The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A recurrent disease of the oral mucosa of unknown etiology. It is characterized by small white ulcerative lesions, single or multiple, round or oval. Two to eight crops of lesions occur per year, lasting for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p742)
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

Qualitative and quantitative requirements for CD4+ T cell-mediated antiviral protection. (1/2088)

CD4+ Th cells deliver the cognate and cytokine signals that promote the production of protective virus-neutralizing IgG by specific B cells and are also able to mediate direct antiviral effector functions. To quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the antiviral functions of CD4+ Th cells, we generated transgenic mice (tg7) expressing an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR specific for a peptide derived from the glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The elevated precursor frequency of naive VSV-specific Th cells in tg7 mice led to a markedly accelerated and enhanced class switching to virus-neutralizing IgG after immunization with inactivated VSV. Furthermore, in contrast to nontransgenic controls, tg7 mice rapidly cleared a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the VSV-G (Vacc-IND-G) from peripheral organs. By adoptive transfer of naive tg7 CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients, we found that 105 transferred CD4+ T cells were sufficient to induce isotype switching after challenge with a suboptimal dose of inactivated VSV. In contrast, naive transgenic CD4+ T cells were unable to adoptively confer protection against peripheral infection with Vacc-IND-G. However, tg7 CD4+ T cells that had been primed in vitro with VSV-G peptide were able to adoptively transfer protection against Vacc-IND-G. These results demonstrate that the antiviral properties of CD4+ T cells are governed by the differentiation status of the CD4+ T cell and by the type of effector response required for virus elimination.  (+info)

Foamy virus capsids require the cognate envelope protein for particle export. (2/2088)

Unlike other subclasses of the Retroviridae the Spumavirinae, its prototype member being the so-called human foamy virus (HFV), require the expression of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein for viral particle egress. Both the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, which efficiently pseudotype other retrovirus capsids, were not able to support export of HFV particles. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of the HFV Env protein revealed that the HFV Env cytoplasmic domain (CyD) is dispensable for HFV particle envelopment, release, and infectivity, whereas deletion of the membrane-spanning-domain (MSD) led to an accumulation of naked capsids in the cytoplasm. Neither alternative membrane association of HFV Env deletion mutants lacking the MSD and CyD via phosphoglycolipid anchor nor domain swapping mutants, with the MSD or CyD of MuLV Env and VSV-G exchanged against the corresponding HFV domains, could restore particle envelopment and the release defect of pseudotypes. However, replacement of the HFV MSD with that of MuLV led to budding of HFV capsids at the intracellular membranes. These virions were of apparently wild-type morphology but were not naturally released into the supernatant and they were noninfectious.  (+info)

A proline-rich motif within the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins: implications for viral budding. (3/2088)

The matrix (M) protein of rhabdoviruses has been shown to play a key role in virus assembly and budding; however, the precise mechanism by which M mediates these processes remains unclear. We have associated a highly conserved, proline-rich motif (PPxY or PY motif, where P denotes proline, Y represents tyrosine, and x denotes any amino acid) of rhabdoviral M proteins with a possible role in budding mediated by the M protein. Point mutations that disrupt the PY motif of the M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have no obvious effect on membrane localization of M but instead lead to a decrease in the amount of M protein released from cells in a functional budding assay. Interestingly, the PPxY sequence within rhabdoviral M proteins is identical to that of the ligand which interacts with WW domains of cellular proteins. Indeed, results from two in vitro binding assays demonstrate that amino acids 17 through 33 and 29 through 44, which contain the PY motifs of VSV and rabies virus M proteins, respectively, mediate interactions with WW domains of specific cellular proteins. Point mutations that disrupt the consensus PY motif of VSV or rabies virus M protein result in a significant decrease in their ability to interact with the WW domains. These properties of the PY motif of rhabdovirus M proteins are strikingly analogous to those of the late (L) budding domain identified in the gag-specific protein p2b of Rous sarcoma virus. Thus, it is possible that rhabdoviruses may usurp host proteins to facilitate the budding process and that late stages in the budding process of rhabdoviruses and retroviruses may have features in common.  (+info)

Late domain function identified in the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein by use of rhabdovirus-retrovirus chimeras. (4/2088)

Little is known about the mechanisms used by enveloped viruses to separate themselves from the cell surface at the final step of budding. However, small sequences in the Gag proteins of several retroviruses (L domains) have been implicated in this process. A sequence has been identified in the M proteins of rhabdoviruses that closely resembles the PPPPY motif in the L domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), an avian retrovirus. To evaluate whether the PPPY sequence in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M protein has an activity analogous to that of the retroviral sequence, M-Gag chimeras were characterized. The N-terminal 74 amino acids of the VSV (Indiana) M protein, including the PPPY motif, was able to replace the L domain of RSV Gag and allow the assembly and release of virus-like particles. Alanine substitutions in the VSV PPPY motif severely compromised the budding activity of this hybrid protein but not that of another chimera which also contained the RSV PPPPY sequence. We conclude that this VSV sequence is functionally homologous to the RSV L domain in promoting virus particle release, making this the first example of such an activity in a virus other than a retrovirus. Both the RSV and VSV motifs have been shown to interact in vitro with certain cellular proteins that contain a WW interaction module, suggesting that the L domains are sites of interaction with unknown host machinery involved in virus release.  (+info)

Interferon-induced guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mediates an antiviral effect against vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus. (5/2088)

A cDNA encoding the human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP-1) was expressed in HeLa cells using a constitutive expression vector. Stably transfected clones expressing hGBP-1 exhibited resistance to the cytopathic effect mediated by both vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and produced less viral progeny than control cells following infection with these viruses. To study the role hGBP-1 plays in the IFN-mediated antiviral effect, cells were stably transfected with a construct expressing antisense RNA for hGBP-1. VSV infection of IFN-alpha-treated antisense RNA-expressing cells produced an amount of virus comparable to that produced in the parental cell line, while EMCV infection of the IFN-alpha-treated transfected cells and VSV and EMCV infection of the IFN-gamma-treated transfected cells produced far more virus than was produced in the parental cell line. These results demonstrate that GBP-1 mediates an antiviral effect against VSV and EMCV and plays a role in the IFN-mediated antiviral response against these viruses.  (+info)

Effects of double-site mutations of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G on membrane fusion activity. (6/2088)

Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a conserved amino-terminal region (H2) and a conserved carboxyl-terminal region (H10/A4) of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus have previously identified these two segments as an internal fusion peptide and a region influencing low-pH induced conformational change, respectively. Here, we combined a number of the substitution mutants in the H2 and H10/A4 regions to produce a series of double-site mutants and determined the effect of these mutations on membrane fusion activity at acid pH and on pH-dependent conformational change. The results show that most of the double-site mutants have decreased cell-cell fusion activity and that the effects appeared to be additive in terms of inhibition of fusion, except for one mutant, which appeared to be a revertant. The double-site mutants also had pH optima for fusion that were lower than those observed with wild-type G but same as the pH optima for the parent fusion peptide (H2) mutants. The results suggest that although the H2 and H10/A4 sites may affect membrane fusion independently, a possible interaction between these two sites cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus. (7/2088)

Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture.  (+info)

Gene transfer to human pancreatic endocrine cells using viral vectors. (8/2088)

We have studied the factors that influence the efficiency of infection of human fetal and adult pancreatic endocrine cells with adenovirus, murine retrovirus, and lentivirus vectors all expressing the green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP, MLV-GFP, and Lenti-GFP, respectively). Adenoviral but not retroviral vectors efficiently infected intact pancreatic islets and fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) in suspension. When islets and ICCs were plated in monolayer culture, infection efficiency with all three viral vectors increased. Ad-GFP infected 90-95% of the cells, whereas infection with MLV-GFP and Lenti-GFP increased only slightly. Both exposure to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and dispersion of the cells by removal from the culture dish and replating had substantial positive effects on the efficiency of infection with retroviral vectors. Studies of virus entry and cell replication revealed that cell dispersion and stimulation by HGF/SF may be acting through both mechanisms to increase the efficiency of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Although HGF/SF and cell dispersion increased the efficiency of infection with MLV-GFP, only rare cells with weak staining for insulin were infected, whereas approximately 25% of beta-cells were infected with Lenti-GFP. We conclude that adenovirus is the most potent vector for ex vivo overexpression of foreign genes in adult endocrine pancreatic cells and is the best vector for applications where high-level but transient expression is desired. Under the optimal conditions of cell dispersion plus HGF/SF, infection with MLV and lentiviral vectors is reasonably efficient and stable, but only lentiviral vectors efficiently infect pancreatic beta-cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A human case of encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) infection. AU - Quiroz, E.. AU - Moreno, N.. AU - Peralta, P. H.. AU - Tesh, R. B.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - This paper describes a case of severe encephalitis in a 3-year-old Panamanian boy infected with the Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. The virus was recovered from the childs throat on the fifth day of illness and a rise in neutralizing antibody titer was demonstrated in paired serum specimens. This is the second report of childhood encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus infection. These suggest that infection with vesicular stomatitis viruses may cause severe disease. Human infection with vesicular stomatitis viruses is common throughout the tropical Americas.. AB - This paper describes a case of severe encephalitis in a 3-year-old Panamanian boy infected with the Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. The virus was recovered from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lysis of target cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the presence of tunicamycin by anti-VSV cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AU - Harris, D. T.. AU - Hale, A. H.. AU - Lefrancois, L.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - We have analyzed the requirement for the expression of the major surface glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on target cells for recognition and lysis by anti-VSV cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In addition, we have attempted to determine if the carbohydrate moieties on the G protein are required for recognition and lysis by anti-VSV CTL. When VSV (Orsay) is grown at 30°C in the presence of tunicamycin (TM), glycosylation of G protein is inhibited; however, nonglycosylated G protein is found on the surface of the cell and active virus particles are produced. In contrast, VSV (Orsay) grown at 39°C in the presence of TM produces low titers of virus and the presence of G protein on the surface of cells is not detectable. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Safety studies on intravenous administration of oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in purpose-bred beagle dogs. AU - Leblanc, Amy K.. AU - Naik, Shruthi. AU - Galyon, Gina D.. AU - Jenks, Nathan. AU - Steele, Mike. AU - Peng, Kah Whye. AU - Federspiel, Mark J.. AU - Donnell, Robert. AU - Russell, Stephen J.. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. To facilitate clinical translation of this promising oncolytic therapy in patients with disseminated cancer, we are utilizing a comparative oncology approach to gather data describing the safety and efficacy of systemic VSV-IFNβ-NIS administration in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event ...
Viruses need us. In order to multiply, viruses have to invade a host cell and copy their genetic information. To do so, viruses encode their own replication machinery or components that subvert the host replication machinery to their advantage.. Ebola virus and rabies virus, two of the most lethal pathogens known to humans, belong to an order of RNA viruses that share a common strategy for copying their genomes inside their hosts. Other relatives include Marburg virus, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Scientists study VSV, which causes acute disease in livestock but typically does not lead to illness in people, as a model for viruses that are harmful to humans.. Now a team from Harvard Medical School, using electron cryomicroscopy (imaging frozen specimens to reduce damage from electron radiation), has for the first time revealed the structure of a VSV protein at the atomic level. Called polymerase protein L, it is required for viral replication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein contains a dominant cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal critically dependent upon a tyrosine. AU - Thomas, DNette C.. AU - Brewer, Colleen B.. AU - Roth, Michael G.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - To investigate the contribution of the cytoplasmic domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein to its basolateral expression in polarized epithelial cells, chimeric proteins containing the external and transmembrane domains of an apically targeted protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), and either the G cytoplasmic domain or an unrelated cytoplasmic sequence, were introduced into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Addition of the cytoplasmic tail of G to a truncated HA resulted in delivery of greater than 95% of the chimeric protein to the basolateral cell surface, indicating that the G cytoplasmic domain contains a dominant basolateral sorting signal. A similar chimera, containing the cytoplasmic tail of herpes ...
The cytopathogenicity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been attributed mainly to the host shut-off activity of the viral matrix (M) protein, which inhibits both nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport, thereby effectively suppressing the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN). The M protein from persistently VSV-infected cells was shown to harbour characteristic amino acid substitutions (M51R, V221F and S226R) implicated in IFN induction. This study demonstrates that infection of human fibroblasts with recombinant VSV containing the M51R substitution resulted in IFN induction, whereas neither the V221F nor the S226R substitution effected an IFN-inducing phenotype. Only when V221F was combined with S226R were the host shut-off activity of the M protein abolished and IFN induced, independently of M51R. The M33A substitution, previously implicated in VSV cytotoxicity, did not affect host shut-off activity. M-mutant VSV containing all four amino acid substitutions retained cytotoxic
A stable cell line expressing a complementary DNA clone encoding the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein fused and formed polykaryons at pH 5.5. The formation of polykaryons was dependent on the presence of glycoprotein anchored at the cell surface and could be prevented by incubation of cells with a monoclonal antibody to the glycoprotein. Fusion occurred at a pH 0.5 unit lower than that observed for cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. ...
The particle-bound RNA polymerase activity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be demonstrated in vivo. Linear synthesis of viral RNA persists for 5 to 6 hours at 34°C in infected monolayers of chick embryo cells treated with cycloheximide and actinomycin D to block synthesis of protein and cell-specific RNA. At least 55 percent of the RNA made under these conditions is complementary to virion RNA. RNA synthesis mediated by VSV polymerase activity is inhibited in cells first treated with chick-derived interferon or polyriboinosinate• polyribocytidylate, but not by mouse interferon. The RNA product of VSV polymerase activity is present throughout the cytoplasm, and its synthesis is inhibited by the interferon system, as judged by autoradiographs that show the physical distribution, in cells, of RNA produced by virion polymerase in the absence of translation-a demonstration of the transcription product of the viral genome. ...
Our findings demonstrate an important role for PERK in VSV infection. We show that PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation is induced in VSV-infected cells and that this is accompanied by an inhibition of virus replication and apoptosis. PERK also plays an essential role in UPR (31) and, as such, its activation in VSV infection initially indicated an ability of the virus to elicit a UPR. This was consistent with the notion that viruses that use the ER as an integral part of their replication strategy are likely able to induce an ER stress response (1). In fact, previous studies showed that the VSV glycoprotein (VSV-G) oligomerizes in the ER prior to its transport to the cell surface (41). Misfolded and unassembled VSV-G is retained in the ER (8), whereas the interactions of the viral protein with two chaperones, BiP and calnexin, are essential for efficient folding and for retention of partially folded G protein forms in the ER (12). Thus, an overload of VSV-G in the ER during virus replication ...
The restricted host-cell range and low titer of retroviral vectors limit their use for stable gene transfer in eukaryotic cells. To overcome these limitations, we have produced murine leukemia virus-derived vectors in which the retroviral envelope glycoprotein has been completely replaced by the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Such vectors can be concentrated by ultracentrifugation to titers , 10(9) colony-forming units/ml and can infect cells, such as hamster and fish cell lines, that are ordinarily resistant to infection with vectors containing the retroviral envelope protein. The ability to concentrate vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped vectors will facilitate gene therapy model studies and other gene transfer experiments that require direct delivery of vectors in vivo. The availability of these pseudotyped vectors will also facilitate genetic studies in nonmammalian species, including the important zebrafish developmental system, through the efficient ...
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. The complexes are heterogeneous in size (4-21S20,W), contain several G glycopolypeptides, and are associated with BiP/GRP78. The newly synthesized, partially intrachain disulfide-bonded G proteins enter these complexes immediately after chain termination, and are released 1-4 min later as fully oxidized, trimerization-competent monomers. These monomers are properly folded, judging by their binding of conformation-specific mAbs. When the G protein is translated in the presence of DTT, it remains reduced, largely unfolded and aggregated in the ER, but it can fold successfully when the DTT is removed. In this case, contrary to normal folding, the aggregates become transiently disulfide cross-linked. We also demonstrated that the fidelity of the folding process is dependent on metabolic energy. Finally, we established that ...
In a previous study we demonstrated that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be used as a vector to express a soluble protein in mammalian cells. Here we have generated VSV recombinants that express four different membrane proteins: the cellular CD4 protein, a CD4-G hybrid protein containing the ectodomain of CD4 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of the VSV glycoprotein (G), the measles virus hemagglutinin, or the measles virus fusion protein. The proteins were expressed at levels ranging from 23-62% that of VSV G protein and all were transported to the cell surface. In addition we found that all four proteins were incorporated into the membrane envelope of VSV along with the VSV G protein. The levels of incorporation of these proteins varied from 6-31% of that observed for VSV G. These results suggest that many different membrane proteins may be co-incorporated quite efficiently with VSV G protein into budding VSV virus particles and that specific signals are not required for this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Delayed appearance of pseudotypes between vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza virus during mixed infection of MDCK cells. AU - Roth, M. G.. AU - Compans, R. W.. PY - 1981/12/1. Y1 - 1981/12/1. N2 - In intact Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matures only at basolateral membranes beneath tight junctions, whereas influenza virus buds from apical cell surfaces. Early in the growth cycle, the viral glycoproteins are restricted to the membrane domain from which each virus buds. We report here that phenotypic mixing and formation of VSV pseudotypes occurred when influenza virus-infected MDCK cells were superinfected with VSV. Up to 75% of the infectious VSV particles from such experiments were neutralized by antiserum specific for influenza virus, and a smaller proportion (up to 3%) were resistant to neutralization with antiserum specific for VSV. The latter particles, which were neutralized by antiserum to influenza A/WSN virus, ...
Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169+ cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169+ cells during viral infections remain unclear. Here we show that tumor necrosis factor is produced by CD11b+ Ly6C+Ly6G+ cells following infection with VSV. The absence of TNF or TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) resulted in reduced numbers of CD169+ cells and in reduced IFN-I production during VSV infection, with a severe disease outcome. Specifically, TNF triggered RelA translocation into the nucleus of CD169+ cells; this translocation was inhibited when paracaspase MALT-1 was absent. Consequently, MALT1 deficiency resulted in reduced VSV replication, defective innate immune activation, and severe disease development. These findings indicate that TNF mediates the maintenance of CD169+ cells and innate and adaptive immune activation during VSV ...
Summary Multiply cloned variants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) were found to generate/amplify defective interfering (DI) particles at a rate greatly exceeding the rates normally observed for wild-type VSV (or for other mutants of VSV). A single undiluted passage of the first clonal pool of this variant virus produced concentrated visible bands of DI particles on sucrose gradients whereas wild-type and other mutant strains of VSV required from three to six or more serial undiluted passages. Since DI particle amplication by wild-type VSV at each undiluted passage can exceed 10000-fold enrichment, these variant virus clones were generating/amplifying DI particles many millions of times more rapidly than were wild-type and other mutant strains of VSV. This rate of generation/amplification is so high that it was not feasible to obtain accurate estimates of the rates of generation (or amplification) of these DI particles.
Vaccines based on live viruses are attractive because they are immunogenic, cost-effective, and can be delivered by multiple routes. However, live virus vaccines also cause reactogenic side effects such as fever, myalgia, and injection site pain that have reduced their acceptance in the clinic. Several recent studies have linked vaccine-induced reactogenic side effects to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in humans. Our objective was therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine vectors, and if so, to identify strategies by which IL-1β mediated pathology might be reduced without compromising immunogenicity. We found that an rVSV vaccine induced local and systemic production of IL-1β in vivo, and that accumulation of IL-1β correlated with acute pathology after rVSV immunization. rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R
Although vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neurovirulence and pathogenicity in rodents have been well studied, little is known about VSV pathogenicity in non-human primates. To address this question, we measured VSV viremia, shedding, and neurovirulence in macaques. Following intranasal inoculation, …
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment. Based on this powerful platform, a multitude of strategies have been applied to further improve the immune-stimulating potential of VSV and synergize these responses with the direct oncolytic effect. These strategies include: 1. modification of endogenous virus genes to stimulate interferon induction; 2. virus-mediated expression of cytokines or immune-stimulatory molecules to enhance anti-tumor immune responses; 3.
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide containing the 15 carboxy-terminal amino acids (497-511) of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). The polyclonal antibodies (alpha P4) reacted with epitopes distributed along the 15-residue peptide, whereas the m …
The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viral and other microbial pathogens in their genome (so-called chimeric virus vaccines). Many such viral vector vaccines are now at various stages of clinical evaluation. Here, we introduce an attenuated form of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) as a potential chimeric virus vaccine for HIV-1, with implications for use as a vaccine vector for other pathogens. The rVSV/HIV-1 vaccine vector was attenuated by combining two major genome modifications. These modifications acted synergistically to greatly enhance vector attenuation and the resulting rVSV vector demonstrated safety in sensitive mouse and non-human primate neurovirulence models. This vector expressing HIV-1 gag protein has completed evaluation in two Phase I clinical trials. In one trial the rVSV/HIV-1 vector was administered in a ...
Gene therapy - an advanced technique developed to insert or inject therapeutic genes into human cells - has shown some success in treating the disease. In a previous study, Xiao and co-investigators at State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, and the Department of Thoracic Oncology Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, had used a gene therapy approach to induce cancer cell death. Their study found that Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein (VSVMP), when inserted into a cancer cell, compromises the cellular skeletal framework, which is made up of structural proteins. Cell death ensued as a consequence. In the current study, the research team further armed with VSVMP gene delivery vessel with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) - a protein known to recruit and switch on the cancer-killing functions of immune cells. The novel drug particles are based on Heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles. To overcome the high toxicity and non-biocompatible nature of PEI, the team used a method to ...
Gene therapy - an advanced technique developed to insert or inject therapeutic genes into human cells - has shown some success in treating the disease. In a previous study, Xiao and co-investigators at State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, and the Department of Thoracic Oncology Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, had used a gene therapy approach to induce cancer cell death. Their study found that Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein (VSVMP), when inserted into a cancer cell, compromises the cellular skeletal framework, which is made up of structural proteins. Cell death ensued as a consequence. In the current study, the research team further armed with VSVMP gene delivery vessel with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) - a protein known to recruit and switch on the cancer-killing functions of immune cells. The novel drug particles are based on Heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles. To overcome the high toxicity and non-biocompatible nature of PEI, the team used a method to ...
Upon infection with many different viruses, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) produce large amounts of type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). To address why upon vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection pDC, but not conventional myeloid DC (mDC), are induced to produce IFN-alpha, pDC and mDC were differentiated from bone marrow cells (BM-DC). Upon VSV infection BM-pDC produced IFN-alpha, whereas BM-mDC did not. Notably, upon infection with VSV-M2, a VSV variant expressing a M51R mutant matrix (M) protein that showed a reduced sequestration of host cell metabolism, BM-pDC and BM-mDC mounted massive IFN-alpha responses. Both DC subsets showed comparable RNA levels of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and were able to respond upon triggering with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) analogs. Moreover, upon VSV-M2 infection IFN-alpha production by both DC subsets was largely dependent on viral replication. Interestingly, upon virus infection BM-pDC,
Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells
Disease Information. Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease which primarily affects horses, cattle, and swine. The agent that causes vesicular stomatitis, VSV, has a wide host range and can occasionally infect sheep and goats. In affected livestock, VSV causes blister-like lesions to form in the mouth and on the dental pad, tongue, lips, nostrils, hooves, and teats. These blisters swell and break, leaving raw tissue that is so painful that infected animals generally refuse to eat and drink and show signs of lameness. Severe weight loss usually follows, and in dairy cows a severe drop in milk production commonly occurs. Affected dairy cattle can appear to be normal and will continue to eat about half of their feed intake.. ...
Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease that affects horses, and less commonly cattle, pigs, llamas, alpacas, and other livestock. We see periodic outbreaks of Vesicular Stomatitis in our region of the Southwest. VS is a reportable disease, meaning that when a case is suspected by a veterinarian, we are required to involve the United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA: APHIS).. Reporting is required because VS resembles Foot and Mouth Disease in cattle, which is greatly feared in the livestock industry. When VS is confirmed in the United States, non-affected states and most foreign countries initiate transport embargoes to prevent spread into their territories. Movement of livestock is hindered and affected premises are quarantined. The entire livestock industry is adversely affected. After reporting a potential occurrence of the disease the animals in question must be inspected by USDA:APHIS. Laboratory work is performed to determine ...
Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, and occasionally swine, sheep, goats, llamas, and alpacas. The transmission process of VSV is not completely understood, but includes insect vectors such as black flies, sand flies, and biting midges.. The incubation period ranges from 2-8 days. Clinical signs include vesicles, erosions, and sloughing of the skin on the muzzle, tongue, teats, and coronary bands. Often excessive salivation is the first sign of disease, along with a reluctance to eat or drink. Lameness and weight loss may follow.. Humans may become infected when handling affected animals, but this is a rare event. To avoid human exposure, individuals should use personal protective measures when handling affected animals.. Tips for Livestock Owners. ...
Viral vectors have been available in various fields such as medical and biological research or gene therapy applications. Targeting vectors pseudotyped with distinct viral envelope proteins that influence cell tropism and transfection efficiency is a useful tool not only for examining entry mechanisms or cell tropisms but also for vaccine vector development. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an excellent candidate for development as a pseudotype vector. A recombinant VSV lacking its own envelope (G) gene has been used to produce a pseudotype or recombinant VSV possessing the envelope proteins of heterologous viruses. These viruses possess a reporter gene instead of a VSV G gene in their genome, and therefore it is easy to evaluate their infectivity in the study of viral entry, including identification of viral receptors. Furthermore, advantage can be taken of a property of the pseudotype VSV, which is competence for single-round infection, in handling many different viruses that are either difficult
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ribosomal proteins in normal simian cells, sv40-transformed simian cells, and simian cells infected with sv40, adenovirus 5, and vesicular stomatitis virus. AU - Bosselman, Robert A.. AU - Price, Joseph A.. AU - Lee Burns, A.. AU - Kaulenas, Mindaugas S.. AU - Norkin, Leonard C.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. N2 - The protein patterns of monosomes and polysomes isolated from the T-22 line of SV40-transformed GMK cells and from uninfected CV-I cells and CV-1 cells infected with SV40, adenovirus 5, or vesicular stomatitis virus were analyzed by two-dimensional PAGE. All gel patterns were similar except for the presence of one additional protein associated with T-22 monosomes.. AB - The protein patterns of monosomes and polysomes isolated from the T-22 line of SV40-transformed GMK cells and from uninfected CV-I cells and CV-1 cells infected with SV40, adenovirus 5, or vesicular stomatitis virus were analyzed by two-dimensional PAGE. All gel patterns were similar except for the ...
Abstract: Cell entry of enveloped viruses requires specialized viral proteins that mediate fusion with the host membrane by substantial structural rearrangements from a metastable pre- to a stable postfusion conformation. This metastability renders the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) fusion glycoprotein B (gB) highly unstable such that it readily converts into the postfusion form, thereby precluding structural elucidation of the pharmacologically relevant prefusion conformation. By identification of conserved sequence signatures and molecular dynamics simulations, we devised a mutation that stabilized this form. Functionally locking gB allowed the structural determination of its membrane-embedded prefusion conformation at sub-nanometer resolution and enabled the unambiguous fit of all ectodomains. The resulting pseudo-atomic model reveals a notable conservation of conformational domain rearrangements during fusion between HSV-1 gB and the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G, despite their ...
The presence of sulphate groups on various saccharide residues of N-linked carbohydrate units has now been observed in a number of glycoproteins. To explore the cell specificity of this post-translational modification, we evaluated sulphate incorporation into virus envelope glycoproteins by a variety of cells, since it is believed that assembly of their N-linked oligosaccharides is to a large extent dependent on the enzymic machinery of the host. Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S]sulphate substituents into its complex carbohydrate units occurred in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), Madin-Darby bovine kidney, LLC-PK1 and BHK-21 cell lines but was not detectable in BRL 3A, BW5147.3, Chinese hamster ovary, HepG2, NRK-49F, IEC-18, PtK1 or 3T3 cells. The sulphate groups were exclusively located on C-3 of galactose [Gal(3-SO4)] and/or C-6 of N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc(6-SO4)] residues in the ...
Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. Condensates the ribonucleocapsid core during virus assembly. Shut off cellular transcription by inhibiting mRNA nuclear export through direct interaction with host RAE1-NUP98 complex. This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity).
Define gonococcal stomatitis. gonococcal stomatitis synonyms, gonococcal stomatitis pronunciation, gonococcal stomatitis translation, English dictionary definition of gonococcal stomatitis. n. Inflammation of the mucous tissue of the mouth. n inflammation of the mouth stomatitic adj n. inflammation of the mouth. Noun 1. stomatitis -...
Host immune response is tightly controlled by negative regulators to avoid excessive immune reactions for homeostasis. Some pathogens may take advantage of host negative regulating system to evade host defense. Our previous report showed that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 inhibited TNF-α- and SeV-induced type I interferon response via interaction with cellular protein soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin). Conversely, TNF-α- or SeV-induced type I interferon response increased when sorcin knocked down, leading to inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus replication. However, the exact role of sorcin in regulation of the immune response is still not clear. Here, we show that mice deficient of sorcin (sorcin−/−) display enhanced ConA-induced hepatitis. Importantly, splenocytes from sorcin−/− mice produced more IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-γ than that of littermate controls (sorcin+/+) in response to anti-CD3/28 stimulation. Furthermore, our data indicate that sorcin
Protein and RNA synthesis are inhibited when VSV infects certain cells. UV-inactivation analysis of the virus indicates that transcription of two regions of the viral genome are required for efficient inhibition. The larger of the two viral products represents transcription of approximately 1500 nucleotides and may represent the N protein gene, while the smaller product is approximately 40 nucleotides long. The latter product is thought to be encoded at the 3-proximal end of the genome.^ Two viral mutants have been shown to be deficient in the expression of the smaller transcription product and result in less efficient inhibition of both protein and RNA synthesis. Analysis of these mutants and the UV-inactivated wild-type virus have allowed for the establishment of conditions where the effects of either the large or the small transcription product can be observed independent of the other. This will allow for the correlation of a viral product with inhibition, and thereby establish the causative
Early biochemical experiments established that the minimal RNA synthesis machinery of NNS RNA viruses comprises the N encased genomic RNA associated with the viral polymerase, an L-P complex (Emerson and Yu, 1975; Mellon and Emerson, 1978). The atomic structure of N‐RNA complexes from VSV and rabies virus provided evidence that the RNA must somehow be dissociated from N for copying by the polymerase (Albertini et al, 2006; Green et al, 2006). The co‐crystal structure of the PCTD of VSV with the N‐RNA complex led to a model in which P brings L to the RNA template by binding directly between N molecules, and this interaction is perhaps also required to keep L associated with the N‐RNA during copying (Green and Luo, 2009). By now providing the first direct evidence that L can actually use RNA in the absence of the N and P, we have defined the minimal RNA synthesis components as L and RNA. We conclude that while N and P play important roles in viral RNA synthesis they are not essential for ...
To localize the virus, we used a green fluorescent reporter gene coupled to the VSV-G gene in the position of the fifth VSV gene. This would shift the viral L-gene to the sixth position, resulting in attenuated L-protein synthesis and a slight reduction in replication (Dalton and Rose, 2001), an advantage when considering treatment of the brain. Live microscopic imaging of the brain allowed us for the first time to follow the time course with single-cell resolution, from before inoculation to a point when VSV had spread throughout the tumor. In experiments in which we imaged VSV oncolysis through a glass window above the brain using time-lapse confocal laser microscopy, green viral infection of red cortical tumors spread throughout the tumor, mostly by local expansion of the area of infected cells. Blood vessels appeared mostly undamaged even late in tumor infection. Furthermore, vessel cells that stained positive for the endothelial marker von Willebrand factor appeared to be spared from ...
Highly pathogenic viruses with zoonotic potential such as H5N1 influenza viruses, Nipah virus, rabies virus, SARS coronavirus, Lassa fever virus, and Ebola virus require handling in BSL-3/4 containment, which makes diagnosis of and studies on these viruses difficult and expensive. Propagation-incompetent pseudotype viruses represent an elegant solution for this problem. Pseudotype viruses are equipped with the envelope proteins of heterotypic viruses and therefore behave similar to these in terms of cell tropism or antibody-mediated neutralization.. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is known to incorporate foreign viral glycoproteins in a more or less unspecific manner, in particular in the absence of the VSV G glycoprotein. Pseudotype virus can be generated by propagating the glycoprotein-deficient mutant VSVΔG on cells that express the viral envelope protein of interest. The virus particles released are capable of performing a single round of infection, which is mediated by the incorporated ...
Several states including Florida, Kentucky, Illinois, North Carolina, and Oklahoma have enhanced the entry requirements for Texas livestock, including horses, due to the cases of vesicular stomatitis.
The New Mexico Livestock Board has issued a new directive regarding Vesicular Stomatitis (VS), signed by state veterinarian Dr. Dave Fly.. Read the rest of the story New Mexico Horse Breeders Association ...
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Vaccines based on viruses have the ability to provide lifelong protection from disease through induction of robust immunological memory. The Rose laboratory has developed vaccine platforms based on recombinant viruses that can be engineered to express high levels of foreign antigens. One of the major platforms is based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a cattle virus that induces potent immune responses in a wide variety of animal species. The virus has been attenuated so that it no longer causes disease and then engineered to express protective antigens from other viruses or bacteria. Immunization with such vectors protects animals from infection and disease caused by numerous pathogens including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), Ebola virus, and Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that caused the notorious bubonic plagues.. Research projects in the Rose laboratory are focused on further development and testing of the VSV vaccine ...
Plasmid pHEF-VSVG from Dr. Sergey Kasparovs lab contains the insert Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein and is published in Physiol Genomics. 2003 Feb 6. 12(3):221-8. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The Herpes Stomatitis is also commonly referred to as Stomatitis Herpetic. The condition is a viral infection of the mouth which triggers both inflammation and ulcers. The mouth ulcers are not akin to canker sores that are triggered by a dissimilar virus. What Causes Herpes Stomatitis? Herpes Stomatitis is a transmissible virus disease that is […]. ...
Nicotinic stomatitis is not considered a pre cancerous condition, however there are exceptions to every rule. The image above shows nicotinic stomatitis in an elderly man who has been smoking a pipe for many years. He does not have teeth, nor does he have a denture to protect his palate. The thick, white keratinization on the edentulous (toothless) ridges are probably at least partly due to years of chewing on bare gums, made worse by the pipe smoke which was probably habitually aimed more at this area of the mouth than others. The irregular red and white lesion proved to be squamous cell carcinoma. While nicotinic stomatitis is not considered to be pre cancerous, leukoplakia definitely is! (See the images below.) Both leukoplakia and nicotinic stomatitis are composed of keratinized tissue, and the difference in carcinogenicity may, in fact, be due mostly to the differences in the resistances of the tissues on which they are found. Perhaps very long exposure of the palatal tissues to hot, ...
Creative Biolabs provides Human anti-vesicular stomatitis virus octapeptide (VSV8) (aa 52-59) T cell receptor, pCDTCR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
Although viruses are the smallest organisms with the shortest genomes, they have major impacts on human health, causing deadly diseases (e.g., influenza, AIDS, cancer) on a global scale. To reproduce, a virus particle must infect a living cell and divert biosynthetic resources toward production of virus components. A better mechanistic understanding the infection cycle could lead to insights for more effective anti-viral strategies. However, simulating the virus infection cycle is a computationally hard problem because some species fluctuate rapidly while others change gradually in number. We study vesicular stomatitis virus, an experimentally accessible virus for which we have developed a deterministic kinetic model of growth (Lim et al, PLoS Comp Bio, 2006). Stochastic simulation of VSV genome encapsidation is a computationally-intensive chain reaction that produces rapid fluctuations in the nucleocapsid(N) protein that associates with the genome. Analytical results from order statistics ...
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent in the family Paramyxoviridae that is maintained in nature by bats. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Bangladesh and have been associated with 40 to 75% case fatality rates. There are currently no vaccines or postexposure treatments licensed for combating human NiV infection. Four groups of ferrets received a single vaccination with different recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing: Group 1, control with no glycoprotein; Group 2, the NiV fusion protein (F); Group 3, the NiV attachment protein (G); and Group 4, a combination of the NiV F and G proteins. Animals were challenged intranasally with NiV 28 days after vaccination. Control ferrets in Group 1 showed characteristic clinical signs of NiV disease including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, viral load in blood and tissues, and gross lesions and antigen in target tissues; all animals in this group succumbed to infection by day 8. Importantly
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of the Rhabdoviridae family, contains a single surface glycoprotein (G) that is responsible for attachment to cells and mediates membrane fusion. Working with the Indiana serotype of VSV, we employed a reverse genetic approach to produce fully authentic recombinant viral particles bearing lethal mutations in the G gene. By altering the hydrophobicity of the two fusion loops within G, we produced a panel of mutants, W72A, Y73A, Y116A, and A117F, that were nonfusogenic. Propagation of viruses bearing those lethal mutations in G completely depended on complementation by expression of the glycoprotein from the heterologous New Jersey serotype of VSV. The nonfusogenic G proteins oligomerize and are transported normally to the cell surface but fail to mediate acid pH-triggered membrane fusion. The nonfusogenic G proteins also interfered with the ability of wild-type G to mediate fusion, either by formation of mixed trimers or by inhibition of trimer ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus of the New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) causes vesicular disease in cattle, pigs, and horses throughout the Americas. Vesicular disease is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Therefore, outbreaks of vesicular disease in FMD-free areas must be rapidly diagnosed by laboratory methods and affected farms must be quarantined until laboratory results confirm the absence of FMD. Diagnosis is currently performed in high-containment (biosafety level 3) laboratories by using complement fixation and virus isolation in tissue culture. We describe here an alternative method for the detection of VSV-NJ RNA in clinical samples. This method includes a rapid acid guanidine-phenol RNA extraction procedure coupled with a one-tube polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using reverse transcriptase. By using this test, we were able to detect the largest number of positive samples (53 of 58), followed by complement (48 of 58) and isolation in tissue culture (43 of 58). The ...
A full-length cDNA copy of the phosphoprotein (NS) mRNA of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) was inserted into pGEM4 vector downstream of the promoter for bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase. Transcription of the cDNA in vitro resulted in the synthesis of NS mRNA, which was subsequently translated into NS protein in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system. The biological activity of the expressed NS protein was demonstrated by in vitro synthesis of mRNA by transcription-reconstitution with purified viral L protein and N-RNA template. Deletion mapping of the NS gene defined a specific domain between amino acid residues 213 and 247, which was essential for in vitro transcription. Removal of the COOH-terminal 21 amino acids, on the other hand, did not have a significant effect on transcription. This domain appears to be involved in efficient binding of NS protein to the N protein-RNA template. ...
VSIV is an arbovirus. Natural VSIV infections encompass two steps, cytolytic infections of mammalian hosts and transmission by insects. In insects, infections are noncytolytic persistent. One confirmed vector of the virus is the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia shannoni.[3] Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is the prototypic member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The genome of the virus is a single molecule of negative-sense RNA that encodes five major proteins: G protein (G), large protein (L), phosphoprotein, matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein. The genome is 11,161 nucleotides long.[4] The VSIV G protein enables viral entry. It mediates viral attachment to an LDL receptor (LDLR) or an LDLR family member present on the host cell.[5] Following binding the VSIV-LDLR complex is rapidly endocytosed It then mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles ...
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00499-19 Interpretive Summary: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an infectious agent belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family and the genus vesiculovirus, where vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) and VSNJV are the two main serotypes. The negative sense, single stranded RNA genome of VSV is about 11 kb, and encodes five structural proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L). VS is confined to the Americas, where VSNJV is the serotype responsible for the majority of the clinical cases reported annually in livestock. In Mexico, VSV is endemic in the southern states of Chiapas, Tabasco and Veracruz, where multiple phylogenetic analysis have shown the great genetic diversity associated with the concurrent circulation of multiple lineages. A relevant aspect of these endemic lineages is that some of them may become the precursors of the epidemic lineages responsible ...
0025] In certain other embodiments, the VSV vector of the immunogenic composition comprises a G.sub.(ct) mutation and a M.sub.(ncp) mutation. In another embodiment, the G protein encoded by the truncated G gene has a cytoplasmic tail domain consisting of one amino acid (G.sub.(ct-1)) or a cytoplasmic tail domain consisting of nine amino acids (G.sub.(ct-9)). In another embodiment, the M.sub.(ncp) mutation is a mutation of methionine to alanine at position 33 (M33A) and a mutation of methionine to alanine at position 51 (M51A) of the M protein. In one particular embodiment, the immunogenic composition comprises a mutated VSV genome of 3-NPM.sub.(ncp)G.sub.(ct-1)L-5 or 3-NPM.sub.(ncp)G.sub.(ct-9)L-5. In yet other embodiments, the VSV vector of the immunogenic composition further comprises a third class of mutation in its genome, wherein the mutation is a ts mutation, a point mutation, a gene shuffling mutation, a G-stem mutation, an ambisense RNA mutation, a G gene insertion mutation and a ...
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Restitution of infectivity to spikeless vesicular stomatitis virus by solubilized viral components.: Noninfectious spikeless particles have been obtained from v
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overlapping and distinct molecular determinants dictating the antiviral activities of TRIM56 against flaviviruses and coronavirus. AU - Liu, Baoming. AU - Li, Nan L.. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Shi, Pei Yong. AU - Wang, Tianyi. AU - Miller, Mark A.. AU - Li, Kui. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins have emerged as a new class of host antiviral restriction factors, with several demonstrating roles in regulating innate antiviral responses. Of,70 known TRIMs, TRIM56 inhibits replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus, a ruminant pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, but has no appreciable effect on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a rhabdovirus. Yet the antiviral spectrum of TRIM56 remains undefined. In particular, how TRIM56 impacts human-pathogenic viruses is unknown. Also unclear are the molecular determinants governing the antiviral activities of TRIM56. Herein, we show that TRIM56 poses a barrier to infections by yellow fever virus (YFV), ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The biting midge Culicoides sonorensis, a known arboviral insect vector, has been implicated as a possible vector for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the western United States. Within a competent insect vector, virus from a meal must be able to penetrate the midgut barrier, infect the midgut epithelium, replicate, and disseminate to the epidemiologically significant organs; salivary glands and eggs. This amplification and dissemination must occur without significant damage to the insects cells. Infection studies were performed in both Culicoides cell lines and insects to examine the replication of VSV. In vitro, Culicoides cells were susceptible and permissive. VSV infections were productive and persistent resulting in little or no cytopathology or apoptosis. In vivo, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy revealed that VSV was able to escape the midgut barrier, disseminate quickly and replicate in epithelial, neural and hemolymph ...
We previously reported that resting mouse peritoneal macrophages (PM) constitutively express low levels of IFN-gamma, whose production is consistently enhanced by exogenous IFN-gamma. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-12 on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus and on IFN-gamma gene expression in mouse PM. The addition of IL-12 to freshly explanted PM resulted in the persistence of an antiviral state to vesicular stomatitis virus, while control PM progressively became permissive for virus replication after 3 to 4 days in culture. The IL-12-induced antiviral state was inhibited by Abs to IFN-gamma, suggesting that endogenous IFN-gamma was largely responsible for this antiviral response. Moreover, IL-12 induced a consistent secretion of IFN-gamma, especially in cultured PM. The IL-1 2-induced antiviral state and IFN-gamma production were observed using PM from various strains of mice, including LPS-defective C3H/HeJ, NK-deficient bg/bg, DBA/2, Swiss (CD1), and Swiss nude ...
In our laboratory we routinely produce and apply vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Since lentiviral vectors (LV) integrate stably into the host-cell genome of non-dividing cells such as neurons and in haematopoietic stem cells [1-3], they offer great potential for gene therapeutic applications [4]. For biosafety reasons, the HIV-1 genome has been modified and cis and trans-acting viral sequences have been segregated over 3 to 4 different plasmids [5, 6]. Indeed, viral structural and functional proteins can be provided in trans and are encoded by 1 or 2 packaging plasmids while the envelope plasmid encodes the glycoprotein of the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope (VSV-G) and a transfer plasmid encodes the transgene of interest flanked by all cis-acting viral sequences necessary for packaging of the RNA genome (reviewed by [7]). Production of lentiviral vectors is routinely achieved by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney (293T) cells using high ...
Wyoming is now the fifth state to have a horse that has tested positive for vesicular stomatitis. The Wyoming Livestock Board says the affected horse was at the Cheyenne Frontier Days for five-days before the horses lesions were found.
Dairies need to keep a close eye out for vesicular stomatitis, and take action immediately to protect their herds - and Morgan County has quite a few dairies.
Dr. Rose earned his Ph.D. at Stanford University in 1973 in the laboratory of Dr. Charles Yanofsky. His thesis research focused on regulation of the tryptophan operon of E. coli. He then did postdoctoral research at MIT in the laboratories of Drs. David Baltimore and Harvey Lodish, where he began work on eucaryotic RNA viruses. In 1978, Dr. Rose took a faculty position at the Salk Institute, where he continued work on RNA virus transcription, as well as structure, function, and transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein. In 1986, he moved to become Professor of Pathology and Cell Biology at Yale University School of Medicine. In 1994, his laboratory developed a system for recovering non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses from DNA plasmids. His work at Yale during the past fifteen years has focused largely on new approaches to vaccine development using vectors based on recombinant VSV and other viral replicons. This work has led to development of robust vaccine platforms ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a potential oncolytic virus for treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor. Matrix (M) protein mutants of VSV have shown greater selectivity for killing GBM cells versus normal brain cells than VSV with wild-type M protein. The goal of this research was to determine the contribution of death receptor and mitochondrial pathways to apoptosis induced by an M protein mutant (M51R) VSV in U87 human GBM tumor cells. Compared to controls, U87 cells expressing a dominant negative form of Fas (dnFas) or overexpressing Bcl-XL had reduced caspase-3 activation following infection with M51R VSV, indicating that both the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathways are important for M51R VSV-induced apoptosis. Death receptor signaling has been classified as type I or type II, depending on whether signaling is independent (type I) or dependent on the mitochondrial pathway (type II). Bcl-XL overexpression inhibited caspase activation in response to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myosin II is involved in the production of constitutive transport vesicles from the TGN. AU - Müsch, Anne. AU - Cohen, David. AU - Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique. PY - 1997/7/28. Y1 - 1997/7/28. N2 - The participation of nonmuscle myosins in the transport of organelles and vesicular carriers along actin filaments has been documented. In contrast, there is no evidence for the involvement of myosins in the production of vesicles involved in membrane traffic. Here we show that the putative TGN coat protein p200 (Narula, N., I. McMorrow, G. Plopper, J. Doherty, K.S. Matlin, B. Burke, and J.L. Stow. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 114: 1113- 1124) is myosin II. The recruitment of myosin II to Golgi membranes is dependent on actin and is regulated by G proteins. Using an assay that studies the release of transport vesicles from the TGN in vitro we provide functional evidence that p200/myosin is involved in the assembly of basolateral transport vesicles carrying vesicular stomatitis virus G protein ...
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), which is frequently resistant to current available therapies and has a very poor prognosis. To prevent the development of ATL among carriers it is important to control HTLV-1-infected cells in infected individuals. Therefore, the establishment of novel therapies with drugs specifically targeting infected cells is urgently required. This study aimed to develop a potential therapy by generating recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) that lack an envelope glycoprotein G and instead encode HTLV-1 receptor(s) with human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), or heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) including syndecan 1 (SDC1), designated as VSVΔG-GL, VSVΔG-NP, or VSVΔG-SD, respectively ...
Definition of feline ulcerative stomatitis in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is feline ulcerative stomatitis? Meaning of feline ulcerative stomatitis as a legal term. What does feline ulcerative stomatitis mean in law?
Induction of B cell tolerance or activation was analyzed with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G) expressed as a neo-self Ag. A membrane form of VSV-G expressed in all tissues, including the bone marrow, induced unresponsiveness at both the Th and B cell level, whereas a soluble form of VSV-G expressed peripherally in liver and kidney did not tolerize B cells and only reversibly anergized Th cells. Interestingly, a similar correlation was found for activation of mature lymphocytes. When mature normal spleen cells were transferred into the two transgenic mouse lines, the membrane form of VSV-G was strongly immunogenic for both Th and B cells, and high VSV-G-specific IgG Ab titers were induced in these transgenic mice. In contrast, spleen cells transferred into mice expressing the soluble form of VSV-G were not activated, and no VSV-G specific Abs were induced. These results indicate that highly immunogenic Ags are strongly tolerogenic for both immature B and T cells.
Since the onset of antiviral therapy, viral resistance has compromised the clinical value of small-molecule drugs targeting pathogen components. As intracellular parasites, viruses complete their life cycle by hijacking a multitude of host-factors. Aiming at the latter rather than the pathogen directly, host-directed antiviral therapy has emerged as a concept to counteract evolution of viral resistance and develop broad-spectrum drug classes. This approach is propelled by bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide screens that greatly enhance insights into the complex network of host-pathogen interactions and generate a shortlist of potential gene targets from a multitude of candidates, thus setting the stage for a new era of rational identification of drug targets for host-directed antiviral therapies. With particular emphasis on human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus, two major human pathogens, we review screens employed to elucidate host-pathogen interactions and discuss the state of database
If you look up the words vesicular and stomatitis on Google, youll find vesicular means blister. Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mouth.
The oncolytic mutant vesicular stomatitis virus VSVΔ51 achieves robust efficacy in multiple extracranial tumor models. Yet for malignancies of the brain, direct intratumoral infusion of VSVΔ51 causes lethal virus-induced neuropathology. Here, we have developed a novel therapeutic regime that uses peripheral immunization with a single sub-lethal dose of VSVΔ51 to establish an acute anti-viral state that enables the safe intracranial (IC) infusion of an otherwise lethal dose of VSVΔ51 within just 6 hr. Although type I interferons alone appeared insufficient to explain this protective phenotype, serum isolated at early time points from primed animals conferred protection against an IC dose of virus ...
Since the development of vaccinia virus as a vaccine vector in 1984, the utility of numerous viruses in vaccination strategies has been explored. In recent years, key improvements to existing vectors such as those based on adenovirus have led to significant improvements in immunogenicity and efficacy. Furthermore, exciting new vectors that exploit viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have emerged. Herein, we summarize these recent developments in viral vector technologies, focusing on novel vectors based on CMV, VSV, measles and modified adenovirus. We discuss the potential utility of these exciting approaches in eliciting protection against infectious diseases ...
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are essential for organisms survival upon viral infection. During infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by neurotropic viruses, resident cells are mostly responsible for local IFN-I production. This IFN-I is crucial to restrict viral replication and spread awaiting the development of adaptive immunity that allows the clearance of the virus. Virtually all CNS cells can produce and respond to IFN-I. Firstly, we studied the specificity of neuronal response to IFN-I. In our laboratory, Sophie Paul had previously observed that mouse neurons treated with IFN-I remain susceptible to infection by two neurotropic viruses, Theilers virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), unlike other cell types. We demonstrated that neurons readily respond to IFN-I treatment by expressing antiviral genes. However, they display a specific gene expression signature. We determined that 15 genes, induced by IN-I in fibroblasts, are weakly or not expressed in neurons in response to ...
Provided by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, May 21, 2015 - As of May 13, Oklahoma issued emergency import requirements for livestock (equine, bovine, porcine, caprine, ovine or cervidae) entering the state from a county where vesicular stomatitis has been diagnosed within the last 30 days or a county that contains a premise quarantined for vesicular stomatitis shall be accompanied by a Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) dated within five days of entry containing the following statement ...
The number of participants with all grades of stomatitis was defined as the number of participants who had stomatitis grade 1 or higher. Grade 1 = minimal symptoms, normal diet; grade 2 = symptomatic, but able to swallow a modified diet; grade 3 = symptomatic and unable to aliment or hydrate orally; and grade 4 = symptoms associated with life-threatening consequences ...
1. CASE REPORT - Two cases of stomatitis related to fluoxetine intake in the treatment of depression are reported. A 24-year-old woman had been taking fluoxetine for 6 months and experienced six recurrent episodes of stomatitis without complete remission between outbreaks. When fluoxetine was discontinued the stomatitis resolved completely. A rechallenge with fluoxetine 7 months later caused the stomatitis to recur. A second case was reported in a 41-year-old female taking fluoxetine and bentazepam. After both drugs were discontinued the stomatitis resolved in two days. She refused rechallenge with fluoxetine (Palop et al, 1997 ...
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Study protocol for efficacy and safety of steroid-containing mouthwash to prevent chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in women with breast cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2 study ...
Everolimus-induced stomatitis did not negatively affect progression-free survival in patients with various types of cancer, such as breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma.
Stomatitis in cats is common and very painful. The symptoms are subtle. Soxs treatment made a wonderful difference. Visit the site or call 1300 838 336
A virus striking horses ill in Colorado has been found in 11 counties, including Larimer County, the hardest hit area with 70 confirmed cases of vesicular stomatitis.
Reto Guler from the Division of Immunology & International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnolog at the IDM, UCT will present the MCB seminar with a talk entitled, Host-directed drug therapy for tuberculosis. ...
TB stays a major reason for impairment and fatality worldwide as an approximated 8.6 million folks fell ill with TB as well as 1.3 million individuals pass
The preliminary stages of the Indiana State Cup, Presidents Cup and Challenge Cup were held at various locations at the weekend and featured delight and heartbreak in varying measures for Southern Indiana sides.Performance of the weekend came courtesy of Southern Indiana United U17 Renegade, who went through its Challenge Cup preliminary bracket with a 100…
STATS Indiana is the statistical data utility for the State of Indiana, developed and maintained since 1985 by the Indiana Business Research Center at Indiana Universitys Kelley School of Business. Support is or has been provided by the State of Indiana and the Lilly Endowment, the Indiana Department of Workforce Development and Indiana University.. ...
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"Membrane deformations induced by the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus in a minimal system". J Gen Virol. 86 (Pt 12 ... Kopecky SA, Lyles DS (May 2003). "The cell-rounding activity of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein is due to the ... The family of vesiculovirus matrix proteins consists of several matrix proteins of the vesicular stomatitis virus, also known ... In turn, this induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell. Enveloped viruses acquire ...
The prototypical and best studied rhabdovirus is vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus. It is a preferred model system to study ... In 2015 two novel rhabdoviruses, Ekpoma virus 1 and Ekpoma virus 2, were discovered in samples of blood from two healthy women ... Ekpoma virus 1 and Ekpoma virus 2 appear to replicate well in humans (viral load ranged from ~45,000 - ~4.5 million RNA copies/ ... Diseases associated with member viruses include rabies encephalitis caused by the rabies virus, and flu-like symptoms in humans ...
"Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, Indiana Serotype - Multiplication in and Transmission by Experimentally Infected Phlebotomine ... One such virus of medical importance is the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) of the genus Vesiculovirus. Viruses of this genus ... The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. ... Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to ...
For example, polysomal profiling was used in a study to investigate the effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in mammalian ... Neidermyer WJ, Whelan SP (June 2019). "Global analysis of polysome-associated mRNA in vesicular stomatitis virus infected cells ... Polysomes are present in archaea, but not much is known about the structure. in situ (in cell) studies have shown that ... with 3-D polyribosomes being found in sarcoma cells using fluorescence microscopy. Atomic force microscopy used in in vitro ...
"Role of temperature-sensitive mutants in persistent infections initiated with vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of Virology ... and also infections of vesicular stomatitis virus, sendai virus, and persistent newcastle disease virus. Youngner is ... Youngner, J. S.; Quagliana, D. O. (1976-07-01). "Temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus are conditionally ... Youngner studied the role of in-apparent infections in an effort to link a selection of wild type virus to chronic and ...
It is well known as a vector of the vesicular stomatitis virus, which causes the disease vesicular stomatitis in animals, ... Emergence and re-emergence of vesicular stomatitis in the United States. Virus Research 85(2), 211-19. Vesicular Stomatitis. ... The bite of the female fly transmits the vesicular stomatitis virus in mammals. The disease in cattle and pigs is impossible to ... One well-studied vesicular stomatitis virus enzootic involving this fly is on Ossabaw Island off the coast of Georgia in the ...
... expresses the surface glycoprotein of the Kikwit 1995 strain of Zaire ebolavirus in a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ... In the eight previous Ebola outbreaks in DRC since 1976, the virus had never before reached a major city. In May 2018, for the ... 2017). "A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 376 (4): 330-41. doi:10.1056/ ... there were 26 cases of EVD in men and 18 in women; 7 cases were in children 14 years and under, and 9 were in those over 60 ...
Snapback defections have been observed in vesicular stomatitis virus. Panhandle defections are when the polymerase carries a ... particles of vesicular stomatitis virus in electron micrographs. DIPs can occur within nearly every class of both DNA and RNA ... Mosaic or complex DI genome, in which the various regions may come from the same helper virus genome but in the wrong order; ... Examples of this type of defection can be found in tomato spotted wilt virus and Flock House virus. Snapbacks defections are ...
"Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human ... She has been involved in research uncovering critical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses, and has used ... Hensley joined USAMRIID in 1998 as a research associate in the Pathology Division. She has co-authored over 180 publications in ... Hensley is the subject of a chapter in journalist Richard Preston's 2002 book Demon in the Freezer, which covers the history of ...
... in 1976; his thesis research focused on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) under the supervision of Dr. David Baltimore and Dr. ... "Maturation of viral proteins in cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of ... "Separate pathways of maturation of the major structural proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus". Journal of Virology. 21 (3): ... "Analysis of the defects of temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus: intracellular degradation of specific ...
His research focused on the vesicular stomatitis virus. Wagner died of cancer in 2001. Wagner attended Columbia University as ... Much of his research focused on the molecular biology of the vesicular stomatitis virus. With student Alice S. Huang, Wagner ... The journal launched in 1966, and Wagner continued in his role for 15 years, overseeing a large expansion in the size of the ... Wagner joined the faculty at Yale University in 1951 and then moved to Johns Hopkins in 1957, where he became the director of ...
rVSV-ZEBOV is a live, attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the gene for the native envelope ... NewLink in turn licensed it to Merck in 2014. It was used in the DR Congo in a 2018 outbreak in Équateur province, and has ... Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus (rVSV-ZEBOV), also known as Ebola Zaire vaccine live and sold under ... November 2011). "Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Ebola Vaccines With Improved Cross-Protective Efficacy". Journal of ...
... can refer to: Vesicular stomatitis virus, a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae Vishista Seva Vibhushanaya, a military ...
... , formerly Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV or VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the ... Davis NL, Wertz GW (March 1982). "Synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus negative-strand RNA in vitro: dependence on viral ... A human case of encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988; ... "Systemic vesicular stomatitis virus selectively destroys multifocal glioma and metastatic carcinoma in brain". The Journal of ...
... of the processing intermediates in the synthesis of the complex oligosaccharide units of the vesicular stomatitis virus G ... The SNFG nomenclature has also been adopted as a standard by major databases and journals in the Biomedical Sciences. In 1978, ... Ensure uniform usage of the nomenclature in the literature, thus helping to ensure scientific accuracy in journal and online ... For long-term development of this symbol nomenclature and standardization of glycan representation in the Glycosciences, in ...
... recombinant vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) expressing the glycoprotein of MARV has been used successfully in ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) or filovirus-like particles (VLPs) as all of these candidates could protect nonhuman ... MVD is caused by two viruses; Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV), family Filoviridae. Marburgviruses are endemic in ...
... (rVSV vaccines) are vaccines made using recombinant Indiana vesiculovirus. rVSV ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines. If an ... a candidate against the Marburg virus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-based vaccine candidate against ...
In the context of viral infection vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) challenge of murine peritoneal macrophages was reported to ... In DNA viruses, miRNAs were experimentally verified, miRNAs in viruses are encoded by dsDNAs, examples of such viruses include ... These investigators found that forced expression of miR-155-5p in bone marrow cells resulted in a ~50% decrease in SPI1 (i.e. ... Viruses can exploit host miRNAs to the degree that they use host miRNAs to encode for viral clones for example: miR-K12-11 in ...
"Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in ... A key interest in TBK1 is due to its role in innate immunity, especially in antiviral responses. TBK1 is redundant with IKK ϵ ... In contrast, binding to NAP1 and SINTBAD leads to localization in the cytoplasm and involvement in autophagy. Another adaptor ... TBK1 is involved in many signaling pathways and forms a node between them. For this reason, regulation of its involvement in ...
Huang also moved to MIT to continue her research on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). They became a couple, and married in ... 2 articles by Luke Frankiw published in 2019 and 2020). In an autobiographical piece published in Annual Review Immunology in ... The infectious clone, DNA encoding the genome of a virus, is a standard tool used today in virology. In 1982, with a charitable ... He also continued to pursue fundamental questions in RNA viruses and in 1981, Baltimore and Vincent Racaniello, a post-doctoral ...
"Activation of TBK1 and IKKvarepsilon kinases by vesicular stomatitis virus infection and the role of viral ribonucleoprotein in ... Also plays an important role in energy balance regulation by sustaining a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation in obesity, ... In addition, is also required for the induction of a subset of ISGs which displays antiviral activity, may be through the ... In order to establish such an antiviral state, IKBKE forms several different complexes whose composition depends on the type of ...
LDLR has been identified as the primary mode of entry for the Vesicular stomatitis virus in mice and humans. In addition, LDLR ... It was also reported that by association with lipoprotein in the blood, viruses such as hepatitis C virus, Flaviviridae viruses ... "LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus". Proceedings of the ... Synthesis of receptors in the cell is regulated by the level of free intracellular cholesterol; if it is in excess for the ...
... developed this strain of lentivirus by transinfecting 293T cells with pseudotyped virus with the vesicular stomatitis G protein ... Many such viruses have been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy, but the lentivirus is unique in its ability to ... There are multiple steps involved in the infection and replication of a lentivirus in a host cell. In the first step the virus ... Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the ...
In collaboration with Alice S. Huang, Reiss's lab studied viral encephalitis, the pathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ( ... In addition to the department of biology, she has faculty appointments in neural science in NYU's Faculty of Arts and Science, ... in biology, 1972), Sarah Lawrence College (M.S. in human genetics, 1973). She earned a Ph.D. in microbiology from Mount Sinai ... Reiss was editor-in-chief of the journal Viral Immunology (2000-2006) and is currently editor-in-chief of the journal DNA and ...
... protects against viruses such as encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as well as the hepatitis B virus in ... The receptor is expressed largely in epithelial cells, specifically keratinocytes and melanocytes found in the epidermis. The ... In binding to the receptor, interferon lambdas inhibit cell growth and the cell begins to produce cellular receptors that can ... Cells such as those in the central nervous system, uterus, bone marrow, testis and skeletal muscle have low mRNA levels and do ...
... virus is classified in the Rhabdoviridae family and is related to the viral agents that cause rabies and vesicular stomatitis. ... The Flanders virus was named after the town in which it was first discovered in 1960. This town, in New York is a hamlet that ... The Flanders virus is similar to the antigentic make-up of the Hart Park virus. Both the HP and Flanders viruses are part of ... Symptoms specific to the HP virus in humans have not been conclusive, however; symptoms of RNA viruses include: hepatitis, ...
"Vesicular stomatitis virus with the rabies virus glycoprotein directs retrograde transsynaptic transport among neurons in vivo ... During this stage, viruses leave the original host cell in search of a new host. In the case of neurotropic viruses, this ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviridae family) - anterograde. Sindbis virus (Togaviridae family) - anterograde with small ... In nature, neurotropic viruses are usually transmitted through bites or scratches, as in the case of Rabies virus or certain ...
An RNA polymerase in the virion." This paper went on to show that "the virions of vesicular stomatitis virus contain an enzyme ... In her postdoctoral work at the Salk Institute and MIT with David Baltimore, Dr. Huang worked on vesicular stomatitis virus ( ... Later, in her work with her husband at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) she ... The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), known to infect horses, cattle and swine, was the virus she first chose to study. It did ...
... the resulting supernatants were shown to inhibit growth of vesicular stomatitis virus. Those reports also contained the basic ... "Interleukin-13 in the skin and interferon-gamma in the liver are key players in immune protection in human schistosomiasis". ... The most promising result was achieved in patients with stage 2 and 3 of ovarian carcinoma. The in vitro study of IFN-gamma in ... In the cartoon model, one monomer is shown in red, the other in blue. ...
G-protein of Vesicular stomatitis virus. These substitutions will result in functional virons. Baculovirus expression in insect ... Starting in the 1940s the viruses were used and studied widely as biopesticides in crop fields. Since the 1990s they have been ... The baculovirus life cycle involves two distinct forms of virus. Occlusion derived virus (ODV) is present in a protein matrix ( ... Starting in the 1940s they were used and studied widely as biopesticides in crop fields. Baculoviruses contain a circular ...
Vesicular stomatitis virusEdit. See also: Oncolytic virus. In 2000, researchers used the vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to ... larger tumors in the frontal lobe can cause changes in the ability to think. However, a smaller tumor in an area such as ... the researchers applied the technology to in vivo models of cancer and in 2005 reported a long-term survival benefit in an ... These two types are equally numerous in the brain as a whole, although glial cells outnumber neurons roughly 4 to 1 in the ...
... vaccine against Lassa virus based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing the Lassa virus glycoprotein. ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ...
Vesicular Stomatitis [378], BVD [379] Orf [380] ጥቂት ምሳሌዎች ናቸው። የወፍ ኢንፍሉኤንዛና የመሳሰሉ በሽታዎች ሕዝቡ በሚገባ ማወቅና መዘጋጀት ይኖርበታል። [381] [382] ... የዶክተሩ ሥራዎች የተለያዩ መጽሓፍትና መጽሔቶች ውስጥም ተጠቅሰዋል። ምሳሌ፦ History of Mathematics in Africa, AMUCHMA 25 Years (ገጽ 526) [573] [574] ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus)ን ክትባት እንደማይከላከለው በጊዜው ከሚያውቁት ሳይንቲስቶችና የበሽታ መከላከያ ክትባት ሠሪዎች ኣንዱ በመሆናቸው በሽታው ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ሊያስከትል ከሚችለው ... 1,742] Jossy (Yoseph Gebre) "J in Z House SHOW" interview with Dr. Aberra Molla - Part 1 of 4, የ፬ ክፍል ፩ ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... In a 2012 study conducted by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, mutant mice (with a knock-in ... The study in mice fed with olive oil resulted in an increase in nerve cell autophagy activation compared to controls that had ... and that at least 15 APG genes are involved in autophagy in yeast.[61] A gene known as ATG7 has been implicated in nutrient- ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... In a 2012 study conducted by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, mutant mice (with a knock-in ... and that at least 15 APG genes are involved in autophagy in yeast.[69] A gene known as ATG7 has been implicated in nutrient- ... In higher eukaryotes, autophagy is induced in response to the nutrient depletion that occurs in animals at birth after severing ...
B21.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in malignant neoplasms *(B21.0) HIV disease resulting in Kaposi's ... B08.4) Enteroviral vesicular stomatitis with exanthem *Hand, foot and mouth disease ... B22.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in other specified diseases *(B22.0) HIV disease resulting in ... B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in infectious and parasitic diseases *(B20.0) HIV disease resulting ...
Poxviruses are unique among DNA viruses in that they replicate in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than in the nucleus. In ... and the rash was often flat and did not progress beyond the vesicular stage.[23] Sometimes the rash formed pustules, which bled ... In 2017, Canadian scientists recreated an extinct horse pox virus to demonstrate that the smallpox virus can be recreated in a ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
Vesicular stomatitis virusEdit. See also: Oncolytic virus. In 2000, researchers used the vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to ... larger tumors in the frontal lobe can cause changes in the ability to think. However, a smaller tumor in an area such as ... About 3,720 new cases of brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in those under 15 in 2019.[62] Higher rates were reported in ... Brain cancers are the most common cancer in children under 19, are result in more death in this group than leukemia.[64] ...
... the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, but later in life, usually in ... Vesicular fluid can be examined with a Tzanck smear, or by testing for direct fluorescent antibody. The fluid can also be " ... In 2015 chickenpox resulted in 6,400 deaths globally - down from 8,900 in 1990.[5] There were 7,000 deaths in 2013.[13] ... In 2015 chickenpox resulted in 6,400 deaths globally - down from 8,900 in 1990.[5][13] Death occurs in about 1 per 60,000 cases ...
... vesicular stomatitis virus) அல்லது VSV ஐ இண்ட்டர்ஃபெரான் உடன் இணைத்துப் பயன்படுத்தினால் ஆரோக்கியமான உயிரணுக்களுக்கு எந்த ... Clinical trials in brain tumors.. Accessed June 2000. *↑ Nicolato A, Gerosa MA, Fina P, Iuzzolino P, Giorgiutti F, Bricolo A ( ... Researchers Find Cancer-Killing Virus; July 24, 2000. *↑ Yale Lab Engineers Virus That Can Kill Deadly Brain Tumors; February ... Brain metastasis in the right cerebral hemisphere from lung cancer shown on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with ...
A 2009 study showed the protein VP16 plays a key role in reactivation of the dormant virus.[71] Changes in the immune system ... Common mouth ulcers (aphthous ulcer) also resemble intraoral herpes, but do not present a vesicular stage.[39] ... such as allergic stomatitis. When lesions do not appear inside the mouth, primary orofacial herpes is sometimes mistaken for ... In the UK, the Herpes Association (now the Herpes Viruses Association) was started in 1982, becoming a registered charity with ...
How the virus remains in the body or subsequently re-activates is not well understood.[1] Exposure to the virus in the blisters ... Old references cite vesicular rash as a characteristic finding, however, recent studies have found that rash is only present in ... Mortality rates in treated patients are decreasing.[104]. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w ... In Arabic its name means "belt of fire", while in Spanish it means "small snake"; in Hindi it means "big rash"[100] and in ...
... of mutations in vesicular stomatitis virus. In this experiment, random mutations were introduced into the virus by site- ... One example is a study done on the DFE of random mutations in vesicular stomatitis virus.[74] Out of all mutations, 39.6% were ... which has already been done in viruses, bacteria, yeast, and Drosophila. For example, most studies of the DFE in viruses used ... insisting on gradualism in evolution as in geology. In 1864, Albert von Kölliker revived Geoffroy's theory.[32] In 1901 the ...
... or based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons,[43] vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)[45][48] or filovirus- ... recombinant vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) expressing the glycoprotein of MARV has been used successfully in ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... In 1975, an Australian tourist became infected with MARV in Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe). He died in a hospital in Johannesburg, ...
"Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector Mediates Postexposure Protection against Sudan Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in ... "Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with Ebola and Marburg viruses". ... virus Ébola (EBOV, tamén chamado Zaire), virus Bundibugyo (BDBV), virus Sudán (SUDV), e virus Bosque Taï (TAFV, tamén chamado ... "Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Ebola Vaccine is Well-Tolerated and Protects Immunocompromised Nonhuman Primates". PLoS ...
... indicated that this interaction induced an antiviral state that strongly inhibited vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV ... In addition, absence of detectable seroconversion and failure to detect virus in cloacal swabs are unreliable indicators of ... Virus particles can range between 70-80 nm. Morphologically, the virus is a double stranded RNA virus that is composed of ten ... "Isolation of viruses from outbreaks of suspected tenosynovitis in chickens". Research in Veterinary Science. 31 (1): 31, 100- ...
Farmer also sought to prevent an outbreak of vesicular stomatitis virus in the state's horses and cattle by banning the import ... In the Wildcats' third game of the year - a win over Notre Dame in the Big Four Classic - Farmer led the team in scoring with ... In Clay County's next game in the Classic, Farmer broke the school's career scoring record, scoring his 2,193rd point in a 76- ... He scored 17 points in a 107-93 win. In the first of two matchups with Indiana's All-Star team, the Kentucky All-Stars lost 102 ...
"Heavy chain binding protein recognizes incompletely disulfide-bonded forms of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein". The ... Dengue virus induces PERK dependent ER stress as part of virus induced response in infected cells to favor replication. ... is a key transcription factor involved in mediating the UPR in a tissue-specific manner in skeletal muscles by coactivating ... Influenza virus requires endoplasmic reticulum protein 57-kD (ERp57) for replication and apoptosis induction in infected cells ...
In the late 1970s and early 1980s he identified genomic sequences for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus (RABV ... termini of RNA from vesicular stomatitis virus and its defective interfering particles". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... and for Ebola virus and Marburg virus from the broader group of negative-strand RNA viruses (NSRV). He identified the origins ... graduating in 1975 with a doctorate in microbiology and Immunology. He did postdoctoral work in molecular virology with Robert ...
... and has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis virus and Encephalomyocarditis virus, as well as ... "Human guanylate binding protein-1 is a secreted GTPase present in increased concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of ... In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. ... In humans, there are seven GBPs (hGBP1-7). Structurally, hGBP1 consists of two domains: a compact globular N-terminal domain ...
B virus infection Boston exanthem disease Bovine papular stomatitis Bowenoid papulosis Buffalopox Butcher's wart Chikungunya ... Wojas-Pelc A, Rajzer L, Jaworek A, Woźniak W (2006). "[The latest diagnostical methods and therapy in melanoma]". Prz. Lek. (in ... Congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of the hallux Congenital lip pit ( ... ISBN 978-0-89501-004-9. Tilles G, Wallach D (1989). "[The history of nosology in dermatology]". Ann Dermatol Venereol (in ...
He defined the biosynthesis and maturation of the vesicular stomatitis virus and other plasma membrane glycoproteins, ... from Kenyon College in 1962, and his Ph.D. degree in genetics with Dr. Norton Zinder from the Rockefeller University in 1966. ... profile biotechnology patent trials in Federal Court, notably Amgen vs. TKT Aventis in 2000 and Amgen vs. Roche in 2007. ... The sixth edition was published in 2007 and the book has been translated into ten languages. The seventh edition appeared in ...
"Systemic therapy of experimental breast cancer metastases by mutant vesicular stomatitis virus in immune-competent mice". ... In a wide range of in vivo cancer models, the HSV1716 virus has induced tumour regression and increased survival times. In 1996 ... an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus, became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a rhabdovirus, consisting of 5 genes encoded by a negative sense, single-stranded RNA ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Murphy, F.A. In: Viruses, Evolution and Cancer. Kurstak, E. and Maramorosch, K., editors. Academic Press, New York. 1974. pp. ... 8. Knudson, D.L. and Buckley, S.M. In: Methods in Virology, K. Maramorosch and H. Koprowski, editors. Academic Press, New York ...
Vesicular Stomatitis. #section tr td {vertical-align:text-top;}. SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Vesicular Stomatitis, Indiana serotype Abbreviation: VSIV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 2 ...
The cytopathic effects of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that result in the rounding of BHK21 cells have been studied. The ... Sequential disassembly of the cytoskeleton in BHK21 cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus.. Simon KO1, Whitaker- ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/drug effects. *Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics*. Substances. *Cytoskeletal ... proteins showed the same changes in the cytoskeleton as those detected with wild-type virus. In contrast, cells infected with ...
The in vivo synthesis of polycistronic transcripts of vesicular stomatitis virus in human amnion U cells and mouse L cells was ... The in vivo synthesis of polycistronic transcripts of vesicular stomatitis virus in human amnion U cells and mouse L cells was ... Vesicular stomatitis virus polycistronic transcripts were synthesized in vivo in a roughly uniform distribution, except for the ... Detection of in vivo synthesis of polycistronic mRNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus Virology. 1984 Apr 30;134(2):277-86. doi: ...
... neurovirulence and pathogenicity in rodents have been well studied, little is known about VSV pathogenicity in non-human ... To address this question, we measured VSV viremia, shedding, and neurovirulence in macaques. Following intranasal inoculation ... Although vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neurovirulence and pathogenicity in rodents have been well studied, little is known ... Neurovirulence properties of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates Virology. 2007 Mar 30;360(1): ...
... of vesicular stomatitis virus [7].. *Export of the vesicular stomatitis virus strain tsO45 G protein from the ER in vitro is ... High impact information on Vesicular Stomatitis-Indiana Virus. *Chemical compound and disease context of Vesicular Stomatitis- ... Disease relevance of Vesicular Stomatitis-Indiana Virus. *In contrast, perforin-dependent cytotoxicity is not involved in ... Gene context of Vesicular Stomatitis-Indiana Virus. *Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vesicular Stomatitis- ...
RNAi-mediated immunity provides strong protection against the negative-strand RNA vesicular stomatitis virus in Drosophila. ... RNAi-mediated immunity provides strong protection against the negative-strand RNA vesicular stomatitis virus in Drosophila ... RNAi-mediated immunity provides strong protection against the negative-strand RNA vesicular stomatitis virus in Drosophila ... RNAi-mediated immunity provides strong protection against the negative-strand RNA vesicular stomatitis virus in Drosophila ...
... type I interferon expression in mice in response to intranasal vesicular stomatitis virus infection. J Neurovirol 13(5):433-445 ... In the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced encephalitis model, the replication, caudal penetration, and survivability of ... 2001) Pathogenesis of experimental vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) infection in the deer mouse (Peromyscus ... Nuclear receptor REV-ERBα mediates circadian sensitivity to mortality in murine vesicular stomatitis virus-induced encephalitis ...
2004) Replication and cytopathic effect of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus in hypoxic tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. J ... Variable deficiencies in the interferon response enhance susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus oncolytic actions in ... 2003) Vesicular stomatitis viruses with rearranged genomes have altered invasiveness and neuropathogenesis in mice. J Virol 77: ... Systemic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Selectively Destroys Multifocal Glioma and Metastatic Carcinoma in Brain. Koray Özduman, ...
This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. ... Condensates the ribonucleocapsid core during virus assembly. Shut off cellular transcription by inhibiting mRNA nuclear export ... Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity). ... Plays a major role in assembly and budding of virion. ... Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (strain San Juan) (VSIV). ...
"mRNA Cap Methylation Influences Pathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus In Vivo." Journal of Virology 88 (5): 2913-26. https ... Our current understanding of mRNA modifications of NNS RNA viruses comes largely from studies of vesicular stomatitis virus ( ... VSV). In this study, we showed that recombinant VSVs (rVSVs) defective in mRNA cap methylation were attenuated in vitro and in ... In contrast, mice inoculated with rVSV-G1670A and -G1672A, which are defective only in G-N-7 methylation, were attenuated in ...
... Obiang L., Raux H., ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein (M) has a flexible amino-terminal part that recruits cellular partners. It ... Late domains are present in proteins of several enveloped viruses and are involved in the ultimate step of the budding process ... and a mutant with a single mutation in the dynamin-binding motif was much less impaired in Vero cells than in BSR (clones of ...
Characterization of the putative fusogenic domain in vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G.. L Zhang, H P Ghosh ... Characterization of the putative fusogenic domain in vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. ... Characterization of the putative fusogenic domain in vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. ... Characterization of the putative fusogenic domain in vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. ...
... in feces and blood for example virus particles were never found and the transmission by vectors is possible. ... Experimental Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection in Horses A very informative study since vesicular stomatitis is a very ... Experimental Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection in Horses: Effect of Route of Inoculation and Virus Serotype. In: Vet Pathol ... Horses were inoculated with Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey and Indiana viruses by routes simulating contact and vector ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus M protein in the nuclei of infected cells.. D S Lyles, L Puddington, B J McCreedy, Jr ... Vesicular stomatitis virus M protein in the nuclei of infected cells. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was localized in the nuclei and cytoplasm of VSV-infected cells by ... G protein was present in the membrane fraction, and M protein was present in the nucleoplasm fraction. Immunofluorescence ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus of the New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) causes vesicular disease in cattle, pigs, and horses throughout ... Rapid detection of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype in clinical samples by using polymerase chain reaction.. L L ... Rapid detection of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype in clinical samples by using polymerase chain reaction. ... Rapid detection of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype in clinical samples by using polymerase chain reaction. ...
... their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells ... Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to ... Vesicular stomatitis virus with the rabies virus glycoprotein directs retrograde transsynaptic transport among neurons in vivo ... Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms. J. Comp. Neurol. 523: ...
The product of the reaction is mainly RNA complementary in base sequence to that of vesicular stomatitis virus RNA. ... Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. An RNA Polymerase in the Virion ... Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. An RNA Polymerase in the Virion. Proceedings of the National ... and Martha Stampfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. An RNA Polymerase in the Virion PNAS 1970 66 ...
In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent ... Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes. ... Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes. ... Finally, we established that the G protein of the folding mutant of the Vesicular Stomatitis virus, ts045, is blocked at a ...
A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Bearing a Lethal Mutation in the Glycoprotein Gene Uncovers a Second Site Suppressor ... "A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Bearing a Lethal Mutation in the Glycoprotein Gene Uncovers a Second Site Suppressor ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of the Rhabdoviridae family, contains a single surface glycoprotein (G) that is ... Propagation of viruses bearing those lethal mutations in G completely depended on complementation by expression of the ...
Metastatic tumor cells detection and anti-metastatic potential with vesicular stomatitis virus in immunocompetent murine model ... performed to explore the pre-clinical theranostic potential of a novel fully functional recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus ... We found that rVSV-K efficiently replicated in and killed all osteosarcoma cell lines in time-dependent manners. Both single or ... Recombinant VSV-K was generated and evaluated in vitro on human and murine osteosarcoma cells. Spontaneous osteosarcoma ...
Complete sequences of the ribosome recognition sites in vesicular stomatitis virus messenger rna recognition by the 40s and 80s ... RNA synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus. VII. Complete separation of the mRNA's of vesicular stomatitis virus by ... Reviews in Medical Virology 4(2): 129-140, 1994. Near-Complete Genome Sequences of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Indiana ... Complete sequences of the ribosome recognition sites in vesicular stomatitis virus mRNAs: recognition by the 40S and 80S ...
... in HNE-1 cancer cells of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by models of nude mice-BALB/c in vivo. Method:HNE-1 cells are collected ... compared with that by Saline in HNE-1 tumor models in vivo.Result: Compared with control group of saline , apoptosis of HNE-1 ... By Hoechst 33258-staining under fluorescence microscope, induction of apoptosis by VSV in HNE-1 tumor models are recorded and ... The present study suggests that the treatment with VSV could augment the apoptosis cells of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in ...
"Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest ... In this study, we investigated the role of lipids in the life cycle of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Cholesterol depletion ... Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle. Lipid rafts play an important role in the ... Lipid rafts play an important role in the vesicular stomatitis virus life cycle. Wang, W.; Fu, Y.; Zu, Y.; Wu, N.; Reichling, J ...
... ... One of these vaccines is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-EBOV, also known as rVSV-ZEBOV, a fast-acting vaccine against EBOV ... The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa increased the focus on vaccine development against this hemorrhagic fever- ... In conclusion, VSV-EBOV remains a potent and fast-acting prophylactic vaccine but demonstrates only limited efficacy in ...
Co-translational excision of alpha-glucose and alpha-mannose in nascent vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. P H Atkinson, P H ... P H Atkinson, J T Lee; Co-translational excision of alpha-glucose and alpha-mannose in nascent vesicular stomatitis virus G ... Membrane bound polysomes were prepared from HeLa cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), after pulse labeling ... Biosynthesis and processing of ribophorins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Distribution of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes in ...
Quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum: folding and misfolding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in cells and in ... Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes. ... The vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G protein) is an integral membrane protein which assembles into noncovalently ... and intracellular transport of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. R W Doms , R W Doms ...
... not found in the initial virus, that affects the stability of viral RNA transcripts. Examination of viral RNA metabolism in ... The apparent phenotype alteration in the stability of viral RNA in all of these CNS isolates is discussed in terms of the ... In contrast little or no RNA degradation of either 42S progeny RNA or mRNA species was detected in the wild-type VSV, ts G31 or ... In addition, analysis of the RNA transcripts suggested that little if any normal-sized transcripts were made in cells infected ...
VSV Indiana culture supernatant. This Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus[Indiana] is preserved under Viral Storage Medium -80C. ... in vitro transcribed RNA for a specific Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain) real time PCR. ... "Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus" virus name. The additional filters enable you with creating a sub-selection of items of ... In the event of a major biological incident regarding tropical (exotic) viruses or Risk Group 4 viruses, contact. Bernard Nocht ...
John Holland developed a method for vesicular stomatitis virus based on the use of a neutral genetic marker that allows to ... However, viruses do not usually replicate in a void, and evolutionary speaking, it is key to determine replicative ability ... Ratios before and after competition are measured by plaque assay in the presence and absence of I1 antibody, and changes in ... The marker is a mutation in the external G glycoprotein that has no effect on the virus other than conferring resistance to a ...
  • This study was performed to explore the pre-clinical theranostic potential of a novel fully functional recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus carrying imaging gene Katushka (rVSV-K), as virotherapy and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection in the syngeneic mouse model of osteosarcoma with spontaneous pulmonary metastases. (researchmap.jp)
  • In response to the Ebola virus (EBOV) crisis of 2013-2016, a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based EBOV vaccine was clinically tested (NCT02283099). (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study (NCT02503202) evaluated the safety of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP). (utmb.edu)
  • V920-012 Study Teama 2017, ' Six-Month Safety Data of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Zaire Ebola Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine in a Phase 3 Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study in Healthy Adults ', Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 215, no. 12, pp. 1789-1798. (utmb.edu)
  • Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines (rVSV vaccines) are vaccines made using recombinant Indiana vesiculovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • rVSV vaccines include: rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine against Ebola rVSV-SUDV vaccine, a candidate against Sudan ebolavirus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-MARV vaccine, a candidate against the Marburg virus (development discontinued for business reasons) rVSV-based vaccine candidate against Lassa fever An HIV vaccine candidate[1] This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of the putative fusogenic domain in vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. (asm.org)
  • The envelope glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus induces membrane fusion at low pH. (asm.org)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of the Rhabdoviridae family, contains a single surface glycoprotein (G) that is responsible for attachment to cells and mediates membrane fusion. (harvard.edu)
  • Propagation of viruses bearing those lethal mutations in G completely depended on complementation by expression of the glycoprotein from the heterologous New Jersey serotype of VSV. (harvard.edu)
  • The vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G protein) is an integral membrane protein which assembles into noncovalently associated trimers before transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. (rupress.org)
  • 1991). The marker is a mutation in the external G glycoprotein that has no effect on the virus other than conferring resistance to a monoclonal antibody, I1. (bio-protocol.org)
  • To compare the glycoprotein-mediated entry efficiencies of VSV glycoprotein (G), Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S), Ebola (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP), Lassa (LASV) GP, and Chikungunya (CHIKV) envelope (E) protein, we produced recombinant VSV (rVSV) viruses that produce the five glycoproteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Three recombinant adenoviruses (rAd) were successfully constructed that expressed the VSV Indiana serotype glycoprotein (VSV-IN-G), VSV New Jersey serotype glycoprotein (VSV-NJ-G), and the G fusion protein (both serotypes of G [VSV-IN-G-NJ-G]) with potentiality to induce protective immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we assessed the potential of the VSV-G gene as a vaccine candidate by using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 expression vector expressing the VSV-IN glycoprotein (VSV-IN-G), VSV-NJ glycoprotein (VSV-NJ-G), and the G fusion protein (both serotypes of G [VSV-IN-G-NJ-G]). Furthermore, we evaluated the immunogenicity of these rAd vectors expressing VSV-G in mice and goats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have analyzed the requirement for the expression of the major surface glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on target cells for recognition and lysis by anti-VSV cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). (elsevier.com)
  • The negative sense, single stranded RNA genome of VSV is about 11 kb, and encodes five structural proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L). VS is confined to the Americas, where VSNJV is the serotype responsible for the majority of the clinical cases reported annually in livestock. (usda.gov)
  • We tested a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein for safety in pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • A stable cell line expressing a complementary DNA clone encoding the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein fused and formed polykaryons at pH 5.5. (sciencemag.org)
  • Complement system - CD46 MCP Introduction of CD46 MCP CD46 complement also known as membrane cofactor protein MCP is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein which in humans is encoded by the CD46 gene. (authorstream.com)
  • ABSTRACT Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine . (bvsalud.org)
  • Abstract High threshold for induction of the stress response in motor neurons is associated with failure to activate HSF1. (mcgill.ca)
  • Abstract Oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis: a role for p53. (mcgill.ca)
  • Abstract Caspase 8 expression and signaling in Fas injury-resistant human fetal astrocytes. (mcgill.ca)
  • Ladiwala U, Li H, Antel JP, Nalbantoglu J. Abstract p53 induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and involvement of p53 in cell death of human oligodendrocytes. (mcgill.ca)
  • Abstract Hypoxia-induced loss of synaptic transmission is exacerbated in hippocampal slices of transgenic mice expressing C-terminal fragments of Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein. (mcgill.ca)
  • Abstract Impaired learning and LTP in mice expressing the carboxy terminus of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein. (mcgill.ca)
  • This result is of particular interest in view of the frequent transmission of medically relevant negative-strand RNA viruses to humans by insect vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Apart from these viruses, which are transmitted between mammalian hosts, several negative-strand RNA viruses are transmitted to humans by insect vectors (arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that abrogation of viral mRNA cap methylation can serve as an approach to attenuate VSV, and perhaps other nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, for potential application as vaccines and viral vectors. (harvard.edu)
  • Interesting details were especially found concerning the mode of transmission: in feces and blood for example virus particles were never found and the transmission by vectors is possible. (vetcontact.com)
  • Function: May play a role in viral pathogenesis or transmission by insects vectors. (szabo-scandic.com)
  • Viral env was prepared from rhesus plasma in 3 groups of 6 immunized with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors and boosted with Semliki forest virus (SFV) replicons expressing (a) SIVsmE660 gag-env (b) SIVsmE660 gag-env plus rhesus GM-CSF and (c) control influenza hemagglutinin protein. (duke.edu)
  • Ecology of ticks as potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Senegal: epidemiological implications. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Measles virus envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vectors transduce quiescent human HSCs at an efficiency without precedent. (authorstream.com)
  • The results indicate that they are mediated by a sequential alteration in the distribution of the components of the cytoskeleton, an effect that requires the expression of the viral L protein. (nih.gov)
  • Cells infected at 39.5 degrees (the nonpermissive temperature) with mutants of VSV temperature sensitive in the viral NS (ts G22), N(ts G41), M(ts 0 23), and G(ts 0 45) proteins showed the same changes in the cytoskeleton as those detected with wild-type virus. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of innate antiviral responses in multicellular organisms relies on the recognition of structural differences between viral and cellular RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • Double-stranded (ds)RNA, produced during viral replication, is a well-known activator of antiviral defenses and triggers interferon production in vertebrates and RNAi in invertebrates and plants. (pnas.org)
  • Previous work in mammalian cells indicates that negative-strand RNA viruses do not appear to generate dsRNA, and that activation of innate immunity is triggered by the recognition of the uncapped 5′ ends of viral RNA. (pnas.org)
  • VSV-derived small RNAs produced in infected cells or flies uniformly cover the viral genome, and equally map the genome and antigenome RNAs, indicating that they derive from dsRNA. (pnas.org)
  • A central molecular pattern betraying the presence of viruses in cells is double-stranded (ds)RNA, present in the viral genome, in viral replication complexes, or resulting from bidirectional transcription in DNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • The importance of this pathway for the control of viral infections is illustrated by the strong susceptibility of Dcr-2 , AGO2 , and R2D2 mutant flies to infection by positive-strand and dsRNA viruses ( 3 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of the innate immune response against negative-strand RNA viruses in mammals revealed that triphosphate groups at the 5′ ends of the uncapped viral RNAs, rather than long dsRNAs, play a critical role in the induction of IFN synthesis ( 10 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • To clearly analyze viral infection and spread in brain tumors, we used red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing cancer cells and a recombinant VSV that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). (jneurosci.org)
  • rVSV-G4A, which is completely defective in both G-N-7 and 2'-O methylation, also exhibited low virulence in mice despite the fact that productive viral replication was not detected in lung and brain. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, this study will not only contribute to our understanding of the role of mRNA cap MTase in viral pathogenesis but also facilitate the development of new live attenuated vaccines for VSV, and perhaps other NNS RNA viruses, by inhibiting viral mRNA cap methylation. (harvard.edu)
  • Late domains are present in proteins of several enveloped viruses and are involved in the ultimate step of the budding process (i.e. fission between viral and cellular membranes). (uniprot.org)
  • Working with the Indiana serotype of VSV, we employed a reverse genetic approach to produce fully authentic recombinant viral particles bearing lethal mutations in the G gene. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, the recombinant viral particles generated here will likely be useful in dissecting the mechanism of G-catalyzed fusion as well as study steps of viral assembly. (harvard.edu)
  • Six temperature-sensitive ( ts ) mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) isolated from the central nervous system (CNS) following injection with ts G31 (III) all possessed a post-transcriptional defect, not found in the initial virus, that affects the stability of viral RNA transcripts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The apparent phenotype alteration in the stability of viral RNA in all of these CNS isolates is discussed in terms of the possible genotypic changes that may have occurred as well as the unique CNS disease that accompanies infection by these viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus[Indiana] is preserved under Viral Storage Medium -80C.Tests for the presence of mycoplasmae were not performed. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • The final viral concentration should be 10 6 PFU/ml (virus stocks should be titrated in advance). (bio-protocol.org)
  • In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event profile, and describe routes and duration of viral shedding in healthy, immune-competent dogs. (elsevier.com)
  • Viral shedding data indicate that detectable viral genome in blood diminishes rapidly with anti-VSV neutralizing antibodies detectable in blood as early as day 5 postintravenous virus administration. (elsevier.com)
  • While low levels of viral genome copies were detectable in plasma, urine, and buccal swabs of dogs treated at the MTD, no infectious virus was detectable in plasma, urine, or buccal swabs at any of the doses tested. (elsevier.com)
  • Viral entry is the first stage in the virus replication cycle and, for enveloped viruses, is mediated by virally encoded glycoproteins. (cdc.gov)
  • We employed vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a BSL-2 enveloped virus that can incorporate non-native glycoproteins, to examine the entry efficiencies of diverse viral glycoproteins. (cdc.gov)
  • The rVSV virions encoded a nano luciferase (NLucP) reporter gene fused to a destabilization domain (PEST), which we used in combination with the live-cell substrate EndurazineTM to monitor viral entry kinetics in real time. (cdc.gov)
  • Our data indicate that rVSV particles with glycoproteins that require more post-internalization priming typically demonstrate delayed entry in comparison to VSV G. In addition to determining the time required for each virus to complete entry, we also used our system to evaluate viral cell surface receptor preferences, monitor fusion, and elucidate endocytosis mechanisms. (cdc.gov)
  • The biological activity of the expressed NS protein was demonstrated by in vitro synthesis of mRNA by transcription-reconstitution with purified viral L protein and N-RNA template. (ias.ac.in)
  • Single genome amplification characterized the infections of 2 unprotected animals in the gag-env immunized group, both of which had reduced acute plasma viral loads that ended as transient infections indicating partial immune control. (duke.edu)
  • Other chapters explore the comparative viral oncology, comparative immunology of oncogenic viruses, and evolution of viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Contingent neutrality in competing viral populations. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the molecular and biological basis leading to the evolution of these epidemic lineages is vital to decipher the viral factors favoring the emergence of VS in the United States. (usda.gov)
  • Recent reports showing different virulence levels between endemic and epidemic VSNJV strains suggest that intrinsic viral factors might influence in part the emergence of these outbreaks. (usda.gov)
  • In this context, the availability of the VSNJV endemic strain NJ03CPB increases the limited number of viral sequences from Mexico in public databases and will support future genetic analyses. (usda.gov)
  • All negative-strand RNA viruses contain a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that consists of the viral genome RNA completely enwrapped by the nucleoprotein (N). The crystal structure of the N protein in complex with a single-strand RNA has been determined for two members of the rhabdovirus family, VSV [ PMID: 16778022 ] and RABV [ PMID: 16778023 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Synergistic Pleiotropy Overrides the Costs of Complexity in Viral Adaptation. (earlham.edu)
  • A high production of virus was obtained, as tested by viral titers and cell membrane antigen detection. (springer.com)
  • Persistent MHV 3 infection established in vitro in YAC mouse lymphoid cell line was characterized by virus production, occurence of cellular viral antigens and cell lysis. (springer.com)
  • These data indicate that persistent infection induced by MHV 3 in lymphoid cell lines is characterized by a viral "carrier state" where production of infectious viral particles remains in equilibrium with cell permissiveness. (springer.com)
  • Linear synthesis of viral RNA persists for 5 to 6 hours at 34°C in infected monolayers of chick embryo cells treated with cycloheximide and actinomycin D to block synthesis of protein and cell-specific RNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The RNA product of VSV polymerase activity is present throughout the cytoplasm, and its synthesis is inhibited by the interferon system, as judged by autoradiographs that show the physical distribution, in cells, of RNA produced by virion polymerase in the absence of translation-a demonstration of the transcription product of the viral genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mosquito transmission of arboviruses potentially affects the course of viral infection in the vertebrate host. (ajtmh.org)
  • Studies were performed to determine if viral infection differed in chickens infected with West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquito bite or needle inoculation. (ajtmh.org)
  • These results indicate that enhanced early infection in mosquito-infected chickens may be explained by higher viral dose delivered by mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
  • On the other hand, chickens infected by multiple mosquitoes ( N = 3-11) had viremic titers that were 25-50 times higher at 6 and 12 hours PF than in chickens infected by a single mosquito, suggesting that viral dose is not the only factor involved in enhanced early infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The likelihood that enhanced early infection in mosquito-infected chickens is due to a higher viral dose inoculated by mosquitoes and/or other factors (saliva, inoculation location, or viral source) is discussed. (ajtmh.org)
  • viral isolation from vesicular fluid or epithelial tissue from vesicle, detection of nucleic acid or detection of antibodies within serum. (vetstream.com)
  • and pneumococci, which represent the most frequent viral and bacterial infectious agents for pneumonia in humans. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • The study, overseen by a scientific team from the National Institutes of Health and three other groups with expertise in viral hemorrhagic fevers, was posted online today by the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The ProVir™ viral antigen bank includes more than 1,000 antigens from 90 virus types/subtypes and 350 strains. (news-medical.net)
  • Defective interfering T particles of vesicular stomatitis virus provide remarkable protection against viral disease and death when introduced intracerebrally in large numbers along with an otherwise rapidly fatal low dose of standard infectious virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Accumulation of defective interfering viral particles in only a few passages in Vero cells attenuates mumps virus neurovirulence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • with vesicular stomatitis virus by specific inhibition of viral replication in neurons. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Intravenous injection of VSVrp30a expressing a green fluorescent protein reporter, rapidly targeted and destroyed multiple types of human and mouse tumors implanted in the mouse brain, including glioblastoma and mammary tumors. (jneurosci.org)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • Most abundant protein in the virion. (uniprot.org)
  • Phenotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus mutants with mutations in the PSAP motif of the matrix protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein (M) has a flexible amino-terminal part that recruits cellular partners. (uniprot.org)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids within a segment spanning amino acids 123 to 137 of G protein, which is highly conserved in vesiculoviruses and was previously shown by us to be involved in fusogenic activity (Y. Li, C. Drone, E. Sat, and H. P. Ghosh, J. Virol. (asm.org)
  • This highly conserved domain containing neutral amino acids of G protein may therefore represent the putative fusion domain of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. (asm.org)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus M protein in the nuclei of infected cells. (asm.org)
  • The M protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was localized in the nuclei and cytoplasm of VSV-infected cells by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy. (asm.org)
  • G protein was present in the membrane fraction, and M protein was present in the nucleoplasm fraction. (asm.org)
  • Immunofluorescence detection of M protein in the nucleus required that fixed cells be permeabilized with higher concentrations of detergent than were required for detection of M protein in the cytoplasm of VSV-infected BHK cells. (asm.org)
  • Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. (rupress.org)
  • When the G protein is translated in the presence of DTT, it remains reduced, largely unfolded and aggregated in the ER, but it can fold successfully when the DTT is removed. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, we established that the G protein of the folding mutant of the Vesicular Stomatitis virus, ts045, is blocked at a relatively late step in the folding pathway and remains associated with oligomeric, BiP/GRP78-containing folding complexes. (rupress.org)
  • Our work provides a set of authentic recombinant VSV particles bearing lethal mutations in G, confirms that the hydrophobic fusion loops of VSV G protein are critical for membrane fusion, and underscores the importance of the sequence elements surrounding the hydrophobic tips of the fusion loops in driving fusion. (harvard.edu)
  • Nucleotide sequences of the [rabbit reticulocyte] ribosome-protected translation initiation sites from the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) M and L protein mRNA were determined, completing the sequences of the sites from all the VSV mRNA. (eurekamag.com)
  • Co-translational excision of alpha-glucose and alpha-mannose in nascent vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. (rupress.org)
  • On completed G protein in the RER fraction from which membrane bound polysomes were prepared, processing occurred to Man6 - but not to Man5GlcNAc sized oligosaccharides in the CCCP-treated cells. (rupress.org)
  • Differential effects of mutations in three domains on folding, quaternary structure, and intracellular transport of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. (rupress.org)
  • A recombinant vesicular stomatitis (VSV) virus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Comparison of the predicted N protein sequences of wt (HR), ts W16B and the two revertants indicated that the growth and in vitro transcription phenotypes of ts W16B were due to a change of amino acid residue 238 from threonine to isoleucine. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Amino acid residue 238 lies in a domain of the N protein which is highly conserved among vesiculoviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This binding mode is exclusive to the nucleocapsid, not the nucleocapsid (N) protein in other existing forms. (rcsb.org)
  • A thermoreversible folding mutant of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein called ts045 was analyzed. (scripps.edu)
  • Upon the shift up from 32 degrees C back to 39 degrees C, G protein in the ER returned to the misfolded form and was retained, while the protein that had reached a pre-Golgi compartment or beyond was thermostable and remained transport competent. (scripps.edu)
  • The misfolding reaction could be reconstituted in a cell free system using ts045 virus particles and protein extracts from microsomes. (scripps.edu)
  • Taken together, the results showed that ER is unique among the organelles of the secretory pathway in containing specific factors capable of misfolding G protein at the nonpermissive temperature and thus participating in its retention. (scripps.edu)
  • Previous studies from our laboratory revealed that cellular poly(C) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) downregulates vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) gene expression. (nebraska.edu)
  • We show here that VSV infection induces the formation of granular structures in the cytoplasm containing cellular RNA-binding proteins, including PCBP2, T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), and TIA1-related protein (TIAR). (nebraska.edu)
  • The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) matrix protein (M) interacts with cellular membranes, self-associates and plays a major role in virus assembly and budding. (rcsb.org)
  • Membrane floatation shows that, together with the M lysine-rich N-terminal peptide, a second domain of the protein is involved in membrane binding. (rcsb.org)
  • Reduced oligonucleotide synthesis by nucleocapsids at all salt concentrations tested and a comparison of the proteins remaining bound to the template of nucleocapsids and virions transcribed in different NaCl concentrations suggested that the matrix (M) protein regulates oligonucleotide synthesis. (isharonline.org)
  • Examination of the transcription products synthesized in no NaCl and 0.144 M NaCl by an M-protein mutant and an increase in oligonucleotide synthesis by nucleocapsids when purified M-protein was added to transcription reactions confirmed M-protein's role in oligonucleotide synthesis. (isharonline.org)
  • The M-protein mutant tsG33 exhibited neither transcription inhibition at high virus concentrations nor the reciprocal synthesis of mRNA and the oligonucleotides seen with wild-type virions. (isharonline.org)
  • Transcription of the cDNA in vitro resulted in the synthesis of NS mRNA, which was subsequently translated into NS protein in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system. (ias.ac.in)
  • This domain appears to be involved in efficient binding of NS protein to the N protein-RNA template. (ias.ac.in)
  • In addition, we have attempted to determine if the carbohydrate moieties on the G protein are required for recognition and lysis by anti-VSV CTL. (elsevier.com)
  • however, nonglycosylated G protein is found on the surface of the cell and active virus particles are produced. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, VSV (Orsay) grown at 39°C in the presence of TM produces low titers of virus and the presence of G protein on the surface of cells is not detectable. (elsevier.com)
  • The vaccine is made of small synthetic protein shells, called 'virus like particles' (VLPs), which mimic the FMDV outer shell and so stimulate an immune response. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • Rickard, J.E. and Kreis, T.E. (1990) Identification of a novel nucleotide-sensitive microtubule-binding protein in HeLa cells. (springer.com)
  • Scheel J, Kreis TE (1991) Motor protein independent binding of endocytic carrier vesicles to microtubules in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Schekman R (1985) Protein localization and membrane traffic in yeast. (springer.com)
  • Schweizer A, Fransen, JAM, Matter K, Kreis TE, Ginsel L, Hauri HP (1990) Identification of an intermediate compartment involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus. (springer.com)
  • Control experiments using cell lysates with equivalent protein concentrations but no virus did not perturb the uniform alignment of the LC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A single amino acid substitution, Q65H, in the non-structural protein 2C was found to be responsible for increased resistance to BFA. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results provide new insight into the relationship of enteroviruses with the components of the secretory pathway and on the role of SVDV 2C protein in this process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its anti-vesicular stomatitis virus activity (2.6 × 10 8 units/mg protein) was comparable to that of the baculovirus-expressed rFeIFN. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A study of the NS3 nonstructural protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus using monoclonal antibodies against the virus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The envelope protein E of tick-borne encephalitis virus and other flaviviruses: structure, functions and evolutionary relationships. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The company specializes in recombinant protein production and antibody development. (news-medical.net)
  • In the course of studying the role of amyloid metabolism and deposition in Alzheimer's Disease, her laboratory has generated transgenic mice that express a fragment of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP). (mcgill.ca)
  • Entry Receptor for Pathogens Identified as a receptor for measles virus CD46 can bind to human herpesvirus 6 Neisseria gonorrhoeaeand Neisseria meningitides bacteria and the M protein of Streptococcus. (authorstream.com)
  • Source: E. W. Howerth, D. G. Mead, P. O. Mueller, L. Duncan, M. D. Murphy and D. E. Stallknecht (2006): Experimental Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection in Horses: Effect of Route of Inoculation and Virus Serotype. (vetcontact.com)
  • Rapid detection of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype in clinical samples by using polymerase chain reaction. (asm.org)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus of the New Jersey serotype (VSV-NJ) causes vesicular disease in cattle, pigs, and horses throughout the Americas. (asm.org)
  • Mutations indicate the nucleotide number of wild type Indiana serotype, Mudd-Summers strain. (bio-protocol.org)
  • This paper describes a case of severe encephalitis in a 3-year-old Panamanian boy infected with the Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. (utmb.edu)
  • Tesh, R. B. / A human case of encephalitis associated with vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana serotype) infection . (utmb.edu)
  • A full-length cDNA copy of the phosphoprotein (NS) mRNA of vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey serotype) was inserted into pGEM4 vector downstream of the promoter for bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase. (ias.ac.in)
  • Twenty were diagnosed with acute yersiniosis due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 1B and were in excellent body condition. (bioone.org)
  • Sharma-Chawla N, Sender V, Kershaw O, Gruber AD, Volckmar J, Henriques-Normark B, Stegemann-Koniszewski S, Bruder D. Influenza A Virus Infection Predisposes Hosts to Secondary Infection with Different Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes with Similar Outcome but Serotype-Specific Manifestation . (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Clinical and serological responses to accidental human inoculation of a strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana serotype, are described. (ajtmh.org)
  • No measurable antibodies were formed to Cocal virus, a recently described new VSV serotype. (ajtmh.org)
  • For many of these viruses, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available. (harvard.edu)
  • One of these vaccines is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-EBOV, also known as rVSV-ZEBOV, a fast-acting vaccine against EBOV and so far the only vaccine with reported efficacy against EBOV infections in humans in phase III clinical trials. (ovid.com)
  • These results lay the foundation for further studies on the use of rAds in vaccines expressing VSV-G. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When off-the-shelf vaccines appear to decline in efficacy, it could be time for more detailed diagnostics and use of an autogenous vaccine. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • The pig's immune system shares many similarities to humans, leading researchers to believe a good response to a vaccine in pigs will help predict the success of vaccines for humans. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • The next step is to make these vaccines available as soon as possible - and in sufficient quantities - to protect critical frontline workers and to make a difference in the epidemic's future evolution. (who.int)
  • Many HIV vaccines that are in development use a virus vector to deliver the vaccine into the body's cells in order to elicit an immune response. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • New perspective vaccines from tick-borne encephalitis virus propagated in green monkey kidney cell cultures. (booktopia.com.au)
  • With your donation you can support them in developing drugs and vaccines against the virus or in deciphering the mechanisms of disease development and progression. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Both vaccines are recognized by the same immune cells in the body as Ebola and Marburg viruses, activating the immune system to fight off the target virus. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Geisbert believes the study data justify rapid development of VSV-based vaccines for the treatment of filovirus-infected patients either in outbreaks or accidental laboratory exposures. (nih.gov)
  • The negative-strand RNA viruses include some of the most important human pathogens, such as the hemorrhagic fever viruses Ebola and Lassa (up to 80% mortality), the Rabies virus (100% mortality), and the influenza virus. (pnas.org)
  • The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa increased the focus on vaccine development against this hemorrhagic fever-causing pathogen, and as a consequence human clinical trials for a few selected platforms were accelerated. (ovid.com)
  • Detectable Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV)-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Following VSV-Ebola Virus Vaccination in Humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings support the use of rVSV' "G-ZEBOV-GP vaccine in persons at risk for Ebola virus disease. (utmb.edu)
  • It uses a chimpanzee-derived adenovirus vector with an Ebola virus gene inserted. (who.int)
  • one of its genes has been replaced by an Ebola virus gene. (who.int)
  • Natural shifts in host range have been the cause of some major epidemics in humans and other animals, such as HIV, the Spanish flu, and the recent Ebola virus epidemic. (earlham.edu)
  • Dallas health worker is first to catch Ebola in U.S. (sciencenews.org)
  • The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in fast-track development of vaccine candidates. (cdc.gov)
  • The current Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa has shown the need for an effective vaccine against this virus. (cdc.gov)
  • It also includes viruses like Zika and Ebola. (news-medical.net)
  • This replication-competent virus, the glioma-adapted vesicular stomatis virus strain VSVrp30a, was used for in vivo tests with the underlying view that infection of tumor cells will lead to an increase in the number of viruses subsequently released to kill additional tumor cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Freeze-dried Vesicular stomatitis virus, strain indiana, partial sequence. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • in vitro transcribed RNA for a specific Vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain) real time PCR. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • The VSV-G present as protrusions on the virus envelope is strain-specific and capable to stimulate the production of neutralizing antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report the full-genome sequence of a vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strain obtained from lesion epithelium of a naturally infected cow in Chiapas, Mexico. (usda.gov)
  • Students in my research group have worked to identify the natural host ranges of bacteriophages initially isolated on a single host, Escherichia coli strain C. These well-characterized viruses are all of the same family of Microviridae, but differ vastly in the number and type of bacterial species they can successfully infect. (earlham.edu)
  • Stability of neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus (JHM strain) during chronic infection of neuroblastoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Mutants' phenotypes depend on cell lines: in CERA (chicken embryo-related, Alger clone) cells, a recombinant virus with a single mutation in the PSAP motif was impaired compared with the wild type, and a mutant with a single mutation in the dynamin-binding motif was much less impaired in Vero cells than in BSR (clones of BHK-21) cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Mutation of the conserved residues Gly-124 and Pro-127 to Ala and to Gly or Leu, respectively, inhibited cell-cell fusion activity by about 90% without affecting transport of the mutant proteins to the cell surface, suggesting that these two residues may be present within the fusion peptide and thus may be directly involved in fusion. (asm.org)
  • When analyzed in the absence of the A117F substitution, E76K rendered G more sensitive to acid pH-triggered fusion, suggesting that this compensatory mutation is destabilizing. (harvard.edu)
  • Testing whether a mutation (or combination of mutations) has an effect on fitness often relays on determining virus production as a surrogate measurement. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Any neutral mutation that confers resistance to the monoclonal antibody used in the test is appropriate. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Others have shown that it is temperature-sensitive for replication in vivo and for transcription in vitro and that these phenotypes are probably due to mutation of the N (nucleocapsid) gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mutation rates among RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • I show that the rate of adaptive substitution in an asexual species or nonrecombining chromosome region is a bell-shaped function of the mutation rate: at some point, increasing the mutation rate decreases the rate of substitution. (genetics.org)
  • In particular, adaptation is fastest when the genomic rate of mutation, U , equals the harmonic mean of selection coefficients against deleterious mutations, where we assume that selection for favorable alleles is milder than that against deleterious ones. (genetics.org)
  • In the course of this work, I derive an approximation to the probability of fixation of a favorable mutation in an asexual genome or nonrecombining chromosome region in which both favorable and deleterious mutations occur. (genetics.org)
  • In particular, what rate of mutation allows the fastest adaptation? (genetics.org)
  • The problem of how adaptation rate depends on mutation rate in asexuals (or in chromosome regions that do not recombine) is subtle. (genetics.org)
  • In particular, they showed that the rate of substitution does not increase without bound as the mutation rate increases. (genetics.org)
  • Second, an increase in the mutation rate increases the number of deleterious mutations. (genetics.org)
  • But as we will see, deleterious mutation also plays an important role in determining the maximal adaptability, i.e. , the rate of mutation that yields the fastest adaptation. (genetics.org)
  • The total rate of mutation per genome (or nonrecombining chromosome region) is U. In the present environment, a fixed proportion p b of all mutations are beneficial. (genetics.org)
  • Rates of spontaneous mutation per genome as measured in the laboratory are remarkably similar within broad groups of organisms but differ strikingly among groups. (genetics.org)
  • Mutation rates in RNA viruses, whose genomes contain ca. 10 4 bases, are roughly 1 per genome per replication for lytic viruses and roughly 0.1 per genome per replication for retroviruses and a retrotransposon. (genetics.org)
  • Mutation rates in higher eukaryotes are roughly 0.1-100 per genome per sexual generation but are currently indistinguishable from 1/300 per cell division per effective genome (which excludes the fraction of the genome in which most mutations are neutral). (genetics.org)
  • A mutation rate comprises all kinds of mutations in a mutational target: base pair substitutions, base additions and deletions (often producing frameshifting in exons), and larger or more complex changes. (genetics.org)
  • Attempts to detect order in these mutation rates have revealed certain underlying patterns. (genetics.org)
  • a mutation that is deleterious or advantageous in a large population may be neutral in a small population, where random drift outweighs selection coefficients. (genetics.org)
  • The impact of mutation is quite different in different DNA sequences. (genetics.org)
  • Few investigators of the genetics of RNA viruses have focused specifically on mutation rates , although mutant frequencies are often noted to be high compared with those observed in microbes with DNA chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • In a recent survey ( D rake 1993a ), most of the mutation rates that could be calculated were necessarily based on results obtained with very small and thus potentially unrepresentative mutational targets, and contained other experimental and calculational uncertainties. (genetics.org)
  • These uncertainties included lack of information about what proportion of lytic virus replication is linear (repeated copying of the same template) and what is binary (as in most DNA replication), as well as lack of information about the relative contributions of transcription and reverse transcription to retroviral mutation rates. (genetics.org)
  • Consistent with the low mutation load in our leukemia model, we found that checkpoint blockade alone had only modest effects on survival. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, robust heterologous vaccination with a peptide derived from the BCR-ABL fusion (BAp), a key driver mutation, generated a small population of mice that survived long-term. (jimmunol.org)
  • Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), an infectious agent belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family and the genus vesiculovirus, where vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) and VSNJV are the two main serotypes. (usda.gov)
  • In the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced encephalitis model, the replication, caudal penetration, and survivability of intranasally applied VSV depends on both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • The negative-strand RNA viruses (NSRVs) are unique because their nucleocapsid, not the naked RNA, is the active template for transcription and replication. (rcsb.org)
  • Compatibility of lyotropic liquid crystals with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report a study that investigates the biocompatibility of materials that form lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) with viruses and mammalian cells that support the replication of viruses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pleiotropic interactions involving virulence and replication rate in experimentally evolved vesicular stomatitis viruses. (earlham.edu)
  • Replication of mouse hepatitis viruses with high and low virulence in cultured hepatocytes. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the safety of rVSV∆G/EBOVGP in a relevant livestock species, we inoculated pigs with this vaccine and compared clinical signs and virus replication with those of a recombinant wild-type VSV vector (rVSVwt) described previously ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of mosquito salivary gland treatment on vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus replication and interferon alpha/beta expression in vitro. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus replication in mouse cells is restricted by IFN-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • 8. Knudson, D.L. and Buckley, S.M. In: Methods in Virology, K. Maramorosch and H. Koprowski, editors. (cdc.gov)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Journal of Virology. (asm.org)
  • With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • This book will be an invaluable material both to those concerned in the scientific and medical problems of cancer and will benefit all who are interested in virology and oncology. (elsevier.com)
  • Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, Tick- And Mosquito-Borne Viruses, Archives of Virology. (booktopia.com.au)
  • One such scientist is Heinz Feldmann, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the Laboratory of Virology at NIAID's Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, Mont. (nih.gov)
  • In memoriam John J. Holland (1929-2013): a pioneer in molecular virology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dr. Huang is one of the pioneering researchers in molecular animal virology. (sciencemag.org)
  • She introduced vesicular stomatitis virus as an experimental model in virology. (sciencemag.org)
  • We used single genome amplification and phylogenetic analyses to characterize transmitted/founder SIVs both in the inoculum and in immunized-infected rhesus monkeys. (duke.edu)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • However, many questions remain regarding the specific sites in the genome playing a role in the emergence of epidemic phenotypes. (usda.gov)
  • Bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect bacterial cells and are among the best-characterized groups of organisms, serve as a great model system due to their small genome sizes, allowing for full-genome sequencing to elucidate the relationships between genotype, phenotype, and fitness. (earlham.edu)
  • In this system, foreign DNA carried on a vector plasmid is injected into silkworm eggs and is incorporated into the silkworm genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • in this group, therefore, rates per base pair vary inversely and hugely as genome sizes vary from 6 × 10 3 to 4 × 10 7 bases or base pairs. (genetics.org)
  • IL-18 shares several biological properties with IL-12, including the ability to induce IFN-γ production in T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. (nyu.edu)
  • Recombinant flu antigens from all WHO-recommended vaccine strains in recent years are offered by Sino Biological. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, Sino Biological offer pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology firms pre-clinical production technology services for hundreds of monoclonal antibody drug candidates. (news-medical.net)
  • The routes of inoculation used in this study reflect the diversity of transmission routes that may occur during outbreaks and can be used to further study contact and vector transmission, vaccine development, and clarify pathogenesis of the disease in horses. (vetcontact.com)
  • This led us to examine the potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of VSV encephalitis. (nyu.edu)
  • Pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus infection and mode of horizontal transmission of hantavirus in bank voles. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Studies of the pathogenesis of Dugbe virus in normal and in immunosuppressed mice. (booktopia.com.au)
  • In baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells, it has been demonstrated that the (24)PPPY(27) motif binds the Nedd4 (neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated 4) E3 ubiquitin ligase for efficient virus budding and that the (37)PSAP(40) motif, although conserved among M proteins of vesiculoviruses, does not possess late-domain activity. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study we have examined the folding and oligomeric assembly of twelve mutant G proteins with alterations in the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, or ectodomains. (rupress.org)
  • Mutant proteins not capable of undergoing correct initial folding did not trimerize, were not transported, and were found in large aggregates. (rupress.org)
  • Using a unique mechanism termed transpresentation, the two proteins form a cell-surface complex through which IL-15 is presented in trans to apposing cells that express CD122 (the IL-2/15Rβ-chain) and CD132 (the common γ-chain) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Lastly, comparison of the negative-stranded virus matrix proteins with retrovirus Gag proteins suggests that the flexible link between their major membrane binding domain and the rest of the structure is a common feature shared by these proteins involved in budding and virus assembly. (rcsb.org)
  • The three rAds constructed in the study expressed VSV-G proteins and induced both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice and goats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kreis TE (1992) Regulation of vesicular and tubular membrane traffic of the Golgi complex by coat proteins. (springer.com)
  • To avoid these shortcomings, despite their high production costs, most recombinant proteins used in humans are produced using mammalian cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Larvae or insect cell lines are infected with recombinant baculovirus [ 5 - 8 ], with the recombinant proteins accumulating in larval body fluid or the cultured cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombinant proteins synthesised in the middle silk gland (MSG) are secreted into the sericin layers of silk fibres of cocoons, allowing these proteins to be easily solubilised in aqueous buffer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of endocytic proteins in bacterial infection is conserved, and the proteins used are similar to those used in cell-cell adhesion. (nature.com)
  • One of four macaques receiving rVSV developed clinical and histological signs similar to the wt group, while the remaining three macaques in this group and all of the macaques in the rVSV-HIV vector groups showed no clinical signs of disease and reduced severity of histopathology compared to the wt group. (nih.gov)
  • Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we previously showed that a panel of recombinant VSVs carrying mutations at a predicted methyltransferase catalytic site (rVSV-K1651A, -D1762A, and -E1833Q) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site (rVSV-G1670A, -G1672A, and -G4A) were defective in cap methylation and were also attenuated for growth in cell culture. (harvard.edu)
  • We found that rVSV-K1651A, -D1762A, and -E1833Q, which are defective in both G-N-7 and 2'-O methylation, were highly attenuated in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • In contrast, mice inoculated with rVSV-G1670A and -G1672A, which are defective only in G-N-7 methylation, were attenuated in vivo yet retained a low level of virulence. (harvard.edu)
  • We found that rVSV-K efficiently replicated in and killed all osteosarcoma cell lines in time-dependent manners. (researchmap.jp)
  • Groups of 12 participants received rVSV Indiana HIV Gag vaccine at 5 dose levels (4.6 x 10 3 to 3.4 x 10 7 PFU) (N=10/group) or placebo (N=2/group), delivered intramuscularly at 0 and 2 months. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunization with an attenuated, replicating rVSV Indiana HIV-1 vaccine has an acceptable reactogencity and safety profile to date. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The second (rVSV-ZEBOV) was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnipeg. (who.int)
  • Inoculation of pigs with rVSVwt and rVSV∆G/EBOVGP did not result in obvious signs of disease ( Table ), changes in body temperature, or a decrease in weight gain compared with mock-inoculated controls. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3) in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions Southern (RS, n = 1,011), Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767) and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848) collected between 2013 and 2014. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes ( Indiana I and New Jersey ), yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • O presente trabalho investigou a presença de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3) em amostras de soro de 3626 equinos de seis estados das regiões Sul (RS, n=1011), Centro-oeste (GO e DF, n=1767) e Nordeste ( PE , PB, RN e CE, n=848), coletadas entre 2013 e 2014. (bvsalud.org)
  • These suggest that infection with vesicular stomatitis viruses may cause severe disease. (utmb.edu)
  • Human infection with vesicular stomatitis viruses is common throughout the tropical Americas. (utmb.edu)
  • FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE - July 5, 2019 - Broomfield, Colo. - Colorado has become the third state in the U.S. to have confirmed cases of vesicular stomatitis (VSV). (barnmedia.net)
  • Previous positive cases of vesicular stomatitis in 2019 have been diagnosed in Kinney and Tom Green counties in Texas and in Sandoval County, New Mexico. (barnmedia.net)
  • South Dakota's Animal Industry Board says two cases of vesicular stomatitis virus have been confirmed in livestock in the western part of the state. (agweb.com)
  • The etiology of the disease is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The in vivo synthesis of polycistronic transcripts of vesicular stomatitis virus in human amnion U cells and mouse L cells was detected by RNA blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus polycistronic transcripts were synthesized in vivo in a roughly uniform distribution, except for the NS-M dicistronic mRNA, which was much more frequent. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we showed that recombinant VSVs (rVSVs) defective in mRNA cap methylation were attenuated in vitro and in vivo. (harvard.edu)
  • Objective:To investigate apoptosis induced by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in HNE-1 cancer cells of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by models of nude mice-BALB/c in vivo. (cnki.com.cn)
  • IL-15 plays a multifaceted role in immune homeostasis, but the unreliability of IL-15 detection has stymied exploration of IL-15 regulation in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Current methods for detecting IL-15 directly ex vivo are limited and further complicated by the very short in vivo t 1/2 of soluble IL-15 ( 9 , 11 ), as well as the unique mechanism of IL-15 transpresentation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, direct detection of IL-15 production by isolated cells ex vivo or in vivo has not been documented in the literature, thus heralding the need for a fresh approach. (jimmunol.org)
  • By Hoechst 33258 - staining under fluorescence microscope, induction of apoptosis by VSV in HNE-1 tumor models are recorded and studied, compared with that by Saline in HNE-1 tumor models in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • [email protected]#The present study suggests that the treatment with VSV could augment the apoptosis cells of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, we investigated whether ex vivo-infected blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) could be used to deliver VSV-IFNβ in preclinical models of NSCLC. (omgcb.com)
  • Cytopathic effects characterized by cell lysis were related to in vivo phenotypes. (springer.com)
  • In vivo in vitro models of demyelinating diseases. (springer.com)
  • The particle-bound RNA polymerase activity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be demonstrated in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • In vivo Neutralization of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines During Secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection Post Influenza A Virus Infection. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Free Full Text Vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotyped retrovector mediates effective in vivo suicide gene delivery in experimental brain cancer. (mcgill.ca)
  • Another member of the Bunyavirus family, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, vectored by ticks and causing severe disease in humans (30% mortality), is endemic in many countries in Africa, Europe, and Asia. (pnas.org)
  • We show that disease progression and survival following intranasal infection with a neurotropic virus depends on the circadian time of infection. (pnas.org)
  • The malignant disease usually starts with subtle changes in cerebral function, becomes manifest with seizures or raised intracranial pressure, progresses to loss of motor and mental function, and finally to death. (jneurosci.org)
  • A very informative study since vesicular stomatitis is a very painful and serious disease. (vetcontact.com)
  • molecular techniques targeting these tissues may be useful for confirming infection in resolving stages of disease. (vetcontact.com)
  • Vesicular disease is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, outbreaks of vesicular disease in FMD-free areas must be rapidly diagnosed by laboratory methods and affected farms must be quarantined until laboratory results confirm the absence of FMD. (asm.org)
  • Other clinical signs of the disease include fever and the formation of blister-like lesions in the mouth and on the dental pad, tongue, lips, nostrils, ears, hooves and teats. (kspork.org)
  • VSV is considered a reportable disease in Kansas. (kspork.org)
  • Any vesicular disease of livestock is reportable to the State Veterinarian's Office in Colorado - to report call 303-869-9130. (barnmedia.net)
  • Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an acute, highly contagious and economically important zoonotic disease caused by the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a porcine pathogen and a member of the species Enterovirus B within the Picornaviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • As an HIV vaccine vector, it has been shown to prevent disease progression in monkeys infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • By understanding the evolutionary mechanisms underlying changes in host range, we may be able to better respond to, and even prevent, future shifts of disease-causing viruses. (earlham.edu)
  • New approaches in Lyme disease diagnostics, seafood shells get a second life, illegal emissions traced to China, Pluto's icy volcano, how to walk like a sauropod, a World War II uranium cube mystery and more. (sciencenews.org)
  • Inoculation did not cause disease and vaccine virus shedding was minimal, which indicated that the vaccine virus does not pose a risk of dissemination in pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • Division of vector borne and infectious disease: West Nile Virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • This report describes the first occurrence of yersiniosis in free-ranging muskoxen and the first documentation of large scale mortality due to this disease in a free-ranging population of wild ungulates. (bioone.org)
  • first described in the USA in 1920's as a vesicular disease of horses, and subsequently of cattle and pigs. (vetstream.com)
  • In cattle and pigs, vesicular stomatitis can resemble foot-and-mouth disease and in pigs can resemble swine vesicular disease. (vetstream.com)
  • Immediate notification to appropriate authorities of any suspected vesicular disease is mandatory. (vetstream.com)
  • An experimental vaccine developed to prevent outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever continues to show promise in monkeys as an emergency treatment for accidental exposures to the virus that causes the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Confirmed cases of these hemorrhagic fevers have been reported in about a half-dozen African nations, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (nih.gov)
  • Critical reagents in infectious disease research are recombinant antigens. (news-medical.net)
  • Josephine Nalbantoglu's research interests focus on the molecular genetics of Alzheimer's Disease, on the regulation of gene expression in the nervous system and on gene therapy for brain tumours. (mcgill.ca)
  • These mice show signs of tissue injury and deficits in behaviour that model the changes that occur in Alzheimer's Disease. (mcgill.ca)
  • We are improving human health by carrying out cutting-edge, fundamental basic and translational research focusing on the bacteria, viruses and parasites that cause human disease. (uab.edu)
  • Read here about the different ways we use to try and decode this system, all in an effort to find new approaches to infectious disease prevention and therapy. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Since no infectious materials are necessary to perform this test and any infectious virus in clinical samples is destroyed by acid guanidine-phenol treatment, diagnosis can be safely performed in regular diagnostic laboratories. (asm.org)
  • Some participants came with more than 3 decades of experience working in Africa on other infectious diseases. (who.int)
  • One (cAd3-ZEBOV) has been developed by GlaxoSmithKline in collaboration with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (who.int)
  • Second, VSV was incubated in LC phases of either C(14)AO + D or DSCG for 4 h, and the concentration (titer) of infectious virus in the LC was determined by dilution into cell culture medium and subsequent inoculation of HeLa cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Collaborators on the current study came from that agency, Boston University and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, where most of the animal work was done in 2008-09. (nih.gov)
  • The ProVir™ collection includes antigens from a variety of viruses associated with many kinds of infectious diseases, ranging from common viruses such as HIV, HPV and RSV. (news-medical.net)
  • With the pathogen SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus that can cause respiratory diseases and pneumonia has been spreading worldwide since the end of 2019. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Horses were inoculated with Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey and Indiana viruses by routes simulating contact and vector transmission. (vetcontact.com)
  • Horses were infected with both viruses by all routes as confirmed by seroconversion. (vetcontact.com)
  • At this time, the vast majority of confirmed cases of VSV in Kansas have been horses, although some cattle have also been diagnosed. (kspork.org)
  • As this VSV outbreak continues, we ask all owners of horses and other livestock to monitor your animals for symptoms of VSV, and be in communication with your veterinarian if you see anything of concern," Dr. Justin Smith, Animal Health Commissioner said. (kspork.org)
  • You can help slow the spread of this virus by taking aggressive steps to limit exposure to insects that are the primary source of infection and by keeping your horses separate from other horses which may be infected. (kspork.org)
  • In horses, VSV is typically characterized by lesions which appear as crusting scabs on the muzzle, lips, ears, coronary bands, or ventral abdomen. (kspork.org)
  • On July 3rd, the National Veterinary Services Laboratory reported positive test results on samples submitted from two horses in Weld County. (barnmedia.net)
  • The two horses reside on separate locations in Weld County and have been placed under quarantine. (barnmedia.net)
  • Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the Kansas Department of Agriculture, slightly less than 100 premises have horses and cattle who have tested positive for the virus. (mcphersonsentinel.com)
  • Cattle were infected in Butler, Cowley, Marion and Montgomery counties, but new cases are presently in horses. (mcphersonsentinel.com)
  • The T-1026 R1 mutant of VSV, which has a much less dramatic effect on cell morphology than wild-type virus, also caused a less marked disruption of the cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, RNAi represents a potent response to VSV infection, as illustrated by the high susceptibility of RNAi-defective mutant flies to this virus. (pnas.org)
  • We show that a double mutant with point mutations in both the PSAP and the PPPY motifs is impaired compared with a single mutant in the PPPY motif, indicating that the PSAP motif partially compensates for the lack of the PPPY motif. (uniprot.org)
  • The mutant glycoproteins expressed in COS cells were assayed for acid-pH-induced cell-cell fusion. (asm.org)
  • Ts W16B is a temperature-sensitive mutant of vesicular stomatitis virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Recombinant VSV-K was generated and evaluated in vitro on human and murine osteosarcoma cells. (researchmap.jp)
  • VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Mouse BOECs localized to lungs of mice bearing syngeneic LM2 lung tumors, and infected murine BOECs reduced tumor burden in this model. (omgcb.com)
  • In contrast, cells infected with ts G11 (L-) showed the characteristic effect of VSV on the cytoskeleton when incubated at 34 degrees (the permissive temperature), but not when incubated at 39.5 degrees. (nih.gov)
  • Cholesterol depletion at the adsorption stage also reduced the production of VSV significantly, but in contrast, only had a limited effect on virus production at the post-entry stage. (deepdyve.com)
  • By contrast, processing to Man5GlcNAc oligosaccharides was observed in unfractionated control cells. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, mutations in the cytoplasmic domain generally had little effect on folding and trimerization. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to rabies virus and HSV-1, VSV does not use the trigeminal nerve for entry into the brain, as the trigeminal ganglion remains virus-free following intranasal infection. (nyu.edu)
  • In contrast, myeloid cells did not require the expression of MyD88 to upregulate EmGFP/IL-15 expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast, we determined that VSV retained its infectivity in the presence of aqueous DSCG, and that greater than 74-82% of the HeLa cells survived contact with aqueous DSCG (depending on concentration of DSCG). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, current paradigms suggest that such approaches will be ineffective in cancers with few nonsynonymous mutations. (jimmunol.org)
  • A systematic analysis of dsRNA production by different viruses in mammalian cells revealed that, whereas significant amount of dsRNA could be detected for viruses with dsRNA, positive-strand RNA or DNA genomes, this was not the case for the negative-strand RNA viruses tested ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, polysomal profiling was used in a study to investigate the effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The post-translational modification pathways in insects such as silkworms are similar to those in mammalian cells, and various recombinant glycoproteins have been successfully produced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intranasal inoculation, leading to olfactory nerve transport of the virus into the brain, selectively infected and killed olfactory bulb tumors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Circulating virus-specific IgM, IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies developed in most animals postinoculation (PI) days 6 to 12, depending on the route of inoculation. (vetcontact.com)
  • In addition, the vaccine has been shown to be safe in simian HIV-infected rhesus macaques ( 6 ) and was not neurovirulent after intrathalamic inoculation into macaques ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • From these results we conclude that in this system and under the experimental conditions used, unlike IL-12 and IFN-γ, IL-18 does not play a significant role in the host response to VSV infection. (nyu.edu)
  • In the study, the scientists sought to answer a question that lingered from research they published in 2006: How long after a usually lethal Marburg virus dose could the experimental vaccine be administered and still provide protection? (nih.gov)
  • The experimental Marburg vaccine is based on a weakened vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) used to carry and display a component of the Marburg virus. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we investigated the effect of circadian time of infection on the progression and outcome of VSV-induced encephalitis and demonstrated a significant decrease in the survival rate in mice infected at the start of the rest cycle, zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0). (pnas.org)
  • The lower survival rate in these mice was associated with higher levels of circulating chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), a greater number of peripherally derived immune cells accumulating in the olfactory bulb (OB), and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, indicating an immune-mediated pathology. (pnas.org)
  • Blocking REV-ERBα activity before VSV administration resulted in a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and decreased survival in mice infected at the start of the active cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we analyzed the virulence of these recombinants in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Spontaneous osteosarcoma metastases were established in immune-competent mice by implanting subcutaneously syngeneic osteosarcoma LM8 cells. (researchmap.jp)
  • After intranasal instillation of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), olfactory receptor neurons are infected. (nyu.edu)
  • Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an 18.3-kd cytokine that induces interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in mice. (nyu.edu)
  • We show that both IL-18 and caspase-1 mRNA are consistently present in the CNS of mice. (nyu.edu)
  • By crossing the transgenic mice to mice deficient in specific elements of innate signaling, we found a cell-intrinsic dependency of DCs and Ly6C + monocytes on IFN-α receptor expression for EmGFP/IL-15 upregulation after vesicular stomatitis virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Considering the severe lymphoproliferation and immune activation that occurs in IL-15 transgenic mice and mice treated with IL-15/IL-15Rα complex ( 8 , 9 ), it is perhaps not surprising that IL-15 expression is under tight transcriptional and translational control ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Alternatively, we and others ( 2 , 9 ) have used ELISA to measure low levels of IL-15 in the sera of mice and to detect the formation of IL-15-IL-15Rα complexes within the cell. (jimmunol.org)
  • [email protected]#Compared with control group of saline, apoptosis of HNE-1 cancer cells of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma increase apparently in the remaining tumor cells of nude mice treated by VSV (P (bvsalud.org)
  • The rAds could induce the production of VSV antibodies in mice, and VSV neutralizing antibodies in goats, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neutralizing antibody titers could reach 1:32 in mice and 1:64 in goats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rAds induced strong lymphocyte proliferation in mice and goats, which was significantly higher compared to the negative control groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus 3 (MHV 3 ) infection in mice displays various types of sensitivity according to mouse strains: resistance, full susceptibility and semisusceptibility. (springer.com)
  • Effect of immunosuppression in resistant mice. (springer.com)
  • Dugbe virus susceptibility to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies as a marker of virulence in mice. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Prophylaxis and immunization in mice by use of virus-free defective T particles to protect against intracerebral infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • in Mice. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • We next assessed whether checkpoint blockade or therapeutic vaccination could improve survival in mice with pre-established leukemia. (jimmunol.org)
  • Checkpoint blockade strongly synergized with heterologous vaccination to enhance overall survival in mice with leukemia. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although B-ALL cells have been shown to have low numbers of nonsynonymous mutations ( 5 ), the fusion between BCR and ABL does generate an MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted peptide Ag that can be recognized by a small population of endogenous BCR-ABL peptide (BAp):I-A b -specific T cells in mice ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Transfer of BCR-ABL + leukemic cells into C57BL/6 mice resulted in proliferation of BAp:I-A b -specific T cells, although 50% of these cells differentiated into FOXP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. (caltech.edu)
  • David Baltimore, Alice S. Huang, and Martha Stampfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. (caltech.edu)
  • Wild-type virion mRNA synthesis was inhibited, and oligonucleotide synthesis was greater than leader synthesis at high virus concentrations. (isharonline.org)
  • As the virus was diluted, inhibition of mRNA synthesis was relieved and oligonucleotide synthesis was reduced. (isharonline.org)
  • The primers chosen for this assay amplify a 642-nucleotide region of the phosphoprotein gene of VSV-NJ but not of VSV-IN. (asm.org)
  • Fractionation-reconstitution studies of two revertants indicated that the reversion was in the N or P (phosphoprotein) gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Banerjee, A. K. (1986) Identification of a domain within the phosphoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus that is essential for transcription in vitro Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 83 (23). (ias.ac.in)
  • However, because VSV is a World Organisation for Animal Health-listed pathogen ( 8 ), concerns might arise with regard to spillover of the vaccine vector to livestock when this vaccine is used on a larger scale in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Field trial of an inactivated vaccine against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in Italy. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Provisional evidence of Hantaanlike virus infections in humans and Seoul-like virus infections in rodents. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Serological evidence of the distribution of California serogroup viruses in the U.S.S.R..- Signs and symptoms of infections caused by California serogroup viruses in humans in the U.S.S.R..- Arbovirus activity in Canada. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Infection of humans can result in an influenza-like illness. (vetstream.com)
  • These viruses usually infect mammals, rodents, and birds, but only few coronaviruses adapted to humans. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Because rhesus macaques typically succumb to Marburg infection faster than humans, the post-exposure treatment window might be extended even further in humans, the study authors say. (nih.gov)
  • Five independent revertants were isolated from ts W16B based on their ability to grow at 39 °C. The thermosensitivity of in vitro transcription by these revertants was similar to that of the wild-type virus [ wt (HR)] from which ts W16B was derived. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Deletion mapping of the NS gene defined a specific domain between amino acid residues 213 and 247, which was essential for in vitro transcription. (ias.ac.in)
  • Stabilized Ribavirin diphosphate analogs inhibit the vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana) in vitro transcription reaction. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Figure 3: Platforms for cytoskeletal rearrangements by vaccinia virus and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . (nature.com)
  • Since attenuated virus has the risks of virulence reversion, a stable vaccine is therefore in need. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different structural configurations of polyribosomes could reflect a variety in translation of mRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique has been used to compare the translational status of mRNAs in different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these viruses, the nucleoprotein immediately associates with neosynthesized genomic RNA, thus preventing the formation of dsRNA ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The regions in contact with RNA were mapped to a cavity formed between two structural lobes of the nucleoprotein: the N-terminal arm and the extended loop in the C-terminal lobe [ PMID: 18003727 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Role of intermolecular interactions of vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein in RNA encapsidation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we analyzed the potential of VSV-EBOV for postexposure treatment of rhesus macaques infected with EBOV-Makona. (ovid.com)
  • Although all untreated animals succumbed to EBOV infection, 33%-67% of the animals in each treatment group survived the infection, including the group treated with the VSV-based Marburg virus vaccine. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, VSV-EBOV remains a potent and fast-acting prophylactic vaccine but demonstrates only limited efficacy in postexposure treatment. (ovid.com)
  • Inhibiting REV-ERBα-mediated suppression of CCL2 at the start of the active cycle abolishes protection in these animals, thus providing insight into circadian regulation of immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Adaptability costs in immune escape variants of vesicular stomatitis virus. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and immune response to an HIV vaccine in HIV-uninfected adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will evaluate the safety and immune response to the VSV-Indiana (one type of VSV vector) HIV gag vaccine in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results demonstrate that the vaccine can interfere with the Marburg infection and activate the immune system, both protecting the animals and preventing the virus from spreading," says Dr. Feldmann. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether immunotherapy is an effective option for treating B-ALL, we used a syngeneic mouse model of BCR-ABL + B-ALL to characterize the host immune response to this leukemia in immune-competent recipient animals ( 6 - 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • MHV 3 infections were carried out in primary cultures of embryonic fibroblasts originating from various mouse strains and in mouse lymphoid cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Role of temperature-sensitive mutants in persistent infections initiated with vesicular stomatitis virus. (springer.com)
  • Certain pathogens, including HIV and hepatitis viruses, that lead to persistent infections are often associated with suboptimal antibody responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although covering a wide range of subjects and perspectives, the book is intended to provide readers with an integrated view of the geographical distribution, properties and effects, recognition and prevention of infections with these and other viruses. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Franchi 1985 Khella has also traditionally been used for the management of diabetes in Israel, Yaniv 1987 and to treat urinary tract infections in Palestine. (drugs.com)
  • They had, as a rule, mutations in the ectodomain, including several with altered glycosylation patterns. (rupress.org)
  • The first is that as favorable mutations grow too common they begin to get in each other's way. (genetics.org)
  • In particular, I derive the rate of adaptive substitution when favorable mutations encounter traffic problems due to both other favorable mutations and to deleterious mutations. (genetics.org)
  • In this case, the proportion of neutral mutations at a site or locus is the ratio of its rate of evolution to that of a region that can be considered neutral, such as a pseudogene. (genetics.org)
  • Most newly arisen mutations in functional genes are deleterious, but the fraction may approach zero for spacer DNAs such as introns and intergenic regions. (genetics.org)
  • Checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapies are effective in cancers with high numbers of nonsynonymous mutations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent work in cancers with frequent nonsynonymous mutations, such as melanomas, has demonstrated that immunotherapy involving neutralization of programmed death 1 (PD1) and CTLA4 (checkpoint blockade) is an effective treatment option ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It remains unclear whether immunotherapy involving checkpoint blockade strategies will also be effective in cancers with few nonsynonymous mutations, such as B-ALL ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This homology suggests the existence of a common ancestral gene for these 2 apparently unrelated viruses. (eurekamag.com)
  • Depletion of TIA1 via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), but not depletion of TIAR, results in enhanced VSV growth and gene expression. (nebraska.edu)
  • Wild-type Indiana virus transcribed four 11- to 14-nucleotide-long, 5' N-gene mRNA sequences in vitro. (isharonline.org)
  • Single-gene detection and karyotyping using small-target fluorescence in situ hybridization on maize somatic chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • We have conducted a series of gene swap experiments of these closely related bacteriophage species with different host ranges to determine which genes are responsible for these variations in host range. (earlham.edu)
  • It is maximal in a conventional gene or exon, and at least transitorily less in a gene whose function is required rarely or is redundant. (genetics.org)
  • This finding raises the question whether antiviral RNAi, which is triggered by the presence of dsRNA in insects, represents an effective host-defense mechanism against negative-strand RNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Sequential disassembly of the cytoskeleton in BHK21 cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. (nih.gov)
  • The cytopathic effects of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that result in the rounding of BHK21 cells have been studied. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that the negative-strand RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) does not produce easily detectable amounts of dsRNA in Drosophila cells. (pnas.org)
  • In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , antiviral RNAi relies on the recognition of dsRNA in infected cells by the RNaseIII enzyme Dicer-2 (Dcr-2). (pnas.org)
  • From in vitro comparisons of a number of viruses, we selected one that appeared the best in selectively killing glioblastoma cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • An alternate strategy is the use of replicating viruses that target, infect, produce progeny virus to infect more tumor cells, and kill infected cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • This shutoff presumably inhibits interferon signaling and thus establishment of antiviral state in virus infected cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Membrane bound polysomes were prepared from HeLa cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), after pulse labeling with [3H]mannose for various times from 15 to 90 min. (rupress.org)
  • On day 1 BHK-21 stock cells are washed twice with saline solution, trypsinized and ~0.8-1.0 x 10 5 cells are seeded in T25 flasks with MEM-E supplemented with 7% BCS and 0.06% PP3. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Parallel experiments in living cells and in vitro were undertaken to characterize the mechanism by which misfolded and unassembled glycoproteins are retained in the ER. (scripps.edu)
  • By 12 to 24 hr postinfection, VSV antigens are observed in adjoining supporting and basal cells and in other structures of the olfactory epithelium and lamina propria. (nyu.edu)
  • The VSV-induced granules appear to be similar to the stress granules (SGs) generated in cells triggered by heat shock or oxidative stress but do not contain some of the bona fide SG markers, such as eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) or eIF4A, or the processing body (PB) markers, such as mRNA-decapping enzyme 1A (DCP1a), and thus may not represent canonical SGs or PBs. (nebraska.edu)
  • The functional significance of these SG-like structures in VSV-infected cells is currently under investigation. (nebraska.edu)
  • EmGFP/IL-15 was prevalent in innate cells including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic deletion of IL-15 or IL-15Rα results in a lack of NK cells and the loss of most CD8 + memory T cells and subsets of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Infected BOECs resulted in killing of NSCLC cells in vitro and shielded VSV-IFNβ from antibody neutralization. (omgcb.com)
  • VSV-infected target cells incubated in the presence of TM were lysed by anti-VSV CTL up to 50 to 80% of the infected target cell control. (elsevier.com)
  • Harris, DT , Hale, AH & Lefrancois, L 1981, ' Lysis of target cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the presence of tunicamycin by anti-VSV cytotoxic T lymphocytes ', Journal of Immunology , vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 1914-1918. (elsevier.com)
  • The influence of these materials on the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to infect human epitheloid cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells was examined by two approaches. (biomedsearch.com)
  • First, VSV was dispersed in aqueous C(14)AO+ D or DSCG, and then HeLa cells were inoculated by contacting the cells with the aqueous C(14)AO + D or DSCG containing VSV. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Similar heterogeneous thermosensitive properties were observed when YAC-derived cloned substrains (YAC-MHV 3 ) were compared to parental-derived cloned viruses, indicating that no selection of temperature-sensitive mutants was induced in persistently infected YAC cells. (springer.com)
  • Early interaction between mouse hepatitis virus 3 and cells. (springer.com)
  • Persistence and host-regulated thermosensitivity in cells of neural derivation infected with mouse hepatitis and measles viruses. (springer.com)
  • Prolonged infection of L cells with vesicular stomatitis virus. (springer.com)
  • This dense packing can determine their function as regulators of translation, with 3-D polyribosomes being found in sarcoma cells using fluorescence microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusion occurred at a pH 0.5 unit lower than that observed for cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stegemann-Koniszewski S, Jeron A, Gereke M, Geffers R, Kröger A, Gunzer M, Bruder D. Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells Contribute to the Anti-Influenza A Virus Response in the Lung by Integrating Pathogen- and Microenvironment-Derived Signals . (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Thus, T cells do respond to BCR-ABL + leukemia in this mouse model, but the response was immunosuppressive in nature and detrimental to host survival. (jimmunol.org)
  • Her studies on pseudotypes, especially between RNA and DNA viruses, demonstrate the spread of viruses to new host cells and provide important tools for genetic engineering. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) results in the initial infection of the olfactory receptor neurons and a rapid progression of the virus through the mouse central nervous system (CNS). (nyu.edu)
  • Because of the confirmed cases in Kansas, other states and Canada are likely to increase restrictions on livestock imports. (kspork.org)
  • Animal health officials strongly encourage all livestock owners and veterinarians to call the animal health authority in the destination location for the most current import requirements prior to travel. (kspork.org)
  • The FDA announced this week that it has requested that animal drug companies voluntarily revise the labels of drugs intended to treat internal parasites in livestock to add information about antiparasitic resistance. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • Milan FFA had teams place 3rd in livestock judging and FFA knowledge. (kttn.com)
  • Immunogenicity of the vaccine at the highest doses and in heterologous prime-boost regimens will guide future vector development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Induces cell-rounding, cytoskeleton disorganization and apoptosis in infected cell (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Species of the genus Lutzomyia are found only in the New World, distributed in southern areas of the Nearctic and throughout the Neotropic zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus, named after Adolfo Lutz, is known from the extinct Burdigalian (20-15 mya) species Lutzomyia adiketis found as a fossil in Dominican amber on the island of Hispaniola. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that species in the genus Lutzomyia all originated in the lowland forests to the east of the Andes mountain range, and that their radiation throughout the Neotropics was sparked by dry periods of the Pleistocene, driving colonisation further north and west to areas of higher humidity and leading to reproductive isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has begun in an attempt to resolve evolutionary relationships between species in the genus, using molecular methods to create phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of P of vesicular stomatitis virus, a prototypic nonsegmented NSRV, bound to nucleocapsid-like particles. (rcsb.org)
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles (green) budding from a host cell (blue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • These virus particles have formed in a cultured cell. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In addition, these methyltransferase (MTase)-defective rVSVs triggered high levels of antibody responses and provided complete protection against VSV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • The deletion of amino acid residues 124 to 127, 131 to 137, or 124 to 137 produced mutants defective in transport. (asm.org)
  • Defective interfering forms and temperature-sensitive mutants as factors in the infection. (springer.com)
  • Indiana - further subdivided into subtypes Indiana 1, Indiana 2 (Cocal virus) and Indiana 3 (Alagoas virus - isolated in a Brazilian outbreak). (vetstream.com)
  • At postmortem (PI days 12 to 15), lesions were healing, were not vesicular, and did not contain detectable virus by isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, or immunohistochemistry. (vetcontact.com)
  • Her work on the virion-associated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase led to the grouping of many viruses as negative-strand viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • The brain parenchyma has a type I interferon response that can limit virus spread. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has recently emerged that clathrin functions as a scaffold for actin assembly, in the context of both pathogen infection and cell biology. (nature.com)
  • The role of clathrin in pathogen entry has received much attention and has highlighted the adaptability of clathrin during internalization. (nature.com)
  • Recent studies have now uncovered additional roles for clathrin and have put the spotlight on its role in pathogen spread. (nature.com)
  • In the majority of cases, both clathrin and the actin cytoskeleton are hijacked, so we also examine the interplay between these two systems and their role during pathogen internalization, egress and spread. (nature.com)
  • Viruses differ in the numbers of host species they infect. (earlham.edu)
  • Tobacco mosaic virus, for instance, can infect nine different plant families and at least 125 individual species. (earlham.edu)
  • This molecular pattern triggers RNA interference in plants and invertebrates, and production of interferons (IFNs) in vertebrates ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We also found that the acrophase of molecular circadian clock component REV-ERBα mRNA expression in the OB coincides with the start of the active cycle, ZT12, when VSV infection results in a more favorable outcome. (pnas.org)
  • Our current understanding of mRNA modifications of NNS RNA viruses comes largely from studies of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (harvard.edu)
  • A low level of protection at 2 internal AUG-containing sites in the N mRNA is also described. (eurekamag.com)
  • A large homology between the VSV M mRNA site and the alfalfa mosaic virus coat mRNA site is noted. (eurekamag.com)
  • For each VSV mRNA species, the smallest sites protected in either the 40S or 80S initiation complexes are identical. (eurekamag.com)
  • These sites always contained the initiation codon, but only contained the capped 5' end in those mRNA having the 5' end near the initiation site. (eurekamag.com)
  • If 40S ribosomes bind to the capped 5' end, either they do not protect it from nuclease digestion or the protection is only transitory in some VSV mRNA. (eurekamag.com)
  • The ability of multiple ribosomes to function on an mRNA molecule explains the limited abundance of mRNA in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atomic force microscopy used in in vitro studies have shown that circular eukaryotic polysomes can be formed by free polyadenylated mRNA in the presence of initiation factor eIF4E bound to the 5' cap and PABP bound to the 3'-poly(A) tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that topologically circular polyribosomes can be successfully formed in the translational system with mRNA with no cap and no poly(A) tail as well as a capped mRNA without a 3'-poly(A) tail. (wikipedia.org)