Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Distemper: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Plumbaginaceae: A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Chromolaena: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Trihexosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).Hemadsorption: A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Callitrichinae: A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Melia azedarach: A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Idoxuridine: An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (1/5424)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Rubella virus-induced apoptosis varies among cell lines and is modulated by Bcl-XL and caspase inhibitors. (2/5424)

Rubella virus (RV) causes multisystem birth defects in the fetuses of infected women. To investigate the cellular basis of this pathology, we examined the cytopathic effect of RV in three permissive cell lines: Vero 76, RK13, and BHK21. Electron microscopy and the TUNEL assay showed that the cytopathic effect resulted from RV-induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in all three cell lines, but the extent of apoptosis varied among these cells. At 48 h postinfection, the RK13 cell line showed the greatest number of apoptotic cells, the Vero 76 cell line was approximately 3-fold less, and BHK21 had very few. An increased multiplicity of infection and longer time postinfection were required for the BHK21 cell line to reach the level of apoptotic cells in Vero 76 at 48 h. Purified RV induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, but not UV-inactivated RV or virus-depleted culture supernatant. Specific inhibitors of the apoptosis-specific proteases caspases reduced RV-induced apoptosis and led to higher levels of RV components in infected cells. To address the role of regulatory proteins in RV-induced apoptosis, the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL was transfected into RK13 cells. Although a high level of Bcl-2 family proteins was expressed, no protection was observed from apoptosis induced by RV, Sindbis virus, or staurosporine in RK13 cells. In BHK21 cells, however, increased expression of Bcl-XL protected cells from apoptosis. The observed variability in apoptotic response to RV of these cell lines demonstrates that programmed cell death is dependent on the unique properties of each cell and may be indicative of how selective organ damage occurs in a congenital rubella syndrome fetus.  (+info)

CLIP-170 highlights growing microtubule ends in vivo. (3/5424)

A chimera with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been constructed to visualize the dynamic properties of the endosome-microtubule linker protein CLIP170 (GFP-CLIP170). GFP-CLIP170 binds in stretches along a subset of microtubule ends. These fluorescent stretches appear to move with the growing tips of microtubules at 0.15-0.4 microm/s, comparable to microtubule elongation in vivo. Analysis of speckles along dynamic GFP-CLIP170 stretches suggests that CLIP170 treadmills on growing microtubule ends, rather than being continuously transported toward these ends. Drugs affecting microtubule dynamics rapidly inhibit movement of GFP-CLIP170 dashes. We propose that GFP-CLIP170 highlights growing microtubule ends by specifically recognizing the structure of a segment of newly polymerized tubulin.  (+info)

Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. (4/5424)

Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity.  (+info)

Mutations in the retinoblastoma protein-binding LXCXE motif of rubella virus putative replicase affect virus replication. (5/5424)

The rubella virus (RV)-encoded protein NSP90, which contains the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-binding motif LXCXE, interacts with Rb and RV replication is reduced in cells lacking Rb. Whether the LXCXE motif of RV NSP90 itself is essential for Rb binding and virus replication is not known. Therefore, in the present study, the functional role of this motif was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis in a plasmid from which infectious RV RNA can be produced. Three critical mutations in the motif, two substitutions at the conserved cysteine residue (C --> G and C --> R) and a deletion of the entire motif, were created. A cell-free translated NSP90 C terminus polypeptide containing the deletion did not bind to Rb and a polypeptide carrying the C --> R substitution had barely detectable binding affinity for Rb. Rb binding by the C --> G mutant was reduced significantly compared to that of wild-type protein. Correlating with the binding results, mutant viruses containing the LXRXE and LXGXE motifs had a reduction in replication to < 0.5% and 47% of the wild-type, respectively, while deletion of the motif was found to be lethal. By the first serial passage, replication of the LXRXE-carrying virus had increased from < 0.5% to 2% of the wild-type. Sequencing of the genome of this virus revealed a nucleotide change that altered the motif from LXRXE to LXSXE, which is a known Rb-binding motif in two protein phosphatase subunits. Thus, our results clearly demonstrate that the LXCXE motif is required for efficient RV replication.  (+info)

Characterization of the L gene and 5' trailer region of Ebola virus. (6/5424)

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5' trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5' terminus of the L mRNA (5' GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3' end of the L mRNA terminated with 5' AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5' trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a self-complementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44% to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.  (+info)

The herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 is required for the prevention of apoptosis in infected human cells. (7/5424)

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an immediate-early or alpha protein which is essential for the optimal expression of late genes as well as the synthesis of viral DNA in cultures of Vero cells. Our specific goal was to characterize the replication of a virus incapable of synthesizing ICP27 in cultured human cells. We found that infection with an HSV-1 ICP27 deletion virus of at least three separate strains of human cells did not produce immediate-early or late proteins at the levels observed following wild-type virus infections. Cell morphology, chromatin condensation, and genomic DNA fragmentation measurements demonstrated that the human cells died by apoptosis after infection with the ICP27 deletion virus. These features of the apoptosis were identical to those which occur during wild-type infections of human cells when total protein synthesis has been inhibited. Vero cells infected with the ICP27 deletion virus did not exhibit any of the features of apoptosis. Based on these results, we conclude that while HSV-1 infection likely induced apoptosis in all cells, viral evasion of the response differed among the cells tested in this study.  (+info)

Glycoprotein gL-independent infectivity of pseudorabies virus is mediated by a gD-gH fusion protein. (8/5424)

Envelope glycoproteins gH and gL, which form a complex, are conserved throughout the family Herpesviridae. The gH-gL complex is essential for the fusion between the virion envelope and the cellular cytoplasmic membrane during penetration and is also required for direct viral cell-to-cell spread from infected to adjacent noninfected cells. It has been proposed for several herpesviruses that gL is required for proper folding, intracellular transport, and virion localization of gH. In pseudorabies virus (PrV), glycoprotein gL is necessary for infectivity but is dispensable for virion localization of gH. A virus mutant lacking gL, PrV-DeltagLbeta, is defective in entry into target cells, and direct cell-to-cell spread is drastically reduced, resulting in only single or small foci of infected cells (B. G. Klupp, W. Fuchs, E. Weiland, and T. C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 71:7687-7695, 1997). We used this limited cell-to-cell spreading ability of PrV-DeltagLbeta for serial passaging of cells infected with transcomplemented virus by coseeding with noninfected cells. After repeated passaging, plaque formation was restored and infectivity in the supernatant was observed. One single-plaque isolate, designated PrV-DeltagLPass, was further characterized. To identify the mutation leading to this gL-independent infectious phenotype, Southern and Western blot analyses, radioimmunoprecipitations, and DNA sequencing were performed. The results showed that rearrangement of a genomic region comprising part of the gH gene into a duplicated copy of part of the unique short region resulted in a fusion fragment predicted to encode a protein consisting of the N-terminal 271 amino acids of gD fused to the C-terminal 590 residues of gH. Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation with gD- and gH-specific antibodies verified the presence of a gDH fusion protein. To prove that this fusion protein mediates infectivity of PrV-DeltagLPass, cotransfection of PrV-DeltagLbeta DNA with the cloned fusion fragment was performed, and a cell line, Nde-67, carrying the fusion gene was established. After cotransfection, infectious gL-negative PrV was recovered, and propagation of PrV-DeltagLbeta on Nde-67 cells produced infectious virions. Thus, a gDH fusion polypeptide can compensate for function of the essential gL in entry and cell-to-cell spread of PrV.  (+info)

  • In the third group, Vero cell lines were cultured in DMEM and supplemented using pFF from small, medium and large sized ovarian follicles at 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500 and 600 μg protein/mL concentrations for 24 h, using MTT assay. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • In summary, according to morphological studies, the pFF effectively helped increase the growth of Vero cell lines closely as compared to the cultured group supplemented by HTFBS in the laboratory. (tci-thaijo.org)
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  • for example, to measure replication in the presence or absence of a research pharmaceutical, the testing for the presence of rabies virus, or the growth of viral stocks for research purposes as host cells for eukaryotic parasites, specially of the trypanosomatids The Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research strains transfected with viral genes: Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein glycoprotein-H (gH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional DNA samples from Vero cells infected with R. parkeri , R. rhipicephali and Rickettsia amblyommii were obtained using the extraction method described previously, using a QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen®) and a High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit (Roche Applied Science®), to test quality by qPCR. (scielo.br)
  • Vero cells are anchorage-dependent cells that are used widely as a platform for viral vaccine production (1). (bioprocessintl.com)
  • At the same time, both viral replication and host cells viability were lowered. (ovid.com)
  • Viral replication, Vero cell viability, p38 MAPK and Bcl-2 were further reduced with the addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). (ovid.com)
  • The second stage of the research involved the use of immunofluorescent staining to locate viral proteins within infected cells in order to inform future process optimization. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Electron microscopy image of Vero E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative agent of COVID-19, produce filopodia protrusions (finger-like projections) extending out from the cell surface to enable budding of viral particles (circular spheres) and infection of nearby cells. (globenewswire.com)
  • This cell development platform has proven effective in the creation of a number of viral vaccines. (vxpbiologics.com)
  • These cell lines can then be used to produce viral vaccines in vero cell, such as for Rabies, Rotavirus and Dengue vaccines. (vaccinenation.org)
  • Cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that the viral glycoproteins, HA and NA, migrate from rough membranes via smooth membranes to plasma membranes in abortive as well as in productive cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we investigated the presence of viruses in 12 pools of sand flies captured in three climatic periods in RAPELD grids at Rio Claro, Chapada dos Guimarães and at Pirizal, North Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Midwestern Brazil by HTS, viral isolation of a putative Phlebovirus positive pool in Vero cells, RT-PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (springer.com)
  • mean ±S.D.). C) Viral protein synthesis was analyzed in infected cells (MOI 1) at 16 hpi in the presence of IPA-3 at the indicated concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Then, cells were infected (MOI 1) for 16 h and viral protein synthesis was analyzed by immunoblotting with an anti-ASFV antibody. (nih.gov)
  • The utilization of Vero cells for vaccine production has contributed significantly to controlling viral diseases and improving the healthcare system in the US and around the world. (wpi.edu)
  • In a double immunofluorescence labeling experiment, the adherent culture of normal African green monkey kidney cells illustrated above was treated with a cocktail of mouse anti-histones (pan) and rabbit anti-PMP 70 (peroxisomal membrane protein) primary antibodies, followed by goat anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568 and Alexa Fluor 488, respectively, to target the nuclear histone proteins and peroxisomes. (fsu.edu)
  • The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) SA14-14-2 vaccine, produced in primary hamster kidney cells, is safe and effective. (ajtmh.org)
  • Hardly any Americans know that there are infected African green monkey kidney cells in the smallpox and DTap vaccines , but all the M.D.s know, but the CDC doesn't like when patients ask questions. (naturalnews.com)
  • The relative susceptibility of VERO cells and primary rhesus monkey kidney cells to 47 prototype strains of human enteroviruses is described. (cambridge.org)
  • Of these strains, types 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 31 and 34 and Coxsackie virus A 9 failed to cause CPE in the VERO cells whilst only one, echovirus type 34, failed to cause CPE in the monkey kidney cells. (cambridge.org)
  • They are satisfactory for the isolation of single types of poliovirus and appear to be more satisfactory than primary monkey kidney cells for the isolation of mixtures of polioviruses. (cambridge.org)
  • Comparison of the Ortho Cultureset (Vero cells) and Difco Cellmatics System (Mink Lung and Primary Rabbit Kidney Cells) for the Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus from Clinical Specimens. (lvhn.org)
  • Two Cellmatics (Difco) Herpes simplex virus (HSV) detection systems, one with mink lung cells (ML) and the other with primary rabbit kidney cells (PRK) and the Cultureset (Ortho) system with Vero cells were compared for their ability to detect previously positive specimens. (lvhn.org)
  • The cytotoxic and anti-genotoxic activities were evaluated against Vero cell line using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and comet assays. (deepdyve.com)
  • ATCC offers well-characterized cells that can be used to refine traditional cell-based experiments or construct high-throughput assays, reducing the need for in vivo studies. (atcc.org)
  • Physiologically-relevant cell-based assays are critical for the biomedical and toxicity data that cannot be obtained from animal models or humans. (atcc.org)
  • The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 mu M, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • Genomic DNA extraction from 100 µL of cells in suspension was performed using an Illustra RNAspin Mini RNA Isolation kit (GE Healthcare®) without RNase addition, according to the standard operating procedure (FUNED). (scielo.br)
  • Comparative sensitivity of suckling mice and Vero cells for primary isolation of chikungunya virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results show that VERO cells are as useful as primary monkey kidney for the isolation of Coxsackie B viruses but less satisfactory for isolating echoviruses. (cambridge.org)
  • Removing residual DNA from Vero-cell culture-derived human rabies vaccine by using nuclease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The clearance of host cell DNA is a critical indicator for Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated the clearance of DNA in Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine by purification process utilizing ultrafiltration, nuclease digestion, and gel filtration chromatography. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our study on the Europe Vero Cell Rabies Vaccine Industry Competitive market is driven by the adoption of an exhaustive approach towards the industry analysis comprising of the overall market size and revenue growth, recent market developments, growth drivers, market segmentation, opportunities and challenges that are influencing the growth of the market. (crifax.com)
  • The Europe Vero Cell Rabies Vaccine Industry Competitive market is estimated to attain notable absolute $ opportunity value in 2027 as compared to the value achieved in 2019. (crifax.com)
  • The study of the Europe Vero Cell Rabies Vaccine Industry Competitive market offers a detailed analysis including a risk analysis that covers demand and supply risk affecting the growth of the market accompanied by existing and future market trends prevalent in the region. (crifax.com)
  • Densovirinae are intranuclear and require S-cells in their S-phase for all or most of all their replication and assembly. (omicsonline.org)
  • To determine the binding properties of rose bengal, the authors compared binding of the dye to HSV-1-infected and uninfected cells, determined the cellular binding sites of the dye, and investigated the effects of rose bengal on HSV-1 replication in dye-treated cells in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • Pretreatment of Vero and HCEC with different concentrations of rose bengal and exposure to 148 microW/cm2 of white light for 2 min reduced the ability of both cell types to support HSV-1 replication. (arvojournals.org)
  • Vero cells, in the absence of rose bengal, supported HSV-1 replication, whereas pre-treatment with 0.05% rose bengal reduced the yield of HSV-1 by 99.99% (P less than 0.000001) and 1% rose bengal completely prevented HSV replication. (arvojournals.org)
  • in many aspects such as virion ultrastructure in which the circular and oval forms were most commonly observed, mode of virus replication in infected cells, and the sequential development of cytopathic effects. (virosin.org)
  • In this study, TTSPs including TMPRSS2, HAT, DESC1, and MSPL were tested for their ability to facilitate PEDV replication in Vero cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • Moreover, the use of Vero cells expressing TMPRSS2 and MSPL facilitated PEDV replication in the absence of exogenous trypsin. (duhnnae.com)
  • The aqueous extract of cinnamon bark ameliorated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in vero cells without compromising the anticancer efficiency of cis. (nih.gov)
  • The aqueous extract of cinnamon bark ameliorated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in vero cells without compromising the anticancer efficiency of cisplatin. (nih.gov)
  • AEC did not alter activity of CDDP-induced cytotoxicity of breast and liver cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that seed extract of C. surattensis was non-cytotoxic against the Vero cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to a parts per thousand yen250 mu M of CoCl2 for 24 h and a parts per thousand yen100 mu M concentrations of CoCl2 for 48-96 h. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • Preventive effect of ZnCl2 against CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • ATCC transfection reagents are designed to transfect a broad spectrum of cell types, from easy to transfect cell lines to primary cells, iPSCs, adult stem cells, and other hard to transfect cells, with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity. (atcc.org)
  • This study aims to evaluate cytotoxicity and morphological changes of mammalian cells in presence of arsenic (III) solution of different concentrations. (ajphs.com)
  • It was found that, severity of cytotoxicity was acute for the doses of As (III) higher than 1 µM and the effect was negligible below 0.25 µM for regular mammalian cells. (ajphs.com)
  • AEC treatment of Vero cells prevented CDDP-induced increased expression of mitochondrial Bax protein, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation and generation of ROS. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, a single mutation of K86R in the NS2 protein can sufficiently render the high-yielding property to the PR8 virus in Vero cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chee, H.-Y. Annexin II as a Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Interacting Protein Mediating Virus Interaction on Vero Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • A single capsid protein mutation (S66L) was important for Vero cell-adaptation. (ajtmh.org)
  • A time-lapse video of moving intracellular bacteria was obtained by laser-scanning confocal microscopy of infected Vero cells synthesizing β-actin coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP). (asm.org)
  • In order to examine structural features of the Golgi complex and nucleus at relatively high magnification, a log-phase culture of normal African green monkey (Vero) cells was fixed, permeabilized, blocked with normal goat serum, and then treated with rabbit anti-giantin (Golgi protein) primary antibodies followed by goat anti-rabbit secondary antibodies (IgG) conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568. (olympus-lifescience.com)
  • Viable viruses containing the N-terminal 14, 38, 57 or 80 aa of the NS1 protein were rescued in Vero cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A novel influenza A virus mitochondrial protein that induces cell death. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Transfectant influenza A viruses with long deletions in the NS1 protein grow efficiently in Vero cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The identification of an endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), defined by the 53-kDa transmembrane marker protein ERGIC-53, has added to the complexity of the exocytic pathway of higher eukaryotic cells. (uu.nl)
  • The analysis of protein synthesis in infected cells showed that the synthesis of M protein is selectively inhibited in abortive infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Dengue non-structural protein 5 polymerase complexes with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) isoforms III and IV to disrupt PML-nuclear bodies in infected cells. (nature.com)
  • The main objective was to develop a process with as little as possible of intermediate steps, especially omitting Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF) or other sample pre-treatments with high host-cell DNA and protein removal, as well as to achieve high binding capacity of the Influenza virus per mL of monolithic support. (biaseparations.com)
  • Its main pathogenic property is the production of Shiga toxin (Stx), which inhibits the protein synthesis of host cells leading to cell death ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • ATCC Protein and Virus Production Systems match reliable, authenticated cells with their ideal media and reagents to create optimized, easy to use systems for protein expression and virus propagation. (atcc.org)
  • The HEK 293T/17 SF cell line is optimal for transient transfection and protein expression. (atcc.org)
  • 14. A method for producing polypeptide analogs of bactericidal/permeability increasing protein and biologically active fragments thereof comprising growing a host cell according to claim 11 in a suitable culture medium and isolating said analog from said host cell or said culture medium. (google.es)
  • Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. (in.th)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • CoCl2 had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. (in.th)
  • Cytotoxic activity,membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement bymass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. (in.th)
  • A bottleneck exists in the production process which is hypothesized to be the result of virus particles being directed towards both cell-cell and cell-substrate (adherent surface) junctions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Our single-use adherent and suspension cell culture products provide reliable, predictable scale-up in bioprocess and cell therapy. (corning.com)
  • In the United States, the adherent cell line Vero 76 has never been grown within a packed-bed bioreactor using Eppendorf's BioFlo 320 system, however they are typically grown on microcarrier beads in a pitched-blade vessel. (wpi.edu)
  • Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control infection by influenza viruses, and a cell-culture-based vaccine production system is preferred as the future choice for the large-scale production of influenza vaccines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As one of the WHO-recommended cell lines for producing influenza vaccines, Vero cells do not efficiently support the growth of the current influenza A virus vaccine donor strain, the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The use of cell-culture technologies for the manufacture of influenza vaccines might contribute to improved strain selection and robust vaccine supplies. (flu.org.cn)
  • The following cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the Vero platform in enabling the rapid development of new vaccines. (vxpbiologics.com)
  • The Vero platform has proven effective in rapidly developing novel influenza vaccines. (vxpbiologics.com)
  • Prior to the H1N1 outbreak in 2009, the Vero platform had already been used to derive an inactivated H5N1 vaccine, which requires no adjuvants (irritating chemicals that boost immune response, which are required by some vaccines). (vxpbiologics.com)
  • The benefits of using cell culture for vaccine production to meet pandemic demands are well documented and the reason behind huge financial investment, cell culture can and is being used to produce a wide range of vaccines and exhibiting even more benefits. (vaccinenation.org)
  • Dr Neuza Maria Frazatti Gallina, Coordinator Projetos de Desenvolvimento e Produção de Vacinas Virais at Instituto Butantan in Brazil, joined us at the World Vaccine Cell Culture Congress 2012 in Washington to present on mammalian cell sustainability, in relation to Rabies, Rotavirus and Dengue vaccines in vero cell. (vaccinenation.org)
  • Although mouse brain-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines (JE-MBs) have been successfully used for a long time, potential rare neurological complications have prompted the development of a Vero cell culture-derived inactivated vaccine (JE-VC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This result implies that pFF of small size ovarian follicle at concentration of 400-600 µg proteins/mL could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in Vero cell line culture medium to promote cell viability instead of growth hormone from fetal bovine serum. (waset.org)
  • In brief, cryogenic tubes containing Rickettsia -infected Vero cells were rapidly thawed, and their contents were added to flasks with an uninfected Vero cell monolayer, and incubated at 28ºC without CO 2 . (scielo.br)
  • This weekend, in preparation for the experiment, we also had to seed our flasks with Vero cells. (caseynparker.com)
  • Here, we conducted electron microscopy studies on Vero cells infected with PPRV strain Nigeria 75/1 (obtained from the virus bank of the China Institute of Veterinary Drug Control) that were seeded on 75-cm 3 tissue culture flasks. (virosin.org)
  • Because obtaining glycosylated product in large amounts on culture dishes is tedious, the efficient mass production of Gb3 analogue was accomplished using Vero cells cultured on microcarriers in spinner flasks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fundamental Techniques in Cell Culture: a Laboratory Handbook. (wikipedia.org)
  • The updated recommendations included information on use of a new inactivated, Vero cell culture--derived JE vaccine (JE-VC [manufactured as Ixiaro]) that was licensed in the United States in 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • The fusion product is a hybrid (termed a hybridoma ) of the two cells that continues to grow and divide in culture and produces large amounts of the antibody. (fsu.edu)
  • Unfused cells and non-productive fusions are eliminated by classical cloning techniques to purify the culture of antibody-producing cells. (fsu.edu)
  • A hybrid cell line produces only a single type of antibody, which can be used as a selection marker in serial dilution cloning by monitoring the culture medium for secreted antibody at each stage. (fsu.edu)
  • Elements of the cytoskeletal and microtubule networks were imaged in the Vero cell culture illustrated above by treating the fixed and permeabilized cells with mouse anti- alpha -tubulin primary antibodies, followed by goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 568. (fsu.edu)
  • The present study aims to determine if of the three putative NLSs of PmeHDV are functioning by transfecting NLS-inserted-plasmid DNAs into mammalian cell culture (Vero) using a transfection reagent. (omicsonline.org)
  • To monitor the culture, we quantified glucose and lactate concentrations in the medium daily and inferred from those parameters about cell growth. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • A pseudo co-culturing protocol was then developed using cell culture inserts. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken in 36 centres in the USA, healthy adults (aged 18-49 years) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to one injection of either placebo or Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine during the 2008-09 season. (flu.org.cn)
  • The primary objective was the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing cell-culture-confirmed influenza infection with viruses that were antigenically matched to one of the vaccine strains. (flu.org.cn)
  • Virus stocks were grown in Vero E6 cells and titrated by using a 50% tissue culture infectious dose ([TCID. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, as much as 10 μg/ml of BFA in culture medium did not affect either glycoprotein formation or production of infectious particles in C6/36 cells. (nus.edu.sg)
  • a: Negative staining of cell culture supernatant. (bioz.com)
  • Vero cell culture will allow detection of sorbitol fermenting STEC as well as O157. (health.gov.au)
  • However this method is slow and only available to laboratories with cell culture facilities. (health.gov.au)
  • Vero cells are a lineage of cells that are used in cell culture and these are cells that we will eventually infect with our virus. (caseynparker.com)
  • The cells that we distribute in the new flask are pulled from an existing cell culture. (caseynparker.com)
  • Decrease contamination risk, reduce labor and operating costs, and scale-up without increasing your footprint using Corning multilayer cell culture vessels. (corning.com)
  • Cryogenic preservation can minimize cell culture aging and evolution by stopping biological time, putting cells into true suspended animation, resulting in a more homogeneous cell population for biobanking research applications. (corning.com)
  • From proteins to antibodies to nucleic acid production, successfully scale-up your suspension culture for bioreactor seeding with Corning bioprocess and cell culture products. (corning.com)
  • Please feel free to comment and tell us your thoughts on the benefits of cell culture for vaccine production below! (vaccinenation.org)
  • The evolution of cell substrate to vaccine production has 4 distinct stages: Primary cell culture to Diploid cell lines to Continuous cell lines and finally, Stem cell lines. (vaccinenation.org)
  • In T. Noll ( Ed. ), Cells and Culture: Proceedings of the 20th ESACT Meeting (pp. 635-638). (mpg.de)
  • Our collection includes all the "classic" media formulations, and media specially formulated to optimize the growth of hybridoma, primary, or stem cells in culture. (atcc.org)
  • Gycosylated glycosides are released outside of cells to the surrounding culture medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The large-scale culture of Vero cells using a microcarrier culture method with repetitions produced about 30 mg of the Gb3 analogue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, B16 cells take in amphipathic lactosides dissolved in the culture medium and sialylated them, before releasing them into the surrounding culture medium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the elongated glycosides with C16 alkyl chains have been shown to remain mostly in the B16 cell, whilst those with C12 chains are released into culture medium [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The production of the globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) analogue was optimized using appropriate conditions such as seeded cell number, concentration of the lactoside, time of incubation and culture medium volume. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IXIARO® is a sterile purified vero cell-culture-derived vaccine, available in single-dose, pre-filled syringes. (health.mil)
  • Cell culture, including stem cell culture and yeast cell culture, often uses common eukaryotic cell lines in liquid suspension or attached to a matrix. (selectscience.net)
  • Cell and tissue culture kits require appropriate media, growth factors, sera, buffers and reagents. (selectscience.net)
  • Best Practices for Cell Culture Confluency Calculation. (selectscience.net)
  • The purpose of this research was to study the morphological features of cells and test the porcine follicular fluid (pFF) supplements in Vero cell lines culture. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • Serum-free cell culture: The serum-free media interactive online database. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • Atomic force microscopy captured the act of virus particle extrusion from a Vero E6 culture cell's surface 15hrs post-infection. (publicdomainfiles.com)
  • Two hundred microliter of round shape Vero cell lines were culture in 96 well plates with DMEM for 24 h. (waset.org)
  • Quantitative assessment of the altered mammalian cell behaviour in different As (III) concentrations divulge the changes during arsenicosis at cellular level, which paves a momentous pathway for future battle against arsenic-mediated diseases. (ajphs.com)
  • To several viruses which have cytopathic effects (CPE) on VERO cells, inhibition of these effects by the ethanol fractions was tested. (semanticscholar.org)
  • VERO C1008 exhibits some degree of contact inhibition after forming a monolayer and is therefore useful in growing slow replicating viruses. (bioz.com)
  • The researchers also demonstrated efficient inhibition of virus in cells that line the human airways and are the natural port of entry for respiratory viruses. (slideshare.net)
  • The results suggest that in the secretory pathway of Vero cells O-glycan initiation and sphingomyelin as well as glucosylceramide synthesis mainly occur beyond the ERGIC in the Golgi apparatus. (uu.nl)
  • Talwar, G. P. (1995) Studies on the synthesis of βhCG hormone in vero cells by recombinant vaccinia virus Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 48 (2). (ias.ac.in)
  • Synthesis of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonado-tropin (βhCG) in Vero cells by the recombinant vaccinia virus has been studied. (ias.ac.in)
  • The subunit was also biologically active, as it combined with native βhCG to form heterodimer βhCG, which competed with 125 I-hCG for radioreceptors and stimulated testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells. (ias.ac.in)
  • ATCC, your trusted source for cell lines, microbial strains, and other biological reagents, invites you to view one of the exciting webinars in our 2012 Excellence in Research series. (atcc.org)
  • Vero(ATCC No. CCL-81) Isolated from C. aethiops kidney on 27 Mar 1962 Vero 76 (ATCC No. CRL-1587) Isolated from Vero in 1968, it grows to a lower saturation density (cells per unit area) than the original Vero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vero E6, also known as Vero C1008 (ATCC No. CRL-1586) This line is a clone from Vero 76. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vero Cell Media market covers the report likewise incorporates the top to bottom data in regards to the main manufacturers Biological Industries, Sigma-Aldrich, Lonza, Boster Bio, ATCC and Serana Bio . (5gigs.com)
  • The report carries an independent division of Vero Cell Media market key players Biological Industries, Lonza, Sigma-Aldrich, Boster Bio, Serana Bio, ATCC. (ahealthnewstoday.com)
  • ATCC offers OAT1 and OCT2 cells, which stably express soluble transporter proteins that play key roles in the kidney's clearance of drugs and endogenous compounds. (atcc.org)
  • The new Vero-SF-ACF (ATCC ® CCL-81.5™) is optimized to grow in the serum-free, animal componentfree media VeroPlus SFM (ATCC ® ACS-4001™) . (atcc.org)
  • ATCC has a large selection of cell lines, from an array of species, all particularly well-suited for the propagation of viruses. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC has the media you need to keep your cells happy, healthy, and behaving as expected. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC holdings include an array of host and packaging cell lines of mammalian, bacterial, and insect origin. (atcc.org)
  • 13. A host cell according to claim 12 selected from the group consisting of ATCC CRL 11246 and ATCC HB11247. (google.es)
  • In our study, the optimum conditions (seeded cell number, incubated time period, 12-azidododecyl lactoside concentration and medium volume) for the production of Gb3 analogue were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 mu M concentration range following 96 h of incubation. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • She discovered there were zero local regulations in place as far as cell tower distance from homes and concentration of towers in any given area. (verocommunique.com)
  • Cell lines showed normal character in fibroblast elongate shape after treated with pFF except in high concentration of pFF. (waset.org)
  • By electron microscopy mycoplasmas were demonstrated intracellularly in about 10% of the examined Vero cells. (nih.gov)
  • No direct antiviral effect for lamivudine was observed at concentrations [less than or equal to] 320 [micro]mol/L in Vero E6 cells (Table). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a ) Vero E6 cells were pretreated with drugs at the indicated concentrations and then exposed to rLASV-WT or rLASV-GFP (MOI = 0.1) in the presence of the drugs. (bioz.com)
  • Cells were exposed to rLASV-GFP (MOI = 0.1) and treated with various concentrations of favipiravir or ribavirin. (bioz.com)
  • d ) Half-maximal effective concentrations (EC 50 ) of favipiravir and ribavirin to inhibit rLASV-GFP infection in four cell types at 48 and 72 h PI. (bioz.com)
  • Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). (mdpi.com)
  • 3) Significantly higher OTA frequencies and concentrations in both food and human samples (urine and blood) were found in endemic nephropathy (EN) areas in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Serbia as well as in Tunisia, where a nephropathy of unknown aetiology occurred. (mdpi.com)
  • 65 µM and 8 µM As (III) concentrations were found as LC 50 for cancer and non-cancer cells, respectively. (ajphs.com)
  • These findings suggest AEC has protective effects against CDDP-induced toxicity via preventing the activation of various cellular mechanisms mediating apoptotic cell death, without compromising the anticancer efficiency of CDDP. (nih.gov)
  • In this webinar, we demonstrate, how different process parameter can be monitored and controlled in a perfusion bioprocess to cultivate anchorage-dependent cells. (eppendorf.com)
  • Lastly, the AV529-19 Vero cells were shown to adhere effectively to insert membranes and form confluent monolayers. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Lytic viruses were titrated in Vero monolayers and plotted in the table (n = 3). (nih.gov)
  • Pakyawan Vero Cells Nakapagtuturo Sa Microcarriers na may mataas na kalidad bilang mababang presyo / murang, isa sa Vero Cells Nakapagtuturo Sa Microcarriers nangungunang tatak mula sa China, Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (ccbcht.com)
  • The surface-area-to-volume ratio and scalability of Corning microcarriers make them an ideal choice for the expansion of Vero and MRC-5 cells. (corning.com)
  • To address these issues, serum-free production of rVSV-ZEBOV in Vero cells has been studied with the aim to test an alternative upstream process. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Production Analysis - Production of the Vero Cell Media is analysed with respect to different regions, types and applications. (newzy.net)
  • The Vero Cell Media market shares of production and sales are evaluated along with the review of the production, capacity, sales, and revenue. (ahealthnewstoday.com)
  • Also disclosed are DNA sequences encoding methods for the production of the same in appropriate host cells, and stable homogeneous pharmaceutical compositions containing the analogs suitable for use treatment of gram negative bacterial infection and its sequelae. (google.es)
  • The Vero Cell Media market is esteemed at $$ million US$ in 2020 is relied upon to reach $$ million US$ before the end of 2029, developing at a CAGR ranging 2020-2029. (5gigs.com)
  • In this study, a polysaccharide fraction was prepared from Prunella vulgaris (PPV), and its effects on the expressions of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens in their host Vero cells were investigated with flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • accessory cells macrophages involved in the processing and presentation of antigens, making them more immunogenic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This was particularly evident in brefeldin A-treated cells which showed entirely different patterns of Tn antigens and ERGIC-53. (uu.nl)
  • In this study, 10 genetically distinct Vero cell-adapted JEV SA14-14-2 variants were isolated and a recombinant wild-type JEV clone, modified to contain the JEV SA14-14-2 polyprotein amino acid sequence, was recovered in Vero cells. (ajtmh.org)
  • Vero cells are sensitive to Shiga toxins and are known to express the glycosides globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) and globotetraosyl ceramide (Gb4) on the surface of the plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)