The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection. (1/2088)

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export. (2/2088)

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

A proline-rich motif within the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins: implications for viral budding. (3/2088)

The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common.  (+info)

Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras. (4/2088)

Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release.  (+info)

Interferon-induced guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mediates an antiviral effect against vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus. (5/2088)

A cDNA encoding the human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) was expressed in HeLa cells using a constitutive expression vector. Stably transfected clones expressing hGBP-1 exhibited resistance to the cytopathic effect mediated by both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and produced less viral progeny than control cells following infection with these viruses. To study the role hGBP-1 plays in the IFN-mediated antiviral effect, cells were stably transfected with a construct expressing antisense RNA for hGBP-1. VSV infection of IFN-alpha-treated antisense RNA-expressing cells produced an amount of virus comparable to that produced in the parental cell line, while EMCV infection of the IFN-alpha-treated transfected cells and VSV and EMCV infection of the IFN-gamma-treated transfected cells produced far more virus than was produced in the parental cell line. These results demonstrate that GBP-1 mediates an antiviral effect against VSV and EMCV and plays a role in the IFN-mediated antiviral response against these viruses.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (6/2088)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus. (7/2088)

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (8/2088)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A human case of encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) infection. AU - Quiroz, E.. AU - Moreno, N.. AU - Peralta, P. H.. AU - Tesh, R. B.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - This paper describes a case of severe encephalitis in a 3-year-old Panamanian boy infected with the Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. The virus was recovered from the childs throat on the fifth day of illness and a rise in neutralizing antibody titer was demonstrated in paired serum specimens. This is the second report of childhood encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus infection. These suggest that infection with vesicular stomatitis viruses may cause severe disease. Human infection with vesicular stomatitis viruses is common throughout the tropical Americas.. AB - This paper describes a case of severe encephalitis in a 3-year-old Panamanian boy infected with the Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. The virus was recovered from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lysis of target cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the presence of tunicamycin by anti-VSV cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AU - Harris, D. T.. AU - Hale, A. H.. AU - Lefrancois, L.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - We have analyzed the requirement for the expression of the major surface glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on target cells for recognition and lysis by anti-VSV cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In addition, we have attempted to determine if the carbohydrate moieties on the G protein are required for recognition and lysis by anti-VSV CTL. When VSV (Orsay) is grown at 30°C in the presence of tunicamycin (TM), glycosylation of G protein is inhibited; however, nonglycosylated G protein is found on the surface of the cell and active virus particles are produced. In contrast, VSV (Orsay) grown at 39°C in the presence of TM produces low titers of virus and the presence of G protein on the surface of cells is not detectable. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Safety studies on intravenous administration of oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in purpose-bred beagle dogs. AU - Leblanc, Amy K.. AU - Naik, Shruthi. AU - Galyon, Gina D.. AU - Jenks, Nathan. AU - Steele, Mike. AU - Peng, Kah Whye. AU - Federspiel, Mark J.. AU - Donnell, Robert. AU - Russell, Stephen J.. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. To facilitate clinical translation of this promising oncolytic therapy in patients with disseminated cancer, we are utilizing a comparative oncology approach to gather data describing the safety and efficacy of systemic VSV-IFNβ-NIS administration in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event ...
Viruses need us. In order to multiply, viruses have to invade a host cell and copy their genetic information. To do so, viruses encode their own replication machinery or components that subvert the host replication machinery to their advantage.. Ebola virus and rabies virus, two of the most lethal pathogens known to humans, belong to an order of RNA viruses that share a common strategy for copying their genomes inside their hosts. Other relatives include Marburg virus, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Scientists study VSV, which causes acute disease in livestock but typically does not lead to illness in people, as a model for viruses that are harmful to humans.. Now a team from Harvard Medical School, using electron cryomicroscopy (imaging frozen specimens to reduce damage from electron radiation), has for the first time revealed the structure of a VSV protein at the atomic level. Called polymerase protein L, it is required for viral replication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein contains a dominant cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal critically dependent upon a tyrosine. AU - Thomas, DNette C.. AU - Brewer, Colleen B.. AU - Roth, Michael G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - To investigate the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein to its basolateral expression in polarized epithelial cells, chimeric proteins containing the external and transmembrane domains of an apically targeted protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and either the G cytoplasmic domain or an unrelated cytoplasmic sequence, were introduced into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Addition of the cytoplasmic tail of G to a truncated HA resulted in delivery of greater than 95% of the chimeric protein to the basolateral cell surface, indicating that the G cytoplasmic domain contains a dominant basolateral sorting signal. A similar chimera, containing the cytoplasmic tail of herpes ...
The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). The M protein from persistently VSV-infected cells was shown to harbour characteristic amino acid substitutions (M51R, V221F and S226R) implicated in IFN induction. This study demonstrates that infection of human fibroblasts with recombinant VSV containing the M51R substitution resulted in IFN induction, whereas neither the V221F nor the S226R substitution effected an IFN-inducing phenotype. Only when V221F was combined with S226R were the host shut-off activity of the M protein abolished and IFN induced, independently of M51R. The M33A substitution, previously implicated in VSV cytotoxicity, did not affect host shut-off activity. M-mutant VSV containing all four amino acid substitutions retained cytotoxic
A stable cell line expressing a complementary DNA clone encoding the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein fused and formed polykaryons at pH 5.5. The formation of polykaryons was dependent on the presence of glycoprotein anchored at the cell surface and could be prevented by incubation of cells with a monoclonal antibody to the glycoprotein. Fusion occurred at a pH 0.5 unit lower than that observed for cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. ...
The particle-bound RNA polymerase activity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be demonstrated in vivo. Linear synthesis of viral RNA persists for 5 to 6 hours at 34°C in infected monolayers of chick embryo cells treated with cycloheximide and actinomycin D to block synthesis of protein and cell-specific RNA. At least 55 percent of the RNA made under these conditions is complementary to virion RNA. RNA synthesis mediated by VSV polymerase activity is inhibited in cells first treated with chick-derived interferon or polyriboinosinate• polyribocytidylate, but not by mouse interferon. The RNA product of VSV polymerase activity is present throughout the cytoplasm, and its synthesis is inhibited by the interferon system, as judged by autoradiographs that show the physical distribution, in cells, of RNA produced by virion polymerase in the absence of translation-a demonstration of the transcription product of the viral genome. ...
Our findings demonstrate an important role for PERK in VSV infection. We show that PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation is induced in VSV-infected cells and that this is accompanied by an inhibition of virus replication and apoptosis. PERK also plays an essential role in UPR (31) and, as such, its activation in VSV infection initially indicated an ability of the virus to elicit a UPR. This was consistent with the notion that viruses that use the ER as an integral part of their replication strategy are likely able to induce an ER stress response (1). In fact, previous studies showed that the VSV glycoprotein (VSV-G) oligomerizes in the ER prior to its transport to the cell surface (41). Misfolded and unassembled VSV-G is retained in the ER (8), whereas the interactions of the viral protein with two chaperones, BiP and calnexin, are essential for efficient folding and for retention of partially folded G protein forms in the ER (12). Thus, an overload of VSV-G in the ER during virus replication ...
The restricted host-cell range and low titer of retroviral vectors limit their use for stable gene transfer in eukaryotic cells. To overcome these limitations, we have produced murine leukemia virus-derived vectors in which the retroviral envelope glycoprotein has been completely replaced by the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Such vectors can be concentrated by ultracentrifugation to titers , 10(9) colony-forming units/ml and can infect cells, such as hamster and fish cell lines, that are ordinarily resistant to infection with vectors containing the retroviral envelope protein. The ability to concentrate vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped vectors will facilitate gene therapy model studies and other gene transfer experiments that require direct delivery of vectors in vivo. The availability of these pseudotyped vectors will also facilitate genetic studies in nonmammalian species, including the important zebrafish developmental system, through the efficient ...
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. The complexes are heterogeneous in size (4-21S20,W), contain several G glycopolypeptides, and are associated with BiP/GRP78. The newly synthesized, partially intrachain disulfide-bonded G proteins enter these complexes immediately after chain termination, and are released 1-4 min later as fully oxidized, trimerization-competent monomers. These monomers are properly folded, judging by their binding of conformation-specific mAbs. When the G protein is translated in the presence of DTT, it remains reduced, largely unfolded and aggregated in the ER, but it can fold successfully when the DTT is removed. In this case, contrary to normal folding, the aggregates become transiently disulfide cross-linked. We also demonstrated that the fidelity of the folding process is dependent on metabolic energy. Finally, we established that ...
In a previous study we demonstrated that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be used as a vector to express a soluble protein in mammalian cells. Here we have generated VSV recombinants that express four different membrane proteins: the cellular CD4 protein, a CD4-G hybrid protein containing the ectodomain of CD4 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of the VSV glycoprotein (G), the measles virus hemagglutinin, or the measles virus fusion protein. The proteins were expressed at levels ranging from 23-62% that of VSV G protein and all were transported to the cell surface. In addition we found that all four proteins were incorporated into the membrane envelope of VSV along with the VSV G protein. The levels of incorporation of these proteins varied from 6-31% of that observed for VSV G. These results suggest that many different membrane proteins may be co-incorporated quite efficiently with VSV G protein into budding VSV virus particles and that specific signals are not required for this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Delayed appearance of pseudotypes between vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza virus during mixed infection of MDCK cells. AU - Roth, M. G.. AU - Compans, R. W.. PY - 1981/12/1. Y1 - 1981/12/1. N2 - In intact Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matures only at basolateral membranes beneath tight junctions, whereas influenza virus buds from apical cell surfaces. Early in the growth cycle, the viral glycoproteins are restricted to the membrane domain from which each virus buds. We report here that phenotypic mixing and formation of VSV pseudotypes occurred when influenza virus-infected MDCK cells were superinfected with VSV. Up to 75% of the infectious VSV particles from such experiments were neutralized by antiserum specific for influenza virus, and a smaller proportion (up to 3%) were resistant to neutralization with antiserum specific for VSV. The latter particles, which were neutralized by antiserum to influenza A/WSN virus, ...
Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169+ cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169+ cells during viral infections remain unclear. Here we show that tumor necrosis factor is produced by CD11b+ Ly6C+Ly6G+ cells following infection with VSV. The absence of TNF or TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) resulted in reduced numbers of CD169+ cells and in reduced IFN-I production during VSV infection, with a severe disease outcome. Specifically, TNF triggered RelA translocation into the nucleus of CD169+ cells; this translocation was inhibited when paracaspase MALT-1 was absent. Consequently, MALT1 deficiency resulted in reduced VSV replication, defective innate immune activation, and severe disease development. These findings indicate that TNF mediates the maintenance of CD169+ cells and innate and adaptive immune activation during VSV ...
Summary Multiply cloned variants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) were found to generate/amplify defective interfering (DI) particles at a rate greatly exceeding the rates normally observed for wild-type VSV (or for other mutants of VSV). A single undiluted passage of the first clonal pool of this variant virus produced concentrated visible bands of DI particles on sucrose gradients whereas wild-type and other mutant strains of VSV required from three to six or more serial undiluted passages. Since DI particle amplication by wild-type VSV at each undiluted passage can exceed 10000-fold enrichment, these variant virus clones were generating/amplifying DI particles many millions of times more rapidly than were wild-type and other mutant strains of VSV. This rate of generation/amplification is so high that it was not feasible to obtain accurate estimates of the rates of generation (or amplification) of these DI particles.
Vaccines based on live viruses are attractive because they are immunogenic, cost-effective, and can be delivered by multiple routes. However, live virus vaccines also cause reactogenic side effects such as fever, myalgia, and injection site pain that have reduced their acceptance in the clinic. Several recent studies have linked vaccine-induced reactogenic side effects to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in humans. Our objective was therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine vectors, and if so, to identify strategies by which IL-1β mediated pathology might be reduced without compromising immunogenicity. We found that an rVSV vaccine induced local and systemic production of IL-1β in vivo, and that accumulation of IL-1β correlated with acute pathology after rVSV immunization. rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R
Although vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neurovirulence and pathogenicity in rodents have been well studied, little is known about VSV pathogenicity in non-human primates. To address this question, we measured VSV viremia, shedding, and neurovirulence in macaques. Following intranasal inoculation, …
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment. Based on this powerful platform, a multitude of strategies have been applied to further improve the immune-stimulating potential of VSV and synergize these responses with the direct oncolytic effect. These strategies include: 1. modification of endogenous virus genes to stimulate interferon induction; 2. virus-mediated expression of cytokines or immune-stimulatory molecules to enhance anti-tumor immune responses; 3.
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide containing the 15 carboxy-terminal amino acids (497-511) of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed along the 15-residue peptide, whereas the m …
The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viral and other microbial pathogens in their genome (so-called chimeric virus vaccines). Many such viral vector vaccines are now at various stages of clinical evaluation. Here, we introduce an attenuated form of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) as a potential chimeric virus vaccine for HIV-1, with implications for use as a vaccine vector for other pathogens. The rVSV/HIV-1 vaccine vector was attenuated by combining two major genome modifications. These modifications acted synergistically to greatly enhance vector attenuation and the resulting rVSV vector demonstrated safety in sensitive mouse and non-human primate neurovirulence models. This vector expressing HIV-1 gag protein has completed evaluation in two Phase I clinical trials. In one trial the rVSV/HIV-1 vector was administered in a ...
Gene therapy - an advanced technique developed to insert or inject therapeutic genes into human cells - has shown some success in treating the disease. In a previous study, Xiao and co-investigators at State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, and the Department of Thoracic Oncology Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, had used a gene therapy approach to induce cancer cell death. Their study found that Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein (VSVMP), when inserted into a cancer cell, compromises the cellular skeletal framework, which is made up of structural proteins. Cell death ensued as a consequence. In the current study, the research team further armed with VSVMP gene delivery vessel with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) - a protein known to recruit and switch on the cancer-killing functions of immune cells. The novel drug particles are based on Heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles. To overcome the high toxicity and non-biocompatible nature of PEI, the team used a method to ...
Gene therapy - an advanced technique developed to insert or inject therapeutic genes into human cells - has shown some success in treating the disease. In a previous study, Xiao and co-investigators at State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, and the Department of Thoracic Oncology Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, had used a gene therapy approach to induce cancer cell death. Their study found that Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein (VSVMP), when inserted into a cancer cell, compromises the cellular skeletal framework, which is made up of structural proteins. Cell death ensued as a consequence. In the current study, the research team further armed with VSVMP gene delivery vessel with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) - a protein known to recruit and switch on the cancer-killing functions of immune cells. The novel drug particles are based on Heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles. To overcome the high toxicity and non-biocompatible nature of PEI, the team used a method to ...
The effects of formalin on the infectivity and immunogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype Indiana were investigated. We found that formalin inactivation of VSV prevents infection of Vero cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, as shown by fluorometric cell analysis and inhibition of plaque formation. Inactivated VSV failed to induce significant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in vivo or after restimulation in vitro. In contrast, the early immunoglobulin M (IgM) response, which is T help independent in the VSV system, was unaltered, suggesting normal antigenicity for and induction of B cells. However, no switch to IgG occurred, demonstrating failure of induction of T help. If cross-reactive T help was provided by previous infection with a second serotype of VSV (New Jersey), the IgG response was almost completely restored, confirming that the absence of IgG was due to lack of T help. A formalin-treated preparation of glycoprotein of VSV led to a delayed but otherwise normal
We have analyzed the distribution of enveloped viral infections in multinucleated L6 muscle cells. A temperature-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus (mutant VS
Upon infection with many different viruses, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) produce large amounts of type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). To address why upon vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection pDC, but not conventional myeloid DC (mDC), are induced to produce IFN-alpha, pDC and mDC were differentiated from bone marrow cells (BM-DC). Upon VSV infection BM-pDC produced IFN-alpha, whereas BM-mDC did not. Notably, upon infection with VSV-M2, a VSV variant expressing a M51R mutant matrix (M) protein that showed a reduced sequestration of host cell metabolism, BM-pDC and BM-mDC mounted massive IFN-alpha responses. Both DC subsets showed comparable RNA levels of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and were able to respond upon triggering with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) analogs. Moreover, upon VSV-M2 infection IFN-alpha production by both DC subsets was largely dependent on viral replication. Interestingly, upon virus infection BM-pDC,
Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells
Disease Information. Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease which primarily affects horses, cattle, and swine. The agent that causes vesicular stomatitis, VSV, has a wide host range and can occasionally infect sheep and goats. In affected livestock, VSV causes blister-like lesions to form in the mouth and on the dental pad, tongue, lips, nostrils, hooves, and teats. These blisters swell and break, leaving raw tissue that is so painful that infected animals generally refuse to eat and drink and show signs of lameness. Severe weight loss usually follows, and in dairy cows a severe drop in milk production commonly occurs. Affected dairy cattle can appear to be normal and will continue to eat about half of their feed intake.. ...
Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease that affects horses, and less commonly cattle, pigs, llamas, alpacas, and other livestock. We see periodic outbreaks of Vesicular Stomatitis in our region of the Southwest. VS is a reportable disease, meaning that when a case is suspected by a veterinarian, we are required to involve the United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA: APHIS).. Reporting is required because VS resembles Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle, which is greatly feared in the livestock industry. When VS is confirmed in the United States, non-affected states and most foreign countries initiate transport embargoes to prevent spread into their territories. Movement of livestock is hindered and affected premises are quarantined. The entire livestock industry is adversely affected. After reporting a potential occurrence of the disease the animals in question must be inspected by USDA:APHIS. Laboratory work is performed to determine ...
Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, and occasionally swine, sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. The transmission process of VSV is not completely understood, but includes insect vectors such as black flies, sand flies, and biting midges.. The incubation period ranges from 2-8 days. Clinical signs include vesicles, erosions, and sloughing of the skin on the muzzle, tongue, teats, and coronary bands. Often excessive salivation is the first sign of disease, along with a reluctance to eat or drink. Lameness and weight loss may follow.. Humans may become infected when handling affected animals, but this is a rare event. To avoid human exposure, individuals should use personal protective measures when handling affected animals.. Tips for Livestock Owners. ...
Viral vectors have been available in various fields such as medical and biological research or gene therapy applications. Targeting vectors pseudotyped with distinct viral envelope proteins that influence cell tropism and transfection efficiency is a useful tool not only for examining entry mechanisms or cell tropisms but also for vaccine vector development. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an excellent candidate for development as a pseudotype vector. A recombinant VSV lacking its own envelope (G) gene has been used to produce a pseudotype or recombinant VSV possessing the envelope proteins of heterologous viruses. These viruses possess a reporter gene instead of a VSV G gene in their genome, and therefore it is easy to evaluate their infectivity in the study of viral entry, including identification of viral receptors. Furthermore, advantage can be taken of a property of the pseudotype VSV, which is competence for single-round infection, in handling many different viruses that are either difficult
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ribosomal proteins in normal simian cells, sv40-transformed simian cells, and simian cells infected with sv40, adenovirus 5, and vesicular stomatitis virus. AU - Bosselman, Robert A.. AU - Price, Joseph A.. AU - Lee Burns, A.. AU - Kaulenas, Mindaugas S.. AU - Norkin, Leonard C.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. N2 - The protein patterns of monosomes and polysomes isolated from the T-22 line of SV40-transformed GMK cells and from uninfected CV-I cells and CV-1 cells infected with SV40, adenovirus 5, or vesicular stomatitis virus were analyzed by two-dimensional PAGE. All gel patterns were similar except for the presence of one additional protein associated with T-22 monosomes.. AB - The protein patterns of monosomes and polysomes isolated from the T-22 line of SV40-transformed GMK cells and from uninfected CV-I cells and CV-1 cells infected with SV40, adenovirus 5, or vesicular stomatitis virus were analyzed by two-dimensional PAGE. All gel patterns were similar except for the ...
Abstract: Cell entry of enveloped viruses requires specialized viral proteins that mediate fusion with the host membrane by substantial structural rearrangements from a metastable pre- to a stable postfusion conformation. This metastability renders the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) fusion glycoprotein B (gB) highly unstable such that it readily converts into the postfusion form, thereby precluding structural elucidation of the pharmacologically relevant prefusion conformation. By identification of conserved sequence signatures and molecular dynamics simulations, we devised a mutation that stabilized this form. Functionally locking gB allowed the structural determination of its membrane-embedded prefusion conformation at sub-nanometer resolution and enabled the unambiguous fit of all ectodomains. The resulting pseudo-atomic model reveals a notable conservation of conformational domain rearrangements during fusion between HSV-1 gB and the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G, despite their ...
The presence of sulphate groups on various saccharide residues of N-linked carbohydrate units has now been observed in a number of glycoproteins. To explore the cell specificity of this post-translational modification, we evaluated sulphate incorporation into virus envelope glycoproteins by a variety of cells, since it is believed that assembly of their N-linked oligosaccharides is to a large extent dependent on the enzymic machinery of the host. Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S]sulphate substituents into its complex carbohydrate units occurred in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), Madin-Darby bovine kidney, LLC-PK1 and BHK-21 cell lines but was not detectable in BRL 3A, BW5147.3, Chinese hamster ovary, HepG2, NRK-49F, IEC-18, PtK1 or 3T3 cells. The sulphate groups were exclusively located on C-3 of galactose [Gal(3-SO4)] and/or C-6 of N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc(6-SO4)] residues in the ...
Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. Condensates the ribonucleocapsid core during virus assembly. Shut off cellular transcription by inhibiting mRNA nuclear export through direct interaction with host RAE1-NUP98 complex. This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity).
Define gonococcal stomatitis. gonococcal stomatitis synonyms, gonococcal stomatitis pronunciation, gonococcal stomatitis translation, English dictionary definition of gonococcal stomatitis. n. Inflammation of the mucous tissue of the mouth. n inflammation of the mouth stomatitic adj n. inflammation of the mouth. Noun 1. stomatitis -...
Host immune response is tightly controlled by negative regulators to avoid excessive immune reactions for homeostasis. Some pathogens may take advantage of host negative regulating system to evade host defense. Our previous report showed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 inhibited TNF-α- and SeV-induced type I interferon response via interaction with cellular protein soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin). Conversely, TNF-α- or SeV-induced type I interferon response increased when sorcin knocked down, leading to inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus replication. However, the exact role of sorcin in regulation of the immune response is still not clear. Here, we show that mice deficient of sorcin (sorcin−/−) display enhanced ConA-induced hepatitis. Importantly, splenocytes from sorcin−/− mice produced more IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-γ than that of littermate controls (sorcin+/+) in response to anti-CD3/28 stimulation. Furthermore, our data indicate that sorcin
Protein and RNA synthesis are inhibited when VSV infects certain cells. UV-inactivation analysis of the virus indicates that transcription of two regions of the viral genome are required for efficient inhibition. The larger of the two viral products represents transcription of approximately 1500 nucleotides and may represent the N protein gene, while the smaller product is approximately 40 nucleotides long. The latter product is thought to be encoded at the 3-proximal end of the genome.^ Two viral mutants have been shown to be deficient in the expression of the smaller transcription product and result in less efficient inhibition of both protein and RNA synthesis. Analysis of these mutants and the UV-inactivated wild-type virus have allowed for the establishment of conditions where the effects of either the large or the small transcription product can be observed independent of the other. This will allow for the correlation of a viral product with inhibition, and thereby establish the causative
Early biochemical experiments established that the minimal RNA synthesis machinery of NNS RNA viruses comprises the N encased genomic RNA associated with the viral polymerase, an L-P complex (Emerson and Yu, 1975; Mellon and Emerson, 1978). The atomic structure of N‐RNA complexes from VSV and rabies virus provided evidence that the RNA must somehow be dissociated from N for copying by the polymerase (Albertini et al, 2006; Green et al, 2006). The co‐crystal structure of the PCTD of VSV with the N‐RNA complex led to a model in which P brings L to the RNA template by binding directly between N molecules, and this interaction is perhaps also required to keep L associated with the N‐RNA during copying (Green and Luo, 2009). By now providing the first direct evidence that L can actually use RNA in the absence of the N and P, we have defined the minimal RNA synthesis components as L and RNA. We conclude that while N and P play important roles in viral RNA synthesis they are not essential for ...
To localize the virus, we used a green fluorescent reporter gene coupled to the VSV-G gene in the position of the fifth VSV gene. This would shift the viral L-gene to the sixth position, resulting in attenuated L-protein synthesis and a slight reduction in replication (Dalton and Rose, 2001), an advantage when considering treatment of the brain. Live microscopic imaging of the brain allowed us for the first time to follow the time course with single-cell resolution, from before inoculation to a point when VSV had spread throughout the tumor. In experiments in which we imaged VSV oncolysis through a glass window above the brain using time-lapse confocal laser microscopy, green viral infection of red cortical tumors spread throughout the tumor, mostly by local expansion of the area of infected cells. Blood vessels appeared mostly undamaged even late in tumor infection. Furthermore, vessel cells that stained positive for the endothelial marker von Willebrand factor appeared to be spared from ...
Highly pathogenic viruses with zoonotic potential such as H5N1 influenza viruses, Nipah virus, rabies virus, SARS coronavirus, Lassa fever virus, and Ebola virus require handling in BSL-3/4 containment, which makes diagnosis of and studies on these viruses difficult and expensive. Propagation-incompetent pseudotype viruses represent an elegant solution for this problem. Pseudotype viruses are equipped with the envelope proteins of heterotypic viruses and therefore behave similar to these in terms of cell tropism or antibody-mediated neutralization.. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is known to incorporate foreign viral glycoproteins in a more or less unspecific manner, in particular in the absence of the VSV G glycoprotein. Pseudotype virus can be generated by propagating the glycoprotein-deficient mutant VSVΔG on cells that express the viral envelope protein of interest. The virus particles released are capable of performing a single round of infection, which is mediated by the incorporated ...
Several states including Florida, Kentucky, Illinois, North Carolina, and Oklahoma have enhanced the entry requirements for Texas livestock, including horses, due to the cases of vesicular stomatitis.
The New Mexico Livestock Board has issued a new directive regarding Vesicular Stomatitis (VS), signed by state veterinarian Dr. Dave Fly.. Read the rest of the story New Mexico Horse Breeders Association ...
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Vaccines based on viruses have the ability to provide lifelong protection from disease through induction of robust immunological memory. The Rose laboratory has developed vaccine platforms based on recombinant viruses that can be engineered to express high levels of foreign antigens. One of the major platforms is based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a cattle virus that induces potent immune responses in a wide variety of animal species. The virus has been attenuated so that it no longer causes disease and then engineered to express protective antigens from other viruses or bacteria. Immunization with such vectors protects animals from infection and disease caused by numerous pathogens including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), Ebola virus, and Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that caused the notorious bubonic plagues.. Research projects in the Rose laboratory are focused on further development and testing of the VSV vaccine ...
Plasmid pHEF-VSVG from Dr. Sergey Kasparovs lab contains the insert Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein and is published in Physiol Genomics. 2003 Feb 6. 12(3):221-8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The Herpes Stomatitis is also commonly referred to as Stomatitis Herpetic. The condition is a viral infection of the mouth which triggers both inflammation and ulcers. The mouth ulcers are not akin to canker sores that are triggered by a dissimilar virus. What Causes Herpes Stomatitis? Herpes Stomatitis is a transmissible virus disease that is […]. ...
Nicotinic stomatitis is not considered a pre cancerous condition, however there are exceptions to every rule. The image above shows nicotinic stomatitis in an elderly man who has been smoking a pipe for many years. He does not have teeth, nor does he have a denture to protect his palate. The thick, white keratinization on the edentulous (toothless) ridges are probably at least partly due to years of chewing on bare gums, made worse by the pipe smoke which was probably habitually aimed more at this area of the mouth than others. The irregular red and white lesion proved to be squamous cell carcinoma. While nicotinic stomatitis is not considered to be pre cancerous, leukoplakia definitely is! (See the images below.) Both leukoplakia and nicotinic stomatitis are composed of keratinized tissue, and the difference in carcinogenicity may, in fact, be due mostly to the differences in the resistances of the tissues on which they are found. Perhaps very long exposure of the palatal tissues to hot, ...
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent in the family Paramyxoviridae that is maintained in nature by bats. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Bangladesh and have been associated with 40 to 75% case fatality rates. There are currently no vaccines or postexposure treatments licensed for combating human NiV infection. Four groups of ferrets received a single vaccination with different recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing: Group 1, control with no glycoprotein; Group 2, the NiV fusion protein (F); Group 3, the NiV attachment protein (G); and Group 4, a combination of the NiV F and G proteins. Animals were challenged intranasally with NiV 28 days after vaccination. Control ferrets in Group 1 showed characteristic clinical signs of NiV disease including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, viral load in blood and tissues, and gross lesions and antigen in target tissues; all animals in this group succumbed to infection by day 8. Importantly
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of the Rhabdoviridae family, contains a single surface glycoprotein (G) that is responsible for attachment to cells and mediates membrane fusion. Working with the Indiana serotype of VSV, we employed a reverse genetic approach to produce fully authentic recombinant viral particles bearing lethal mutations in the G gene. By altering the hydrophobicity of the two fusion loops within G, we produced a panel of mutants, W72A, Y73A, Y116A, and A117F, that were nonfusogenic. Propagation of viruses bearing those lethal mutations in G completely depended on complementation by expression of the glycoprotein from the heterologous New Jersey serotype of VSV. The nonfusogenic G proteins oligomerize and are transported normally to the cell surface but fail to mediate acid pH-triggered membrane fusion. The nonfusogenic G proteins also interfered with the ability of wild-type G to mediate fusion, either by formation of mixed trimers or by inhibition of trimer ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus of the New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) causes vesicular disease in cattle, pigs, and horses throughout the Americas. Vesicular disease is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Therefore, outbreaks of vesicular disease in FMD-free areas must be rapidly diagnosed by laboratory methods and affected farms must be quarantined until laboratory results confirm the absence of FMD. Diagnosis is currently performed in high-containment (biosafety level 3) laboratories by using complement fixation and virus isolation in tissue culture. We describe here an alternative method for the detection of VSV-NJ RNA in clinical samples. This method includes a rapid acid guanidine-phenol RNA extraction procedure coupled with a one-tube polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using reverse transcriptase. By using this test, we were able to detect the largest number of positive samples (53 of 58), followed by complement (48 of 58) and isolation in tissue culture (43 of 58). The ...
A full-length cDNA copy of the phosphoprotein (NS) mRNA of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) was inserted into pGEM4 vector downstream of the promoter for bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase. Transcription of the cDNA in vitro resulted in the synthesis of NS mRNA, which was subsequently translated into NS protein in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system. The biological activity of the expressed NS protein was demonstrated by in vitro synthesis of mRNA by transcription-reconstitution with purified viral L protein and N-RNA template. Deletion mapping of the NS gene defined a specific domain between amino acid residues 213 and 247, which was essential for in vitro transcription. Removal of the COOH-terminal 21 amino acids, on the other hand, did not have a significant effect on transcription. This domain appears to be involved in efficient binding of NS protein to the N protein-RNA template. ...
VSIV is an arbovirus. Natural VSIV infections encompass two steps, cytolytic infections of mammalian hosts and transmission by insects. In insects, infections are noncytolytic persistent. One confirmed vector of the virus is the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni.[3] Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The genome of the virus is a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that encodes five major proteins: G protein (G), large protein (L), phosphoprotein, matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein. The genome is 11,161 nucleotides long.[4] The VSIV G protein enables viral entry. It mediates viral attachment to an LDL receptor (LDLR) or an LDLR family member present on the host cell.[5] Following binding the VSIV-LDLR complex is rapidly endocytosed It then mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles ...
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DOI: Interpretive Summary: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an infectious agent belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family and the genus vesiculovirus, where vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) and VSNJV are the two main serotypes. The negative sense, single stranded RNA genome of VSV is about 11 kb, and encodes five structural proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L). VS is confined to the Americas, where VSNJV is the serotype responsible for the majority of the clinical cases reported annually in livestock. In Mexico, VSV is endemic in the southern states of Chiapas, Tabasco and Veracruz, where multiple phylogenetic analysis have shown the great genetic diversity associated with the concurrent circulation of multiple lineages. A relevant aspect of these endemic lineages is that some of them may become the precursors of the epidemic lineages responsible ...
0025] In certain other embodiments, the VSV vector of the immunogenic composition comprises a G.sub.(ct) mutation and a M.sub.(ncp) mutation. In another embodiment, the G protein encoded by the truncated G gene has a cytoplasmic tail domain consisting of one amino acid (G.sub.(ct-1)) or a cytoplasmic tail domain consisting of nine amino acids (G.sub.(ct-9)). In another embodiment, the M.sub.(ncp) mutation is a mutation of methionine to alanine at position 33 (M33A) and a mutation of methionine to alanine at position 51 (M51A) of the M protein. In one particular embodiment, the immunogenic composition comprises a mutated VSV genome of 3-NPM.sub.(ncp)G.sub.(ct-1)L-5 or 3-NPM.sub.(ncp)G.sub.(ct-9)L-5. In yet other embodiments, the VSV vector of the immunogenic composition further comprises a third class of mutation in its genome, wherein the mutation is a ts mutation, a point mutation, a gene shuffling mutation, a G-stem mutation, an ambisense RNA mutation, a G gene insertion mutation and a ...
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Restitution of infectivity to spikeless vesicular stomatitis virus by solubilized viral components.: Noninfectious spikeless particles have been obtained from v
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overlapping and distinct molecular determinants dictating the antiviral activities of TRIM56 against flaviviruses and coronavirus. AU - Liu, Baoming. AU - Li, Nan L.. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Shi, Pei Yong. AU - Wang, Tianyi. AU - Miller, Mark A.. AU - Li, Kui. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins have emerged as a new class of host antiviral restriction factors, with several demonstrating roles in regulating innate antiviral responses. Of,70 known TRIMs, TRIM56 inhibits replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus, a ruminant pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, but has no appreciable effect on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a rhabdovirus. Yet the antiviral spectrum of TRIM56 remains undefined. In particular, how TRIM56 impacts human-pathogenic viruses is unknown. Also unclear are the molecular determinants governing the antiviral activities of TRIM56. Herein, we show that TRIM56 poses a barrier to infections by yellow fever virus (YFV), ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The biting midge Culicoides sonorensis, a known arboviral insect vector, has been implicated as a possible vector for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the western United States. Within a competent insect vector, virus from a meal must be able to penetrate the midgut barrier, infect the midgut epithelium, replicate, and disseminate to the epidemiologically significant organs; salivary glands and eggs. This amplification and dissemination must occur without significant damage to the insects cells. Infection studies were performed in both Culicoides cell lines and insects to examine the replication of VSV. In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. VSV infections were productive and persistent resulting in little or no cytopathology or apoptosis. In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy revealed that VSV was able to escape the midgut barrier, disseminate quickly and replicate in epithelial, neural and hemolymph ...
We previously reported that resting mouse peritoneal macrophages (PM) constitutively express low levels of IFN-gamma, whose production is consistently enhanced by exogenous IFN-gamma. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-12 on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus and on IFN-gamma gene expression in mouse PM. The addition of IL-12 to freshly explanted PM resulted in the persistence of an antiviral state to vesicular stomatitis virus, while control PM progressively became permissive for virus replication after 3 to 4 days in culture. The IL-12-induced antiviral state was inhibited by Abs to IFN-gamma, suggesting that endogenous IFN-gamma was largely responsible for this antiviral response. Moreover, IL-12 induced a consistent secretion of IFN-gamma, especially in cultured PM. The IL-1 2-induced antiviral state and IFN-gamma production were observed using PM from various strains of mice, including LPS-defective C3H/HeJ, NK-deficient bg/bg, DBA/2, Swiss (CD1), and Swiss nude ...
In our laboratory we routinely produce and apply vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Since lentiviral vectors (LV) integrate stably into the host-cell genome of non-dividing cells such as neurons and in haematopoietic stem cells [1-3], they offer great potential for gene therapeutic applications [4]. For biosafety reasons, the HIV-1 genome has been modified and cis and trans-acting viral sequences have been segregated over 3 to 4 different plasmids [5, 6]. Indeed, viral structural and functional proteins can be provided in trans and are encoded by 1 or 2 packaging plasmids while the envelope plasmid encodes the glycoprotein of the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope (VSV-G) and a transfer plasmid encodes the transgene of interest flanked by all cis-acting viral sequences necessary for packaging of the RNA genome (reviewed by [7]). Production of lentiviral vectors is routinely achieved by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney (293T) cells using high ...
Wyoming is now the fifth state to have a horse that has tested positive for vesicular stomatitis. The Wyoming Livestock Board says the affected horse was at the Cheyenne Frontier Days for five-days before the horses lesions were found.
Dairies need to keep a close eye out for vesicular stomatitis, and take action immediately to protect their herds - and Morgan County has quite a few dairies.
Dr. Rose earned his Ph.D. at Stanford University in 1973 in the laboratory of Dr. Charles Yanofsky. His thesis research focused on regulation of the tryptophan operon of E. coli. He then did postdoctoral research at MIT in the laboratories of Drs. David Baltimore and Harvey Lodish, where he began work on eucaryotic RNA viruses. In 1978, Dr. Rose took a faculty position at the Salk Institute, where he continued work on RNA virus transcription, as well as structure, function, and transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein. In 1986, he moved to become Professor of Pathology and Cell Biology at Yale University School of Medicine. In 1994, his laboratory developed a system for recovering non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses from DNA plasmids. His work at Yale during the past fifteen years has focused largely on new approaches to vaccine development using vectors based on recombinant VSV and other viral replicons. This work has led to development of robust vaccine platforms ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a potential oncolytic virus for treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor. Matrix (M) protein mutants of VSV have shown greater selectivity for killing GBM cells versus normal brain cells than VSV with wild-type M protein. The goal of this research was to determine the contribution of death receptor and mitochondrial pathways to apoptosis induced by an M protein mutant (M51R) VSV in U87 human GBM tumor cells. Compared to controls, U87 cells expressing a dominant negative form of Fas (dnFas) or overexpressing Bcl-XL had reduced caspase-3 activation following infection with M51R VSV, indicating that both the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathways are important for M51R VSV-induced apoptosis. Death receptor signaling has been classified as type I or type II, depending on whether signaling is independent (type I) or dependent on the mitochondrial pathway (type II). Bcl-XL overexpression inhibited caspase activation in response to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myosin II is involved in the production of constitutive transport vesicles from the TGN. AU - Müsch, Anne. AU - Cohen, David. AU - Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique. PY - 1997/7/28. Y1 - 1997/7/28. N2 - The participation of nonmuscle myosins in the transport of organelles and vesicular carriers along actin filaments has been documented. In contrast, there is no evidence for the involvement of myosins in the production of vesicles involved in membrane traffic. Here we show that the putative TGN coat protein p200 (Narula, N., I. McMorrow, G. Plopper, J. Doherty, K.S. Matlin, B. Burke, and J.L. Stow. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 114: 1113- 1124) is myosin II. The recruitment of myosin II to Golgi membranes is dependent on actin and is regulated by G proteins. Using an assay that studies the release of transport vesicles from the TGN in vitro we provide functional evidence that p200/myosin is involved in the assembly of basolateral transport vesicles carrying vesicular stomatitis virus G protein ...
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), which is frequently resistant to current available therapies and has a very poor prognosis. To prevent the development of ATL among carriers it is important to control HTLV-1-infected cells in infected individuals. Therefore, the establishment of novel therapies with drugs specifically targeting infected cells is urgently required. This study aimed to develop a potential therapy by generating recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) that lack an envelope glycoprotein G and instead encode HTLV-1 receptor(s) with human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) including syndecan 1 (SDC1), designated as VSVΔG-GL, VSVΔG-NP, or VSVΔG-SD, respectively ...
Cat stomatitis is a serious, excruciating aggravation of a felines mouth as well as the gums. Much of the time, the problem causes ulcers to structure inside the mouth; these ulcers can include in the throat, lips, gums, and the tongue. Cats or Felines of every age group or type could be influenced. Theres no single reason for cat stomatitis. Dental ailment (especially periodontal infection) is regularly involved as a reason for Feline Stomatitis. Periodontal malady results from the aggregation of plaque, microbes on teeth, which leads to irritation as well as inflammation including the gums and dental help components.. In most of the scenarios, The reason is believed to be defensive structure, a defense mechanism strikes its own dental cells to create a virus abnormally. Also, there are many causes for stomatitis in cats, which needs to be examined.. Symptoms: Stomatitis in cats is really an extremely painful condition. If you notice your cat with the pain or if she cant open her mouth then ...
Definition of feline ulcerative stomatitis in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is feline ulcerative stomatitis? Meaning of feline ulcerative stomatitis as a legal term. What does feline ulcerative stomatitis mean in law?
Induction of B cell tolerance or activation was analyzed with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G) expressed as a neo-self Ag. A membrane form of VSV-G expressed in all tissues, including the bone marrow, induced unresponsiveness at both the Th and B cell level, whereas a soluble form of VSV-G expressed peripherally in liver and kidney did not tolerize B cells and only reversibly anergized Th cells. Interestingly, a similar correlation was found for activation of mature lymphocytes. When mature normal spleen cells were transferred into the two transgenic mouse lines, the membrane form of VSV-G was strongly immunogenic for both Th and B cells, and high VSV-G-specific IgG Ab titers were induced in these transgenic mice. In contrast, spleen cells transferred into mice expressing the soluble form of VSV-G were not activated, and no VSV-G specific Abs were induced. These results indicate that highly immunogenic Ags are strongly tolerogenic for both immature B and T cells.
Since the onset of antiviral therapy, viral resistance has compromised the clinical value of small-molecule drugs targeting pathogen components. As intracellular parasites, viruses complete their life cycle by hijacking a multitude of host-factors. Aiming at the latter rather than the pathogen directly, host-directed antiviral therapy has emerged as a concept to counteract evolution of viral resistance and develop broad-spectrum drug classes. This approach is propelled by bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide screens that greatly enhance insights into the complex network of host-pathogen interactions and generate a shortlist of potential gene targets from a multitude of candidates, thus setting the stage for a new era of rational identification of drug targets for host-directed antiviral therapies. With particular emphasis on human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus, two major human pathogens, we review screens employed to elucidate host-pathogen interactions and discuss the state of database
If you look up the words vesicular and stomatitis on Google, youll find vesicular means blister. Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mouth.
The oncolytic mutant vesicular stomatitis virus VSVΔ51 achieves robust efficacy in multiple extracranial tumor models. Yet for malignancies of the brain, direct intratumoral infusion of VSVΔ51 causes lethal virus-induced neuropathology. Here, we have developed a novel therapeutic regime that uses peripheral immunization with a single sub-lethal dose of VSVΔ51 to establish an acute anti-viral state that enables the safe intracranial (IC) infusion of an otherwise lethal dose of VSVΔ51 within just 6 hr. Although type I interferons alone appeared insufficient to explain this protective phenotype, serum isolated at early time points from primed animals conferred protection against an IC dose of virus ...
Since the development of vaccinia virus as a vaccine vector in 1984, the utility of numerous viruses in vaccination strategies has been explored. In recent years, key improvements to existing vectors such as those based on adenovirus have led to significant improvements in immunogenicity and efficacy. Furthermore, exciting new vectors that exploit viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have emerged. Herein, we summarize these recent developments in viral vector technologies, focusing on novel vectors based on CMV, VSV, measles and modified adenovirus. We discuss the potential utility of these exciting approaches in eliciting protection against infectious diseases ...
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are essential for organisms survival upon viral infection. During infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by neurotropic viruses, resident cells are mostly responsible for local IFN-I production. This IFN-I is crucial to restrict viral replication and spread awaiting the development of adaptive immunity that allows the clearance of the virus. Virtually all CNS cells can produce and respond to IFN-I. Firstly, we studied the specificity of neuronal response to IFN-I. In our laboratory, Sophie Paul had previously observed that mouse neurons treated with IFN-I remain susceptible to infection by two neurotropic viruses, Theilers virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), unlike other cell types. We demonstrated that neurons readily respond to IFN-I treatment by expressing antiviral genes. However, they display a specific gene expression signature. We determined that 15 genes, induced by IN-I in fibroblasts, are weakly or not expressed in neurons in response to ...
Provided by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, May 21, 2015 - As of May 13, Oklahoma issued emergency import requirements for livestock (equine, bovine, porcine, caprine, ovine or cervidae) entering the state from a county where vesicular stomatitis has been diagnosed within the last 30 days or a county that contains a premise quarantined for vesicular stomatitis shall be accompanied by a Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) dated within five days of entry containing the following statement ...
The number of participants with all grades of stomatitis was defined as the number of participants who had stomatitis grade 1 or higher. Grade 1 = minimal symptoms, normal diet; grade 2 = symptomatic, but able to swallow a modified diet; grade 3 = symptomatic and unable to aliment or hydrate orally; and grade 4 = symptoms associated with life-threatening consequences ...
1. CASE REPORT - Two cases of stomatitis related to fluoxetine intake in the treatment of depression are reported. A 24-year-old woman had been taking fluoxetine for 6 months and experienced six recurrent episodes of stomatitis without complete remission between outbreaks. When fluoxetine was discontinued the stomatitis resolved completely. A rechallenge with fluoxetine 7 months later caused the stomatitis to recur. A second case was reported in a 41-year-old female taking fluoxetine and bentazepam. After both drugs were discontinued the stomatitis resolved in two days. She refused rechallenge with fluoxetine (Palop et al, 1997 ...
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Study protocol for efficacy and safety of steroid-containing mouthwash to prevent chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in women with breast cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2 study ...
Everolimus-induced stomatitis did not negatively affect progression-free survival in patients with various types of cancer, such as breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma.
Stomatitis in cats is common and very painful. The symptoms are subtle. Soxs treatment made a wonderful difference. Visit the site or call 1300 838 336
A virus striking horses ill in Colorado has been found in 11 counties, including Larimer County, the hardest hit area with 70 confirmed cases of vesicular stomatitis.
Reto Guler from the Division of Immunology & International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnolog at the IDM, UCT will present the MCB seminar with a talk entitled, Host-directed drug therapy for tuberculosis. ...
TB stays a major reason for impairment and fatality worldwide as an approximated 8.6 million folks fell ill with TB as well as 1.3 million individuals pass
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For example, polysomal profiling was used in a study to investigate the effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in mammalian ... Neidermyer WJ, Whelan SP (June 2019). "Global analysis of polysome-associated mRNA in vesicular stomatitis virus infected cells ... Polysomes are present in archaea, but not much is known about the structure. in situ (in cell) studies have shown that ... with 3-D polyribosomes being found in sarcoma cells using fluorescence microscopy. Atomic force microscopy used in in vitro ...
... (rVSV vaccines) are vaccines made using recombinant Indiana vesiculovirus. rVSV ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines. If an ... a candidate against the Marburg virus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-based vaccine candidate against ...
"Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, Indiana Serotype - Multiplication in and Transmission by Experimentally Infected Phlebotomine ... One such virus of medical importance is the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) of the genus Vesiculovirus. Viruses of this genus ... The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. ... Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to ...
BHK-21 cells are susceptible to human adenovirus D, reovirus 3, and vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain). BHK-21 cells ... Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology. The cells were derived in 1961 ... Lim KI, Lang T, Lam V, Yin J (September 2006). "Model-based design of growth-attenuated viruses". PLOS Computational Biology. 2 ... "Robust kinetics of an RNA virus: Transcription rates are set by genome levels". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1655 ...
... , formerly Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV or VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the ... Davis NL, Wertz GW (March 1982). "Synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus negative-strand RNA in vitro: dependence on viral ... A human case of encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988; ... "Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain". The Journal of ...
His research focused on the vesicular stomatitis virus. Wagner died of cancer in 2001. Wagner attended Columbia College as an ... Much of his research focused on the molecular biology of the vesicular stomatitis virus. With student Alice S. Huang, Wagner ... The journal launched in 1966, and Wagner continued in his role for 15 years, overseeing a large expansion in the size of the ... He served from 1947 to 1949, and became a lieutenant in the navy reserves. After his time in the Navy, Wagner moved to England ...
The prototypical and best studied rhabdovirus is vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. It is a preferred model system to study ... In 2015 two novel rhabdoviruses, Ekpoma virus 1 and Ekpoma virus 2, were discovered in samples of blood from two healthy women ... Ekpoma virus 1 and Ekpoma virus 2 appear to replicate well in humans (viral load ranged from ~45,000 - ~4.5 million RNA copies/ ... Exposure to Ekpoma virus 2 appears to be widespread in certain parts of Nigeria where seroprevalence rates are close to 50%. In ...
Barik S, Banerjee AK (1991). "Cloning and expression of the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein gene in Escherichia coli ... Two forms of this protein have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. Activity of the ... 2005). "Concentration of thymidine kinase 1 in serum (S-TK1) is a more sensitive proliferation marker in human solid tumors ... Munch-Petersen B (2005). "Differences in the kinetic properties of thymidine kinase isoenzymes in unstimulated and ...
It is well known as a vector of the vesicular stomatitis virus, which causes the disease vesicular stomatitis in animals, ... Emergence and re-emergence of vesicular stomatitis in the United States. Virus Research 85(2), 211-19. Vesicular Stomatitis. ... The bite of the female fly transmits the vesicular stomatitis virus in mammals. The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to ... One well-studied vesicular stomatitis virus enzootic involving this fly is on Ossabaw Island off the coast of Georgia in the ...
... particles of vesicular stomatitis virus in electron micrographs and the formalization of DIPs terminology was in 1970 by Huang ... Snapback defections have been observed in vesicular stomatitis virus. Panhandle defections are when the polymerase carries a ... Hackett AJ (September 1964). "A possible morphologic basis for the autointerference phenomenon in vesicular stomatitis virus". ... Mosaic or complex DI genome, in which the various regions may come from the same helper virus genome but in the wrong order; ...
... in 1976; his thesis research focused on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) under the supervision of Dr. David Baltimore and Dr. ... "Maturation of viral proteins in cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of ... "Separate pathways of maturation of the major structural proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of Virology. 21 (3): ... "Analysis of the defects of temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus: intracellular degradation of specific ...
... expresses the surface glycoprotein of the Kikwit 1995 strain of Zaire ebolavirus in a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ... In the eight previous Ebola outbreaks in DRC since 1976, the virus had never before reached a major city. In May 2018, for the ... Health authorities including DRC's Ministry of Public Health used recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus ( ... 2017). "A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (4): 330-41. doi:10.1056/ ...
... recombinant vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) expressing the glycoprotein of MARV has been used successfully in ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) or filovirus-like particles (VLPs) as all of these candidates could protect nonhuman ... MVD is caused by two viruses; Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV), family Filoviridae. Marburgviruses are endemic in ...
"Role of temperature-sensitive mutants in persistent infections initiated with vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of Virology ... and also infections of vesicular stomatitis virus, sendai virus, and persistent newcastle disease virus. Youngner is ... Youngner, J. S.; Quagliana, D. O. (1976-07-01). "Temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus are conditionally ... Youngner studied the role of in-apparent infections in an effort to link a selection of wild type virus to chronic and ...
"Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human ... She has been involved in research uncovering critical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses, and has used ... Hensley joined USAMRIID in 1998 as a research associate in the Pathology Division. She has co-authored over 180 publications in ... Hensley is the subject of a chapter in journalist Richard Preston's 2002 book Demon in the Freezer, which covers the history of ...
... of the processing intermediates in the synthesis of the complex oligosaccharide units of the vesicular stomatitis virus G ... The SNFG nomenclature has also been adopted as a standard by major databases and journals in the Biomedical Sciences. In 1978, ... Ensure uniform usage of the nomenclature in the literature, thus helping to ensure scientific accuracy in journal and online ... For long-term development of this symbol nomenclature and standardization of glycan representation in the Glycosciences, in ...
"Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in ... Also plays an important role in energy balance regulation by sustaining a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation in obesity, ... In addition, is also required for the induction of a subset of ISGs which displays antiviral activity, may be through the ... In order to establish such an antiviral state, IKBKE forms several different complexes whose composition depends on the type of ...
rVSV-ZEBOV is a live, attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the gene for the native envelope ... Newlink in turn licensed it to Merck in 2014. It was used in the DR Congo in a 2018 outbreak in Équateur province, and has ... Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus (rVSV-ZEBOV), also known as Ebola Zaire vaccine live and sold under ... November 2011). "Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Ebola Vaccines With Improved Cross-Protective Efficacy". Journal of ...
... can refer to: Vesicular stomatitis virus, a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae Vishista Seva Vibhushanaya, a military ...
"Membrane deformations induced by the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus in a minimal system". J Gen Virol. 86 (Pt 12 ... Kopecky SA, Lyles DS (May 2003). "The cell-rounding activity of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein is due to the ... The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known ... Gaudier, Martin; Gaudin, Yves; Knossow, Marcel (2002-06-17). "Crystal structure of vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein". ...
... the addition of self-inactivating plasmids and creating a more universal tropism by pseudotyping a vesicular stomatitis virus ... Many such viruses have been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy, but the lentivirus is unique in its ability to ... There are multiple steps involved in the infection and replication of a lentivirus in a host cell. In the first step the virus ... Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the ...
Huang also moved to MIT to continue her research on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). They became a couple, and married in ... 2 articles by Luke Frankiw published in 2019 and 2020). In an autobiographical piece published in Annual Review Immunology in ... The infectious clone, DNA encoding the genome of a virus, is a standard tool used today in virology. In 1982, with a charitable ... He also continued to pursue fundamental questions in RNA viruses and in 1981, Baltimore and Vincent Racaniello, a post-doctoral ...
An RNA polymerase in the virion." This paper went on to show that "the virions of vesicular stomatitis virus contain an enzyme ... "Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. An RNA Polymerase in the Virion*". Proceedings of the National ... Huang and Baltimore coauthored a paper with Martha Stampfer titled "Ribonucleic acid synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, ... They studied the inhibition of cellular RNA synthesis by nonreplicating vesicular stomatitis virus, known to infect horses, ...
In the context of viral infection vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) challenge of murine peritoneal macrophages was reported to ... In DNA viruses, miRNAs were experimentally verified, miRNAs in viruses are encoded by dsDNAs, examples of such viruses include ... These investigators found that forced expression of miR-155-5p in bone marrow cells resulted in a ~50% decrease in SPI1 (i.e. ... Viruses can exploit host miRNAs to the degree that they use host miRNAs to encode for viral clones for example: miR-K12-11 in ...
LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ... It was also reported that by association with lipoprotein in the blood, viruses such as hepatitis C virus, Flaviviridae viruses ... "LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus". Proceedings of the ... Synthesis of receptors in the cell is regulated by the level of free intracellular cholesterol; if it is in excess for the ...
"Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in ... A key interest in TBK1 is due to its role in innate immunity, especially in antiviral responses. TBK1 is redundant with IKK ϵ ... In contrast, binding to NAP1 and SINTBAD leads to localization in the cytoplasm and involvement in autophagy. Another adaptor ... TBK1 is involved in many signaling pathways and forms a node between them. For this reason, regulation of its involvement in ...
In collaboration with Alice S. Huang, Reiss's lab studied viral encephalitis, the pathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ( ... In addition to the department of biology, she has faculty appointments in neural science in NYU's Faculty of Arts and Science, ... in biology, 1972), Sarah Lawrence College (M.S. in human genetics, 1973). She earned a Ph.D. in microbiology from Mount Sinai ... Reiss was editor-in-chief of the journal Viral Immunology (2000-2006) and is currently editor-in-chief of the journal DNA and ...
... protects against viruses such as encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as well as the hepatitis B virus in ... The receptor is expressed largely in epithelial cells, specifically keratinocytes and melanocytes found in the epidermis. The ... In binding to the receptor, interferon lambdas inhibit cell growth and the cell begins to produce cellular receptors that can ... Cells such as those in the central nervous system, uterus, bone marrow, testis and skeletal muscle have low mRNA levels and do ...
... of a Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Utilizing hMPV Fusion Protein Expressed in Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ... "Rates of Hospitalizations for Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Influenza Virus in Older Adults". The ... The virus is distributed worldwide and, in temperate regions, has a seasonal distribution generally following that of RSV and ... It is the second most common cause after Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of lower respiratory infection in young children.[ ...
... particles of vesicular stomatitis virus in electron micrographs, and the DIP terminology was formalized in 1970 by Huang and ... Hackett AJ (September 1964). "A possible morphologic basis for the autointerference phenomenon in vesicular stomatitis virus". ... "Propagation of the PR8 strain of influenza A virus in chick embryos. III. Properties of the incomplete virus produced in serial ... In molecular genetics terms, the wild-type virus is said to provide complementation in trans. Interference via competitive ...
They have developed a replication-competent vaccine against Lassa virus based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors ... The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in Borno State, Nigeria. Lassa fever is relatively ... In cases in which death occurs, this typically occurs within 14 days of onset. About 1% of all Lassa virus infections result in ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture ...
Farmer also sought to prevent an outbreak of vesicular stomatitis virus in the state's horses and cattle by banning the import ... In the Wildcats' third game of the year - a win over Notre Dame in the Big Four Classic - Farmer led the team in scoring with ... In Clay County's next game in the Classic, Farmer broke the school's career scoring record, scoring his 2,193rd point in a 76- ... He scored 17 points in a 107-93 win. In the first of two matchups with Indiana's All-Star team, the Kentucky All-Stars lost 102 ...
"Heavy chain binding protein recognizes incompletely disulfide-bonded forms of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein". The ... Dengue virus induces PERK dependent ER stress as part of virus induced response in infected cells to favor replication. ... is a key transcription factor involved in mediating the UPR in a tissue-specific manner in skeletal muscles by coactivating ... Influenza virus requires endoplasmic reticulum protein 57-kD (ERp57) for replication and apoptosis induction in infected cells ...
In the late 1970s and early 1980s he identified genomic sequences for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV ... termini of RNA from vesicular stomatitis virus and its defective interfering particles". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... and for Ebola virus and Marburg virus from the broader group of negative-strand RNA viruses (NSRV). He identified the origins ... graduating in 1975 with a doctorate in microbiology and Immunology. He did postdoctoral work in molecular virology with Robert ...
In brief, these approaches typically take a different and well-characterized pathogen such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) ... In response to the virus production in the cell, the host cell can release a protein such as cytokine like interferon (IFN) ... However, as this virus spreads, it will be targeted to endothelial cells in lung but not in the brain, for instance. Depending ... Claire, Marisa; Adams, Ricky (2020-07-14). "Kikwit Ebola Virus Disease Progression in the Rhesus Monkey Animal Model". Viruses ...
... as mice studies have shown that starvation-induced autophagy was impaired in atg7-deficient mice. Vesicular stomatitis virus is ... In a 2012 study conducted by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, mutant mice (with a knock-in ... In higher eukaryotes, autophagy is induced in response to the nutrient depletion that occurs in animals at birth after severing ... and that at least 15 APG genes are involved in autophagy in yeast. A gene known as ATG7 has been implicated in nutrient- ...
... and has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis virus and Encephalomyocarditis virus, as well as ... "Human guanylate binding protein-1 is a secreted GTPase present in increased concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of ... In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. ... In humans, there are seven GBPs (hGBP1-7). Structurally, hGBP1 consists of two domains: a compact globular N-terminal domain ...
B virus infection Boston exanthem disease Bovine papular stomatitis Bowenoid papulosis Buffalopox Butcher's wart Chikungunya ... Wojas-Pelc A, Rajzer L, Jaworek A, Woźniak W (2006). "[The latest diagnostical methods and therapy in melanoma]". Prz. Lek. (in ... Congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of the hallux Congenital lip pit ( ... ISBN 978-0-89501-004-9. Tilles G, Wallach D (1989). "[The history of nosology in dermatology]". Ann Dermatol Venereol (in ...
He defined the biosynthesis and maturation of the vesicular stomatitis virus and other plasma membrane glycoproteins, ... TKT Aventis in 2000, Amgen vs. Roche in 2009, and Biogen vs. Merck - Serono in 2018; he was on the winning side in all. In 1963 ... from Kenyon College in 1962, and his Ph.D. degree in genetics with Dr. Norton Zinder from the Rockefeller University in 1966. ... In 2016 he received the American Society for Cell Biology Women In Cell Biology Sandra K. Masur Senior Leadership Award and was ...
"Systemic therapy of experimental breast cancer metastases by mutant vesicular stomatitis virus in immune-competent mice". ... In a wide range of in vivo cancer models, the HSV1716 virus has induced tumour regression and increased survival times. In 1996 ... an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus, became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a rhabdovirus, consisting of 5 genes encoded by a negative sense, single-stranded RNA ...
... protein p48 forms a complex with the SNARE regulator VAP-A and prevents cell surface expression of vesicular stomatitis virus G ... which is usually present in proteins of the t-SNARE superfamily and has been found in other proteins associated with vesicular ... in regulation of lipid transport and metabolism, and in the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The protein is divided in three ... It is however mainly located in the ER, Golgi apparatus and the Vesicular Tubular Compartment or ER-Golgi Intermediate ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype), Warrego virus (WARV), West Nile virus (WNV), Wesselsbron virus (WSLV), Yaounde ... Kunjin virus (KUNV), La Crosse virus (LACV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), Marburg virus (MBGV), Marco virus (MCOV), Melao virus (MELV) ... Nola virus (NOLV), Ntaya virus (NTAV), Oriboca virus (ORIV), Orungo virus (ORUV), Restan virus (RESV), Rift Valley fever virus ... Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV), Mucambo virus (MUCV), Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV), Navarro virus (NAVV), Nepuyo virus ...
Experiments using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the EKV-1 envelope glycoprotein indicate EKV-1 has very ... Bas-Congo virus (BASV) was discovered in 2009 in the Democratic Republic of Congo in a blood sample collected from a 32-year- ... Ekpoma virus 1 (EKV-1) was discovered in 2015 in a blood sample collected from a healthy, 45-year-old woman living in Ekpoma, ... Ekpoma virus 2 (EKV-2) was discovered in 2015 in a blood sample collected from a healthy, 19-year-old woman living in Ekpoma, ...
"Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Ebola Vaccines With Improved Cross-Protective Efficacy". The Oxford Press. Archived from the ... 2013 in Africa, 2014 in Africa, 2015 in Africa, 2016 in Africa, Disease outbreaks in Guinea, Disease outbreaks in Liberia, ... Ebola virus disease is caused by four of six viruses classified in the genus Ebolavirus. Of the four disease-causing viruses, ... In January 2015, the media stated researchers in Guinea had reported mutations in the virus samples that they were looking at. ...
The vaccine consists of live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) expressing ... An open phase I/II trial in healthy adults in Russia". Hum Vaccin Immunother. 13 (3): 613-620. doi:10.1080/21645515.2016. ... As of 2015[update] the vaccine has been licensed in Russia for emergency use, on the basis of Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical ... GamEvac-Combi was licensed by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation for emergency use in the territory of the ...
In HeLa cells SeV (in contrast to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) can counteract IFN-α pretreatment and keep a viral protein ... The virus was isolated in the city of Sendai in Japan in the early 1950s. Since then, it has been actively used in research as ... The virus can be detected in mouse colonies worldwide, generally in suckling to young adult mice. A study in France reported ... Sendai virus can establish persistent infection in its host cells. Multiple rounds of virus subculturing result in a creation ...
Marzi A, Ebihara H, Callison J, Groseth A, Williams KJ, Geisbert TW, Feldmann H (November 2011). "Vesicular stomatitis virus- ... and in the United States in December 2019. Zabdeno/Mvabea was approved for medical use in the European Union in July 2020. " ... January 2017). "A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine". The New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (4): 330-41. ... It is a recombinant, replication-competent vaccine consisting of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genetically engineered so ...
However, tropism of EKV-1 and EKV-2 has been studied using recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that express the EKV-1 ... Both viruses were discovered in 2015 in blood samples collected from two healthy women living in Ekpoma, Nigeria. EKV-2 appears ... Neither virus has been isolated, hindering research. EKV-1 and EKV-2 were discovered in plasma samples from a 45-year-old ... The steps in the replication lifecycle after particle entry have not be elucidated.[citation needed] "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b ...
The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ... The viruses in this family that are of veterinary importance include Japanese encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus ... West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, yellow fever virus and the ... They are classified as group II viruses in Baltimore classification of viruses. Parvoviruses are among the smallest viruses ( ...
In 2005, two reports have shown that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an arbovirus with a many invertebrate and vertebrate ... In 2011 the first naturally associated virus was isolated from C. elegans found outside of a laboratory. The Orsay virus is an ... The resulting change in milieu in the gut leads to germination of the spores, which subsequently proliferate in the worm body. ... In nature C. elegans harbours a diverse set of microbes. In contrast, C. elegans strains that are cultivated in laboratories ...
... mosquito salivary gland treatment on vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus replication and interferon alpha/beta expression in ... The virus was discovered in Uganda in 1937, and was first detected in North America in 1999. WNV has occurred in Europe, Africa ... The virus became recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis in elderly patients during an outbreak in Israel in ... They are now widespread in the United States, and in Florida they have been found in all 67 counties. In an at-risk area, ...
Vesicular Stomatitis. #section tr td {vertical-align:text-top;}. SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Vesicular Stomatitis, Indiana serotype Abbreviation: VSIV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 2 ...
Vector Competence of Select Black Fly Species for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (New Jersey Serotype) published on Jul 1997 by ... Vector Competence of Select Black Fly Species for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (New Jersey Serotype) ... bivittatum was probably not involved in virus dissemination during the 1982-1983 epizootic in the western United States. ... Thus, virus was not detected in the saliva of either black fly species with either VSV-NJ isolate, indicating the presence of a ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) : Transovarial transmission by phlebotomine sandflies. In: Science. 1972 ; Vol. ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype): Transovarial transmission by phlebotomine sandflies. Science. 1972 Jan 1;175( ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype): Transovarial transmission by phlebotomine sandflies. Robert B. Tesh, Byron N. ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) : Transovarial transmission by phlebotomine sandflies. / Tesh, Robert B.; ...
Inhibitor of vesicular stomatitis virus transcriptase in purified virions.. scientific article published in March 1974 ... Ribonucleic acid synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, II. An RNA polymerase in the virion ... Variability of vesicular stomatitis virus autointerference with different host cells and virus serotypes. ... Dissociation of vesicular stomatitis virus and relation of the virion proteins to the viral transcriptase ...
... we describe a novel viral infection analysis method using a live VSV-based Lassa virus (LASV) vaccine candidate. ... Examination of vesicular stomatitis virus-induced morphology changes in individual Vero cells by qMod microscopy. March 23, ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an enveloped virus carrying a negative-sense RNA genome, has proven to be an excellent ... In this report, we describe a novel viral infection analysis method using a live VSV-based Lassa virus (LASV) vaccine candidate ...
B04 - Viruses. Vesicular stomatitis-Indiana virus. Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. B05 - Fungi. Pneumocystis jiroveci. ...
Pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus infection in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) transmitted by black ... Peripheral leukocyte migration in ferrets in response to infection with seasonal influenza virusExternal. Music N, Reber AJ, ... The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.. Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff. ... Participant experiences and views of odor and PrePex device removal pain in a VMMC pilot study in BotswanaExternal. Musiige AM ...
The functional domains of the phosphoprotein (NS) of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype). Paul PR, Chattopadhyay D, ... Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species in Diarrheal Patients in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Rahman MA, ... Valproic acid-induced upregulation of multidrug efflux transporter ABCG2/BCRP via PPARα-dependent mechanism in human brain ... Analysis of the mouse Amy locus in recombinant inbred mouse strains. Paul PR, Elliott RW. Paul PR, et al. Biochem Genet. 1987 ...
Detection of vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana from insects collected during the 2020 outbreak in Kansas, USA - (Peer Reviewed ... Detection of vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana from insects collected during the 2020 outbreak in Kansas, USA. Pathogens. 10(9 ... A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. ...
"Punctuated equilibrium and positive Darwinian evolution in vesicular stomatitis virus." Arquivado 23 de febreiro de 2016 en ... "Speciation in the fossil record." In Erwin, D.H. & Anstey, R.L. (eds). New Approaches to Speciation in the Fossil Record. ... Gould, S. J. (1992) "Punctuated equilibrium in fact and theory." In Albert Somit and Steven Peterson The Dynamics of Evolution ... Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman Cooper. pp. 82-115. Reprinted in N. Eldredge Time frames. Princeton: Princeton ...
We are a not-for-profit publisher and we support and invest in the microbiology community, to the benefit of everyone. This ... The Morphology of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Indiana C) Derived from Chick Embryos or Cultures of BHK21/13 Cells C. J. Bradish ... SUMMARY: The virus of vesicular stomatitis is shown to exist as a system of several particle forms. Two major particles, the ... The Amino Acid Use in Cultures of Phase I Bordetella pertussis During Growth in Chemically Defined Media Ann H. Vajdic, M. ...
... was used to construct chimeric cDNAs that encode the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the vesicular stomatitis vi ... and viral integral membrane proteins substitute for the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein in ... Effects of mutations in three domains of the vesicular stomatitis viral glycoprotein on its lateral diffusion in the plasma ... and viral integral membrane proteins substitute for the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein in ...
... minimal conserved transcription stop-start signal promotes stable expression of a foreign gene in vesicular stomatitis virus. J ... Cytogenetic instability has been reported in the literature for some cell lines. Virus susceptibility. Human adenovirus 25 ... Incubate the culture at 37°C in a suitable incubator. A 5% CO2 in air atmosphere is recommended if using the medium described ... For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid protein production in cells treated with selected fast protein liquid chromatography ... Phosphorylated BRCA1 is predominantly located in the nucleus and mitochondria. *Coene, E, Hollinshead, MS, Waeytens, A, et al. ... Their use in investigating some properties of D-glucose and choline transport systems. ... LDL particle size distribution is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in healthy 50-year-old men. ...
... to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA pathway for the control of virus infection in ... Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. Finally, ... Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly ... We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. Our work describes for the first ...
Russell is credited with orchestrating the first-in-human testing of oncolytic measles and vesicular stomatitis viruses. ... Validated, industry-leading oncolytic virotherapy platforms: Vyriad unites vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and measles virus ... A robust pipeline encompassing eight oncolytic virotherapies in clinical development and seven in late-stage preclinical ... In 2014, Vyriads Oncolytic Measles virus demonstrated successful treatment of a patient with multiple myeloma who had ...
Phosphorylation of vesicular stomatitis virus proteins as a possible contributing factor in virion uncoating. Witt, D.J., Naeve ... Following the in vitro phosphorylation of VSV proteins in the presence of melittin and deoxyadenosine triphosphate, the virion ... Antibody responses to bee melittin (Api m 4) and hornet antigen 5 (Dol m 5) in mice treated with the dominant T-cell epitope ... Cell damage by viruses, toxins and complement: common features of pore-formation and its inhibition by Ca2+. Pasternak, C.A., ...
... into the world of the cell and is one of the biologists favorite tools for the examination of both living and fixed cells in ... MDOK cells are known to be susceptible to a variety of viruses, including sheep bluetongue virus, vesicular stomatitis (Indiana ... the CHO-K1 line is susceptible to a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain) and the Getah virus. CHO- ... Indian Muntjac cells are known to be susceptible to a variety of viruses, including vesicular stomatitis, (Indiana strain), ...
Yeast populations lose mutational robustness during evolution in one environment but not in another due to the collective ... 2013) Congruent evolution of fitness and genetic robustness in vesicular stomatitis virus Journal of Virology 87:4923-4928. ... For example, Novella et al., 2013 found that vesicular stomatitis virus strains evolved in the lab gained robustness, measured ... In clones isolated from evolution in YPD 30°C and assayed in SC 37°C, we found 241, 60, and 60 IM coefficients in our empirical ...
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe zoonotic diseases caused by RNA-viruses classified into 4 families: Arenaviridae, ... Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human ... Deng H, Luo F, Zhong Q, Liu Y, Yang Z. Efficacy of arbidol on lethal hantaan virus infections in suckling mice and in vitro. ... In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 ...
The earliest events in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of the murine olfactory neuroepithelium and entry of the central ... After intranasal instillation of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), olfactory receptor neurons are infected. By 12 to ... Privacy Policy (opens in a new tab), Terms of Service (opens in a new tab), and Dataset License (opens in a new tab) ... Proudly built by AI2 (opens in a new tab). Collaborators & Attributions •Terms of Service (opens in a new tab)•Privacy Policy ( ...
However, hMPV is most closely genetically related to avian metapneumovirus (formerly called turkey rhinotracheitis virus). ... is classified in the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae family. ... of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing hMPV fusion protein expressed in recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ... Rates of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and influenza virus in older adults. J Infect ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus infection and neuropathogenesis in the murine model are associated with apoptosis. Sur, J. H., ... Visualization of intracellular transport of vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsids in living cells. Das, S. C., Nayak, D., ... Role of the hypervariable hinge region of phosphoprotein P of vesicular stomatitis virus in viral RNA synthesis and assembly of ... Phosphorylation of vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein P is indispensable for virus growth. Das, S. C. & Pattnaik, A. K. ...
Stacy Erholtzs multiple myeloma went into remission after she participated in a clinical trial at Mayo Clinic using the ... Researchers found vesicular stomatitis virus destroys cancer in the lab and is even more potent than the measles virus. ... They are testing a replacement virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, which most people havent been exposed to and dont have ... Stacys treatment in a clinical trial using the measles virus against multiple myeloma was a transformational event in cancer ...
... one being a replicase and the other being a transcriptase in the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV). It was a landmark discovery ... Two RNA polymerase complexes from vesicular stomatitis virus that carry out transcription and replication of genome RNA. ... the deadliest virus group known. The discovery was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA.. In ... Kaustubha "Kos" Qanungo obtained his Ph.D. in Biotechnology from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, in 2003 ...
Host Cell Functions In Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication, Phat X. Dinh, Anshuman Das, Asit K. Pattnaik. Papers in ... Host Cell Functions In Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication, Phat X. Dinh, Anshuman Das, Asit K. Pattnaik University of ... The reservoir for zoonotic onyong-nyong virus (ONNV) has remained unknown since this virus was first recognized in Uganda in ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), the prototypic rhabdovirus, has been used as an excellent paradigm for understanding the ...
Antiviral activity of doxycycline against vesicular stomatitis virus in vitro. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2015 Nov;362(22):fnv195. ... The patients were recruited in Alkarkh and Alforat hospitals in Baghdad city in the duration from July 1st to September 30th. ... Xu TL, Han Y, Liu W, et al. Antivirus effectiveness of ivermectin on dengue virus type 2 in Aedes albopictus. PLoS Negl Trop ... In both groups, the median post-infection day for starting therapy was 3 days in mild-moderate, 7 days in severe, and 8.5 days ...
These lentiviral vectors are pseudotyped with the Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) or with the pike ... which is active in its native trimeric form, that is stabilized in... ... SARS-CoV-2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and a... ...
  • Immunovirotherapy Based on Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Where Are We? (
  • In this study, we generated three attenuated replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidates against both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses. (
  • In this study, we generated the attenuated replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidates that target both spike protein of SARS-Cov-2 Delta variant and the conserved influenza M2 domain. (
  • Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) expressing foreign glycoproteins have shown promise as both experimental vaccines and as a surrogate model at a lower biosafety level (BSL-2), called pseudotypes, for several viral pathogens. (
  • Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) in which the gene encoding for the VSV glycoprotein G has been deleted and replaced with the gene encoding the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein (GP). (
  • Effects of intravenously administered recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV(deltaM51)) on multifocal and invasive gliomas. (
  • Monitoring Viral Entry in Real-Time Using a Luciferase Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Producing SARS-CoV-2, EBOV, LASV, CHIKV, and VSV Glycoproteins. (
  • Using neutralization assays with authentic SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus carrying SARS-CoV-2 S protein (rVSV-SARS2), we defined a panel of potent RBD and NTD nAbs. (
  • Previous experiments have shown that colonized Simulium vittatum females are competent laboratory vectors of both virus isolates. (
  • However, under controlled laboratory conditions, Simulium bivittatum and S. longithallum were found to be incompetent vectors of both virus isolates. (
  • Viral vectors are increasingly gaining importance in vaccine development, gene therapy and as oncolytic vectors. (
  • Sandflies are well known vectors for Leishmania but also transmit a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (
  • Sandflies are important insect vectors that transmit many species of Leishmania , bacteria and viruses. (
  • The cells are also often employed in transfection experiments with simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) and recombinant plasmid vectors. (
  • These lentiviral vectors are pseudotyped with the Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) or with the pike protein (S protein) from SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Vectors based on the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) offer several advantages. (
  • A current trend in vaccine development is to use harmless viruses as "vectors" that can carry a specific vaccine to human cells. (
  • Modified versions of the viruses that cause the common cold and small pox are being studied in addition to VSV for use as vaccine vectors. (
  • The recombinant VSV has been genetically altered to express the LASV Josiah glycoprotein (VSVΔG/LASVGP), and infection in Vero cells was examined by microscopy using the Ovizio qMod camera and OsOne software. (
  • Cytoplasmic domains of cellular and viral integral membrane proteins substitute for the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein in transport to the plasma membrane. (
  • Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to construct chimeric cDNAs that encode the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G) linked to the cytoplasmic domain of either the immunoglobulin mu membrane heavy chain, the hemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza virus, or the small glycoprotein (p23) of infectious bronchitis virus. (
  • This means the virus is protected by a glycoprotein shell. (
  • KZ52 is directed towards the Ebola Zaire virus glycoprotein. (
  • 1 While incubation of lentivirus pseudotyped with G glycoprotein from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) and cells in the presence of polybrene can efficiently serve as the method of transduction for many cell types, some cells are more difficult to transduce. (
  • The SSP is required for efficient glycoprotein expression, post-translational maturation cleavage of GP1 and GP2, glycoprotein transport to the cell surface plasma membrane, formation of infectious virus particles, and acid pH-dependent glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. (
  • As of December 2020, there were no less than 233 vaccine candidates in active development in North America, Europe, and Asia, with the aim of bringing at least one fully to market by 2021. (
  • METHODS: A total of 102 patients undergoing TAVR in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from June 2021 to March 2022 were enrolled in our study. (
  • 2021. Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks . (
  • Frontiers in medicine 2021 0 0. (
  • Frontiers in public health 2021 0 0. (
  • Importantly, immunization of the rVSV bivalent vaccines effectively protected hamsters or mice against the challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and lethal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses and significantly reduced respiratory viral loads. (
  • Both constructs drive strong expression of CCHFV-GP in tissue cultures, with the replication competent vector possessing CCHFV-GP on the virion surface of rVSV. (
  • Black flies collected from southern Arizona were evaluated for their vector competence to the Oaxaca and Camp Verde isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) (VSV-NJ). (
  • Transovarial transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) by experimentally infected Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lutzomyia ylephiletrix to their progeny was demonstrated. (
  • The antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides against dengue virus is dependent on virus serotype and host cell. (
  • Postexposure protection of non-human primates against a lethal Ebola virus challenge with RNA interference: a proof-of-concept study. (
  • A novel l-ficoli/mannose-binding lecithin chimeric molecule with anhanced activity against Ebola virus. (
  • 1. Is there a vaccine for the Ebola virus disease? (
  • SAGE)1 for use in Ebola outbreaks caused by the Zaire strain of the virus, in the event where there is no licensed vaccine. (
  • The VSV has been genetically engineered to contain a protein from the Zaire Ebola virus so that it can provoke immune response to the Ebola virus. (
  • This vaccine, although not commercially licensed, is being used under "expanded access" or what is also known as "compassionate use" in the ongoing Ebola outbreak in North Kivu. (
  • This vaccine was also used in the Ebola outbreak in Equateur in May-July 2018. (
  • In 2015, the vaccine was given to more than 16,000 volunteers involved in several studies in Africa, Europe and the United States where it was found to be safe and protective against the Ebola virus. (
  • 3. Why is the vaccine not given to everyone in the Ebola outbreak area? (
  • Although several studies have shown that the vaccine is safe and protective against the Ebola virus, more scientific research is needed before the vaccine can be licensed. (
  • SAGE recommends vaccination of health care workers and frontline workers who may be in contact with Ebola patients. (
  • Participation in this "expanded access" or "compassionate use" of the Ebola vaccine is entirely free and voluntary. (
  • Contacts, and contacts of contacts of confirmed Ebola virus disease patients (dead or alive), ii. (
  • Red algae Griffithsin has also proven to be antiviral against HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus), HSV-2 (Herpes simplex virus), HCV (Hepatitis C) and the Ebola virus. (
  • March 2014-present- Ebola in West Africa (in humans). (
  • To read more about the Ebola virus, click here . (
  • The human antibody KZ52 was derived from a human convalescent patient who survived an Ebola Zaire virus infection. (
  • No cross-reactivity was observed to Bundibugyo Ebola Virus (BDBV) GP, Reston Ebola Virus (RESTV) GP, Sudan Ebola Virus (SUDV) GP or Marburg Virus (MARV) GP. (
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists report that a single dose of an experimental Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine completely protects cynomolgus macaques against the current EBOV outbreak strain, EBOV-Makona, when given at least seven days before exposure, and partially protects them if given three days prior. (
  • We conducted a serologic survey of 2,430 serum samples collected during 1997-2012 for various studies to determine the prevalence of the hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus (EBOV) in equatorial Africa. (
  • The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has changed our understanding of viral hemorrhagic fever epidemiology. (
  • Ebola viruses (EBOVs) have been found to asymptomatically infect different bat species and are known to cause fatal infections in great apes and other wildlife in the Congo Basin ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • We'll be discussing the effect on pregnancy outcomes for women receiving an Ebola vaccine in Sierra Leone. (
  • Jennifer Legardy-Williams] Oh, so the West African Ebola outbreak was unprecedented in magnitude and complexity. (
  • And from that meeting, one recommendation was they wanted to accelerate the development of vaccine and safe use as rapidly as possible in Ebola-affected countries. (
  • And so, with that, CDC staff traveled to Sierra Leone in October 2014 to meet with people within the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone, the College of Medicine and Health and Allied Sciences, as well as the University of Sierra Leone, to see if we could implement a trial during an Ebola outbreak in an effective, efficient way, without disturbing the public health response. (
  • An experimental Ebola vaccine being tested in the West African nation of Guinea during the continuing outbreak of the viral disease has shown promising initial results, according to a report on the clinical trial that was published Friday. (
  • The report, in the British medical journal The Lancet, which analyzed 7,651 individuals, more than 3,500 of whom were vaccinated, indicated that the vaccine "might be highly efficacious and safe in preventing Ebola virus disease. (
  • Dr. Sakoba Keita, Guinea's Ebola response coordinator and one of the study's authors, said in an email that Guineans hoped the results would "contribute to the rapid control of the next epidemics caused by this disease. (
  • In fact, the researchers observed that there were no Ebola cases in any vaccinated patients after the first six days. (
  • Other studies in Liberia and Sierra Leone, where the virus also raged, are continuing and are likely to produce results on safety and immune response but not on the effectiveness of the vaccine given the low numbers of patients in recent weeks, and the design, which did not target contacts of Ebola patients. (
  • Using spatial and population mobility models to inform outbreak response approaches in the Ebola affected area, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2018-2020. (
  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC) 10th known Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak occurred between August 1, 2018 and June 25, 2020, and was the largest EVD outbreak in the country's history. (
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM1, 2 and 3) are important antiviral proteins that are active against many viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), dengue virus (DENV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). (
  • In this report, we describe a novel viral infection analysis method using a live VSV-based Lassa virus (LASV) vaccine candidate. (
  • In addition, at least in mosquitoes, another RNAi mechanism mediated by PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs) is activated by viral infection. (
  • Here, we analyzed the small non-coding RNA response to Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in the sandfly Lutzoymia longipalpis . (
  • We detected abundant production of virus-derived siRNAs after VSV infection in adult sandflies. (
  • However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. (
  • Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. (
  • Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis . (
  • We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. (
  • Our work describes for the first time a model to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA pathway for the control of virus infection in L . longipalpis . (
  • Effect of Hippophae rhamnoides leaf extract against Dengue virus infection in human blood-derived macrophages. (
  • The earliest events in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of the murine olfactory neuroepithelium and entry of the central nervous system. (
  • Because hMPV transmission is likely to occur by contact with respiratory secretions, adherence to strict infection control methods is recommended in clinic and hospital settings. (
  • Respiratory viral infection in exacerbations of COPD. (
  • Differential production of inflammatory cytokines in primary infection with human metapneumovirus and with other common respiratory viruses of infancy. (
  • Cytokine profiles in the respiratory tract during primary infection with human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, or influenza virus in infants. (
  • A ring vaccination tracks the epidemic, recruiting individuals at raised risk of infection due to their connection to a patient confirmed with the virus. (
  • Distribution and Incidence of Blood-Borne Infection among Blood Donors from Regional Transfusion Centers in Burkina Faso: A Comprehensive Study. (
  • In theory, the screening process would help the researchers select which single-domain antibody fragments developed the ability to protect the cells from either viral infection. (
  • And they did see success: 260 host cells out of millions inserted with VHH-expressing lentiviruses contained nanobodies that protected the cells against one of the viruses and reduced viral infection by more than 80 percent. (
  • Production of hepatitis C virus lacking the envelope-encoding genes for single-cycle infection by providing homologous envelope proteins or vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins in trans. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide health problem. (
  • Moreover, HCVΔE could be propagated and passaged in packaging cells stably expressing HCV envelope proteins, resulting in only single-round infection in wild-type cells. (
  • Hosseini S, Wilk E, Michaelsen-Preusse K, Gerhauser I, Baumgartner W, Geffers R, Schughart K, Korte M (2018) Long-Term Neuroinflammation Induced by Influenza A Virus Infection and the Impact on Hippocampal Neuron Morphology and Function. (
  • These actions mirror an infection by the pathogen itself, although the virus vector does not actually cause an infection, and stimulates an immune response. (
  • Currently the inactivated influenza viruses are the major sources for immunization of general population against influenza virus infection in the U.S. Each year manufacturers and federal agencies struggle to identify influenza viruses to be used as vaccine strains, i.e ., circulating viruses with appropriate antigenic characteristics and growth properties sufficient to support production of over 150 million inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine doses. (
  • The diversity of these viruses and their high infection rates in bats may be attributed to multiple factors might that facilitate virus transmission and maintenance, including bats' large social group size, high species diversity, long life, long-distance migration, roost sharing by multiple species, and social habits such as mutual grooming and biting ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Our results suggest a serologic prevalence of 2%-3.5% in the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which have reported outbreaks of infection with EBOV. (
  • They characterize the functions of the host hijacked by the virus, viral remodeling of the cellular organization and the cellular response to infection, including anti-viral immunity. (
  • For example, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) commonly infects and causes lymphosarcoma in cattle and sheep, and the prevalence of infection in herds can be as high as over 40% (Burny and Mammerickx, 1987). (
  • There is historical and current evidence that some of these agents are transmissible to workers and subjects in the general population, and cause zoonotic acute infection and disease in them such as leptospirosis, Q-fever, brucellosis, vesicular stomatitis, etc., as reviewed in Johnson (1984). (
  • Although HIV infection causes profound anergy to other immune stimuli, the frequency of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including severe reactions (eg, TEN), is markedly increased in HIV-positive individuals. (
  • In addition, pandemic influenza (worldwide outbreaks) pose a global threat to public health. (
  • It is known to be an endemic disease in the warmer regions of North, Central, and South America, and outbreaks of the disease in other temperate geographic parts of the hemisphere occur sporadically. (
  • The Southwestern and Western United States have experienced a number of vesicular stomatitis outbreaks … Outbreaks usually occur during the warmer months, often along waterways. (
  • Three species in the genus Ebolavirus and 1 species in the genus Marburgvirus within the family Filoviridae cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and have triggered several outbreaks with high case-fatality rates ( 1 ). (
  • This is good news," Dr. Margaret Chan, director general of the World Health Organization, said in an interview, while noting that the vaccine was not "a silver bullet" to head off future outbreaks. (
  • He and other experts said better and faster approaches to conducting research in outbreaks were needed. (
  • We sought to develop a model-based approach that could be applied in future outbreaks to inform decisions for optimizing POC and POE placement, and allocation of resources more broadly, to mitigate the risk of disease translocation associated with ground-level population mobility. (
  • Increased ILI and/or institutional outbreaks (ILI or lab confirmed) in at least half of the regions AND recent (within the past 3 weeks) lab confirmed influenza in the state. (
  • The proteins of biologically active sub-units of vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Biochemical analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that these hybrid genes were correctly expressed in eukaryotic cells and that the hybrid proteins were transported to the plasma membrane. (
  • The method of constructing precise hybrid proteins described here will be useful in defining functions of specific domains of viral and cellular integral membrane proteins. (
  • Here we developed a trans-complementation system that allows the production of infectious HCV particles in whose genome the regions encoding envelope proteins are deleted (HCVΔE). (
  • The lack of envelope proteins could be efficiently complemented by the expression of homologous envelope proteins in trans. (
  • Interestingly, we found that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoproteins could efficiently rescue the production of HCV lacking endogenous envelope proteins, which no longer required apolipoprotein E for virus production. (
  • CUSABIO has been specialized in developing & producing recombinant proteins for more than 11 years, now CUSABIO has five expression systems of E. Coli, Yeast, Bacoluvirus, Mammalian Cell and In Vitro E. Coli to prepare different kinds of immunogens, so CUSABIO can be able to prepare the right immunogens to generate successful antibodies very well. (
  • Most wild-type viruses ( i.e ., the form that appears in nature) that carry the right HA and NA proteins to make vaccines do not grow in large enough quantities in eggs to support vaccine production. (
  • To solve these problems, we modify influenza virus genes in order to produce viruses that grow in large enough quantities to make vaccines and to carry the exact version of HA and NA proteins of that season's influenza virus. (
  • and 2) facilitate development of new vaccines for both seasonal and pandemic influenza virus by optimizing the production of vaccine proteins by viral genes. (
  • We tested 2,430 serum samples for specific antibodies to EBOV proteins to determine the seroprevalence of this virus in the respective populations. (
  • Teams working on host-virus interactions aim to dissect the cellular factors targeted by viral proteins and to study their interactions. (
  • The results from our study suggest that there are relatively understudied mutations in the spike protein (H655Y, T95I) and understudied mutations occurring in non-spike proteins (N, ORF1b, ORF9b and ORF9c), that are enhancing transmissibility and infectivity among human populations, warranting further investigation. (
  • Infectious virions were detected in the saliva of 23% and 26% of S. notatum infected orally with the Oaxaca and Camp Verde VSV-NJ isolates, respectively. (
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an enveloped virus carrying a negative-sense RNA genome, has proven to be an excellent vaccine vector candidate against infectious diseases and specific cancers. (
  • The purpose of this review is to share the excitement of new developments in the field of vaccine vector modalities against infectious diseases. (
  • I. European patent No. 0 702 085 with the title 'Recombinant infectious non-segmented negative strand RNA virus' and claiming priority from the European patent application 94202089 of 18 July 1994 was granted with 18 claims on the basis of the European patent application No. 95201936.2 filed on 14 July 1995. (
  • 1. A genetically manipulated infectious replicating non-segmented negative-stranded RNA virus mutant comprising an insertion and/or deletion in an open reading frame, a pseudogene region or an intergenic region of the virus genome. (
  • 7. A genetically manipulated infectious replicating rabies virus mutant comprising an insertion and/or deletion in an open reading frame, a pseudogene region or an intergenic region of the virus genome, characterized in that the virus mutant carries a heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding an epitope or polypeptide of a pathogenic virus or microorganism. (
  • Claim 15 related to a process for the preparation of a genetically manipulated infectious replicating rabies virus and claims 16 and 17 related to further features of the process of claim 15. (
  • Two distinct recombinant viruses were generated: one infectious but replication deficient, and the other replication competent. (
  • By construction of reverse genetics, we found that Yokose virus (YOKV), an NKV, could enter and replicate in mosquito cells but failed to produce infectious particles. (
  • Facilitating Understanding, Modeling and Simulation of Infectious Disease Epidemics in the Age of COVID-19. (
  • Research in structural virology aims to provide a molecular description of the dynamics of viral structures at various essential stages of the infectious cycle: assembly of the viral particle, fusion of viral and cell membranes, packaging and ejection of the viral genome. (
  • Members of the Department are very actively involved in teaching virology, cell biology, molecular biology, anti-viral immunity, infectious diseases, vaccination and computer certification (PIX). (
  • The results are "very encouraging," said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, who was not involved in the trial, which he called a "very difficult study under very difficult circumstances. (
  • This was the first time in memory that a vaccine's effectiveness had been studied with a so-called ring vaccination approach, inoculating all of those around the occurrence of an infectious disease, according to one of the study's senior authors, Dr. John-Arne Rottingen of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. (
  • However, although a large number of these studies have been conducted in various occupational and industrial groups, much attention has not been paid in the United States to workers in the meat industry who are highly exposed to transmissible agents known to be potent causes of cancer, neurologic diseases such as 'mad cow' disease, and other severe infectious diseases in the animals they handle at work. (
  • At 50 µg/mL, KZ52 effectively neutralizes EBOV GP-bearing vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV). (
  • Kinetics of RNA synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus particles. (
  • Absence of transcriptase activity or transcription-inhibiting ability in defective interfering particles of vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Two major particles, the 'bullet' and 'cap', appear in electron micrographs in various states as outer structural layers are absent or lost. (
  • Particles are provided in cell culture media. (
  • Intranasal delivery of nanoliposomes in mice delivers the particles to resident immune cells in the respiratory tract, inducing a mucosal response in the respiratory system as evidenced by nasal and lung localized IgA antibody production, while also producing systemic IgG antibodies. (
  • Intranasal vaccination with nanoliposome particles decorated with nanogram doses of hemagglutinin protected mice from homologous and heterologous H3N2 and H1N1 influenza virus challenge. (
  • Cells and viral particles were then plated in 6 well plates and incubated in a 37 ºC, 5% CO 2 incubator overnight. (
  • Transductions conducted by the incubation of cells and virus were carried out by adding viral particles to complete medium containing 8 μg/mL polybrene and cells. (
  • These infected female sandflies transmitted vesicular stomatitus virus Indiana by bite to susceptible animals and transmitted the virus transovarially to their offspring (second generation). (
  • Vyriad's oncolytic immunovirotherapy products are based on the company's engineered Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitus Virus (VSV) and Oncolytic Measles Virus platforms that enable selective destruction of cancer cells without harming normal tissues. (
  • Vyriad unites vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and measles virus platforms licensed from Mayo Clinic, the University of Miami , and Yale University School of Medicine following more than 15 years of intensive research to identify the most promising oncolytic viruses based on selectivity, mechanism of action, and potency. (
  • In 2014, Vyriad's Oncolytic Measles virus demonstrated successful treatment of a patient with multiple myeloma who had previously undergone 10 years of unsuccessful treatment and exhausted all traditional treatment options, and who remains disease-free two years following treatment. (
  • Dr. Russell is credited with orchestrating the first-in-human testing of oncolytic measles and vesicular stomatitis viruses. (
  • Her nickname in support groups is 'The Measles Lady. (
  • Over four years ago, Stacy's treatment in a clinical trial using the measles virus against multiple myeloma was a transformational event in cancer research. (
  • The measles virus destroyed her cancer, without affecting the healthy cells of the body, within seven weeks. (
  • While touring the laboratory of her physician, Stephen J. Russell, M.D., Ph.D. , a couple of months after the measles virus treatment, she saw a plaque honoring Al and Mary Agnes McQuinn. (
  • The McQuinns made Dr. Russell's research with the measles virus possible through financial support and are recognized by Mayo Clinic as Philanthropic Partners. (
  • An open-label, phase I, dose-escalation and safety study of two intramuscular injections at dose of 2.9 log or 4 log CCID50 of the recombinant HIV I clade B measles vaccine vector in healthy adults. (
  • VSV is a model virus that scientists use in the laboratory to study dangerous viruses that cause illnesses such as the flu, measles, and rabies. (
  • Detection of vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana from insects collected during the 2020 outbreak in Kansas, USA. (
  • Coloradoans became the latest state to take interest in bolstering wolf populations, as residents passed a ballot initiative in November 2020 to reintroduce a self-sustaining population of gray wolves by the end of 2023. (
  • 2020. Management strategies for reducing the risk of equines contracting Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) in the Western United States . (
  • Viruses 2020 0 0. (
  • Often utilized as a transfection host, the CHO-K1 line is susceptible to a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain) and the Getah virus. (
  • Ono L, Wollinger W, Rocco IM, Combra TLM, Gorin PAJ, Sierakowski MR. In vitro and in vivo antiviral properties of sulfated galactomannans against yellow fever virus (BeH111 strain) and dengue 1 virus (Hawaii strain). (
  • Nucleotide sequence of the S RNA of Lassa virus (Nigerian strain) and comparative analysis of arenavirus gene products. (
  • Health care and frontline workers in areas at risk of spread of the outbreak. (
  • SARS is another outbreak that began in China in 2002, infecting people through 2004. (
  • Since existing influenza vaccines would not be able to trigger effective immune responses to these new variants, modified vaccines must be made to protect against an influenza outbreak caused by new variant viruses. (
  • September 2015- Salmonella Outbreak in Minnesota, USA Chipotle restaurants (In humans). (
  • September 2015- Listeriosis outbreak across multiple states linked to Soft Cheeses that are distributed by Karoun Dairies inc (In humans). (
  • September 2015- Cucumbers linked to Salmonella outbreak across the United States (In humans). (
  • Since Oklahoma's outbreak began on July 7 in Washington County, nine counties have been affected with VSV. (
  • According to Angela Pelzel McCluskey, DVM, APHIS' equine epidemiologist, the largest VS outbreak in more than 40 years of recorded history occurred in 2019. (
  • At the end the end of this outbreak, there were approximately 29,000 cases, 11 deaths that were reported in all three of these communities. (
  • Some outbreak responders initially opposed the idea of carrying out research in the midst of a dire emergency, but Dr. Farrar said this was imperative. (
  • This is critical information in outbreak situations when timely decisions must be made to implement public health interventions that reach the most individuals across a network. (
  • Most of the monkeypox infections that occurred during the US outbreak in 2003 were characterized by localized lesions ( Marshfield Clinic Monkeypox Virus Information ). (
  • CV-1 cells demonstrate susceptibility to a variety of viruses, including herpes simplex, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, poliovirus 1, California encephalitis, and simian virus 40. (
  • Our studies suggest that modulation of IFITM S -palmitoylation levels and cholesterol interaction may influence host susceptibility to different viruses. (
  • After his Ph.D., he joined the Lerner Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation as a postdoctoral fellow in the Molecular Biology Dept. He discovered two entities of an RNA polymerase, one being a replicase and the other being a transcriptase in the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV). (
  • Two RNA polymerase complexes from vesicular stomatitis virus that carry out transcription and replication of genome RNA. (
  • The nOPV2 candidate strains include different combinations of 5 distinct modified regions of the Sabin-2 genome, including changes to the RNA sequence in the 5' untranslated region of polio genome (5' UTR), the capsid protein coding region (P1), the non-structural protein 2C, and the polymerase 3D. (
  • Of these modifications, only the changes to polymerase 3D result in a change in the amino acid sequence. (
  • After oral infections, the Oaxaca isolate replicated in 35% and 38% of S. bivittatum and S. longithallum , respectively, but did not disseminate to the salivary glands. (
  • Droplet isolation is often put in place once testing is ordered for the workup of respiratory infections to prevent further transmission during the initial part of a patient's inpatient stay. (
  • Human metapneumovirus infections in young and elderly adults. (
  • Virological features and clinical manifestations associated with human metapneumovirus: a new paramyxovirus responsible for acute respiratory-tract infections in all age groups. (
  • Human metapneumovirus infections cause similar symptoms and clinical severity as respiratory syncytial virus infections. (
  • Bunyaviridae Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bunyaviridae Infections" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bunyaviridae Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bunyaviridae Infections" by people in Profiles. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control said they are monitoring 73 possible infections in 26 states in the United States as of the 28th of January. (
  • Overall, this study provides convincing evidence for the high efficacy of this bivalent vaccine platform to be used and/or easily adapted to produce new vaccines against new or reemerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and influenza A virus infections. (
  • Existing as either VHH fragments or nanobodies, single-domain antibody fragments were chosen for the ability to disrupt cellular process during viral infections in human hosts. (
  • Given the potential that this type of vaccination has to prevent deadly infections from viruses and bacteria, this is an area of research one should surely keep an eye on. (
  • Each year, about 38,000 people in the United States die from influenza infections. (
  • Imported Infections in Rural Mid-West United States - A Report from a Tertiary Care Center. (
  • We conducted a widespread serologic survey for EBOV-specific antibodies in 5 countries in central Africa, including known filovirus-endemic regions (the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC], the Republic of the Congo, and Uganda), as well as areas without previously reported filovirus infections (Ghana and Cameroon). (
  • We characterize variant diversity, amino acid mutation frequency, functionality and associations with COVID-19 infections in one of the largest datasets of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences collected from wastewater in the New York metropolitan area. (
  • Since S -palmitoylation and cholesterol homeostasis are crucial for viral infections, we investigated IFITM interactions with cholesterol by molecular dynamic stimulations, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis in vitro and photoaffinity crosslinking in mammalian cells. (
  • Vaccinia infections result from iatrogenic or accidental inoculation of the virus. (
  • Monkeypox infections generally occur in villages in tropical regions of western and central Africa. (
  • Poxvirus infections cause either a localized or a generalized vesicular exanthem. (
  • The live-attenuated vaccine, VSV-EBOV, uses genetically engineered vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to carry an EBOV gene that has safely induced protective immunity in macaques. (
  • Also, normal cytoplasmic domains from other transmembrane glycoproteins can substitute for the G protein cytoplasmic domain in transport of G protein to the plasma membrane. (
  • Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Chimeras Expressing the Oropouche Virus Glycoproteins Elicit Protective Immune Responses in Mice. (
  • Zagrebelsky M, Gödecke N, Remus A, Korte M (2018) Cell type-specific effects of BDNF in modulating dendritic architecture of hippocampal neurons. (
  • Scharkowski F, Frotscher M, Lutz D, Korte M, Michaelsen-Preusse K (2018) Altered Connectivity and Synapse Maturation of the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Pathway in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Syndrome. (
  • 2018. Relationships among snow depth, snow water equivalent, streamflow and virus activity in two Colorado watersheds (2004 to 2016) . (
  • 2018. Contributions of hydrology to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus emergence in the Western USA . (
  • The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a broad antiviral mechanism in insects. (
  • Together, our results suggest that the siRNA but not the piRNA pathway mediates an antiviral response in sandflies. (
  • Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate a major antiviral response in insects. (
  • Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncariatomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2. (
  • Development of prophylactic antiviral preparations is also underway, with hMPV effectively inhibited in vivo using specific viral fusion inhibitors. (
  • Another mannose-binding lectin found to be antiviral against these viruses is the Scytonema varium red algae, also called Scytovirin. (
  • The replication-competent pseudotype also demonstrated its use in a screening of antiviral compounds targeting the GPC. (
  • Carrier cell-based delivery of an oncolytic virus circumvents antiviral immunity. (
  • Mathematical modeling of plus-strand RNA virus replication to identify broad-spectrum antiviral treatment strategies. (
  • Notably, we discovered that the S -palmitoylation levels regulate differential IFITM isoform interactions with cholesterol in mammalian cells and specificity of antiviral activity towards IAV, SARS-CoV-2 and EBOV. (
  • He joined Clemson University in 2019 and taught several senior and graduate-level courses. (
  • The race to find a safe and effective vaccine for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is without precedent in modern medical history. (
  • The virus has been officially named nCoV-2019 (or 2019-nCoV) coronavirus as of now. (
  • A study published on January 24 from University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital in Shenzhen studied six patients of nCoV-2019. (
  • The nCoV-2019 virus, just as was SARS and MERS, is an enveloped virus. (
  • Mannose-binding lectins have been shown to penetrate and break down the shells that surround this class of viruses - which includes nCoV-2019 virus. (
  • A 2019 study from France's Institute of Research Development tested a number of other species, and found the Ulva pertusa algae species contained lectins that fight these viruses. (
  • 2019. Using machine learning to model complex landscapes: predicting the geographic range of Vesicular Stomatitis across the western United States . (
  • Inhibitor of vesicular stomatitis virus transcriptase in purified virions. (
  • Complement fixation (CF) tests were performed by a viral antigen could be detected in the mosquito cells when microtechnique (7) with two full units of guinea pig comple- examined by IFA 6 days later. (
  • The COS-1 cell line was produced via transformation of the previously established line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for wild type large tumor antigen ( T antigen ). (
  • The COS-7 cell line is a line developed from the standard CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transforming the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 that codes for the wild-type large tumor antigen. (
  • In contrast, increasing the circulating levels of tumor antigen-specific T cells using adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in combination with intratumoral virotherapy, generated significantly improved therapy over either adoptive therapy or virotherapy alone. (
  • Moreover, the incorporation of a tumor-associated antigen within the oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus increased the levels of activation of naive T cells against the antigen, which translated into increased antitumor therapy. (
  • An mAb against the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus--i.e., against an antigen not present in PC12 cells--was expressed as a control. (
  • The morphology of the several components of the virus system is described. (
  • COS-7 cells exhibit fibroblast morphology and are often utilized in transfection experiments. (
  • The cells exhibit endothelial morphology and are widely used in studies relating to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. (
  • Simulium notatum was found to be a competent laboratory vector of both virus isolates. (
  • La Ehrlichiosis Monocítica Canina (EMC) y la Babesiosis Canina, son patologías de distribución mundial causadas por Ehrlichia canis y Babesia canis, respectivamente, comparten vector (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) y existen reportes en Colombia de infección individual y co-infección. (
  • Pathogenesis studies have focused on the later stages of disease, whereas little is known about the influence of the tick-vector in disease outcome. (
  • The genus Flavivirus consists of viruses with various hosts, including insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFs), tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs), and no-known vector (NKV) flaviviruses. (
  • IMPORTANCE Vector-borne flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, have extremely broad host and cell tropism, even though no critical entry receptors have yet been identified. (
  • EGFP) is placed in the vector where appropriate. (
  • You can request cloning & virus packaging services for your vector here. (
  • The company's seven pre-IND programs include initiatives that pair oncolytic vaccines with other cancer immunotherapy approaches such as checkpoint inhibitors, as well as other forms of cancer therapy such as chemotherapy. (
  • Given that vaccines take an average of 10.71 years to develop from the start of preclinical research to the final regulatory approvals, scientists are tasked with compressing the timeline in a way that is largely unheard of in vaccine research. (
  • Only 6% of vaccines in development make from preclinical research to market release. (
  • In contrast, development of HIV-1 vaccines has been extremely difficult. (
  • Intensive research into HIV-1 vaccines is entering its fifth decade, although with fewer than 10 funded phase 3 trials testing preventive efficacy of candidate vaccines since the start of the AIDS epidemic (compared with nine licensed vaccines and over three dozen vaccine efficacy trials in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic [2] ). (
  • No licensed vaccines or treatments exist for Marburg virus (MARV) disease. (
  • Their findings may shed light on how VSV can be manipulated and used in the treatment of cancer and in the development of vaccines for HIV and other harmful viruses. (
  • In 1980s, he worked in Dr. Chi-Ming Chu's laboratory in the Institute of Virology, Beijing, China, where he involved in studying epidemiology of influenza virus and development of influenza vaccines. (
  • His studies are recognized in the fields of influenza virus as well as influenza vaccines. (
  • He is also involved in regulatory work, such as reviewing Investigational New Drug applications and Biological Licensing Applications relating to influenza vaccines for the United States. (
  • As a temporary adviser for World Health Organization Global Influenza Program from FDA since 2001, he participates in WHO bi-annual consultation on selection of vaccine viruses for updating the composition of influenza vaccines for Northern and Southern hemispheres. (
  • The need for new vaccines was made more urgent by the emergence of strains of influenza virus that have the pandemic potential, as in the case of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) virus. (
  • Production of vaccines against pandemic viruses is slowed by the difficulty in manufacturing of these products, requiring innovative approaches. (
  • The majority of vaccines used to control annual influenza epidemics in the United States are manufactured using embryonated chicken eggs that are infected with live influenza viruses. (
  • These viruses are harvested, inactivated, and used to make vaccines. (
  • We are concentrating our work in these areas on both licensed inactivated influenza virus vaccines and new influenza vaccines that are under clinical development. (
  • Our research program addresses several critical and unmet research needs of the influenza vaccine program in the U.S. There are three types of licensed influenza vaccines in U.S.: inactivated, live attenuated, and recombinant vaccines. (
  • Variants of concern (VOC) carrying mutations in the RBD or other regions of S reduce the effectiveness of many nAbs and vaccines by evading neutralization. (
  • The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. (
  • Some vesiculoviruses, including Chandipura virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, are also zoonotic and cause acute diseases in humans. (
  • Using a barcode-based mutagenesis system, we measure the fitness effects of 91 specific gene disruption mutations in genetic backgrounds spanning 8000-10,000 generations of evolution in two constant environments. (
  • Radioiodide imaging and radiovirotherapy of multiple myeloma using VSV(Delta51)-NIS, an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus encoding the sodium iodide symporter gene. (
  • The screening strategy developed by the scientists in the current study use alpaca-derived, single-domain antibody fragments to illustrate viral protein function in colorful detail. (
  • However, in contrast to the control antibody, which was secreted via the constitutive pathway, the secretogranin I antibody formed an immunocomplex with secretogranin I, was packaged into secretory granules, and was released by regulated exocytosis. (
  • The antibody detects recombinant ZEBOV GP without the transmembrane region (ZEBOV rGPdTM) expressed in both mammalian and insect cells. (
  • Enhanced infectivity, transmissibility and escape from antibody neutralization were dominant traits in the wastewater. (
  • Inclusion in the update does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. (
  • Clinical trials are usually conducted in well-established research centers where the staff are well-versed in operations and regulations as it relates to conducting investigational new drug trials. (
  • the CDC Foundation to establish the research centers and data management centers, as well as establish cold-chain facilities throughout various districts in Sierra Leone. (
  • 11. A virus mutant according to claim 8, characterized in that the virus mutant is rabies virus. (
  • Claim 14 was directed to a vaccine comprising a rabies virus mutant according to the preceding claims 1 to 13. (
  • October 2015- Rabies in New Jersey, USA (In humans). (
  • October 2015- Rabies in Wyoming, USA (In humans). (
  • Rabies virus (family Rhabdoviridae , genus Lyssavirus ) is commonly detected in bats from the United States. (
  • To focus specifically on viruses infecting the bats themselves, we performed unbiased metagenomic sequencing of RNA viruses purified from the lungs and livers of 120 rabies-negative big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ) collected in Maryland, USA. (
  • The viruses studied at the Department are either major pathogens ( rabies virus, herpesvirus, rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus ) or excellent models for the precise dissection of the different stages of the viral cycle ( bacteriophages SPP1 and T5, virus of vesicular stomatitis ). (
  • Vyriad's lead programs include Phase 2 product candidates in ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma, and Phase 1 programs in glioblastoma, mesothelioma, head and neck cancer, blood cancers, endometrial cancer, hematologic malignancies, and gastrointestinal cancer. (
  • Our work begins to elucidate the role of RNAi mechanisms in the interaction between L . longipalpis and viruses and should also open the way for studies with other sandfly-borne pathogens. (
  • In the U.S., there are currently 28 pathogens with a licensed vaccine [1] . (
  • Intranasal vaccination offers the potential advantage of needle-free prevention of respiratory pathogens such as influenza viruses with induction of mucosal immune responses. (
  • These viruses have been engineered in the laboratory to carry pieces of genetic material from other pathogens and when they attach to human cells, they inject this genetic material into the cells. (
  • Is it in a form in which any pathogens present have been neutralized or inactivated such that they no longer pose a health risk? (
  • (Present) November 2016- Chikungunya (alpha virus) - Puerto Rico (In humans). (
  • January 2016-Present - Zika Virus - mostly in the Americas (In humans). (
  • Vyriad is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel oncolytic virus therapies for the treatment of cancers that have significant unmet need. (
  • Taming the Trojan horse: optimizing dynamic carrier cell/oncolytic virus systems for cancer biotherapy. (
  • The disease causes lesions in animals' mouths and udders, but generally is not fatal and rarely affects humans. (
  • Premises with confirmed positive and suspect cases are quarantined and monitored by veterinarians for at least 14 days from the onset of lesions in the last animal affected on the premises. (
  • Lesions usually heal in two or three weeks. (
  • The first, designated Farmington virus, is a tentative new member of the Vesiculovirus genus. (
  • In contrast to the known diversity in bats of the extensively analyzed Lyssavirus genus, the diversity of other Rhabdoviridae genera in bats remains largely undetermined. (
  • Vesiculoviruses (genus Vesiculovirus ), such as vesicular stomatitis virus, cause fever and vesicular diseases in animals such as cattle, horses, and pigs. (
  • at 29° actinomycetes,nematodes and protozoa werealso observed, besides fungi and bacteria.The main differences in the nature of organismsfrom both soils observed on chitin was in the subgroups rather than in the major groups. (
  • Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes. (
  • Many more are in efficacy evaluation. (
  • Here, we show that CD8+ T cells are critical for the efficacy of intratumoral vesicular stomatitis virus virotherapy and are induced against both virally encoded and tumor-associated immunodominant epitopes. (
  • Varying degrees of efficacy were observed depending on the construct and experimental conditions, with up to a 100% efficacy observed using the replication-competent pseudotype for the vaccination in a lethal CCHFV animal model. (
  • Notably, the same combination of RBD and NTD nAbs limited the development of neutralization-escape mutants in vitro, suggesting such a strategy may have higher efficacy and utility for mitigating the emergence of VOC. (
  • Because of the virus' contagious nature and its resemblance to other diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, animal health officials urge livestock owners and caretakers to report these symptoms to their veterinarian immediately. (
  • The cells, which exhibit typical epithelial cell characteristics and grow adherently to plastic and glass in culture, are negative for reverse transcriptase. (
  • Vyriad's product development pipeline encompasses multiple clinical- and preclinical-stage programs that target a broad range of cancer indications as well as programs that pair the company's oncolytic viruses with other cancer immunotherapy modalities, traditional cancer therapy, and newer targeted therapies. (
  • Univariate analysis was used to compare the differences in general clinical characteristics and other related indicators between the three groups to analyze the risk factors of AKR. (
  • The experimental vaccine is currently undergoing testing in a global clinical trial in humans. (
  • The clinical trial in Guinea "has been more successful than we almost could have hoped for," Dr. Rottingen said. (
  • ART) in the African Region the present document outlines recent revisions made by WHO to the clinical staging of HIV/AIDS and to case definitions for HIV/AIDS disease surveil ance. (
  • It is widely assumed among cell biologists that the fibroblast tendency to readily grow and proliferate in vitro is linked to their function in the body, where they are extremely important for wound healing. (
  • Synthesis, inverse docking-assisted identification and in vitro biological characterization of Flavonol-based analogs of fisetin as c-Kit, CDK2 and mTOR inhibitors against melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. (
  • Taking DHEA by mouth before in-vitro fertilization (IVF) might improve the chances of pregnancy and having a baby. (
  • Both viruses infect birds and mice, as well as monkey kidney cells in culture, but their importance for human health is unknown. (
  • After intranasal instillation of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), olfactory receptor neurons are infected. (
  • Importantly, these vaccine candidates effectively protected hamsters or mice against the challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and lethal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses and significantly reduced respiratory viral loads. (
  • IMPORTANCE A self-assembling influenza virus vaccine platform that seamlessly converts soluble antigens into nanoparticles is demonstrated with various H1N1 and H3N2 influenza antigens to protect mice against influenza virus challenge following intranasal vaccination. (
  • The Camp Verde isolate is the index isolate of the 1982-1983 VSV-NJ epizootic that infected humans and livestock in 14 western states. (
  • The vaccine consists of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which is an animal virus that causes flulike illness in humans. (
  • November 2015- Chipotle Mexican Grill - E. coli O26 (In humans). (
  • October 2015- E. coli in Maine, USA (In humans). (
  • 2012- present- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (in humans). (
  • BSE prion is believed to be the cause of a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans (Weihl & Roos, 1999). (
  • It is not known for example whether those microbial agents which cause cancer and other diseases in cattle, pigs and sheep also cause cancer in humans. (
  • They have also been the main sources of the epidemiologic evidence that these agents are carcinogenic in humans. (
  • The families stay in touch via social media and occasionally in person when they are visiting Mayo Clinic at the same time. (
  • While vesicular stomatitis can cause economic losses to livestock producers, it is a particularly significant disease because its outward signs are similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease, a foreign animal disease of cloven-hoofed animals that was eradicated from the United States in 1929," the UDAF said in a public notice. (
  • However, viruses in fecal and pharyngeal samples could include ingested and inhaled viruses that originated from insects and plants ( 10 - 13 ). (
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, pre-treatment of cells with dsRNA against VSV was able to inhibit viral replication while knock-down of the central siRNA component, Argonaute-2, led to increased virus levels. (
  • COS-7 cells fully permit the lytic growth of SV40 and the replication of populations of SV40 mutants with deletions in the early region. (
  • These findings further suggest that the bpPurines play an additional role in the early steps of MPMV replication cycle that is yet to be identified. (
  • Dr. Ye has spent over twenty years working on the replication and pathogenesis of influenza viruses. (
  • Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE. (
  • Dr. Zhiping Ye serves as Chief of Laboratory of Pediatric and Respiratory Vial Diseases in Center for Biologics and Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (
  • This project investigates mortality in a cohort of workers in the meat industry identified from a meatcutters union in Baltimore, because they were exposed at work to transmissible agents that are known to infect or cause cancer and other diseases in cattle, pigs and sheep, and were also occupationally exposed to known chemical carcinogens. (
  • Workers in the meat industry who handle cattle, pigs and sheep or their raw products are heavily exposed to a plethora of transmissible agents such as prions, viruses, bacteria, protozoa, etc., that are known to cause disease in these animals, including cancer and neurologic diseases. (
  • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases. (
  • SALT LAKE CITY - Several premises in Utah are under quarantine after agriculture officials confirmed the presence of the vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • Last year there there was a total of 435 premises in only four states. (
  • In its Situation Report of Aug. 20, the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced that six previously vesicular stomatitis-infected(VSV) or suspect premises in Oklahoma have been released from quarantine in Cherokee, Osage, Ottawa, and Rogers counties. (
  • Tissue cultures were incubated at 37oC and 5% tive method for detecting WNV activity in a region (2-5). (
  • For cultures that require storage in liquid nitrogen, it is important to note that some vials may leak when submersed in liquid nitrogen and will slowly fill with liquid nitrogen. (
  • Unless necessary, ATCC recommends that these cultures be stored in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen rather than submersed in liquid nitrogen. (
  • Along with the transduced cultures, a non-transduced culture was seeded in puromycin-containing medium to serve as a control for judging when the transduced cultures emerged from selection. (
  • Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease that mainly affects horses and cattle. (
  • The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. (
  • Emerging technologies are giving veterinarians the tools they need to best address dental disease in horses. (
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus genome segment 9. (
  • 568-T3238 from 101Bio Supplied by Gentaur Genprice.Product Overview: Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and a. (
  • A distinguishing feature of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) packaging signal RNA secondary structure is a single-stranded purine-rich sequence (ssPurines) in close vicinity to a palindromic stem loop (Pal SL) that functions as MPMV dimerization initiation site (DIS). (
  • These cookies perform functions like remembering presentation options or choices and, in some cases, delivery of web content that based on self-identified area of interests. (
  • In addition, Vyriad is developing novel diagnostic/ theranostic tests for more accurate prediction of immunovirotherapy response. (
  • Thus, virus was not detected in the saliva of either black fly species with either VSV-NJ isolate, indicating the presence of a midgut barrier. (
  • Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Species in Diarrheal Patients in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. (
  • The red algae extract above was found in the Griffithsia species of red algae. (
  • Another one was found in the Nostoc ellipsosporum algae species - called Cyanovirin-N. (
  • 80 bat virus species have been characterized ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant levels in plasma and saliva of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and healthy controls. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and uric acid (UA) levels were measured in plasma and saliva. (
  • In saliva, SOD and CAT activities, and UA levels were significantly higher in RAS patients, while GSHPx activity was lower compared to control. (
  • Conclusion: Plasma and saliva antioxidant system is affected in RAS patients and both may be considered as an appropriate indicator of antioxidant status of body. (
  • SUMMARY: The quantitative ecology of micro-organisms developing on pieces of chitin buried in soil was studied by systematically recording morphologicalgroups and subgroups of micro-organisms developing on them. (
  • The cells have also tested positive for bovine diarrhea virus, an important bovine viral pathogen. (
  • Prion agents cause the subacute severe neurologic disease known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or 'mad cow' disease in cattle, and scrapie in sheep. (
  • Transneuronal retrograde degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells in patients with cerebral infarction. (
  • Characterization of human metapneumoviruses isolated from patients in North America. (
  • A new study has found that a naturally occurring type of virus may be the best way to deliver cancer drugs to patients. (
  • Patients infected with molluscum contagiosum develop small pearly epidermal nodules (1-2 mm in diameter) that have a characteristic central pit known as an umbilication. (
  • In patients with eczema (ie, active or inactive), vaccinia can cause eczema vaccinatum. (
  • In immunodeficient patients, vaccinia is known to cause progressive vaccinia. (
  • Death is common in these patients. (
  • Results: Plasma analysis showed significantly decreased SOD and CAT activities, and UA level in RAS patients compared to control group. (
  • Plasma GSHPx activity was significantly higher in RAS patients. (
  • Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons medical and public health management. (
  • Case report: detection of the identical virus in a patient presenting with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome encephalopathy and the tick that bit her. (
  • Peripheral Blood Plasmacytosis in Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome. (
  • The reemerging epidemic illustrated the need for epidemiologic investigations of the serologic prevalence and geographic range of hemorrhagic fever viruses, as well as development of novel serologic assays for their detection and surveillance. (
  • However, epidemiologic links are not always well established ( 6 ), and the risk for exposure to hemorrhagic fever viruses for the general population in Central and West Africa remains unclear. (
  • VSV, an animal virus that primarily affects cattle, has been successfully tested as an experimental vaccine platform against several viruses. (