Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Spinal NeoplasmsSpinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal DiseasesSpinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Polyradiculopathy: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Longitudinal Ligaments: Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Diseases, MetabolicBone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Arachnoid Cysts: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.DislocationsNerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Tabes Dorsalis: Parenchymatous NEUROSYPHILIS marked by slowly progressive degeneration of the posterior columns, posterior roots, and ganglia of the spinal cord. The condition tends to present 15 to 20 years after the initial infection and is characterized by lightening-like pains in the lower extremities, URINARY INCONTINENCE; ATAXIA; severely impaired position and vibratory sense, abnormal gait (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), OPTIC ATROPHY; Argyll-Robertson pupils, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, and trophic joint degeneration (Charcot's Joint; see ARTHROPATHY, NEUROGENIC). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p726)Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Foraminotomy: Surgical enlargement of the intervertebral foramina to relieve NERVE ROOT COMPRESSION.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.TailSpinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Platybasia: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Laminectomy is the trimming or surgical removal of the lamina, portion of the spinal vertebrae. Laryngectomy is the surgical ... pelvic bones, anus, and rectum. Hemilaminectomy is the surgical trimming or partial removal of the lamina portion of a spinal ... Ostectomy is the surgical removal of bone. Pancreatectomy is the removal of part or all of the pancreas. If the whole of the ... Mandibulectomy is the removal of the mandible or the lower jaw bone. Mastectomy is the surgical removal of one or both breasts ...
The surgeon joins two or more bones (vertebrae) together through the use of metal rods, screws, and bone grafts. The bone ... Laminectomy: Often performed when spinal stenosis occurs in conjunction with spondylolysis. The procedure surgically removes ... A vertebra with a fracture or defect of the pars interarticularis will have a dark mark through this region of bone. Since this ... The laminectomy is commonly performed on the vertebrae in the lower back and in the neck. Spondylolysis can have a huge impact ...
... the freed flap of bone open. Laminectomy - A surgical procedure in which the lamina of the vertebra is removed or trimmed to ... Cervical spinal stenosis is a bone disease involving the narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is ... Cervical spinal stenosis is one of the most common forms of spinal stenosis, along with lumbar spinal stenosis (which occurs at ... Cervical spinal stenosis is a condition involving narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due ...
... remove bone from both lamina of a single vertebra. The unilateral laminotomy with bilateral spinal decompression procedure was ... Since a laminectomy involves the excision of the entire lamina, a laminectomy will usually cause more spinal instability than a ... Historically, laminectomies have been the primary way to treat lumbar spinal stenosis. A laminectomy is a more invasive method ... The vertebral column is composed of many ring-like bones called vertebra (plural: vertebrae) and it spans from the skull to the ...
The lamina of the vertebra is removed or trimmed to widen the spinal canal and create more space for the spinal nerves and ... A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that removes a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina. The back muscles are ... a laminectomy is performed to treat spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the single most common diagnosis that leads to spinal ... A laminectomy can treat severe spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots, provide access to a ...
They can involve cutting away tissue (discectomy), fixing adjacent vertebrae to one another (spinal fusion), and replacing bone ... also known as percutaneous adhesiolysis or the Racz procedure Laminectomy Laminotomy OLLIF Oblique lateral lumbar inter body ... Humans have been trying to treat spinal pain for at least 5,000 years. The first evidence of spine surgery appeared in Egyptian ... MISS can be used to treat a number of spinal conditions such as degenerative disc disease, disc herniation, fractures, tumors, ...
Lumbar decompressive laminectomy: This involves removing the roof of bone overlying the spinal canal and thickened ligaments in ... Spinal canal is too small at birth Structural deformities of the vertebrae may cause narrowing of the spinal canal A vertebra ... Spinal ligaments can thicken (ligamenta flava) Bone spurs develop on the bone and into the spinal canal or foraminal openings ... Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or ...
... seventh-century Greek physician Paul of Aegina described surgical techniques for treatment of broken vertebrae by removing bone ... In 1829 the surgeon Gilpin Smith performed a successful laminectomy that improved the patient's sensation. However, the idea ... Another problem lack of mobility can cause is loss of bone density and changes in bone structure. Loss of bone density (bone ... At each level of the spinal column, spinal nerves branch off from either side of the spinal cord and exit between a pair of ...
The bone flap is then propped open using small wedges or pieces of bone such that the enlarged spinal canal will remain in ... This technique contrasts with vertebral laminectomy in the amount of bone and muscle tissue that has to be removed, displaced, ... The procedure involves cutting the lamina on both sides of the affected vertebrae (cutting through on one side and merely ... the freed flap of bone open thus relieving the pressure on the spinal cord. The spinous process may be removed to allow the ...
Spinal cord and roots *Cordotomy. *Rhizotomy. *Vertebrae and intervertebral discs: see Template:Bone, cartilage, and joint ... Laminectomy is the removal of the lamina portion of the vertebrae of the spine in order to make room for the compressed nerve ... Spondylosis is the condition of spinal disc degeneration and arthritis that may compress the spinal canal. This condition can ... Some indications for spine surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, arthritis of the spinal discs, or ...
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline ... A laminectomy is a surgical operation to remove the laminae in order to access the spinal canal. The removal of just part of a ... Each vertebra is an irregular bone. The size of the vertebrae varies according to placement in the vertebral column, spinal ... There are seven cervical vertebrae (but eight cervical spinal nerves), designated C1 through C7. These bones are, in general, ...
Laminectomy is the removal of the lamina portion of the vertebrae of the spine in order to make room for the compressed nerve ... Spondylosis is the condition of spinal disc degeneration and arthritis that may compress the spinal canal. This condition can ... Further analysis of the bones concluded that the areas around the holes began to heal, which suggests that this person survived ... Some indications for spine surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, arthritis of the spinal discs, or ...
In an extensive laminectomy involving 2 or more vertebra, post operative scarring is the norm. It is most often seen around the ... Crock H. V. (1976). "Observations on the management of failed spinal operations". J. Bone Joint Surg. 58B (2): 193-199. PMID ... Spinal stenosis can be a late complication after laminectomy for disc herniation or when surgery was performed for the primary ... Many surgeons consider smoking to be an absolute contraindication to spinal surgery. Nicotine appears to interfere with bone ...
The treatment of spinal stenosis". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 62 (2): 308-13. PMID 6987238. Lu VM ... Anterolisthesis location includes which vertebrae are involved, and may also specify which parts of the vertebrae are affected ... typically a laminectomy) among older adults. Both minimally invasive and open surgical techniques are used to treat ... is displaced anteriorly relative to the C3 vertebra due to fractures of the C2 vertebra's pedicles. Spondylosis Spondylolysis ...
Spinal laminectomy: A procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord. A part of the lamina is ... Additionally, the body can react to the closing gap between vertebrae by creating bone spurs around the disc space in an ... This can cause issues if the bone spurs start to grow into the spinal canal and put pressure on the spinal cord and surrounding ... The spinal canal is then reconstructed to make more room for the spinal cord. Laminotomy: A procedure that removes only a small ...
Spinal fusion is a procedure in which bone grafts and metal hardware is used to fix together two or more vertebrae, thus ... A mutli-level laminectomy can be done to widen the spinal canal in the case of spinal stenosis. A foraminotomy or foraminectomy ... preventing the bones of the spinal column from compressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots. If infection, such as a spinal ... When an entire disc is removed (as in discectomy), or when the vertebrae are unstable, spinal fusion surgery may be performed. ...
... bone spurs, or spinal stenosis. The tethered cord in this case might not be diagnosed until adulthood when it worsens and can ... If the only abnormality is a thickened, shortened filum, then a limited lumbosacral laminectomy with division of the filum may ... or topmost lumbar vertebra). After about 3 months of age, a conus below the L1-2 disk space may indicate a tethered cord and ... All forms involve the pulling of the spinal cord at the base of the spinal canal, literally a tethered cord. The spinal cord ...
When the space between two adjacent vertebrae narrows, compression of a nerve root emerging from the spinal cord may result in ... being placed on the vertebrae and the discs between them. The abnormal stress causes the body to form new bone in order to ... Laminectomy. ReferencesEdit. *^ Denis, Daniel; Shedid, Daniel (2014). "Cervical spondylosis: a rare and curable cause of ... In the more narrow sense it refers to spinal osteoarthritis, the age-related wear and tear of the spinal column, which is the ...
Laminectomy is an open or minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a portion of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and/ ... Spinal cord and roots *Cordotomy. *Rhizotomy. *Vertebrae and intervertebral discs: see Template:Bone, cartilage, and joint ... Spinal decompression is a surgical procedure intended to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or on one or more compressed nerve ... In the lumbar spine it is commonly used to treat spinal claudication caused by spinal stenosis, and is considered the most ...
... umbo uncal cortex uncal herniation Uncinate process of ethmoid bone Uncinate process of pancreas Uncinate process of vertebra ... spina bifida spinal accessory nucleus spinal cord spinal lemniscus spinal nerve spine spine of the scapula spinocerebellar ... duct lacuna lacunae laterales lacus lacrimalis lambdoid suture lamella lamina lamina papyracea lamina terminalis laminectomy ... thigh bone Third trochanter third ventricle thoracic aorta thoracic cavity thoracic duct thoracic spine thoracic vertebrae ...
... leakage are higher on patients that have bilateral cysts on the same spinal level or clusters of cysts along multiple vertebrae ... Current treatment options include CSF aspiration, complete or partial removal, fibrin-glue therapy, laminectomy with wrapping ... MRI provides better resolution of tissue density, absence of bone interference, multiplanar capabilities, and is noninvasive. ... sacs most frequently located in the spinal canal of the S1-to-S5 region of the spinal cord (much less often in the cervical, ...
... can not cause post laminectomy/laminotomy syndrome, (AKA post bone removal syndrome), since no bone (lamina) is removed.[53] ... The rest of the spinal cord, however, is oriented differently, so a symptomatic posterolateral herniation between two vertebrae ... "2.1 Absolute contraindications to spinal manipulative therapy", p. 21. WHO *^ Daniel, Dwain M (2007). "Non-surgical spinal ... In the majority of cases, spinal disc herniation doesn't require surgery. A study on sciatica, which can be caused by spinal ...
... the correction of spinal and bone deformities in all stages of life eventually became the cornerstone of orthopedic practice. ... Laminectomy was common among adults aged 18-84 years. Knee arthroplasty and hip replacement were in the top five OR procedures ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae is one of the conditions treated by orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Needham, MA. 88: 660-667. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.01208. Retrieved November 30, 2016.. ...
The splits in the vertebrae are so small that the spinal cord does not protrude. The skin at the site of the lesion may be ... After stopping the drinking of alcohol, a time period of months is needed to rejuvenate bone marrow and recover from the ... The MMC-like defect was surgically created at 75 days of gestation (term 145 to 150 days) by a lumbo-sacral laminectomy. ... The spinal cord lesion or the scarring due to surgery may result in a tethered spinal cord. In some individuals, this causes ...
Spinal cord and roots *Cordotomy. *Rhizotomy. *Vertebrae and intervertebral discs: see Template:Bone, cartilage, and joint ... An L1 laminectomy is then performed: a section of the spine's bone, the spinous processes together with a portion of the lamina ... to expose the spinal cord and spinal nerves underneath. Ultrasound and an x-ray locate the tip of the spinal cord, where there ... At Seattle Children's, the laminectomy is performed below the termination of the spinal cord (conus), potentially reducing the ...
... the correction of spinal and bone deformities in all stages of life eventually became the cornerstone of orthopedic practice. ... Laminectomy was common among adults aged 18-84 years. Knee arthroplasty and hip replacement were in the top five OR procedures ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae is one of the conditions treated by orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Needham, MA. 88 (3): 660-667. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.01208. PMID 16510834. Retrieved ...
It occurs in a part of the vertebrae (spinal bone). The pars interarticularis is a portion of the bone between the facets. ... Decompressive laminectomy - removal of bone and tissue that are putting pressure on the spinal nerves ... Spinal fusion -fusing together of the two involved vertebrae to prevent further slippage of the vertebra ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(2):382-396. Eddy D, Congeni J, et al. A review of spine injuries and return to play. Clin J ...
Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in ... However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open ... A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural ... If, however, the cysts are many and expand through many vertebras, it should be taken into consideration that laminectomies in ...
It may result from direct injury to the cord itself or indirectly from disease of the nearby bones, tissues, or blood vessels. ... Spinal cord trauma is damage to the spinal cord. ... Realign the spinal bones (vertebrae). *Remove fluid, blood, or ... tissue that presses on the spinal cord (decompression laminectomy). *Remove bone fragments, disk fragments, or foreign objects ... Fragments of bone (such as from broken vertebrae, which are the spine bones) in the spinal cord ...
Persistent and/or progressive spinal cord or spinal nerve problems may need to be surgically treated. ... conditions affecting the C5-C6 spinal motion segment are first treated with nonsurgical methods. ... The disc is replaced by an implant or bone graft, allowing biological fusion of the adjacent C5 and C6 vertebrae.. Watch ... Laminectomy is the removal of a portion of the vertebral arch in the posterior region. Laminectomy helps widen the spinal canal ...
This is part of the bone that makes up a vertebra in the spine. Laminectomy may also be done to remove bone spurs or a ... Laminectomy is often done to treat spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal column). The procedure removes bones and damaged ... Laminectomy is surgery to remove the lamina. This is part of the bone that makes up a vertebra in the spine. Laminectomy may ... Lumbar decompression; Decompressive laminectomy; Spine surgery - laminectomy; Back pain - laminectomy; Stenosis - laminectomy ...
If youve had a spinal fusion but still cant work, you might be able to meet the requirements of Social Securitys ... Laminectomy, which is removal of part of the bone that lies over the spinal canal. ... Spinal fusion, which is a surgery where two or more of the vertebrae in your spine are connected to become one solid piece. ... Compression of spinal nerves caused by arthritis or scoliosis, degenerative disk disease, broken vertebrae, herniated disks, ...
... the most common type of surgery to treat lumbar spinal stenosis. Looks at how surgery may reduce pressure on nerve roots to ... This bone is used to make a "bridge" between adjacent spinal bones (vertebrae). This "living" bone graft stimulates the growth ... Laminectomy removes bone (parts of the vertebrae) and/or thickened tissue that is narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the ... Decompressive Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Skip to the navigation Surgery Overview. Decompressive laminectomy is the ...
TOA has numerous fellowship-trained spine surgeons who specialize in spinal treatment and back surgery, serving Nashville and ... Spinal fusion - fusing vertebrae - from cervical to lumbar.. *Laminectomy - removing bone spurs or ligaments. ... Treating issues like disc degeneration, fractures, tumors, spondylolisthesis or spinal stenosis can be complex, and spinal ... With 33 bones stacked to support the bodys entire neuromusculoskeletal system, the spine is vulnerable to trauma, injuries, ...
Spinal fusion (fuse vertebra together to relieve pain). *Vertebroplasty (uses bone cement to treat compression fractures) ... Laminectomy, a type of decompression surgery. * ... The right spinal treatment. Once a diagnosis is reached, your ... Whether youre suffering from back pain or other problems related to a spinal condition, the orthopedic specialists at Centura ... Kyphoplasty (uses a balloon and bone cement to treat compression fractures). * ...
Lumbar Spinal Fusion. Fusion surgery removes soft tissues between vertebrae and replaces them with bone or metal. Over time, ... Laminectomy: This procedure removes part of the bone or soft tissue layer thats compressing a nerve. A laminectomy will ... Osteoporosis is a bone disease that causes a progressive decrease in bone density and strength. The vertebrae of the spine, ... Sometimes spinal stenosis will develop, meaning the space around the spinal cord has narrowed. This narrowing can cause pain or ...
These vertebrae are separated and cushioned by intervertebra... ... consists of 33 vertebrae that house and protect the spinal cord ... If a bone spur is formed in the central canal of the vertebrae, then the spinal cord is also compressed. A surgical procedure ... A persons spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae that house and protect the spinal cord. These vertebrae are separated and ... During a lumbar laminectomy a small incision is created in the skin along the lumbar vertebrae. The muscles are separated and ...
Learn the symptoms of lumbar spinal stenosis and cervical spinal stenosis and what surgeries are used for spinal stenosis ... Discover tips for relieving spinal stenosis pain without surgery, as well as useful medications. ... Spinal stenosis causes back pain, leg pain, difficulty walking and clumsiness. ... This leaves less space between your individual vertebrae which, along with loss of bone mass, can promote bone spurs. Your ...
... a bone graft that promotes the vertebrae to fuse together. *Spinal laminectomy - removal of the lamina to create more space and ... Vertebrae are bones that form the spinal column. Small nerves ("roots") enter and come out from the spinal cord through spaces ... Stacked on top of one another are about 30 bones - the vertebrae - that form the spinal column, also known as the spine. Each ... If it does, spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the canal that runs through the vertebrae and houses the spinal nerves, may be the ...
... the most common type of surgery to treat lumbar spinal stenosis. Looks at how surgery may reduce pressure on nerve roots to ... This bone is used to make a "bridge" between adjacent spinal bones (vertebrae). This "living" bone graft stimulates the growth ... Laminectomy removes bone (parts of the vertebrae) and/or thickened tissue that is narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the ... Spinal fusion may be done at the same time as decompressive laminectomy. Spinal fusion may help to stabilize sections of the ...
Spinal fusion - where two or more vertebrae are permanently joined for added stability through the use of screws or bone grafts ... Laminectomy - where the lamina or bony roof of the vertebrae is removed ... Arthritis of the spine Bone spur Bulging disc Foraminal stenosis Herniated disc Pinched nerve Sciatica Spinal glossary ... Foraminectomy - where the neural pathways on either side of the vertebrae are widened through the removal of bone ...
The bones that form the spine-your vertebrae-are cushioned by small, spongy discs. When these discs are healthy, they act as ... A laminectomy removes most of or all of the lamina. It also may remove thickened tissue that is narrowing the spinal canal. ... The bones that form the spine-your vertebrae-are cushioned by small, spongy discs. When these discs are healthy, they act as ... A laminectomy removes most of or all of the lamina. It also may remove thickened tissue that is narrowing the spinal canal. ...
Learn about spinal stenosis from the Cleveland Clinic, including treatment options, symptoms and surgery. ... laminectomy involves the removal of the lamina, a portion of the vertebra, to make room for the nerves. Some ligaments and bone ... Bone is removed from elsewhere in the body or obtained from a bone bank. This bone is used to create a bridge between vertebrae ... Spinal fusion: This procedure is done in cases of instability and involves joining the bones together with screws or bone ...
Rushton made a small incision in Bakers back over the affected vertebrae. With tiny instruments, he removed the bone and ... Rushton performed the complex procedure, called a laminectomy and spinal stabilization and fusion, at Lankenau Medical Center. ... "Jacqueline had severe spinal degeneration as well as structural issues, including a curvature of the spine and slipped discs, ... Anything that helps build your core can ease symptoms of spinal degeneration," advises Dr. Rushton.. Women are also at greater ...
We offer everything from conservative therapies such as chiropractic medicine to spinal stenosis surgery. ... Youll find expert spinal stenosis treatment at Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN). We get to the source of your pain and ... Laminectomy: Laminectomy removes a portion of vertebral bone.. *Lumbar microlaminotomy: Removing a small portion of lamina ... Cervical laminoplasty: Opening the lamina (part of the vertebra) expands the spinal canal to decompress nerves and the spinal ...
A laminectomy removes some of the bone over the spine and the problem disc. Spinal fusion is a technique in which two vertebrae ... The spinal bones (vertebrae) are separated by discs, which cushion the spine and allow movement between the vertebrae. A ... Spinal Deformities Spinal Tumors & Lesions Traumatic Injuries & Fractures Spinal Canal & Cerebellum Conditions ... Spinal Deformities Spinal Tumors & Lesions Traumatic Injuries & Fractures Spinal Canal & Cerebellum Conditions ...
Our doctors provide expert treatment for spinal stenosis at our Bay Area hospitals. ... Laminectomy, the removal of the back part of a vertebra. *Spinal fusion, which uses a bone graft to help two vertebrae grow ... Find Treatment for Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is caused by osteoarthritis and other degenerative disc problems in the ... Surgery for Spinal Stenosis. Talk with your Dignity Health doctor to see if youre eligible for spinal stenosis surgery. These ...
The surgeon carefully removes the bone from the rear of the vertebrae, opening up the spinal canal and relieving pressure from ... Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion. Overview. This procedure removes a section of bone from the rear of one or more vertebrae ... Cutting the Bone. The surgeon uses a high-speed burr to cut a rectangular trough of bone from the vertebrae. ... The surgeon inspects the spinal canal and foramen - the openings through which the nerve roots exit the spinal canal. Any bone ...
Spinal fusion. *Some lumbar laminectomy patients also may need spinal fusion to secure the position of the vertebrae, using ... After the disk is removed completely, a small piece of bone graft is placed to occupy the disk space. Then a titanium plate is ... Lumbar laminectomy. *A procedure to release pressure on the spinal cord and nerves that travel into the legs. ... The surgeon makes an incision in the lumbar region to remove some or all of the back portion of the vertebrae (the lamina). ...
... relieving pressure on the nerves through removal of bone and soft tissue in a procedure called a decompressive laminectomy.. As ... Second SPORT Study Shows Surgery Advantage for Spinal Stenosis and Slipped Vertebra. May 31, 2007 - 4:00:00 AM , Reviewed by: ... Although DS alone generally causes no symptoms, in some cases it can result in spinal stenosis?-narrowing of the spinal canal ... Bone loss associated with increased production of ROS. Sound preconditioning prevents ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss in ...
... the space left between the vertebrae is refilled with a piece of bone (either your own, taken from your hip bone, or a bone ... Laminectomy. This procedure is used to relieve pressure on the nerve roots or spinal cord. The laminae are bony plates on the ... To remove pressure on the spinal cord caused by bone spurs, a condition known as spinal stenosis. This involves more complex ... Laminoplasty. This is used to help people with spinal stenosis by creating more room for the spinal cord within the spinal ...
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