A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (1/5424)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Rubella virus-induced apoptosis varies among cell lines and is modulated by Bcl-XL and caspase inhibitors. (2/5424)

Rubella virus (RV) causes multisystem birth defects in the fetuses of infected women. To investigate the cellular basis of this pathology, we examined the cytopathic effect of RV in three permissive cell lines: Vero 76, RK13, and BHK21. Electron microscopy and the TUNEL assay showed that the cytopathic effect resulted from RV-induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in all three cell lines, but the extent of apoptosis varied among these cells. At 48 h postinfection, the RK13 cell line showed the greatest number of apoptotic cells, the Vero 76 cell line was approximately 3-fold less, and BHK21 had very few. An increased multiplicity of infection and longer time postinfection were required for the BHK21 cell line to reach the level of apoptotic cells in Vero 76 at 48 h. Purified RV induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, but not UV-inactivated RV or virus-depleted culture supernatant. Specific inhibitors of the apoptosis-specific proteases caspases reduced RV-induced apoptosis and led to higher levels of RV components in infected cells. To address the role of regulatory proteins in RV-induced apoptosis, the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL was transfected into RK13 cells. Although a high level of Bcl-2 family proteins was expressed, no protection was observed from apoptosis induced by RV, Sindbis virus, or staurosporine in RK13 cells. In BHK21 cells, however, increased expression of Bcl-XL protected cells from apoptosis. The observed variability in apoptotic response to RV of these cell lines demonstrates that programmed cell death is dependent on the unique properties of each cell and may be indicative of how selective organ damage occurs in a congenital rubella syndrome fetus.  (+info)

CLIP-170 highlights growing microtubule ends in vivo. (3/5424)

A chimera with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been constructed to visualize the dynamic properties of the endosome-microtubule linker protein CLIP170 (GFP-CLIP170). GFP-CLIP170 binds in stretches along a subset of microtubule ends. These fluorescent stretches appear to move with the growing tips of microtubules at 0.15-0.4 microm/s, comparable to microtubule elongation in vivo. Analysis of speckles along dynamic GFP-CLIP170 stretches suggests that CLIP170 treadmills on growing microtubule ends, rather than being continuously transported toward these ends. Drugs affecting microtubule dynamics rapidly inhibit movement of GFP-CLIP170 dashes. We propose that GFP-CLIP170 highlights growing microtubule ends by specifically recognizing the structure of a segment of newly polymerized tubulin.  (+info)

Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. (4/5424)

Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity.  (+info)

Mutations in the retinoblastoma protein-binding LXCXE motif of rubella virus putative replicase affect virus replication. (5/5424)

The rubella virus (RV)-encoded protein NSP90, which contains the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-binding motif LXCXE, interacts with Rb and RV replication is reduced in cells lacking Rb. Whether the LXCXE motif of RV NSP90 itself is essential for Rb binding and virus replication is not known. Therefore, in the present study, the functional role of this motif was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis in a plasmid from which infectious RV RNA can be produced. Three critical mutations in the motif, two substitutions at the conserved cysteine residue (C --> G and C --> R) and a deletion of the entire motif, were created. A cell-free translated NSP90 C terminus polypeptide containing the deletion did not bind to Rb and a polypeptide carrying the C --> R substitution had barely detectable binding affinity for Rb. Rb binding by the C --> G mutant was reduced significantly compared to that of wild-type protein. Correlating with the binding results, mutant viruses containing the LXRXE and LXGXE motifs had a reduction in replication to < 0.5% and 47% of the wild-type, respectively, while deletion of the motif was found to be lethal. By the first serial passage, replication of the LXRXE-carrying virus had increased from < 0.5% to 2% of the wild-type. Sequencing of the genome of this virus revealed a nucleotide change that altered the motif from LXRXE to LXSXE, which is a known Rb-binding motif in two protein phosphatase subunits. Thus, our results clearly demonstrate that the LXCXE motif is required for efficient RV replication.  (+info)

Characterization of the L gene and 5' trailer region of Ebola virus. (6/5424)

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5' trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5' terminus of the L mRNA (5' GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3' end of the L mRNA terminated with 5' AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5' trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a self-complementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44% to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.  (+info)

The herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 is required for the prevention of apoptosis in infected human cells. (7/5424)

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an immediate-early or alpha protein which is essential for the optimal expression of late genes as well as the synthesis of viral DNA in cultures of Vero cells. Our specific goal was to characterize the replication of a virus incapable of synthesizing ICP27 in cultured human cells. We found that infection with an HSV-1 ICP27 deletion virus of at least three separate strains of human cells did not produce immediate-early or late proteins at the levels observed following wild-type virus infections. Cell morphology, chromatin condensation, and genomic DNA fragmentation measurements demonstrated that the human cells died by apoptosis after infection with the ICP27 deletion virus. These features of the apoptosis were identical to those which occur during wild-type infections of human cells when total protein synthesis has been inhibited. Vero cells infected with the ICP27 deletion virus did not exhibit any of the features of apoptosis. Based on these results, we conclude that while HSV-1 infection likely induced apoptosis in all cells, viral evasion of the response differed among the cells tested in this study.  (+info)

Glycoprotein gL-independent infectivity of pseudorabies virus is mediated by a gD-gH fusion protein. (8/5424)

Envelope glycoproteins gH and gL, which form a complex, are conserved throughout the family Herpesviridae. The gH-gL complex is essential for the fusion between the virion envelope and the cellular cytoplasmic membrane during penetration and is also required for direct viral cell-to-cell spread from infected to adjacent noninfected cells. It has been proposed for several herpesviruses that gL is required for proper folding, intracellular transport, and virion localization of gH. In pseudorabies virus (PrV), glycoprotein gL is necessary for infectivity but is dispensable for virion localization of gH. A virus mutant lacking gL, PrV-DeltagLbeta, is defective in entry into target cells, and direct cell-to-cell spread is drastically reduced, resulting in only single or small foci of infected cells (B. G. Klupp, W. Fuchs, E. Weiland, and T. C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 71:7687-7695, 1997). We used this limited cell-to-cell spreading ability of PrV-DeltagLbeta for serial passaging of cells infected with transcomplemented virus by coseeding with noninfected cells. After repeated passaging, plaque formation was restored and infectivity in the supernatant was observed. One single-plaque isolate, designated PrV-DeltagLPass, was further characterized. To identify the mutation leading to this gL-independent infectious phenotype, Southern and Western blot analyses, radioimmunoprecipitations, and DNA sequencing were performed. The results showed that rearrangement of a genomic region comprising part of the gH gene into a duplicated copy of part of the unique short region resulted in a fusion fragment predicted to encode a protein consisting of the N-terminal 271 amino acids of gD fused to the C-terminal 590 residues of gH. Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation with gD- and gH-specific antibodies verified the presence of a gDH fusion protein. To prove that this fusion protein mediates infectivity of PrV-DeltagLPass, cotransfection of PrV-DeltagLbeta DNA with the cloned fusion fragment was performed, and a cell line, Nde-67, carrying the fusion gene was established. After cotransfection, infectious gL-negative PrV was recovered, and propagation of PrV-DeltagLbeta on Nde-67 cells produced infectious virions. Thus, a gDH fusion polypeptide can compensate for function of the essential gL in entry and cell-to-cell spread of PrV.  (+info)

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and causes a contagious and serious disease in dogs and other animals. The virus primarily affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems of infected animals.

The symptoms of canine distemper can vary widely depending on the age and immune status of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus. Initial signs may include fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and discharge from the eyes and nose. As the disease progresses, affected animals may develop vomiting, diarrhea, pneumonia, and neurological symptoms such as seizures, muscle twitching, and paralysis.

Canine distemper is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected animals or their respiratory secretions. The virus can also be transmitted through contaminated objects such as food bowls, water dishes, and bedding.

Prevention of canine distemper is achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for all dogs as a core vaccine. It is important to keep dogs up-to-date on their vaccinations and to avoid contact with unfamiliar or unvaccinated animals. There is no specific treatment for canine distemper, and therapy is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a protein toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), specifically those that belong to serotype O157:H7 and some other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).

Shiga toxins are named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who discovered the first strain of E. coli that produces this toxin in 1897. These toxins inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and cause damage to the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, which can lead to various clinical manifestations such as hemorrhagic colitis (bloody diarrhea) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a severe complication that can result in kidney failure.

Shiga toxin 1 is composed of two subunits, A and B. The B subunit binds to specific glycolipid receptors on the surface of target cells, facilitating the uptake of the toxin into the cell. Once inside the cell, the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis by removing an adenine residue from a specific region of the 28S rRNA molecule in the ribosome, thereby preventing peptide bond formation and leading to cell death.

Shiga toxin 1 is highly toxic and can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Antibiotics are generally not recommended for the treatment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections because they may increase the risk of developing HUS by inducing bacterial lysis and releasing more toxins into the circulation. Supportive care, hydration, and close monitoring are essential for managing these infections.

Simplexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus contains two species: Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (also known as HSV-1 or herpes simplex virus type 1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (also known as HSV-2 or herpes simplex virus type 2). These viruses are responsible for causing various medical conditions, most commonly oral and genital herpes. They are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latency in the nervous system and reactivate periodically to cause recurrent symptoms.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

"Serial passage" is a term commonly used in the field of virology and microbiology. It refers to the process of repeatedly transmitting or passing a virus or other microorganism from one cultured cell line or laboratory animal to another, usually with the aim of adapting the microorganism to grow in that specific host system or to increase its virulence or pathogenicity. This technique is often used in research to study the evolution and adaptation of viruses and other microorganisms.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

Ricin is defined as a highly toxic protein that is derived from the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). It can be produced as a white, powdery substance or a mistable aerosol. Ricin works by getting inside cells and preventing them from making the proteins they need. Without protein, cells die. Eventually, this can cause organ failure and death.

It is not easily inhaled or absorbed through the skin, but if ingested or injected, it can be lethal in very small amounts. There is no antidote for ricin poisoning - treatment consists of supportive care. Ricin has been used as a bioterrorism agent in the past and continues to be a concern due to its relative ease of production and potential high toxicity.

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Asfarviridae family. It is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious and deadly disease in domestic pigs and wild boars. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals, contaminated feed, or fomites (inanimate objects).

ASFV infects cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and replicates in the cytoplasm of these cells. The virus causes a range of clinical signs, including fever, loss of appetite, hemorrhages, and death in severe cases. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for ASF, and control measures rely on early detection, quarantine, and culling of infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease.

It's important to note that African swine fever virus is not a threat to human health, but it can have significant economic impacts on the pig industry due to high mortality rates in affected herds and trade restrictions imposed by countries to prevent the spread of the disease.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a protein toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), specifically those that belong to serotype O157:H7 and some other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).

Stx2 is named after Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered the related Shiga toxin in 1898. It is a powerful cytotoxin that can cause damage to cells lining the intestines and other organs. The toxin inhibits protein synthesis in the cells by removing an adenine residue from the 28S rRNA of the 60S ribosomal subunit, leading to cell death.

Exposure to Stx2 can occur through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with infected animals or their feces. In severe cases, it can lead to hemorrhagic colitis, which is characterized by bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious complication that can cause kidney failure, anemia, and neurological problems.

It's important to note that Stx2 has two major subtypes, Stx2a and Stx2b, which differ in their biological activities and clinical significance. Stx2a is considered more potent than Stx2b and is associated with a higher risk of developing HUS.

Shiga toxins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain strains of bacteria, including some types of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella dysenteriae. These toxins get their name from Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered them in the late 19th century.

Shiga toxins are classified into two main types: Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2). Both types of toxins are similar in structure and function, but they differ in their potency and genetic makeup. Shiga toxins inhibit protein synthesis in cells by removing an adenine residue from a specific region of the 28S rRNA molecule in the ribosome, which ultimately leads to cell death.

These toxins can cause severe damage to the lining of the intestines and are associated with hemorrhagic colitis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. In some cases, Shiga toxins can also enter the bloodstream and cause systemic complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by kidney failure, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.

Exposure to Shiga toxins typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected individuals or animals. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as thorough handwashing, cooking meats thoroughly, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water.

Arenaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several species known to cause disease in humans and animals. The name "Arenaviridae" comes from the Latin word "arena," meaning "sand," due to the sandy appearance of these viruses when viewed under an electron microscope.

The virions (complete virus particles) of Arenaviridae are typically enveloped, spherical or pleomorphic in shape, and measure between 50-300 nanometers in diameter. The genome of Arenaviridae viruses is composed of two single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments called the L (large) segment and the S (small) segment. These segments encode for several viral proteins, including the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L).

Arenaviridae viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Lassa fever virus, Junín virus, Machupo virus, and Guanarito virus, which can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers. Other Arenaviridae viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), can cause milder illnesses in humans, including fever, rash, and meningitis.

Prevention and control of Arenaviridae infections typically involve reducing exposure to infected rodents and their excreta, as well as the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies for specific viruses in this family.

Reverse genetics is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of creating or modifying an organism's genetic material (DNA or RNA) to produce specific phenotypic traits or characteristics. In contrast to traditional forward genetics, where researchers start with an organism and identify the gene responsible for a particular trait, reverse genetics begins with a known gene or DNA sequence and creates an organism that expresses that gene.

In virology, reverse genetics is often used to study viruses by creating infectious clones of their genomes. This allows researchers to manipulate the virus's genetic material and study the effects of specific mutations on viral replication, pathogenesis, and host immune response. By using reverse genetics, scientists can gain insights into the function of individual genes and how they contribute to viral infection and disease.

Overall, reverse genetics is a powerful tool for understanding gene function and developing new strategies for treating genetic diseases or preventing viral infections.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Iridoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The name "iridovirus" comes from the Greek word "iris," meaning rainbow, due to the characteristic iridescent coloration of infected insects' cuticles.

Iridoviruses are large, icosahedral virions with a diameter of approximately 120-300 nanometers. They have a complex internal structure, including a lipid membrane and several protein layers. The genome of iridoviruses is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that ranges in size from about 100 to 200 kilobases.

Iridoviruses can cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, including hemorrhagic septicemia, hepatopancreatic necrosis, and developmental abnormalities. Infection typically occurs through ingestion or injection of viral particles, and the virus replicates in the host's nuclei.

There are several genera within the family Iridoviridae, including Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, Megalocyivirus, and Iridovirus. Each genus has a specific host range and causes distinct clinical symptoms. For example, ranaviruses infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish, while lymphocystiviruses primarily infect teleost fish.

Iridoviruses are of interest to medical researchers because they have potential as biological control agents for pests and vectors of human diseases, such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, their use as biocontrol agents is still being studied, and there are concerns about the potential ecological impacts of releasing iridoviruses into the environment.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. They are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. Many flaviviruses cause significant disease in humans, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and Zika fever. The name "flavivirus" is derived from the Latin word for "yellow," referring to the yellow fever virus, which was one of the first members of this genus to be discovered.

Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects dogs, but can also infect other animals such as cats, ferrets, and raccoons. It is caused by a paramyxovirus and is characterized by respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms.

The respiratory symptoms of distemper include coughing, sneezing, and nasal discharge. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include vomiting and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms can include seizures, twitching, and paralysis. Distemper is often fatal, especially in puppies and young dogs that have not been vaccinated.

The virus is spread through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as saliva and urine. It can also be spread through the air, making it highly contagious in areas where large numbers of unvaccinated animals are housed together, such as animal shelters and kennels.

Prevention is key in protecting against distemper, and vaccination is recommended for all dogs. Puppies should receive their first distemper vaccine at six to eight weeks of age, followed by booster shots every three to four weeks until they are 16 weeks old. Adult dogs should receive a distemper booster shot every one to three years, depending on their risk of exposure.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Japanese Encephalitis Viruses (JEV) are part of the Flaviviridae family and belong to the genus Flavivirus. JEV is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui complex.

JEV has a complex transmission cycle involving mosquito vectors, amplifying hosts (primarily pigs and wading birds), and dead-end hosts (humans). The virus is maintained in nature through a enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying hosts. Humans become infected when bitten by an infective mosquito, but they do not contribute to the transmission cycle.

The incubation period for JEV infection ranges from 5 to 15 days. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and malaise. However, a small percentage of infected individuals develop severe neurological manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. The case fatality rate for JEV-induced encephalitis is approximately 20-30%, with up to half of the survivors experiencing long-term neurological sequelae.

There are no specific antiviral treatments available for Japanese encephalitis, and management primarily focuses on supportive care. Prevention strategies include vaccination, personal protective measures against mosquito bites, and vector control programs. JEV vaccines are available and recommended for travelers to endemic areas and for residents living in regions where the virus is circulating.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Plumbaginaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of flowering plants known as the leadworts or pinks, which includes around 850-900 species. Some members of this family contain the naphthoquinone compound plumbagin, which has been studied for its potential medicinal properties. However, Plumbaginaceae itself is not a medical term or concept.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Bunyaviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes more than 350 different species. These viruses are named after the type species, Bunyamwera virus, which was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in Uganda.

The genome of Bunyaviridae viruses is divided into three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral genome. The M segment encodes two glycoproteins that form the viral envelope and are involved in attachment and fusion to host cells. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein, which packages the viral RNA, and a non-structural protein that is involved in modulation of the host immune response.

Bunyaviridae viruses are transmitted to humans and animals through arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. Some members of this family can cause severe disease in humans, including Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever.

Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae viruses include avoiding contact with vectors, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing, and implementing vector control programs. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Bunyaviridae infections, although ribavirin has been shown to be effective against some members of the family. Vaccines are available for a few Bunyaviridae viruses, such as Hantavirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, but they are not widely used due to limitations in production and distribution.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Rubella virus is the sole member of the genus Rubivirus, within the family Togaviridae. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes the disease rubella (German measles) in humans. The virus is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets and has an incubation period of 12-23 days.

Rubella virus infection during pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester, can lead to serious birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the developing fetus. The symptoms of CRS may include hearing impairment, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and developmental delays.

The virus was eradicated from the Americas in 2015 due to widespread vaccination programs. However, it still circulates in other parts of the world, and travelers can bring the virus back to regions where it has been eliminated. Therefore, maintaining high vaccination rates is crucial for preventing the spread of rubella and protecting vulnerable populations from CRS.

Rickettsia is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. They are the etiologic agents of several important human diseases, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, and scrub typhus. Rickettsia are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as ticks, fleas, and lice. Once inside a host cell, Rickettsia manipulate the host cell's cytoskeleton and membrane-trafficking machinery to gain entry and replicate within the host cell's cytoplasm. They can cause significant damage to the endothelial cells that line blood vessels, leading to vasculitis, tissue necrosis, and potentially fatal outcomes if not promptly diagnosed and treated with appropriate antibiotics.

Chromolaena is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. It includes several species that are native to the Americas and have been introduced to other parts of the world. Some Chromolaena species, such as Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) and Chromolaena moszkowskii (Mozzkowski's crotalaria), are invasive weeds that can cause significant environmental and economic damage in areas where they have been introduced.

There is no specific medical definition associated with the term "Chromolaena" as it refers to a genus of plants, not a medical condition or treatment. However, some Chromolaena species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, wounds, and fever. It's important to note that the safety and efficacy of using Chromolaena for medicinal purposes have not been thoroughly studied, so it's recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes and Haemagogus species. The virus is named for the jaundice that can occur in some patients, giving their skin and eyes a yellowish color.

Yellow fever is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America, with outbreaks occurring when large numbers of people are infected. After an incubation period of 3 to 6 days, symptoms typically begin with fever, chills, headache, back pain, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, the infection can progress to cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures include vaccination, mosquito control, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent in areas where yellow fever is endemic or outbreaks are occurring.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Gammacoronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious respiratory disease in birds, particularly in chickens. The virus primarily affects the upper respiratory tract, causing tracheitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. In addition to respiratory issues, IBV can also lead to decreased egg production, poor growth rates, and impaired immune response in infected birds. Several serotypes and variants of IBV exist worldwide, making vaccine development and disease control challenging.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Immediate-early proteins (IEPs) are a class of regulatory proteins that play a crucial role in the early stages of gene expression in viral infection and cellular stress responses. These proteins are synthesized rapidly, without the need for new protein synthesis, after the induction of immediate-early genes (IEGs).

In the context of viral infection, IEPs are often the first proteins produced by the virus upon entry into the host cell. They function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of early and late viral genes required for replication and packaging of the viral genome.

IEPs can also be involved in modulating host cell signaling pathways, altering cell cycle progression, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of IEPs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

It is important to note that the term "immediate-early proteins" is primarily used in the context of viral infection, while in other contexts such as cellular stress responses or oncogene activation, these proteins may be referred to by different names, such as "early response genes" or "transcription factors."

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

The Mumps virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Rubulavirus genus. It is the causative agent of mumps, an acute infectious disease characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands.

The Mumps virus has a spherical or pleomorphic shape with a diameter of approximately 150-250 nanometers. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell, which contains viral glycoproteins that facilitate attachment and entry into host cells.

The M protein, located beneath the envelope, plays a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. The genome of the Mumps virus consists of eight genes encoding nine proteins, including two major structural proteins (nucleocapsid protein and matrix protein) and several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication and pathogenesis.

Transmission of the Mumps virus occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected saliva. After infection, the incubation period ranges from 12 to 25 days, followed by a prodromal phase characterized by fever, headache, malaise, and muscle pain. The characteristic swelling of the parotid glands usually appears 1-3 days after the onset of symptoms.

Complications of mumps can include meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and deafness. Prevention relies on vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is highly effective in preventing mumps and its complications.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Viral interference is a phenomenon where the replication of one virus is inhibited or blocked by the presence of another virus. This can occur when two different viruses infect the same cell and compete for the cell's resources, such as nucleotides, energy, and replication machinery. As a result, the replication of one virus may be suppressed, allowing the other virus to predominate.

This phenomenon has been observed in both in vitro (laboratory) studies and in vivo (in the body) studies. It has been suggested that viral interference may play a role in the outcome of viral coinfections, where an individual is infected with more than one virus at the same time. Viral interference can also be exploited as a potential strategy for antiviral therapy, where one virus is used to inhibit the replication of another virus.

It's important to note that not all viruses interfere with each other, and the outcome of viral coinfections can depend on various factors such as the specific viruses involved, the timing and sequence of infection, and the host's immune response.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and is thought to be transmitted most readily through close person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The SARS outbreak began in southern China in 2002 and spread to several other countries before it was contained. The illness causes symptoms such as fever, chills, and body aches, which progress to a dry cough and sometimes pneumonia. Some people also report diarrhea. In severe cases, the illness can cause respiratory failure or death.

It's important to note that SARS is not currently a global health concern, as there have been no known cases since 2004. However, it remains a significant example of how quickly and widely a new infectious disease can spread in today's interconnected world.

Cell fusion is the process by which two or more cells combine to form a single cell with a single nucleus, containing the genetic material from all of the original cells. This can occur naturally in certain biological processes, such as fertilization (when a sperm and egg cell fuse to form a zygote), muscle development (where multiple muscle precursor cells fuse together to create multinucleated muscle fibers), and during the formation of bone (where osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue, are multinucleated).

Cell fusion can also be induced artificially in laboratory settings through various methods, including chemical treatments, electrical stimulation, or viral vectors. Induced cell fusion is often used in research to create hybrid cells with unique properties, such as cybrid cells (cytoplasmic hybrids) and heterokaryons (nuclear hybrids). These hybrid cells can help scientists study various aspects of cell biology, genetics, and disease mechanisms.

In summary, cell fusion is the merging of two or more cells into one, resulting in a single cell with combined genetic material. This process occurs naturally during certain biological processes and can be induced artificially for research purposes.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Brefeldin A is a fungal metabolite that inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. It disrupts the organization of the Golgi complex and causes the redistribution of its proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. Brefeldin A is used in research to study various cellular processes, including vesicular transport, protein trafficking, and signal transduction pathways. In medicine, it has been studied as a potential anticancer agent due to its ability to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cancer cells. However, its clinical use is not yet approved.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Shiga toxins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain strains of bacteria, including some types of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella dysenteriae. These toxins get their name from Kiyoshi Shiga, the scientist who discovered them in 1897.

Shiga toxins are potent cytotoxins that can cause damage to cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. They consist of two main components: an enzymatically active A subunit and several B subunits that bind to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, facilitating the entry of the A subunit into the cell.

Once inside the cell, the A subunit cleaves a crucial component of the protein synthesis machinery called ribosome, leading to cell death or dysfunction. Shiga toxins can cause severe illnesses such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which can be life-threatening in some cases.

It's worth noting that Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections are often foodborne, and they can cause a range of symptoms from mild diarrhea to severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and kidney failure. Prevention measures include proper food handling, cooking meat thoroughly, washing fruits and vegetables, and practicing good hygiene.

Trihexosylceramides are a type of glycosphingolipids, which are complex lipids found in animal tissues. They consist of a ceramide molecule (a sphingosine and fatty acid) with three hexose sugars attached to it in a specific sequence, typically glucose-galactose-galactose.

Trihexosylceramides are further classified into two types based on the type of ceramide they contain: lactosylceramide (Gal-Glc-Cer) and isoglobotrihexosylceramide (GalNAcβ1-4Galβ1-4Glc-Cer).

These lipids are important components of the cell membrane and play a role in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion. Abnormal accumulation of trihexosylceramides has been implicated in certain diseases, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, which are caused by deficiencies in enzymes involved in their breakdown.

Hemadsorption is a medical procedure that involves the use of a device to remove certain substances, such as toxic byproducts or excess amounts of cytokines (proteins involved in immune responses), from the bloodstream. This is accomplished by passing the patient's blood through an external filter or adsorbent column, which contains materials that selectively bind to the target molecules. The clean blood is then returned to the patient's circulation.

Hemadsorption can be used as a supportive treatment in various clinical scenarios, such as poisoning, sepsis, and other critical illnesses, where rapid removal of harmful substances from the bloodstream may help improve the patient's condition and outcomes. However, its effectiveness and safety are still subjects of ongoing research and debate.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

Callitrichinae is a subfamily of New World monkeys that includes marmosets and tamarins. These small primates are known for their claw-like nails (called "tegulae"), which they use for grooming and climbing, as well as their small size and social behavior. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. Some notable species in this subfamily include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Melia azedarach" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for a type of tree commonly known as the "Chinaberry tree" or "Persian Lilac." This tree is native to parts of Asia and has been introduced to many other regions around the world. While the tree itself is not a medical term, its fruits, leaves, and bark have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that these uses have not been thoroughly researched or proven to be safe or effective by modern medical standards. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or therapy.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a highly contagious virus that causes infections in the respiratory system. In humans, it primarily affects the nose, throat, lungs, and bronchioles (the airways leading to the lungs). It is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections and bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) in young children, but can also infect older children and adults.

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) belongs to the family Pneumoviridae and is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. The viral envelope contains two glycoproteins: the G protein, which facilitates attachment to host cells, and the F protein, which mediates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Infection with hRSV typically occurs through direct contact with respiratory droplets from an infected person or contaminated surfaces. The incubation period ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which symptoms such as runny nose, cough, sneezing, fever, and wheezing may appear. In severe cases, particularly in infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems, hRSV can cause pneumonia or bronchiolitis, leading to hospitalization and, in rare cases, death.

Currently, there is no approved vaccine for hRSV; however, passive immunization with palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody, is available for high-risk infants to prevent severe lower respiratory tract disease caused by hRSV. Supportive care and prevention of complications are the mainstays of treatment for hRSV infections.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Giant cells are large, multinucleated cells that result from the fusion of monocytes or macrophages. They can be found in various types of inflammatory and degenerative lesions, including granulomas, which are a hallmark of certain diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. There are several types of giant cells, including:

1. Langhans giant cells: These have a horseshoe-shaped or crescentic arrangement of nuclei around the periphery of the cell. They are typically found in granulomas associated with infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and histoplasmosis.
2. Foreign body giant cells: These form in response to the presence of foreign material, such as a splinter or suture, in tissue. The nuclei are usually scattered throughout the cell cytoplasm.
3. Touton giant cells: These are found in certain inflammatory conditions, such as xanthomatosis and granulomatous slack skin. They have a central core of lipid-laden histiocytes surrounded by a ring of nuclei.
4. Osteoclast giant cells: These are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption. They can be found in conditions such as giant cell tumors of bone and Paget's disease.

It is important to note that the presence of giant cells alone does not necessarily indicate a specific diagnosis, and their significance must be interpreted within the context of the overall clinical and pathological findings.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Herpes Simplex is a viral infection caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both types can cause sores or blisters on the skin or mucous membranes, but HSV-1 is typically associated with oral herpes (cold sores) and HSV-2 is usually linked to genital herpes. However, either type can infect any area of the body. The virus remains in the body for life and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent outbreaks of lesions or blisters. It is transmitted through direct contact with infected skin or mucous membranes, such as during kissing or sexual activity.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines are immunobiological preparations used for active immunization against Japanese Encephalitis, a viral infection transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The vaccines contain inactivated or live attenuated strains of the JE virus. They work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies and T-cells that provide protection against the virus. There are several types of JE vaccines available, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine, live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine, and inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine. These vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing JE and are recommended for use in individuals traveling to or living in areas where the disease is endemic.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

CD46, also known as membrane cofactor protein (MCP), is a regulatory protein that plays a role in the immune system and helps to protect cells from complement activation. It is found on the surface of many different types of cells in the body, including cells of the immune system such as T cells and B cells, as well as cells of various other tissues such as epithelial cells and endothelial cells.

As an antigen, CD46 is a molecule that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. It is a type I transmembrane protein that consists of four distinct domains: two short cytoplasmic domains, a transmembrane domain, and a large extracellular domain. The extracellular domain contains several binding sites for complement proteins, which helps to regulate the activation of the complement system and prevent it from damaging host cells.

CD46 has been shown to play a role in protecting cells from complement-mediated damage, modulating immune responses, and promoting the survival and proliferation of certain types of immune cells. It is also thought to be involved in the development of some autoimmune diseases and may be a target for immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal inflammatory disease of the brain characterized by seizures, cognitive decline, and motor function loss. It is caused by a persistent infection with the measles virus, even in individuals who had an uncomplicated acute measles infection earlier in life. The infection results in widespread degeneration and scarring (sclerosis) of the brain's gray matter.

The subacute phase of SSPE typically lasts for several months to a couple of years, during which patients experience a decline in cognitive abilities, behavioral changes, myoclonic jerks (involuntary muscle spasms), and visual disturbances. As the disease progresses, it leads to severe neurological impairment, coma, and eventually death.

SSPE is preventable through early childhood measles vaccination, which significantly reduces the risk of developing this fatal condition later in life.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Idoxuridine is an antiviral medication used primarily for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the eye, such as keratitis or dendritic ulcers. It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus, thereby inhibiting its ability to multiply and spread.

Idoxuridine is available as an ophthalmic solution (eye drops) and is typically applied directly to the affected eye every 1-2 hours while awake, for up to 2 weeks. Common side effects include local irritation, stinging, or burning upon application. Prolonged use of idoxuridine may lead to bacterial resistance or corneal toxicity, so it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

It is essential to note that idoxuridine is not commonly used today due to the development of more effective and less toxic antiviral agents for HSV infections.

Viral fusion proteins are specialized surface proteins found on the envelope of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral infection process by mediating the fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, allowing the viral genetic material to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

The fusion protein is often synthesized as an inactive precursor, which undergoes a series of conformational changes upon interaction with specific receptors on the host cell surface. This results in the exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides or domains that insert into the target cell membrane, bringing the two membranes into close proximity and facilitating their merger.

A well-known example of a viral fusion protein is the gp120/gp41 complex found on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The gp120 subunit binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine coreceptors on the host cell surface, triggering conformational changes in the gp41 subunit that expose the fusion peptide and enable membrane fusion. Understanding the structure and function of viral fusion proteins is important for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines.

Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. The 'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted ... Vero E6, also known as Vero C1008 (ATCC No. CRL-1586) This line is a clone from Vero 76. Vero E6 cells show some contact ... F6B1.1) HeLa cells Immortalised cell line History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line -- A Report prepared by CDR ... The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus. Vero cells are used for ...
The test cultures cells that allow viral reproduction (e.g., Vero E6 cells). By varying antibody concentrations, researchers ... Nevertheless, memory cells including memory B cells and memory T cells can last much longer and may have the ability to reduce ... "Lack of Peripheral Memory B Cell Responses in Recovered Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A Six-Year Follow-Up ... Leslie M (May 2020). "T cells found in coronavirus patients 'bode well' for long-term immunity". Science. 368 (6493): 809-810. ...
"Baxter Sells Vero Cell Vaccines Platform". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. Vol. 35, no. 2. 15 Dec 2014. p. 9. ... Baxter sold its vaccine production technology based on Vero cell culture to Nanotherapeutics. The sale included developed ... The new facility, once complete, will add cell therapy capabilities to Ology Bioservices' offerings. In mid-2016, ...
"Arenoviruses in Vero Cells: Ultrastructural Studies". Journal of Virology. 6 (4): 507-518. PETERS, C. J.; KUEHNE, R. W.; ...
Initially, a sample of SARS-CoV-2 from China was used to grow large quantities of the virus using vero cells. From then on, the ... "COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero cell), Inactivated" (PDF). Sinovac. March 2021. Clinical Research Protocol for CoronaVac Phase III ... "EMA starts rolling review of COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Inactivated". EMA - European Medicines Agency. 3 May 2021. Archived ... "WHO recommendation Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine (Vero Cell [Inactivated]) - CoronaVac". World Health Organization (WHO). 1 May 2021 ...
It is produced in cultures of Vero cells. Modified vaccinia Ankara (also known as MVA): a highly attenuated (not virulent) ... On the other hand, the CEV is believed to play a role in cell-to-cell spread and the EEV is thought to be important for long ... Cell Stem Cell. 7 (5): 618-630. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2010.08.012. PMC 3656821. PMID 20888316. "Side Effects of Smallpox ... He was attempting to grow vaccinia virus on agar media in the absence of living cells when he noted that many colonies of ...
Just subB is sufficient to cause vacuolation of vero cells. Neu5GC is not made by humans but is acquired from food sources such ... After their B subunit binds to receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is enveloped by the cell and transported inside either ... Once StxB targets a cancerous cell, it delivers the A subunit of the toxin which eventually kills the cancerous cell. Yet ... SubAB's target is in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell and is brought into the cell through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. ...
"WHO recommendation Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine (Vero Cell [Inactivated]) - CoronaVac". World Health Organization (WHO). 1 May 2021 ...
It is readily grown in monolayers of eukaryotic Vero cells. Serological evidence and PCR indicate that S. negevensis is ...
"WHO recommendation Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine (Vero Cell [Inactivated]) - CoronaVac". World Health Organization (WHO). 1 May 2021 ... Vero cells)". Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020. Xia S, ...
... to increase the receptivity of Vero cells. Silencing its effect with siRNA prevented infection of Vero cells. TIM1 is expressed ... the cells survived and appeared impervious to the virus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1 to enter cells; mutations ... focus on cell death". Cell Death and Differentiation. 22 (8): 1250-1259. doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.67. ISSN 1350-9047. PMC 4495366. ... surface peplomer and is endocytosed into macropinosomes in the host cell. To penetrate the cell, the viral membrane fuses with ...
Then, it was used to grow large quantities of the virus using vero cells. From then on, the viruses are soaked in beta- ... Its product name is SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), not to be confused with the similar product name of CoronaVac. Peer- ... The Sinopharm product is an inactivated vaccine called SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell). Chen W, Al Kaabi N (18 July 2020). "A ... Yang Y. "A Study to Evaluate The Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines (Vero Cell) in Healthy ...
The fusion vectors are transfected in Vero cells (monkey kidney fibroblasts). Particularly interesting ORFs are also screened ... At the end of the live cell imaging, the cells can still be fixed and colocalisation experiments made. As the sequence of the ... The GFP-cDNA project documents the localisation of proteins to subcellular compartments of the eukaryotic cell applying ... and expressed in eukaryotic cells. Subsequently, the subcellular localisation of the fusion proteins is recorded by ...
... purified chicken embryo cell vaccine (PCECV), developed in 1984; and a purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVCRV) developed in ... These include the human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) first introduced in 1978; ...
In Vero cells and LLC-MK2 cells, Lebombo virus causes lysis; however, it does not cause any cytopathic effect in C6/36 cells. ...
"EMA starts rolling review of COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Inactivated". European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Press release). 4 May ... Diamond MS, Pierson TC (May 2020). "The Challenges of Vaccine Development against a New Virus during a Pandemic". Cell Host & ... which increases the virus attachment to its target cells and might trigger a cytokine storm if a vaccinated person is later ...
Newer vaccines, based on vero cells, are in development (as of 2018). Increases in cases of yellow fever in endemic areas of ... Others have noted that switching manufacturing processes to modern cell-culture technology might improve vaccine supply ... people with thymus disorders associated with abnormal immune cell function, people with primary immunodeficiencies, and anyone ...
Plosker, Greg L. (July 2012). "A/H5N1 Prepandemic Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion, Vero Cell-Derived, Inactivated) [Vepacel ... "Cell-Based Flu Vaccines". Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021-11-23. Khardori, N.M. (Jan 2012). "A Cell Culture- ... On the other hand, the flu virus strand for cell-based vaccine is grown using cultured cell of mammalian origins. As there are ... Furthermore, the cell culture technology was developed which allows virus growing outside the body for the first time. The ...
A follow-up study indicates that ciprofloxacin has potent effects on inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells as measured by ... Several more recent primary publications include reports in Cell Molecular Cell, Developmental Cell, Journal of Cell Biology ... Ambroxol is another drug that has beneficial effects in Vero E6 cells. A comprehensive review with over 1,500 citations by ... Cell. 119 (6): 753-766. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.11.038. PMID 15607973. Singh, S. B.; Davis, A. S.; Taylor, G. A.; Deretic, V. ( ...
Vero cells - a monkey kidney cell line that arose by spontaneous immortalisation. Cellosaurus, knowledge base of cell lines ... HEK 293 cells - derived from human fetal cells. Huh7 cells - hepatocyte-derived carcinoma cell line Jurkat cells - a human T ... A549 cells - derived from a cancer patient lung tumor. HeLa cells - a widely used human cell line isolated from cervical cancer ... Immortalised cell lines have also found uses in biotechnology. An immortalised cell line should not be confused with stem cells ...
It is a mesophilic bacteria that can be grown on Vero cells. Similar to other Chlamydiales, it is commonly found in two ... Parachlamydia acanthamoebae has been shown to infect and multiply in simian and human cells. Experimental models were able to ... Their results also shows that the P. acanthamoebae cells continued to replicate within the macrophages, and eventually caused ... These researchers collected human macrophages and placed these cells on growth plates in conjunction with P. acanthamoebae. The ...
The vaccine candidate is produced with Bharat Biotech's in-house vero cell manufacturing platform that has the capacity to ... April 2018). "Enhancing viral vaccine production using engineered knockout vero cell lines - A second look". Vaccine. 36 (16): ... 2 was isolated by India's National Institute of Virology and used to grow large quantities of the virus using vero cells. From ... The study showed that Phase II trials had a higher immune response and induced T-cell response due to the difference in dosing ...
Vero cells are a continuous cell line derived from epithelial cells of the African green monkey kidney, and are widely used for ... Barrett, P. N.; Mundt, W.; Kristner, O.; Howard, M. K. (2009). "Vero cell platform in vaccine production: moving towards cell ... Similar cell lines include buffalo green monkey kidney and BS-C-1. Chlorocebus monkeys are an important model organism for ... Jasinska, Anna J.; Rostamian, Dalar; Davis, Ashley T.; Kavanagh, Kylie (2020). "Transcriptomic analysis of cell-free fetal RNA ...
The Parachlamydiaceae naturally infect amoebae and can be grown in cultured Vero cells. The Parachlamydiaceae are not ...
On late July and early August 2021, Ho Chi Minh City received 2 million of the 5 million doses of the vero cell Sinopharm BIBP ... "Chính phủ đồng ý mua 20 triệu liều vaccine phòng COVID-19 Vero Cell". Vietnan Ministry of Health. September 23, 2021. "Thêm 8 ... Thanh Hoa authorities stopped injecting the remaining 43,000 doses of Vero Cell in storage and investigated the cause of this ... "Dừng tiêm lô vaccine Vero Cell sau khi ba người tử vong" (in Vietnamese). VnExpress. November 25, 2021. Retrieved November 25, ...
1992). "Evaluation of Vero cell co-culture system for mouse embryos in various media". Human Reproduction. 7 (2): 276-80. doi: ... He also co-cultured human embryos with helper cells to promote growth. Cohen is known for the application of micromanipulation ...
It is based on a SA14-14-2 strain and cultivated in Vero cells. In September 2012, the Indian firm Biological E. Limited ... The other was an inactivated vaccine cultivated on primary hamster kidney cells (the Beijing-3 strain). The Beijing-3 strain ... launched an inactivated cell culture derived vaccine based on SA 14-14-2 strain which was developed in a technology transfer ...
These cells are typically Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells, but others are also used including monkey cell lines pMK and Vero ... The virus in Ixiaro is grown in mammal cells ('Vero cells') under laboratory conditions. Pérez Rubio A, Eiros JM (2018). "Cell ... Verorab, developed by Sanofi Pasteur, is a mammalian vero cell based rabies vaccine approved by the World Health Organization. ... The Food and Drug Administration approved two mammalian vero cell based vaccines for rotavirus, Rotarix by GlaxoSmithKline and ...
"Antiherpevirus activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in Vero cells". Annals of ...
"Inhibition of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1 to 4 in Vero Cell Cultures with Morpholino Oligomers". J. Virol. 79 (8): 5116-28. doi: ... HIV infects a cell through fusion with the cell membrane, which requires two different cellular molecular participants, CD4 and ... HIV most heavily targets a specific type of lymphocyte known as "helper T cells", and identifies these target cells through T- ... Release of viral genes and possibly enzymes into the host cell. Replication of viral components using host-cell machinery. ...
Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. The Vero lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted ... Vero E6, also known as Vero C1008 (ATCC No. CRL-1586) This line is a clone from Vero 76. Vero E6 cells show some contact ... F6B1.1) HeLa cells Immortalised cell line History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line -- A Report prepared by CDR ... The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus. Vero cells are used for ...
Vero Cell Line from Applied Biological Materials (ABM). Cat Number: T8300. UK & Europe Distribution. Order Online. ... abm cell lines Vero Cell Line , T8299. (No reviews yet) Write a Review Write a Review. ... abm , Vero Cell Line , T8299. The Vero cell line was initiated from the kidney of a normal adult African Green monkey. ... abm , Vero Cell Line (Animal Component Free) , T8298This Vero cell line has been adapted for growth in animal component free ...
For the cell culture into the scaffold, it is n ... Tissue engineering performs the culture of cells on scaffolds, ... Therefore, in Vero cell cultures, the results suggest that SPRP and CPRP can be used as a supplement and scaffold, respectively ... Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a supplement and scaffold for Vero cell ... Platelet-rich plasma as supplement and scaffold for the culture of Vero cell line. *Original Article ...
Tag Archives: Vero cell testing. Mosquito juice and science. Posted on September 6, 2014. by ...
Vero cells up to 62.5 ug/ml after 72 hr by MTT assay. ...
Nepal Receives 1.2M Doses Of Vero Cell Vaccines ... Nepal Receives 1.2M Doses Of Vero Cell Vaccines. *By * Agencies ... The procured Vero Cell vaccines are stored at central storage, Teku. Earlier, the government had bought 6 million doses of ... "A cargo flight of China South Airlines carrying 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccine has landed at Tribhuvan International ... The government received 1.2 million doses Vero Cell vaccines produced by the Beijing Institute of Biological Products out of ...
Vero cells productively infected with the Halle strain of measles virus have been studied by means of surface replication, ... M Dubois-Dalcq, T S Reese; Structural changes in the membrane of vero cells infected with a paramyxovirus.. J Cell Biol 1 ... Structural changes in the membrane of vero cells infected with a paramyxovirus. M Dubois-Dalcq, M Dubois-Dalcq ... Vero cells productively infected with the Halle strain of measles virus have been studied by means of surface replication, ...
... ... Walter, Emmanuel B. and Hills, Susan L. "Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine = GRADE for inactivated Vero cell culture- derived ... Walter, Emmanuel B. and Hills, Susan L. "Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine = GRADE for inactivated Vero cell culture- derived ... Walter, Emmanuel B. and Hills, Susan L. (2018). Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine = GRADE for inactivated Vero cell culture- ...
... hACE2-Vero, that stably expresses ACE2 on the cell surface. ... into the chromosomes of Vero cells to form an engineered cell ... Human ACE2 gene was integrated into the chromosomes of Vero cells to form an engineered cell line, hACE2-Vero, that stably ... hACE2-Vero Stable Cell Line (CAT#: VCeL-Wyb023) CAT. Size. Price. Quantity. ...
Detection of human ACE2 in the ACE2/VERO stable cell line . Vero cells (Green); ACE2/Vero (Red). ... ACE2 stable cell line over express ACE2 protein can be used to study ACE2 related signalling pathways , ... ACE2/VERO Stable Cell Line is a stably transfected Vero E6 cell line which expresses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ( ... Fig-1: Binding of biotinylated SARS-Cov-2 Spike RBD protein to human ACE2 in the ACE2/VERO stable cell line. ACE2/VERO cells ...
Natural Medical Treatments in Vero Beach, Sebastian, FL. ... Find the Local Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine, Cellular ... She is a member of the American Academy of Stem Cell Physicians and has studied with renowned physician experts in Europe and ... These provide the proteins and growth factors needed to promote cell renewal and healing. ...
Vero) cell line in Ubigenes cell bank has low passages, high activity and good cell condition, with available STR ... 1)High-quality cells: The cells in our cell bank have low passages, high activity and good cell condition ... 3)Applicable for gene-editing: The cell lines in our cell bank have been successfully used in gene-editing cell line generation ... location: Home , Products , Wild-type Cell Lines , African Green Monkey Kidney Cell Line(Vero) ...
Cytotoxicity effect of 4,7-dichloroquinoline on Vero cells. In the present study, the viability of Vero cells was incorporated ... Infection and toxicity towards cells. We procured Vero cells from the National Center for Cell Science (NCCS Maharashtra, India ... Beesetti, H. et al. A quinoline compound inhibits the replication of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in vero cells. Antivir. Ther. ... On the other hand, no cytotoxic in silico results could be corroborated by the effect of Vero cell line studies. The drug ...
Nepal received 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccination under the COVAX cost-sharing mechanism on... Tagged with news. ... The Vero Cell vaccines that have been purchased are kept at Tekus central storage. The government had previously purchased 6 ... "On Tuesday morning, a cargo flight of China South Airlines carrying 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccine landed at Tribhuvan ... Nepal received 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccination under the COVAX cost-sharing mechanism on Wednesday. ...
Vero Cell Assay. Expression of Stx was examined by Vero cell cytotoxic assay. Of the 30 strains examined, all were cytotoxic to ... The initial procedure for preparation of cell-free culture supernatant and cell lysate was the same as for the Vero cell assay ... Vero Cell Assay. Preparation of Cell-Free Culture Filtrates. STEC strains were cultured in L-broth (Difco), at 37°C overnight ... The cytotoxic effect of STEC strains was assayed on Vero cells in 96-well flat-bottom tissue culture plates (NUNC, Intermade, ...
The finding of IBV mRNA in the cell cultures demonstrates that the CRG-BETA IBV strain is replicating in the VERO cells and ... On the evolution of Avian infectious bronchitis virus in VERO cells Authors. * Paulo Eduardo Brandão Universidade de São Paulo ... Strain CRG-BETA, propagated in chicken embryos, was inoculated in VERO cells monolayers up to the 4th passage and each passage ... On the evolution of Avian infectious bronchitis virus in VERO cells. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal ...
Vero Cells-CytoNiche-Vaccines are produced from bacteria or viruses by artificially using methods such as inactivation, ... a high cell culture density of 1×107cells/mL can be achieved after continuous culture for one week. Vero cells are well ... it can achieve the stepwise scale-up of cells, and complete the harvesting of cells, viruses and cell products. Cell culture ... 1) When a certain cell density is reached, the Vero cell medium is exchanged to virus maintenance solution and the virus is ...
Safety profile of the Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine IXIARO(®).. ... Safety profile of the Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine IXIARO(®).. ...
The government is all set to administer the second dose of China-made Vero Cell vaccine against COVID-19, for the people age 60 ... By Mahima Devkota, Kathmandu, June 25: The government is all set to administer the second dose of China-made Vero Cell vaccine ... 2nd dose of Vero Cell for 60-64 years to be administered from July 6. ... Dr Gautam said that those people who missed out on their booster dose of the Vero Cell vaccine on previous vaccination ...
... will be administered with second dose of Vero Cell vaccine. ... Govt starts administrating second dose of Vero Cell vaccine in ... KATHMANDU: The government has started administrating second dose of Vero Cell vaccine in Kathmandu from Friday. ... will be administered with second dose of Vero Cell vaccine. The Kathmandu Metropolitan City has established vaccination centres ...
The government is all set to administer the second dose of China-made Vero Cell vaccine against COVID-19, for the people age 60 ... By Mahima Devkota, Kathmandu, June 25: The government is all set to administer the second dose of China-made Vero Cell vaccine ... 2nd dose of Vero Cell for 60-64 years to be administered from July 6. ... Dr Gautam said that those people who missed out on their booster dose of the Vero Cell vaccine on previous vaccination ...
The results suggest that the embryo co-culture with Vero cells improve the in vitro development, but the type of the medium ... The first experimental group was co-culture with Vero using T6 media. The second control and experimental groups cultured on ... Two cell mouse embryos (NMRI Strain) were flushed from the excised uteri of superovulated mice. Morphologically normal embryos ... RPMI only and Vero using RPMI media respectively. The developmental rate of each group was recorded daily for four days.Results ...
Vero Cell) Market Status, Trends and COVID-19 Impact Report 2022 with 124 pages available at USD 2350 for single User PDF at ... Vero Cell) Market Scope. 1.2 COVID-19 Impact on SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Market. 1.3 Global SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell ... 4.4.1 Germany SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Market Size and Price Analysis 2017-2022. 4.4.2 UK SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) ... Chart SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Sales Volume (Units) Share by Type. Chart SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) Market Size by ...
One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived ... One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived ... Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine; PCEC = purified chick embryo cell.. * Per-protocol analysis.. † PCEC ... JE-VC is an inactivated vaccine derived from the attenuated SA14-14-2 JE virus strain propagated in Vero cells (Box 1) (14,201, ...
1.2 million doses of China manufactured Vero Cell vaccine brought in. The vaccines were handed over as a part of Covax facility ...
Vero Cells Substances * Antibodies, Neutralizing * Antibodies, Viral Grants and funding * DP2 DA040254/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United ...
Vero Cell Toxicity Assay. C. difficile toxin cytotoxicity assays were performed with Vero cells (RRID:CVCL_0059) as previously ... 3A-C) of myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILC), including CD11b+CD103+ dendritic cells (P = 0.041), polymorphonuclear ( ... DC, dendritic cells; EILP, early innate lymphoid progenitors; ILC, innate lymphoid cells; IMC, innate myeloid cells; LPL, ... DC, dendritic cells; EILP, early innate lymphoid progenitors; ILC, innate lymphoid cells; IMC, innate myeloid cells; LPL, ...
Vero Cells * Virus Replication / physiology* Substances * RNA, Viral Grants and funding * 104640/Z/14/Z/WT_/Wellcome Trust/ ... Mol Cell. 2020 Dec 17;80(6):1067-1077.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2020.11.004. Epub 2020 Nov 5. ... These interactions reveal that the viral genome and subgenomes adopt alternative topologies inside cells and engage in ...
  • By Mahima Devkota , Kathmandu, June 25: The government is all set to administer the second dose of China-made Vero Cell vaccine against COVID-19, for the people age 60 to 64 from July 6. (risingnepaldaily.com)
  • The people who were given the Vero Cell vaccine against COVID-19 are found to have developed 72.4 percent antibody, more than those who have been administered Covishield. (emicrowatch.com)
  • F6B1.1) HeLa cells Immortalised cell line History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line -- A Report prepared by CDR Rebecca Sheets, Ph.D., USPHS CBER/OVRR/DVRPA/VVB for the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting to be held on May 12, 2000 OPEN SESSION www.fda.gov pdf Yasumura Y, Kawakita M (1963). (wikipedia.org)
  • The government received 1.2 million doses Vero Cell vaccines produced by the Beijing Institute of Biological Products out of the agreed 59.36 million doses to be purchased with the loan assistance from the Asian Development Bank through the COVAX. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • The procured Vero Cell vaccines are stored at central storage, Teku. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • The Vero Cell vaccines that have been purchased are kept at Teku's central storage. (tyrocity.com)
  • Vero cells grow adherently and are susceptible to many viruses, and this broad susceptibility has prompted the development of corresponding Vero cell-based vaccines. (cytoniche.com)
  • To this day, a variety of Vero cell-based vaccines have been marketed. (cytoniche.com)
  • In modern biotechnology and drug design large-scale cell cultures are necessary tools for the production of diverse recombinant proteins, such as Herceptin™, Enbrel™ or vaccines against the influenza virus strains H5N1 and H1N1 like Celvapan™ [ 1 - 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There might be different results from the two types of vaccines as the research has taken place long after Covishield was administered to people as compared to Vero Cell," said senior research officer Dr Megha Nath Dhimal. (emicrowatch.com)
  • Among the population getting a full dose of vaccines, 85.2 percent had been given Covishield vaccines, 14.5 percent had been given Vero Cell and 0.2 percent had received other vaccines. (emicrowatch.com)
  • Vero cells are used to establish cell lives which help in production of vaccines. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Vero cell assay were performed to detect and evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the Shiga toxins produced by the strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Lonza now has expertise in different cell and vector types, constructs, process and assay development, and platform technologies for both clinical and commercial manufacturing. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • MTT assay was employed to study the anticancer activity against cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines. (google.com)
  • Crude methanolic extract of G. corticata had significant anticancer activity followed by E. antenna and E. linza on cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines by MTT assay. (google.com)
  • Infectious virus was detected by Vero cell culture and plaque assay. (medscape.com)
  • Human ACE2 gene was integrated into the chromosomes of Vero cells to form an engineered cell line, hACE2-Vero, that stably expresses ACE2 on the cell surface. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • People having been administered Vero Cell have developed more antibodies as opposed to Covishield as the research has taken place shortly after the vaccination. (emicrowatch.com)
  • Cells are subsequently fixed, permeabilized, and stained intracellularly with antibodies for 30 min on ice. (jax.org)
  • Immunologic techniques such as staining with tagged monoclonal antibodies should be used to confirm cytopathic effects on cell cultures. (medscape.com)
  • Nepal received 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccine purchased through the COVAX's cost-sharing mechanism. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • A cargo flight of China South Airlines carrying 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccine has landed at Tribhuvan International Airport on Tuesday morning," said Badebabu Thapa, a senior official at the Logistic Management Section under the Department of Health Services. (spotlightnepal.com)
  • Nepal received 1.2 million doses of Vero Cell vaccination under the COVAX cost-sharing mechanism on Wednesday. (tyrocity.com)
  • Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evaluation of SPRP as a supplement showed that there was no statistical difference in cell viability compared to cultures supplemented in the standard way, with fetal bovine serum (FBS), after 24 h of culture. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, in Vero cell cultures, the results suggest that SPRP and CPRP can be used as a supplement and scaffold, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The finding of IBV mRNA in the cell cultures demonstrates that the CRG-BETA IBV strain is replicating in the VERO cells and regarding S1 sequence analysis, the lack of nucleotide mutations shows that CRG-BETA might have reached a fixed status. (usp.br)
  • In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein demand and, thus, the demand for cell cultures in protein production fluctuate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This would allow a more flexible handling of cell cultures adapted to the demand, e.g. a rapid upscaling of cultures after storage, i.e. keeping cells in "stand-by" storage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the anti-DENV activity of insect cell-derived anionic septapeptides from C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently infected with DENV. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cultured eukaryote cells such as human foreskin fibroblasts or vero cell cultures are used to inoculate the specimen. (medscape.com)
  • Early in infection, the surfaces of infected cells are embossed by scattered groups of twisted strands, and diffuse patches of label for viral antigens cover regions marked by these strands. (rupress.org)
  • VSV infection triggered rapid differentiation of blood monocytes into immature dendritic cells as well as their apoptosis, which depended on caspase 3/7 activation. (karger.com)
  • Monocyte differentiation required infectious VSV, but loss of CD14+ cells was also associated with the presence of a cytokine/chemokine milieu produced in response to VSV infection. (karger.com)
  • The in vitro growth characteristics of these two virus lines in white blood cells (predominantly myeloblasts) from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia were measured, starting with low multiplicities of infection. (karger.com)
  • These molecules were previously shown to protect C6/36 and Vero cells against DENV infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A cell culture positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) implies probable active infection. (medscape.com)
  • A negative HSV cell culture result does not rule out HSV infection, particularly if the specimen is from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or nonvesicular lesions. (medscape.com)
  • One of these compounds (ebselen) also exhibited promising antiviral activity in cell-based assays. (nature.com)
  • Vero E6 cells were used for cell culture experiments, and neutralization assays were performed. (news-medical.net)
  • A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CHLOROCEBUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vero cells productively infected with the Halle strain of measles virus have been studied by means of surface replication, freeze-fracturing, and surface labeling with horseradish peroxidase-measles antibody conjugate in order to examine changes in the structure of the cell membrane during viral maturation. (rupress.org)
  • Leave the T25 flask in the incubator for 1~2 days without disturbing or changing the medium until cells completely recover viability and become adherent. (abeomics.com)
  • Once cells are over 90% adherent, remove growth medium and passage the cells through trypsinization and centrifugation. (abeomics.com)
  • The morphological analysis, carried out on the third and fifth days, did not verify changes in the typical morphology of Vero cells cultured with SPRP. (springer.com)
  • Homozygous deletion of this distal Sox2 control region (SCR) caused significant reduction in Sox2 mRNA and protein levels, loss of ES cell colony morphology, genome-wide changes in gene expression, and impaired neuroectodermal formation upon spontaneous differentiation to embryoid bodies," wrote the investigators. (genengnews.com)
  • Strain CRG-BETA, propagated in chicken embryos, was inoculated in VERO cells monolayers up to the 4th passage and each passage was monitored with an RT-PCR targeted to the S1 gene (nt 705to 1094) and an RT-PCR to the protein 5a mRNA. (usp.br)
  • Two cell mouse embryos (NMRI Strain) were flushed from the excised uteri of superovulated mice. (celljournal.org)
  • A strain of Vesicular Stomatitis virus, serotype Indiana (VSV), was compared after a single in vitro passage and after 16 in vitro passages in human white blood cells from patients suffering mostly from acute myeloid leukemia. (karger.com)
  • Infectivity titrations in chick embryo cells gave consistently about ten times higher values than the same titrations done in human diploid cells, strain Wi38. (karger.com)
  • The COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell), Inactivated is made from the SARS-CoV-2, 19nCoV-CDC-Tan-HB02 strain which is inoculated on the Vero cells for culturing, harvesting, -propiolactone-inactivation, concentration and purification, then followed by adsorption with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant to form the liquid vaccine. (who.int)
  • ACAM2000 is produced in Vero cells and derived from a clonal isolate of Dryvax, the New York City Board of Health strain widely used during the smallpox eradication campaign [ 1-5 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • ACE2/VERO Stable Cell Line is a stably transfected Vero E6 cell line which expresses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (abeomics.com)
  • The 'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted from an African green monkey (Chlorocebus sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid, meaning that it has an abnormal number of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers discovered that this region is required to both turn Sox2 on, and for the embryonic stem cells to maintain their characteristic appearance and ability to differentiate into all the cell types of the adult organism. (genengnews.com)
  • Fig-1: Binding of biotinylated SARS-Cov-2 Spike RBD protein to human ACE2 in the ACE2/VERO stable cell line. (abeomics.com)
  • Vero E6 cells show some contact inhibition, so are suitable for propagating viruses that replicate slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • T8300These cells may exhibit some degree of contact inhibition after forming a monolayer and is therefore is useful?for supporting the growth of slowly. (topsan.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RPMI and T6 medium on two cell mouse embryo co-culture with Vero cells. (celljournal.org)
  • The second control and experimental groups cultured on RPMI only and Vero using RPMI media respectively. (celljournal.org)
  • Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199). (biomedcentral.com)
  • i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640) evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we use primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from children and adults, differentiated at an air-liquid interface to show that the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 replicates to significantly lower titers in the NECs of children compared to those of adults. (plos.org)
  • Its main pathogenic property is the production of Shiga toxin (Stx), which inhibits the protein synthesis of host cells leading to cell death ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the past few years, the SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) market experienced a huge change under the influence of COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War, the global market size of SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) reached XXX million $ in 2022 from XXX in 2017 with a CAGR of xxx from 2017-2022. (reportsweb.com)
  • Publisher predicts that the global SARS-Cov-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell) market size will reach XXX million $in 2028 with a CAGR of xx% from 2022-2028. (reportsweb.com)
  • The government has started administrating second dose of Vero Cell vaccine in Kathmandu from Friday. (nepalpress.com)
  • The results suggest that the embryo co-culture with Vero cells improve the in vitro development, but the type of the medium must be considered, which can be helpful for cell proliferation and embryos development. (celljournal.org)
  • Brunner D, Frank J, Appl H, Schöffl H, Pfaller W, Gstraunthaler G. Serum-free cell culture: the serum-free media interactive online database. (springer.com)
  • Autologous human serum for cell culture avoids the implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in cellular ardiomyoplasty. (springer.com)
  • The government said newborn calf serum is used only for preparation and growth of vero cells and different kinds of bovine and other animal serum are standard enrichment ingredient used globally for vero cell growth. (tribuneindia.com)
  • These vero cells, after the growth, are washed with water, with chemicals (also technically known as buffer), many times to make it free from the newborn calf serum. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Research strains transfected with viral genes: Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein glycoprotein-H (gH). (wikipedia.org)
  • At this stage, label for viral antigens on the surface of the cell membrane is organized into stripes lying on the crests of strands. (rupress.org)
  • The fractured membranes of viral buds are continuous sheets of these small particles, and the spacing between both nucleocapsids and stripes of surface antigen in buds is less than in the surrounding cell membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, surface antigens, membrane particles, and nucleocapsids attached to the cell membrane are mobile within the plane of the membrane during viral maturation. (rupress.org)
  • These interactions reveal that the viral genome and subgenomes adopt alternative topologies inside cells and engage in different interactions with host RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Then these vero cells are infected with corona virus for viral growth. (tribuneindia.com)
  • The vero cells are completely destroyed in the process of viral growth. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Chromosome 12 of Vero cells has a homozygous ~9-Mb deletion, causing the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar Ca 2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK 1 , porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, more extreme conditions (Ca 2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution) also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The original cell line was named Vero after an abbreviation of verda reno, which means 'green kidney' in Esperanto, while vero itself means 'truth' in Esperanto. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whole genome sequence of a Vero cell line was determined by Japanese investigators in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vero E6, also known as Vero C1008 (ATCC No. CRL-1586) This line is a clone from Vero 76. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vero cell line was initiated from the kidney of a normal adult African Green monkey. (topsan.org)
  • T8298This Vero cell line has been adapted for growth in animal component free medium. (topsan.org)
  • or (4) resale of the cell line whether or not such cell lines are resold for use in research. (abeomics.com)
  • The cell lines in our cell bank have been successfully used in gene-editing cell line generation, applicable for all kinds of gene-editing experiments. (ubigene.us)
  • We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selection of the right fusion partner cell line is critical to obtain desired attributes of the hybridoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Virus release was evaluated in a murine cell line (L929). (karger.com)
  • Together, these data identify a distal control region essential for Sox2 transcription in ES cells. (genengnews.com)
  • ACE2/VERO cells were probed with different amounts of biotinylated SARS-Cov-2 Spike RBD protein (Abeomics, Cat. (abeomics.com)
  • Dr Gautam said that those people who missed out on their booster dose of the Vero Cell vaccine on previous vaccination campaigns can take their second dose vaccine during the 2nd dose vaccination campaign. (risingnepaldaily.com)
  • Students above 14 years of age and people above the age of 40 years, who have completed 21 days after receiving the first dose, will be administered with second dose of Vero Cell vaccine. (nepalpress.com)
  • All cells of human and murine origin in our cell bank have available STR Authentication reports, guaranteeing accurate cell identity. (ubigene.us)
  • More than 1,000 infectious units of VSV (as measured in chick embryo cells) were produced per myeloblast within 44 h. (karger.com)
  • Vero F6 was transfected via a concatenated plasmid with the gH gene after a copy of the HHV-1 glycoprotein-D (gD) promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Toronto (U of T) researchers investigating stem cells in mice report for the first time an instance of a relationship between the Sox2 gene , which is critical for early development, and a region elsewhere on the genome that effectively regulates its activity. (genengnews.com)
  • The discovery could mean a significant advance in human regenerative medicine, as the Sox2 gene is essential for maintaining embryonic stem cells that can develop into any cell type of a mature animal. (genengnews.com)
  • We studied how the Sox2 gene is turned on in mice, and found the region of the genome that is needed to turn the gene on in embryonic stem cells," said Jennifer Mitchell, Ph.D., of U of T's department of cell and systems biology. (genengnews.com)
  • Like the gene itself, this region of the genome enables these stem cells to maintain their ability to become any type of cell, a property known as pluripotency. (genengnews.com)
  • It was previously thought that regions much closer to the Sox2 gene were the ones that turned it on in embryonic stem cells. (genengnews.com)
  • To contact the gene, the DNA makes a loop that brings the SCR close to the gene itself only in embryonic stem cells. (genengnews.com)
  • It is possible that the formation of the loop needed to make contact with the Sox2 gene is an important final step in the process by which researchers practicing regenerative medicine can generate pluripotent cells from adult cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Nina Bauer, associate director of autologous cell therapy commercial development, Lonza Pharma and Biotech Lonza Emerging Technologies is focusing on cell and gene therapies. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • ACE2 is a type I transmembrane metalloenzyme located on the outer surface of endothelial cells in the lung, arteries, heart, kidney and intestines. (abeomics.com)
  • as host cells for eukaryotic parasites, specially of the trypanosomatids Vero (ATCC No. CCL-81) Isolated from C. aethiops kidney on 27 Mar 1962 Vero 76 (ATCC No. CRL-1587) Isolated from Vero in 1968, it grows to a lower saturation density (cells per unit area) than the original Vero. (wikipedia.org)
  • No differences were seen in the following parameters: Length of latency phase, growth rate, final titer, thermal inactivation rate, plaque size, titer difference in chick embryo vs. human diploid cells, and extent of neutralization by a standard rabbit antiserum. (karger.com)
  • Title : Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine = GRADE for inactivated Vero cell culture- derived JE vaccine (JE-VC) Personal Author(s) : Walter, Emmanuel B.;Hills, Susan L. (cdc.gov)
  • When culturing human diploid cell lines , the cell viability and amplification effect are significantly better than those of traditional microcarriers. (cytoniche.com)
  • Autologous preparations rich in growth factors promote proliferation and induce VEGF and HGF production by human tendon cells in culture. (springer.com)
  • Effect of fiber diameter on spreading, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblastic cells on electrospun poly (lactic acid) substrates. (springer.com)
  • The influence of fiber diameter of electrospun substrates on neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. (springer.com)
  • Cell culture process parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, rotating speed, Air, O2, CO2 and N2 can be controlled with high precision and automation, providing a good environment for cells and promoting cell proliferation. (cytoniche.com)
  • Combined with mature automatic medium exchange, perfusion and other processes, high-density cell proliferation can be achieved within limited time and space. (cytoniche.com)
  • Dr. Mitchell and her colleagues eliminated this possibility when they deleted these nearby regions in the genome of mice and found there was no impact on the gene's ability to be turned on in embryonic stem cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue engineering performs the culture of cells on scaffolds, aiming at the restoration of damaged tissue. (springer.com)
  • For the cell culture into the scaffold, it is necessary to establish certain conditions, such as the type of supplementation of the culture medium. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a supplement and scaffold for Vero cell culture, in a one case report study. (springer.com)
  • It is recommended to quickly thaw the frozen cells upon receipt or from liquid nitrogen in a 37 o C water-bath, transfer to a tube containing 10 ml of growth medium without Hygromycin, spin down cells, resuspend cells in pre-warmed growth medium without Hygromycin, transfer resuspended cells to T25 flask and culture in 37 o C-CO 2 incubator. (abeomics.com)
  • To passage the cells, detach cells from culture vessel with Trypsin/EDTA, add complete growth medium and transfer to a tube, spin down cells, resuspend cells and seed appropriate aliquots of cells suspension into new culture vessels. (abeomics.com)
  • The bioreactor and microcarrier suspension culture technology enable large-scale cell culture , which has been widely used in vaccine production. (cytoniche.com)
  • The online live cell counter can monitor the number of viable cells within the system in real time during the culture process (Figure 3). (cytoniche.com)
  • The first experimental group was co-culture with Vero using T6 media. (celljournal.org)
  • Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine (Ixiaro [JE-VC]) is the only JE vaccine that is licensed and available in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The criterion standard for HSV laboratory testing is the cell culture. (medscape.com)
  • She is also the lead investigator of a study ("A Sox2 distal enhancer cluster regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation potential") published in Genes & Development . (genengnews.com)
  • Ehrenfest DMD, Del Corso M, Diss A, Mouhyi J, Charrier J-B. Three-dimensional architecture and cell composition of a Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin clot and membrane. (springer.com)
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein S1. (abcam.com)
  • This inhibitory effect was likely mediated through various routes including the increased production of antiviral cytokines (IFN-I), activation of mononuclear cell migration, and upregulation of the expression of antiviral miRNAs (has-miR-30e*, has-miR-133a, and has-miR-223) and inflammation-related miRNAs (has-miR-146a and has-miR-147). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To achieve satisfactory results, cells should not be passaged over 16 times. (abeomics.com)
  • compared with traditional microcarrier, it has obvious advantages in cell expansion and virus production. (cytoniche.com)
  • Unlike other DNA viruses, the variola virus multiplies in the cytoplasm of parasitized host cells. (medscape.com)
  • Lassa fe- Lassa virus in many more districts and states in en- ver is endemic in West Africa and has been reported demic countries of the West African sub-region and from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria4-7. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • These provide the proteins and growth factors needed to promote cell renewal and healing. (sikoramedical.com)
  • When used in combination with the 3D FloTrix® vivaSPIN automated bioreactor (Figure 2), it can achieve the stepwise scale-up of cells, and complete the harvesting of cells, viruses and cell products. (cytoniche.com)
  • AmCyan Live/Dead stain is used in all panels for identification of live cells. (jax.org)
  • A continuous cell lineage can be replicated through many cycles of division and not become senescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a recent example, CoronaVac, COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinovac Biotech uses vero cells in production and "Vero" term can be seen on the vaccine container. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cold-induced cell injury has been shown to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in an iron-dependent way [ 10 - 13 ] in most cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bioprocessing begins upstream, most often with culturing of animal or microbial cells in a range of vessel types (such as bags or stirred tanks) using different controlled feeding, aerating, and process strategies. (bioprocessintl.com)