpose The immune protection in children and adolescents with natural or hybrid immunity (vaccination & infection) against ... Virus-neutralization assay. A propagation-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudovirus-based neutralization assay was ... Longitudinal Rise in Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Children in Western Germany-A Blind Spot in Epidemiology? ...
Tested in Western Blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P)) applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse ... including influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). TLR7 is predominantly expressed in lung, placenta, and spleen, ... Quercetin Ameliorates Renal Injury and Pyroptosis in Lupus Nephritis through Inhibiting IL-33/ST2 Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo. ... Effect of HMGB1 on monocyte immune function in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. ...
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) pathogens in human cells. RNF213-mediated ubiquitination of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane ( ... Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) pathogens in human cells. RNF213-mediated ubiquitination of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane ( ... Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) pathogens in human cells. RNF213-mediated ubiquitination of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane ( ... Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) pathogens in human cells. RNF213-mediated ubiquitination of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane ( ...
... vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein, and group antigens-polymerase (reverse transcriptase) was used. The medium was ... 5A). Virus expression was validated both in vitro on MNs and in muscle cultures (Fig. 5-1A) as well as in vivo at the ... Validation of pLL-eGFP-miR virus expression in vitro & in vivo. (A) Representative images of in vitro pLL-eGFP-miR-126-5p ... Our data suggest that muscles are involved in modulating MN health in ALS disease. We showed, both in vivo and in vitro, that ...
In this review, we summarize the literature on EVs, their associated involvement in transmission in viral infections, and ... EVs, by utilizing a complex set of cargos, can play a regulatory role in viral infection, both by facilitating and suppressing ... Virus-infected cells secrete various lipid-bound vesicles, including endosome pathway-derived exosomes and microvesicles/ ... Moreover, EVs generated by virus-infected cells can incorporate virulence factors including viral protein and viral genetic ...
H-2Kk and vesicular stomatitis virus G proteins are not extensively associated in reconstituted membranes recognized by T cells ... High-speed automated DNA sequencing in ultrathin slab gels. Methods in Enzymology. 271:219-237.*DOI ... Fused in sarcoma regulates DNA replication timing and kinetics. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 297*DOI ... A high throughput system for the preparation of single stranded templates grown in microculture. DNA Sequence. 4:253-7.*Google ...
  • Live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (VSV∆G/EBOVGP) was evaluated during 2014-2015 as a vaccine to limit the effects of EBOV disease ( 1 ). (
  • Two cell-associated forms of the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus, termed G_1 and G_2, have been resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (
  • One of the vaccines, which is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the glycoprotein of the Zaire strain of the Ebola virus (VSV-ZEBOV), was recently shown to be extremely effective with 100 per cent efficacy against the lethal Ebola virus disease in WHO-funded studies carried out in Guinea and Sierra Leone. (
  • This protein did not inhibit influenza virus but conferred resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines (rVSV vaccines) are vaccines made using recombinant Indiana vesiculovirus. (
  • An expression system using recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) was used to over-express human TAP1 and TAP2 (VV-hTAP1,2) in normal mice. (
  • Cytokine profiles in the respiratory tract during primary infection with human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, or influenza virus in infants. (
  • TLR7 is activated by infections with single-stranded RNA viruses, including influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (
  • The metabolism of viral RNA and proteins has been studied in cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutant strains of vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Mutants tsM601 (VI) and tsG41(IV) encode N proteins which are degraded much faster than the wild-type protein and also share the property of being defective in replication of viral RNA, suggesting a correlation between these phenotypic properties. (
  • Maturation of viral proteins in cells infected with mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus was studied by surface iodination and cell fractionation. (
  • Fingerprint analysis of tryptic digests indicated that all three contain anino acid sequences in common with each other and with the major methionine-containing structural proteins of the virion. (
  • In cell-free, non-preincubated extracts of rabbit reticulocytes, the 28S VSV RNA stimulated synthesis of a protein the size of the vesicular stomatitis virus L protein whereas the 13 to 15S RNA directed synthesis of the VSV M, N, NS, and possibly G proteins. (
  • In wheat germ extracts, 13 to 15S RNA also directed synthesis of the N, NS, M, and possibly G proteins. (
  • It is concluded that the 28S RNA encodes only the L protein, whereas the 13 to 15S RNA is a mixture of species, presumably monocistronic, which code for the four other known vesicular stomatitis virus proteins. (
  • Use of hybridoma monoclonal antibodies in the detection of antigenic differences between rabies related virus proteins. (
  • 1982. H-2Kk and vesicular stomatitis virus G proteins are not extensively associated in reconstituted membranes recognized by T cells . (
  • This virus is genetically modified so that SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus spike proteins can grow on its surface, explains . (
  • IFN-γ treatment of neuronal cells results in an increase of total NOS-1 and decrease of total PIN proteins without alteration in their respective mRNA levels. (
  • A comparative analysis of immunogenic proteins across human OPXVs identified a large subset of proteins that could potentially be specifically recognized in response to a MPXV infection. (
  • Pathogenic, immunogenic and protective powers of ten temperature sensitive mutants of rabies virus in mice. (
  • Genetic and physiological properties of temperature sensitive mutants of Cocal virus. (
  • We evaluated the in vitro effects of lyophilization for 2 vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines by using 3 stabilizing formulations and demonstrated protective immunity of lyophilized/reconstituted vaccine in guinea pigs. (
  • Lyophilization increased stability of the vaccines, but specific vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines will each require extensive analysis to optimize stabilizing formulations. (
  • Because of the success and safety of the EBOV vaccine, similar VSV-based vaccines have been proposed for Sudan and Marburg viruses and for other etiologic agents of viral hemorrhagic fever diseases, such as Lassa virus (LASV) ( 2 ). (
  • We evaluated the effects of lyophilization on the in vitro recoverability and in vivo protective efficacy of VSV-based vaccines. (
  • rVSV vaccines include: rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine against Ebola rVSV-SUDV vaccine, a candidate against Sudan ebolavirus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-MARV vaccine, a candidate against the Marburg virus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-based vaccine candidate against Lassa fever An HIV vaccine candidate[1] This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines. (
  • Within seven days of vaccination, a blood test early after vaccination can predict whether vaccines based on living, modified viruses have had the desired effect. (
  • This result can inform and accelerate rational development of other new vaccines based on living viruses. (
  • Since the big Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2015, a couple of possible vaccines have been proposed. (
  • With this approach if validated for other vaccines, we only need to wait for a week,' says researcher Ali Harandi, who heads the participation of Sahlgrenska Academy and University of Gothenburg in the project. (
  • Objective.In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 vaccines were made available to different countries. (
  • Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey of doctors using structured online questionnaire administered via the WhatsApp platform of the medical doctors' association, in order to assess their rate of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, and reasons for vaccine refusal. (
  • Modulation of the tumor microenvironment by armed vesicular stomatitis virus in a syngeneic pancreatic cancer model. (
  • The development of virotherapeutics has evolved from the use of in vitro -passaged strains (first generation), to genetically engineered selectivity-enhanced viruses (second generation) and finally to genetically engineered transgene-expressing 'armed' oncolytic viruses (third generation). (
  • HPV infections have received particular attention in recent years, as high-risk strains have been linked to some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Significant differences in yields of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) between stimulated clone 16 cells and unstimulated cells could be obtained only when low multiplicities were used for infection. (
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus , a rapid replicating OV, was armed to express the Smac protein during virus infection (VSV-S). Adaptation by limited dilution largely increased the selective infection of pancreatic cancer cells by VSV-S. The engineered OV was propagated to a large quantity and evaluated for their antitumor activities in an animal model . (
  • Reduced levels of arginase 1, TGF-ß and IL-10 in the tumor also provided evidence for reversion of the immunosuppressive conditions by VSV-S infection . (
  • During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection lymphoid organ follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) serve as a reservoir for infectious virus and an obstacle to curative therapies. (
  • Somewhat analogously, captured murine leukemia virus VLPs translocated along the SCSM membrane becoming available to B1 B cells, a target of MLV infection. (
  • In patients infected with HIV-1 the ability of FDCs to retain HIV-1 virion for prolonged durations poses a significant challenge to the eradication of the infection. (
  • However, the use of ribavirin in any viral infection remains controversial, and no randomized controlled trials were conducted to assess the benefits of ribavirin. (
  • Respiratory viral infection in exacerbations of COPD. (
  • Differential production of inflammatory cytokines in primary infection with human metapneumovirus and with other common respiratory viruses of infancy. (
  • Kuiken T, van den Hoogen BG, van Riel DA, Laman JD, van Amerongen G, Sprong L. Experimental human metapneumovirus infection of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) results in virus replication in ciliated epithelial cells and pneumocytes with associated lesions throughout the respiratory tract. (
  • Cellular response to rabies virus infection. (
  • If malaria is considered for a suspect Ebola patient, follow the Guidance for Malaria Diagnosis in Patients with Suspect Ebolavirus Infection in the United States , as diagnostics should be done promptly and treatment instituted immediately if malaria is diagnosed. (
  • Patients with fatal disease usually develop more severe clinical signs early during infection and die typically between days 6 and 16 of complications including multiorgan failure and septic shock (mean of 7.5 days from symptom onset to death during the 2014-2016 outbreak in West Africa). (
  • A ring vaccination tracks the epidemic, recruiting individuals at raised risk of infection due to their connection to a patient confirmed with the virus. (
  • We show that overexpression of ADAP2 suppresses dengue virus (DENV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in an Arf6 GAP activity-dependent manner, while exerting no effect on coxsackievirus B (CVB) or Sendai virus (SeV) replication. (
  • Utilizing two techniques--light-sensitive neutral red (NR)-containing DENV and fluorescence assays for virus internalization--we show that ADAP2 primarily restricts DENV infection at the stage of virion entry and/or intracellular trafficking and that incoming DENV and VSV particles associate with ADAP2 during their entry. (
  • The immune protection in children and adolescents with natural or hybrid immunity (vaccination & infection) against SARS-CoV-2 remains an understudied field. (
  • In this study, children and adolescents with a SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by PCR or rapid antigen test and those vaccinated with an RNA-vaccine (BNT162b2, Comirnaty®) with subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection (hybrid immunity) were examined 3-26 months (median 10 months) after infection. (
  • All 259 participants of the last study were invited by mail to participate in the current study with the specific question of cellular and humoral immunity following a SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • Monkeypox (mpox) is a disease caused by infection with Monkeypox virus (MPXV), an Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) in the same genus as Variola virus, which causes smallpox. (
  • We hypothesize that over-expression of transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2), components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-processing pathway, enhances antigen-specific cytotoxic activity in response to viral infection. (
  • Check out the highlights so far from Infection Control Today at the Healthcare Sterile Processing Association held in Las Vegas, Nevada, from April 20 to April 23, 2024. (
  • Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic infection caused by monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that also contain smallpox, cowpox, Orf, and vaccinia viruses. (
  • Secondary infection occasionally occurs, especially in immunocompromised patients. (
  • Herpes simplex viruses (human herpesviruses types 1 and 2) commonly cause recurrent infection affecting the skin, mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. (
  • оперізувальний герпес Herpes zoster is infection that results when varicella-zoster virus reactivates from its latent state in a posterior dorsal root ganglion. (
  • HHV-3, also known as varicella-zoster virus (VZV), causes the primary infection chickenpox and the secondary reactivation disease herpes zoster. (
  • HHV-4, also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), causes the primary infection infectious mononucleosis , and it is implicated in various diseases, such as African Burkitt lymphoma , other immunoproliferative disorders, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (
  • HHV-6, which can produce acute infection in CD4 + T lymphocytes, causes roseola infantum , a febrile illness that affects young children. (
  • [ 5 , 6 ] In a localized primary infection, the virus penetrates the mucosal epithelium and invades the cells of the basal layer, where the viral DNA inserts into the host DNA. (
  • This defect cannot be fully rescued by coinfection with wild-type virus, and thus the defect appears to be in the M protein itself. (
  • The G protein of tsM501(V) did not undergo the change in electrophoretic mobility previously shown to be the result of sialylation, suggesting that it is defective in maturation or glycosylation at the nonpermissive temperature. (
  • G_1 has the higher electrophoretic mobility, but both forms migrate more slowly than G protein synthesized in a wheat germ cell-free system (G_0), which presumably is the unglycosylated form. (
  • This suggests that the G protein may be completely glycosylated several minutes prior to its migration to the cell surface and that glycosylation is not the limiting step in its maturation. (
  • Mutations thought to be in G protein prevented its migration to the cell surface, allowed neither M nor N protein to become membrane bound, and blocked formation of viral particles. (
  • In cells infected with mutants that caused N protein to be degraded rapidly or prevented its assembly into nucleocapsids, M protein did not bind to membranes and G protein matured to the cell surface, but never entered structures with the density of virions. (
  • Mutations causing M protein to be degraded prevented virion formation, and G protein behaved as in cells infected by mutants in N protein. (
  • These results are consistent with a model of virion formation involving coalescence of soluble nucleocapsid and soluble M protein with G protein already in the plasma membrane. (
  • RNA was isolated from polyribosomes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells and tested for its ability to direct protein synthesis in extracts of animal and plant cells. (
  • Phoenix cells were created by placing into 293T cells constructs capable of producing gag-pol, and envelope protein for ecotropic and amphotropic viruses. (
  • Legend: Phoenix cell lines expressed gag-pol, and envelope protein for ecotropic or amphotropic viruses. (
  • The VSV has been genetically engineered to contain a protein from the Zaire Ebola virus so that it can provoke immune response to the Ebola virus. (
  • We show that miR126-5p is altered in ALS models and that it can modulate Sema3 and NRP protein expression. (
  • Vaccinated individuals will receive the vesicular stomatitis virus, dressed in the crown protein garment of the coronavirus, as an injection into the muscle. (
  • In this study we investigate the role of the protein inhibitor of NOS-1 (PIN) in the interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-mediated posttranscriptional accumulation of nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS-1) and the anti-vesicular stomatitis virus response in neuronal cells. (
  • The genetically modified vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) is then administered to the human body in a living form. (
  • BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are known for their potential as vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. (
  • Ribavirin, which has broad antiviral activity, has been shown to have activity against hMPV in vitro. (
  • Using compartmentalized in vitro cocultures, we demonstrated that myocytes expressing diverse ALS-causing mutations promote axon degeneration and NMJ dysfunction, which were inhibited by applying Neuropilin1 blocking antibody. (
  • Finally, overexpressing miR126-5p is sufficient to transiently rescue axon degeneration and NMJ disruption both in vitro and in vivo . (
  • We conclude that intracellular resistance to VSV is primarily mediated through nonoxidative mechanisms, since activated macrophages can kill only a limited number of infectious virus particles extracellularly by means of secreted H 2 O 2 . (
  • Collectively, our findings establish RNF213 as a critical component of cell-autonomous immunity that is both necessary and sufficient for control of intracellular pathogens in human cells. (
  • The incidence of MPXV infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the majority of cases have occurred historically, has been estimated to have increased as much as 20-fold since the end of smallpox vaccination in 1980. (
  • 1. Is there a vaccine for the Ebola virus disease? (
  • Contacts, and contacts of contacts of confirmed Ebola virus disease patients (dead or alive), ii. (
  • Human metapneumovirus infections in young and elderly adults. (
  • Virological features and clinical manifestations associated with human metapneumovirus: a new paramyxovirus responsible for acute respiratory-tract infections in all age groups. (
  • Human metapneumovirus infections cause similar symptoms and clinical severity as respiratory syncytial virus infections. (
  • Coinfections with VV-hTAP1,2 increased virus-specific CTL precursors compared to control infections without VV-hTAP1,2. (
  • Descriptions of cancer remissions following virus infections date back to a century ago. (
  • Collectively, our findings indicated that both assays developed in this study exhibit advantages and usefulness for BV surveillance and the diagnosis of BV infections in macaques. (
  • Nonetheless, many other viral infections can affect the oral cavity in humans, either as localized or systemic infections. (
  • HHV infections are common in the oral cavity. (
  • In HHV-1 and HHV-2 oral infections, viral replication within the oral epithelium may cause lysis of epithelial cells, with vesicle formation. (
  • Herpesviruses establish latent permanent infections in their hosts, although clinical signs of disease may not be detected. (
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an attractive oncolytic virus. (
  • One viable strategy for reverting the immunosuppressive conditions is the use of an oncolytic virus (OV) in combination with other immunotherapy approaches. (
  • Characterization of human metapneumoviruses isolated from patients in North America. (
  • Isolation and preliminary characterization of ts mutants of rabies virus. (
  • Biochemical characterization of temperature sensitive rabies virus mutants. (
  • Coinfection with a rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus of Indiana and New Jersey serotypes. (
  • RNF213 was also important for control of bacterial (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and viral (Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) pathogens in human cells. (
  • Our findings indicate that in neurons, IFN-γ upregulates NOS-1 through proteasomal degradation of PIN. (
  • At those time points, we reconstituted each vaccine/stabilizer combination in triplicate in 200 µL of 0.85% saline for 1 hour at room temperature by using gentle agitation. (
  • SAGE)1 for use in Ebola outbreaks caused by the Zaire strain of the virus, in the event where there is no licensed vaccine. (
  • The vaccine consists of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which is an animal virus that causes flulike illness in humans. (
  • This vaccine, although not commercially licensed, is being used under "expanded access" or what is also known as "compassionate use" in the ongoing Ebola outbreak in North Kivu. (
  • This vaccine was also used in the Ebola outbreak in Equateur in May-July 2018. (
  • In 2015, the vaccine was given to more than 16,000 volunteers involved in several studies in Africa, Europe and the United States where it was found to be safe and protective against the Ebola virus. (
  • 3. Why is the vaccine not given to everyone in the Ebola outbreak area? (
  • Although several studies have shown that the vaccine is safe and protective against the Ebola virus, more scientific research is needed before the vaccine can be licensed. (
  • Participation in this "expanded access" or "compassionate use" of the Ebola vaccine is entirely free and voluntary. (
  • Hungary is the first in Europe to test the vaccine. (
  • The developers of Israel's own vaccine are the pharmaceutical company NRx in collaboration with the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR). (
  • The EMA, the European Medicines Agency, has already authorised an Ebola vaccine in 2019 based on the fact that its actual carrier is an attenuated and modified vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • In Israel, 2/3 of the first clinical phase of the BriLife vaccine was completed on 16 November last year, involving 240 people. (
  • Hungary is the first European country to participate in testing the efficacy and safety of the vaccine through phase 2b / 3 clinical trials. (
  • This is one of the results of a new study from a large European research collaboration on systems analysis of immune responses induced by a highly promising vaccine against Ebola in which the University of Gothenburg is participating. (
  • The European research collaboration behind this study focuses on deep immunological analysis of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Ebola vaccine in healthy volunteers. (
  • The study, which was published in the last issue of Science Translational Medicine, reports early plasma cytokine signatures that correlate with, and predict, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the vaccine. (
  • By longitudinal analysis blood samples retrieved from persons who have received the Ebola vaccine, the researchers could show that a group of cytokines measured in plasma within seven days of the vaccine injection correlates with antibody responses developed six months later. (
  • The cytokine signature was also shown to correlate with vaccine reactogenicity observed in some volunteers. (
  • In theory, this approach could be used to predict vaccine immunogenicity and reactogenicity in individuals early after vaccination. (
  • There are ongoing studies which focus on the discovery of molecular biomarkers of the VSV-ZEBOV vaccine in healthy individuals using omics-based technologies in combination with a systems biology approach,' says Ali Harandi. (
  • This study aimed to determine acceptance rate and determinants of vaccine refusal among doctors in Cross River State, Nigeria. (
  • Currently participating in another clinical trial involving a vaccine. (
  • Here, we identified reduced levels of miR126-5p in presymptomatic ALS male mice models, and an increase in its targets: axon destabilizing Type 3 Semaphorins and their coreceptor Neuropilins. (
  • Mice coinfected with either vesicular stomatitis virus plus VV-hTAP1,2 or Sendai virus plus VV-hTAP1,2 increased cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activity by at least 4-fold when compared to coinfections with a control vector, VV encoding the plasmid PJS-5. (
  • Moreover, overexpression of RNF213 in naive cells also impaired growth of T. gondii. (
  • Overexpression of PIN results in lower constitutive NOS-1 expression and activity, and diminishes activation of NOS-1 by IFN-γ. (
  • Herpes B virus (BV) is a zoonotic virus which can be transmitted from macaques to humans, which is often associated with high mortality rates. (
  • HHV-1, also known as herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, causes primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, or oral herpes. (
  • These findings underscore the need for regular arbovirus surveillance in the study region, with the aim of supporting vector control efforts in the event of outbreaks. (
  • One-hundred and seventeen temperature-sensitive ( ts ) mutants have been isolated from the challenge virus strain (CVS) of rabies virus (RV). (
  • As highly evolved parasites retroviruses act in concert with cellular host factors to ensure delivery of their genetic payload into the nucleus, where they exploit host machineries to fulfill replication and long-term expression. (
  • Aim of this study was to analyze different immune compartments in different age groups and whether humoral immune reactions correlate with a cellular immune response. (
  • High antibody titers of Spike antibodies and nAB correlated with cellular immunity, a phenomenon found only in adolescents with hybrid immunity. (
  • METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in Lambaréné and its surrounding rural areas. (
  • Materials and Methods:We studied the spread of Ebola virus and obtained a system of equations comprising of eighteen equations which completely described the transmission of Ebola Virus ina population where control measures were incorporated and a major source of contacting the disease which is the traditional washing of dead bodies was also incorporated. (
  • Mutant tsM601(VI) was defective mainly in viral RNA replication, whereas tsM502(V) appeared to be totally defective for viral RNA transcription and replication at the nonpermissive temperature. (
  • [ 42 ] Additionally, treatment with ribavirin in hMPV-infected cotton rats demonstrated decreased viral replication in the lungs and decreased pulmonary inflammation. (
  • This may reduce virus replication and lead to faster clearance in children. (
  • Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for PIN results in a higher constitutive activity of NOS-1 and inhibition of viral replication. (
  • By taking advantage of current knowledge in cancer biology and virology, specific OVs have been genetically engineered to target specific molecules or signal transduction pathways in cancer cells in order to achieve efficient and selective replication. (
  • We performed work involving infectious Lassa virus in a Biosafety Level 4 laboratory within the Public Health Agency of Canada. (
  • Due to these nonspecific symptoms, particularly early in the course of the disease, Ebola disease can be confused with other more common infectious diseases such as malaria . (
  • Interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) target viruses at various stages of their infectious life cycles, including at the earliest stage of viral entry. (
  • The systemic immune response in blood is characterized by a more naïve state [ 4 ] compared to adults, inhibiting the generation of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells. (
  • 128 were willing to participate, of which 76 could be studied in January and February 2023. (
  • In 2014 during its outbreak, it led to majority of deaths especially in some impoverished area of West Africa and its effect is still witnessed up till date. (
  • SAGE recommends vaccination of health care workers and frontline workers who may be in contact with Ebola patients. (
  • 5. Is participation in the ring vaccination voluntary? (
  • In North Kivu, the protocol approved by the National Regulatory Authorities and the Ethics Committee of the Democratic Republic of Congo considered the inclusion of children of above one year old for the ring vaccination. (
  • In an animal model of lethal viral challenge after vaccination, VV-hTAP1,2 provided protection against a lethal challenge of VV at doses 100-fold lower than control vector alone. (
  • Adverse events related to the COVID vaccination were reported in seven individuals. (
  • In view of these results, for awareness raising, vaccination campaign may be focused on youthand people over 65 years of age. (
  • Therefore, we assessed the presence of Aedes species along a rural-urban gradient in Lambaréné (Gabon) and its surroundings and determined ecological factors associated to their presence. (
  • In the rural area, the proportions of species numbers were significantly higher along the south rural transect (92%) compared to the north rural transect (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = 43, P Ë 0.016). (
  • Here, we developed LAMP and qPCR assays aiming to detect BVs with a high sensitivity and specificity in various macaque species and validated them using oral swab samples collected from 97 wild cynomolgus macaques living in Thailand. (
  • The role of oxygen metabolites in mediating virucidal activity was studied in two cloned macrophage-like cell lines. (
  • Here, we identify a subset of lymphoid organ sinus lining macrophage (SMs) that provide a cell-cell contact portal, which facilitates the uptake of HIV-1 viral-like particles (VLPs) by FDCs and B cells in mouse lymph node. (
  • The virion RNA of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) has been translated in eukaryotic cell-free systems derived from mouse L- and human HeLa cells. (
  • This shut off presumably inhibit interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. (
  • Taken together, this study identifies ADAP2 as an ISG that exerts antiviral effects against RNA viruses by altering Arf6-mediated trafficking to disrupt viral entry. (
  • IFN-γ-induced enhancement of NOS-1 activity is crucial for its antiviral activity in the central nervous system. (
  • Health care and frontline workers in areas at risk of spread of the outbreak. (
  • Considering the risk global travel carries for future disease outbreaks, accurate epidemiological surveillance of MPXV is warranted as demonstrated by the recent Mpox outbreak, where the majority of cases were occurring in non-endemic areas. (
  • The performance of the assay was assessed against the OPXV IgG ELISA in the context of a serosurvey by retrospectively screening a set of serum specimens from the region in Ghana believed to have harbored the MPXV-infected rodents involved in the 2003 United States outbreak. (
  • The current monkeypox outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern and is coming in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. (
  • Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) genus, is a zoonotic virus, endemic to central and western Africa that can cause smallpox-like symptoms in humans with fatal outcomes in up to 15% of patients. (
  • Peptides individually and combined were screened in an ELISA against serum from well-characterized Mpox outbreaks, vaccinee sera, and smallpox sera collected prior to eradication. (
  • Furthermore, for the first time, we determined the partial genome sequences of BVs detected in cynomolgus macaques in Thailand. (
  • TLR7 plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. (
  • Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is difficult to grow in cell culture, largely explaining the delay in recognizing this pathogen, which has been causing disease for 50 years. (
  • In Gabon where outbreaks of both viruses have occurred, there is no vector control program targeting these arboviruses. (
  • Poxviruses are important pathogens in various animals, including humans, and typically result in the formation of lesions, skin nodules, or disseminated rash. (
  • Retroviruses are among the most intensely studied vectors utilized for virus-mediated gene transfer. (
  • Albopictus vectors was more abundant in the rural area (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = 627, P = 0.043) than in the urban area. (
  • We also noted a high abundance of vectors in environments characterized by monocultures of Hevea brasiliensis (Hevea) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) (Kruskal-Wallis H-test, H = 25.7, df = 2, P (
  • C ancer is second major cause of age-associated mortality and cancer in turn often induces other age-related maladies. (
  • In both systems at least three polypeptides, approximately 60,000, 70,000, and 180,000 in apparent molecular weight, were formed in response to the added 35S MuLV RNA. (
  • Both genetic deletion of the Firre locus and knockdown of hnRNPU resulted in loss of colocalization of these trans-chromosomal interacting loci. (
  • The virus, although not a coronavirus, contains spikes on its surface due to genetic engineering modifications. (
  • The relative lack of progress for the amount of effort invested is probably due to the fact that basic scientific knowledge related to the biomolecular, cell-cycle, signaling pathways, genetic and epigenetic processes involved in cancer did not exist until recent years. (
  • Feature papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. (
  • Although chest radiography is often obtained in patients with significant lower respiratory tract disease, no findings distinguish hMPV from other causes of viral pneumonia or bronchiolitis. (
  • Over the past decade, hundreds of patients with cancer have been treated on prospectively designed clinical trials (including phase III), evaluating over 10 different agents, including engineered second-generation and third-generation viruses. (
  • Immunofluorescence testing has been developed for hMPV and is available through commercial laboratories but is not yet widely used in clinical settings. (
  • None of the information obtained through use of the search portal should in any way be used in clinical care without consulting a physician or licensed health professional. (
  • This allows migrating virus-specific B cells access to the viral particles. (
  • Find support for a specific problem in the support section of our website. (
  • Poliovirus RNA stimulates incorporation of 35S from both [35S]methionine and formyl-[35S]methionyl-tRNAf{}Met in cell-free systems derived from HeLa cells or from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. (
  • The inactivation of VSV, both by H 2 O 2 in solution and by activated clone 16 cells, could be inhibited by catalase. (
  • In a syngeneic KPC model, intratumoral injection of VSV-S inhibited tumor growth , and induced increasing tumor infiltration of neutrophils and elimination of myeloid derived suppressor cells and macrophages in the tumor . (
  • Neither the VSV or the MLV-VLP studies identified the mechanism that transports viral particles across the SCS floor facilitating their delivery to B cells in the lymph node follicle. (
  • The cells have been created in Dr. Nolan's laboratory (Stanford University) and based on the HEK293T cells. (
  • Mutagenesis correcting the frameshift permits Mx2 expression in 3T3 cells. (
  • The amount of interferon-γ released by T cells was comparable in natural and hybrid immunity. (
  • Mechanistically, the total MHC class I antigen surface expression and the cross-presentation mechanism in spleen-derived dendritic cells was augmented by over-expression of TAP. (
  • The basic idea is to go after cancer cells with viruses that kill them. (
  • To help the viruses escape the immune system, they are packaged in stem cells that are expected to snuggle up to the cancer cells. (
  • What is new is using stem cells or other human cells for safely getting the viruses to and into the target cancer cells. (
  • Both Phoenix-Eco and Phoenix-Ampho have been extensively tested for helper virus production and established as being helper-virus free. (
  • ADAP2 Is an Interferon Stimulated Gene That Restricts RNA Virus Entry. (
  • Schildgen O, Geikowski T, Glatzel T, Schuster J, Simon A. Frequency of human metapneumovirus in the upper respiratory tract of children with symptoms of an acute otitis media. (
  • Immune responses to COVID-19 in adults and children probably differ, as children have a higher steady-state expression of IFN-γ response genes [ 2 ] , [ 3 ], especially in their upper respiratory tract. (

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