Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (1/128)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

Increased methamphetamine neurotoxicity in heterozygous vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knock-out mice. (2/128)

Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that is increasingly abused worldwide. Although it is commonly accepted that the dopaminergic system and oxidation of dopamine (DA) play pivotal roles in the neurotoxicity produced by this phenylethylamine, the primary source of DA responsible for this effect has remained elusive. In this study, we used mice heterozygous for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 +/- mice) to determine whether impaired vesicular function alters the effects of METH. METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity was increased in striatum of VMAT2 +/- mice compared with wild-type mice as revealed by a more consistent DA and metabolite depletion and a greater decrease in dopamine transporter expression. Interestingly, increased METH neurotoxicity in VMAT2 +/- mice was accompanied by less pronounced increase in extracellular DA and indices of free radical formation compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that disruption of vesicular monoamine transport potentiates METH-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and point, albeit indirectly, to a greater contribution of intraneuronal DA redistribution rather than extraneuronal overflow on mediating this effect.  (+info)

Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase enhance dopamine delivery after L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine administration in Parkinsonian rats. (3/128)

Medical therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by the short-duration response and development of dyskinesia that result from chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) therapy. These problems occur partly because the loss of dopamine storage sites leads to erratic dopamine delivery. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) plays a critical role in dopamine storage by packaging dopamine into synaptic vesicles and regulating sustained release of dopamine. To restore the capacity to produce and store dopamine in parkinsonian rats, primary skin fibroblast cells (PF) were genetically modified with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and VMAT-2 genes. After incubation with L-DOPA in culture, the doubly transduced fibroblast cells (PFVMAA) produced and stored dopamine at a much higher level than the cells with either gene alone. PFVMAA cells in culture released dopamine gradually in a constitutive manner. Genetically modified fibroblast cells were grafted in parkinsonian rat striata, and L-DOPA was systemically administered. Higher dopamine levels were sustained for a longer duration in rats grafted with PFVMAA cells than in those grafted with either control cells or cells with AADC alone. These findings underscore the importance of dopamine storage capacity in determining the efficacy of L-DOPA therapy and illustrate a novel method of gene therapy combined with precursor administration to overcome the major obstacles of PD treatment.  (+info)

Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells. (4/128)

1. Gastrointestinal endocrine cells produce biogenic amines which are transported into secretory vesicles by one of two proton-amine exchangers, vesicular monoamine transporters type 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and 2). We report here the presence of VMAT1 in rat gastrin (G) cells and the relevance of VMAT1 function for the modulation of progastrin processing by biogenic and dietary amines. 2. In immunocytochemical studies VMAT1, but not VMAT2, was localized to subpopulations of G cells and enterochromaffin (EC) cells; neither was found in antral D cells. The expression of VMAT1 in antral mucosa was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, which revealed an mRNA band of approximately 3.2 kb, and by Western blot analysis, which revealed a major protein of 55 kDa. 3. In pulse-chase labelling experiments, the conversion of the amidated gastrin G34 to G17 was inhibited by biogenic amine precursors (L-DOPA and 5-hydroxytryptophan). This inhibition was stereospecific and sensitive to reserpine (50 nM), which blocks VMAT1 and VMAT2, but resistant to tetrabenazine, which is a selective inhibitor of VMAT2. 4. Dietary amines such as tyramine and tryptamine also inhibited G34 cleavage. This effect was associated with a loss of the electron-dense core of G cell secretory vesicles. It was not stereospecific or reserpine sensitive, but was correlated with hydrophobicity. 5. Thus rat antral G cells can express VMAT1; transport of biogenic amines into secretory vesicles by VMAT1 is associated with inhibition of G34 cleavage, perhaps by raising intravesicular pH. Dietary amines also modulate cleavage of progastrin-derived peptides, but do so by a VMAT1-independent mechanism; they may act as weak bases that passively permeate secretory vesicle membranes and raise intravesicular pH.  (+info)

Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. (5/128)

The recently identified transport proteins organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, and extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) accept dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and 5-hydroxytryptamine as substrates and hence qualify as non-neuronal monoamine transporters. In the present study, selective transport substrates were identified that allow, by analogy to receptor agonists, functional discrimination of these transporters. To contrast efficiency of solute transport, stably transfected 293 cell lines, each expressing a single transporter, were examined side by side in uptake experiments with radiolabeled substrates. Normalized uptake rates indicate that tetraethylammonium, with a rate of about 0.5 relative to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), is a good substrate for OCT1 and OCT2. It was not, however, accepted as substrate by EMT. Choline was transported exclusively by OCT1, with a rate of about 0.5 relative to MPP+. Histamine was a good substrate with a rate of about 0.6 relative to MPP+ for OCT2 and EMT, but was not transported by OCT1. Guanidine was an excellent substrate for OCT2, with a rate as high as that of MPP+. Transport of guanidine by OCT1 was low, and transport by EMT was negligible. With the guanidine derivatives cimetidine and creatinine, a pattern strikingly similar to guanidine was observed. Collectively, these substrates reveal key differences in solute recognition and turnover and thus challenge the concept of "polyspecific" organic cation transporters. In addition, our data, when compared with previous studies, suggest that OCT2 corresponds to the organic cation/H+ antiport mechanism in renal brush-border membrane vesicles, and that EMT corresponds to the guanidine/H+ antiport mechanism in membrane vesicles from placenta and intestine.  (+info)

Ontogeny of ECL cells in the rat. (6/128)

ECL cells produce histamine and chromogranin A, and are restricted to the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach. ECL cell ontogeny has been studied in some detail in the rat. Using histidine decarboxylase immunostaining, the first ECL cells can be demonstrated at embryonic day 17. Immunoreactive histamine and chromogranin A appear one day later. At embryonic day 20, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 is also present in the ECL cells. Neonatally the ECL cell proliferation is slow; however, one to three weeks postnatally there is a rapid growth of ECL cells to populate the basal half of the glands. Gastrin is known to be an important stimulator of ECL cell activity and growth in the adult rat. As revealed in recent mouse gene knock out models gastrin does not seem to play a role in the early ECL cell differentiation and development.  (+info)

Assessment of extrastriatal vesicular monoamine transporter binding site density using stereoisomers of [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine. (7/128)

Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ) as a ligand for in vivo imaging of the vesicular monoamine transporter system. The (+)-isomer has a high affinity (approximately 1 nmol/L) for the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) binding site, whereas the (-)-isomer has an extremely low affinity (approximately 2 micromol/L). Efforts to model dynamic (+)-[11C]DTBZ data demonstrate the difficulty in separating the specific binding component from the free plus nonspecific component of the total positron emission tomography (PET) measure. The authors' previous PET work, as well as in vitro studies, indicate that there is little specific VMAT2 binding in neocortical regions. However, precise determination of in vivo binding levels have not been made, leaving important questions unanswered. At one extreme, is there sufficient specific binding in cortex or other extrastriate regions to be estimated reliably with PET? At the other extreme, is there sufficiently little binding in cortex so that it can be used as a reference region representing nonsaturable tracer uptake? The authors address these questions using paired studies with both active (+) and inactive (-) stereoisomers of [11C]DTBZ. Six normal control subjects were scanned twice, 2 hours apart, after injections of 16 mCi of (+)- and (-)-[11C]DTBZ (order counter-balanced). Three-dimensional PET acquisition consisted of 15 frames over 60 minutes for each scan. Arterial samples were acquired throughout, plasma counted, and corrected for radiolabeled metabolites. Analysis of specific binding was assessed by comparison of total distribution volume measures from the (+)- and (-)-[11C]DTBZ scans. The authors' findings indicate that only approximately 5% of the cortical signal in (+)-[11C]DTBZ scans results from binding to VMAT2 sites. The strongest extrastriatal signal comes from the midbrain regions where approximately 30% of the PET measure results from specific binding. The authors conclude that (1) the density of VMAT2 binding sites in cortical regions is not high enough to be quantified reliably with DTBZ PET, and (2) binding does appear to be low enough so that cortex can be used as a free plus nonspecific reference region for striatum.  (+info)

Differential quantal release of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine from mast cells of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knockout mice. (8/128)

The recent availability of mice lacking the neuronal form of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) affords the opportunity to study its roles in storage and release. Carbon fiber microelectrodes were used to measure individual secretory events of histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from VMAT2-expressing mast cells as a model system for quantal release. VMAT2 is indispensable for monoamine storage because mast cells from homozygous (VMAT2(-/-)) mice, while undergoing granule-cell fusion, do not release monoamines. Cells from heterozygous animals (VMAT2(+/-)) secrete lower amounts of monoamine per granule than cells from wild-type controls. Investigation of corelease of histamine and 5-HT from granules in VMAT2(+/-) cells revealed 5-HT quantal size was reduced more than that of histamine. Thus, although vesicular transport is the limiting factor determining quantal size of 5-HT and histamine release, intragranular association with the heparin matrix also plays a significant role.  (+info)

Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. These proteins are located on the membranes of neurosecretory vesicles and function to regulate the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm and maintain their storage in vesicles until they are released into the synapse during neurotransmission. VMATs are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) and consist of two isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and substrate specificity. VMAT1 is primarily found in non-neuronal cells, such as endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, while VMAT2 is predominantly expressed in neurons. Dysregulation of VMATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Nordefrin is not typically used as a medical diagnosis or treatment, but it is a medication that contains the active ingredient Noradrenaline (also known as Norepinephrine) which is a naturally occurring hormone and neurotransmitter in the human body.

Noradrenaline is a potent vasoconstrictor, increasing blood pressure and improving blood flow to vital organs such as the heart and brain. It also acts as a bronchodilator, opening up the airways in the lungs. Nordefrin is used as a medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) and shock, particularly in cases where other treatments have been ineffective.

It's important to note that Nordefrin should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects if not used correctly.

Biogenic amine receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to biogenic amines, which are naturally occurring compounds that function as neurotransmitters or hormones in the human body. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and cognition.

Examples of biogenic amines include:

1. Dopamine (DA): Dopamine receptors are involved in motor control, reward processing, and motivation. They are divided into two main classes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).
2. Serotonin (5-HT): Serotonin receptors regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception. There are seven distinct families of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple subtypes within each family.
3. Norepinephrine (NE): Also known as noradrenaline, norepinephrine receptors play a role in the "fight or flight" response, attention, and arousal. They are divided into two main classes: α-adrenergic (α1 and α2) and β-adrenergic (β1, β2, and β3).
4. Histamine (HA): Histamine receptors regulate allergic responses, wakefulness, and appetite. There are four types of histamine receptors (H1 to H4), with distinct functions and signaling pathways.
5. Acetylcholine (ACh): While not a biogenic amine, acetylcholine is often included in this category due to its similar role as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine receptors are involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction. They can be further divided into muscarinic (M1-M5) and nicotinic (α and β subunits) receptor classes.

Biogenic amine receptors typically function through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, although some can also activate ion channels directly. Dysregulation of biogenic amine systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are a group of membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the uptake and transport of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane of cells. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and liver.

FATPs have several domains that enable them to perform their functions, including a cytoplasmic domain that binds to fatty acids, a transmembrane domain that spans the plasma membrane, and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domain that hydrolyzes ATP to provide energy for fatty acid transport.

FATPs also play a role in the regulation of intracellular lipid metabolism by modulating the activity of enzymes involved in fatty acid activation, desaturation, and elongation. Mutations in FATP genes have been associated with various metabolic disorders, including congenital deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects fatty acid oxidation.

In summary, fatty acid transport proteins are essential for the uptake and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in cells and have implications in various metabolic disorders.

Monoamine reuptake inhibitor Monoamine receptor Monoamine oxidase Monoamine transporter Monoamine Hypothesis Biogenic amine ... m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Synephrine Tryptamine Specific transporter proteins called monoamine transporters that transport ... In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine ... Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) ...
... vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.750.500.249 - vesicular acetylcholine transport proteins ... vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.887.500.249 - vesicular acetylcholine transport ... vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.887.625.500 - vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH ... vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.750.625.750 - vesicular glutamate transport protein 2 MeSH ...
... vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.750.500.249 - vesicular acetylcholine transport proteins ... vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.887.500.249 - vesicular acetylcholine transport ... vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.887.625.500 - vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH ... vesicular glutamate transport protein 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.750.625.750 - vesicular glutamate transport protein 2 MeSH ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... Upon entering the presynaptic neuron, amphetamine activates TAAR1 which, through protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C ( ... Although the monoamine transport cycle has been resolved in considerable detail, kinetic knowledge on the molecular actions of ... "SLC18 family of vesicular amine transporters". IUPHAR database. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
Biogenic amines, Integral membrane proteins, VMAT inhibitors, Amphetamine). ... The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membranes of synaptic vesicles of ... 2004). "The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18) amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and ... VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ...
With vesicular transport blocked, neurotransmitter stores quickly become depleted. Reserpine (Serpasil) is an irreversible ... 1994). "Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. IV. Demonstration of a multiplicity of binding sites in rat caudate ... which exerts its effects by causing conformational changes in the transporter protein and thereby modulating the affinity of ... 1995). "Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VI. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site, identified with [125I ...
"The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated ... After synthesis, norepinephrine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter ( ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and, as such, are provided by ingestion of protein-containing food, with ... Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines. Springer. pp. 1-35. ISBN 978-1-4684-3171-1. Griffith RK (2013). "Chapter 10: Adrenergic ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ... Transporter reversal typically occurs when a membrane transport protein is phosphorylated by a particular protein kinase, which ... by triggering reverse transport at vesicular monoamine transporters (specifically, VMAT1 and VMAT2) and other monoamine ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... to either stop transporting monoamines altogether (via transporter internalization) or transport monoamines out of the neuron; ... Transcription factors are proteins that increase or decrease the expression of specific genes. In simpler terms, this necessary ... Similarly, urinary biogenic trace amine PEA levels could be a biomarker for the diagnosis of ADHD,20,57,58 for treatment ...
"Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. 14. Identification of low-efficacy "partial" substrates for the biogenic amine ... MRAs can also bind to the intracellular receptor TAAR1 as agonists, which triggers a phosphorylation cascade via protein ... Once inside the presynaptic neuron, they may inhibit the reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters through vesicular monoamine ... these transporters transport monoamines in reverse (i.e., they move monoamines from the neuronal cytoplasm into the synaptic ...
... transport, and degradation. The gene for DAT, known as DAT1, is located on chromosome 5p15. The protein encoding region of the ... "Studies of the biogenic amine transporters 15. Identification of novel allosteric dopamine transporter ligands with nanomolar ... where they act to collapse the vesicular pH gradient. Ledonne A, Berretta N, Davoli A, Rizzo GR, Bernardi G, Mercuri NB (July ... Apart from these innate protein-protein interactions, recent studies demonstrated that viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat protein ...
SLC18A1 is an isoform of the vesicular monoamine transporter. The idea that there must be specific transport proteins ... Biogenic amines, Molecular neuroscience, Neurotransmitter transporters, Receptors, Signal transduction, Solute carrier family) ... "The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated ... "The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... Methylphenidate has a low plasma protein binding of 10-33% and a volume of distribution of 2.65 L/kg. Dextromethylphenidate is ... "reverse transport" through DAT. Despite the challenges in determining synaptic vesicle pH, the proton gradient across the ... The erythro diastereomers are pressor amines, a property not shared with the threo diastereomers. When the drug was first ...
"The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated ... After synthesis, dopamine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by a solute carrier-a vesicular monoamine ... Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines. Springer. pp. 1-35. ISBN 978-1-4684-3171-1. The National Collaborating Centre for Chronic ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are readily available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene. SLC18A2 is an integral membrane protein that transports monoamines- ... Biogenic amines, Molecular neuroscience, Neurotransmitter transporters, Receptors, Signal transduction, Solute carrier family, ... "The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated ... Little KY, Krolewski DM, Zhang L, Cassin BJ (January 2003). "Loss of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter protein (VMAT2) ...
"Use of synthesis inhibitors in defining a role for biogenic amines during imipramine treatment in depressed patients". ... Two broad classes of theories have emerged: (1) Changes in protein phosphorylation, gene expression, and protein translation ... MATs are able to transport monoamines other than their "native" neurotransmitter. It was advised to consider the role of the ... Reserpine's effect on monoamine concentrations results from blockade of the vesicular monoamine transporter, leading to their ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... Transporters, or membrane transport proteins, pump neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft back into axon terminals (the ... Trace amines have a modulatory effect on neurotransmission in monoamine pathways (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin ... Lindemann L, Hoener MC (May 2005). "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family". Trends in Pharmacological ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... DHK-sensitive, EAAT2 uptake was not altered by AMPH (Figure 1A). The remaining glutamate transport in these midbrain cultures ... Approximately 20% of amphetamine circulating in the bloodstream is bound to plasma proteins. Following absorption, amphetamine ... Ledonne A, Berretta N, Davoli A, Rizzo GR, Bernardi G, Mercuri NB (July 2011). "Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on ...
Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Exanthema of Swine ... Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2. *Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Stomatitis. *Vesicular ... Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1. * ... Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus. *Vesicular Transport ...
Monoamine reuptake inhibitor Monoamine receptor Monoamine oxidase Monoamine transporter Monoamine Hypothesis Biogenic amine ... m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Synephrine Tryptamine Specific transporter proteins called monoamine transporters that transport ... In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine ... Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) ...
Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Glutamate Transport ... Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins*Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Neurotransmitter ... Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530.562]. *Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530. ... Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.585.562]. *Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.585. ...
Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins. *Vesicular Glutamate Transport ... Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530.450.162.887]. *Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins [D12.776. ... Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.585.450.162.887]. *Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins [D12.776. ... Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530.562.750]. *Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins [D12.776. ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ... Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport ... Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport ...
Vesicular Amine Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins. Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport ... Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins ... Vitamin D-Dependent Calcium-Binding Protein use Calcium-Binding Protein, Vitamin D-Dependent ... Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Proteins use Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins. Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport ...
The release of biogenic amines from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) depends on localization of the vesicular monoamine ... Vesicular transport proteins package classical neurotransmitters for regulated exocytotic release, and localize to at least two ... Both kinases phosphorylate the VMAT2 fusion protein to a much greater extent than a similar fusion protein containing the ... The protein kinase inhibitor CKI-7 and unlabeled GTP both block in vitro phosphorylation by cell homogenates, indicating a role ...
... and irreversible transport from compartment 2 to compartment 3 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2 activity). ... The PET ligand 5-hydroxy-l-11C-tryptophan (11C-5-HTP) is the biogenic precursor for serotonin and was originally developed to ... Intracellular serotonin modulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by protein serotonylation. PLoS Biol. 2009;7: ... because of the high uptake in these lesions due to the proposed amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase mechanism. Uptake of ...
"A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. Its ... "myelin A1 protein" EXACT [] synonym: "myelin basic protein S" EXACT [] synonym: "myelin membrane encephalitogenic protein" ... This agent may also interfere with amino acid, cyclic AMP, and glutathione metabolism; calmodulin-dependent Ca++ -transport ... an indole alkaloid which irreversibly blocks the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs), SLC18A1 and SLC18A2. Reserpine has ...
"A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. Its ... "myelin A1 protein" EXACT [] synonym: "myelin basic protein S" EXACT [] synonym: "myelin membrane encephalitogenic protein" ... It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes." [MESH:D000001] synonym: "A-23187" EXACT [] ... an indole alkaloid which irreversibly blocks the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs), SLC18A1 and SLC18A2. Reserpine has ...
We have now demonstrated that four of these proteins mediate amino acid transport in vacuoles. One protein, AVT1, is required ... Biogenic amine systems are damaged by amphetamine abuse and in Parkinsons disease. The mechanisms mediating this damage are of ... Although the vesicular transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine have been identified, the proteins responsible for ... A family of yeast proteins mediating bidirectional vacuolar amino acid transport JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Russnak, R., ...
Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have facilitated recent interest in the examination of global protein expression ... Cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amines and biopterin in Rett syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1989;25:56-60. ... and can transport/anchor G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels/exchangers to the plasma membrane [143]. We found ... Modulation of dendritic spine development and plasticity by BDNF and vesicular trafficking: fundamental roles in ...
Biogene Amine in der Ernährung. (Biogenic amines in nutrition.) Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1996. ... The diamine oxidase (DAO) protein is stored in plasma membrane-associated vesicular structures in epithelial cells and is ... Histamine transport and metabolism are deranged in salivary glands in Sjogrens syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford) (2013) 52(9): ... Biogenic amine production by bacteria. In: Morgan D, White A, Sánchez-Jiménez F, Bardócz S. eds. Biogenically active amines in ...
This biogenic amine is fermented by microorganisms from histidine through the activity of histidine decarboxylase. Drosophila ... Levels of proteins, including Cyt C, Bcl-2/BAX, and Nrf2/HO-1-associated proteins, were determined by western blotting and ... accumulate in mitochondria and damage complex I of the electron transport chain, leading to neuronal death. In Drosophila ... docking and neurotransmitter release is superlinearly proportional to the concentration of calcium close to the vesicular ...
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including ... The similarity proteins for a target are defined as the proteins with E-value , 0.005 and outside the protein families of the ... Vesicular amine transporter; Vesicular Monoamine Transporter; VMAT; VAT; Solute carrier family 18 member 2; SLC18A2; Monoamine ... of target is determined based on a human protein-protein interactions (PPI) network consisting of 9,309 proteins and 52,713 ...
"The vesicular amine transporter family (SLC18): amine/proton antiporters required for vesicular accumulation and regulated ... After synthesis, norepinephrine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter ( ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and, as such, are provided by ingestion of protein-containing food, with ... Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines. Springer. pp. 1-35. ISBN 978-1-4684-3171-1. .. ...
Biogenic Amines( bear 1mo. D-Gluconic Acid( be 1mo. toned by Think Up Themes Ltd. BioStock is funded a Status Report of Cereno ... pushing in print from the proteins on their monthly foot against scan, it thrives described that the successes Find a s bell to ... no that also not, in the voyages before nephropathy basis, if same communities was been after a headquarters was transported to ... In start to writing globe and vesicular media more all, TEI would rewrite past publishers to Do their course in high postings. ...
There are three major types of transport proteins, ATP-powered pumps, channel proteins and transporters. Transport proteins ... biogenic amines, vitamins,. MCE Human Metabolites Library is a helpful tool for studying the relationship between diseases and ... trans-epithelial transport, regulation of cytoplasmic or vesicular ion concentration and pH, and regulation of cell volume. ... Protein-protein Interaction Inhibitor Library CS-L109 526 Protein protein interactions (PPI) have pivotal roles in life ...
It shows genes and PPIs with information about pathways, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), Gene Ontology (GO) annotations ... a web resource for human protein-protein interactions. ... Cellular Biogenic Amine Metabolic Process. *Transport. *Amine ... Extracellular Vesicular Exosome. *Endocytic Vesicle Lumen. *Blood Microparticle. *Proteinaceous Extracellular Matrix. * ... Protein-Protein Interactions. 35 interactors: ABCA1 ABCA13 AKT2 APOA1BP APOA2 APOB APOC1 APOF APOL1 APP ATP5B CETP CFHR1 CLEC4G ...
  • Norepinephrine, NE) Indolamines: Serotonin (5-HT) Melatonin (MT) Trace amines Phenethylamines (related to catecholamines): Phenethylamine (PEA) N-Methylphenethylamine (endogenous amphetamine isomer) Phenylethanolamine m-Tyramine p-Tyramine 3-Methoxytyramine N-Methyltyramine m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Synephrine Tryptamine Specific transporter proteins called monoamine transporters that transport monoamines in or out of a cell exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine and other monoamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In PC12 cells, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) localizes preferentially to synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs), whereas the closely related vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) localize preferentially to large dense core vesicles (LDCVs). (bvsalud.org)
  • A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that are INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES. (uams.edu)
  • A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. (uchicago.edu)
  • Vesicular transport proteins package classical neurotransmitters for regulated exocytotic release, and localize to at least two distinct types of secretory vesicles. (bvsalud.org)
  • Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. (idrblab.net)
  • They are deactivated in the body by the enzymes known as monoamine oxidases which clip off the amine group. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the outer cell membrane and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT1 and VMAT2) in the membrane of intracellular vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify new aminergic drugs in vivo, we used a mutation in the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (dVMAT) as a sensitized genetic background and performed a suppressor screen. (bvsalud.org)
  • The release of biogenic amines from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) depends on localization of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 to LDCVs. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have used adenoviral-mediated transfection to increase expression of the brain vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 and presynaptic amperometric recordings to characterize the effects on quantal release. (bvsalud.org)
  • After intracellular conversion into 11 C-serotonin and uptake into secretory vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 or biodegradation by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) into 11 C-5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ( 11 C-HIAA), the tracer is rapidly excreted into the urine. (snmjournals.org)
  • The PET ligand 5-hydroxy- l - 11 C-tryptophan ( 11 C-5-HTP) is the biogenic precursor for serotonin and was originally developed to assess the rate of serotonin biosynthesis by dopa decarboxylase (DDC) in the central nervous system ( 6 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Age-related gene expression profiles of the short-lived model animals Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster share a common adult-onset expression program of genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, DNA repair, catabolism, peptidolysis and cellular transport 3 . (nature.com)
  • NSY-1 is in the highly conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway, which plays a crucial role in C. elegans innate immunity, suggesting that this pathway may play a role in biogenic amine toxicity system damage due to amphetamines and in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease in higher organisms. (stanford.edu)
  • Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS. (uchicago.edu)
  • 11 C-5-HTP is currently in clinical use for localization of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) ( 7 , 8 ) because of the high uptake in these lesions due to the proposed amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase mechanism. (snmjournals.org)
  • Biological Network Descriptors of target is determined based on a human protein-protein interactions (PPI) network consisting of 9,309 proteins and 52,713 PPIs, which were with a high confidence score of ≥ 0.95 collected from STRING database. (idrblab.net)
  • We fed dVMAT mutant larvae â ¼ 1000 known drugs and quantitated rescue (suppression) of an amine-dependent locomotor deficit in the larva. (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine which drugs might specifically potentiate neurotransmitter release, we performed an additional secondary screen for drugs that require presynaptic amine storage to rescue larval locomotion. (bvsalud.org)
  • A target that has fewer human similarity proteins outside its family is commonly regarded to possess a greater capacity to avoid undesired interactions and thus increase the possibility of finding successful drugs ( Brief Bioinform, 21: 649-662, 2020 ). (idrblab.net)
  • Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have facilitated recent interest in the examination of global protein expression to better understand the biology between transcriptional and translational regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we have taken advantage of the Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model system to investigate genetic modifiers of biogenic amine toxicity. (stanford.edu)
  • chb-3 encodes a novel protein, with a zf-MYND motif and ankyrin repeats, that is highly conserved from worm to human. (stanford.edu)
  • In addition to confirming previous works regarding mRNA expression in Mecp2 -deficient animals, the current study identified hundreds of novel protein targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was also an upregulation in expression of positive regulators and key components of the AMPK pathway, autophagy, proteasome function, and the unfolded protein response. (nature.com)
  • Previous analyses suggest that lack of normal cilia causes the small-body phenotype through the activation of a signaling pathway which consists of the EGL-4 cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the GCY-12 receptor-type guanylyl cyclase. (stanford.edu)
  • The network properties of targets based on protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been widely adopted for the assessment of target's druggability. (idrblab.net)
  • Furthermore, GSOs protected cells against GLU-induced apoptosis by reducing the expression of the mitochondrial apoptosis-associated Bcl-2 family effector proteins and protected cells from GLU-induced oxidative damage by increasing the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. (sdbonline.org)
  • Several selected protein targets were validated by Western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These compounds generally penetrate cell membranes, act on specific target proteins in cells, regulate intracellular signaling pathways, and cause some changes in cell phenotype. (chemscene.com)
  • Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis. (idrblab.net)
  • Biogenic amine systems are damaged by amphetamine abuse and in Parkinson's disease. (stanford.edu)
  • Hits common to both data sets indicate disrupted cellular metabolism, calcium signaling, protein stability, DNA binding, and cytoskeletal cell structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • They are ANTIPORTERS that exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic NEUROTRANSMITTER and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmission. (uams.edu)
  • These results also suggest the coupling of RACK1 to muscle unfolded protein response during SC activation. (sdbonline.org)
  • Levels of proteins, including Cyt C, Bcl-2/BAX, and Nrf2 /HO-1-associated proteins, were determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence. (sdbonline.org)
  • Uptake of 11 C-5-HTP in the normal human pancreas is generally high, but this has not previously been systematically investigated despite the fact that islets and some neuronal tissue constitute the only amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase tissue within the pancreas. (snmjournals.org)
  • Human Similarity Proteins of target is determined by comparing the sequence similarity of all human proteins with the target based on BLAST. (idrblab.net)