Word Association Tests
Mental Status Schedule
Mild Cognitive Impairment
Analysis of Variance
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Reproducibility of Results
Severity of Illness Index
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Predictive Value of Tests
Task Performance and Analysis
Education, Medical, Undergraduate
Pattern Recognition, Visual
Episodic retrieval activates the precuneus irrespective of the imagery content of word pair associates. A PET study. (1/948)The aim of this study was to evaluate further the role of the precuneus in episodic memory retrieval. The specific hypothesis addressed was that the precuneus is involved in episodic memory retrieval irrespective of the imagery content. Two groups of six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six [15O]butanol-PET scans. In each of the six trials, the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of 1500 MBq of [15O]butanol. For Group 1, 12 word pair associates were presented visually, for Group 2 auditorily. The subjects of each group had to learn and retrieve two sets of 12 word pairs each. One set consisted of highly imaginable words and another one of abstract words. Words of both sets were not related semantically, representing 'hard' associations. The presentations of nonsense words served as reference conditions. We demonstrate that the precuneus shows consistent activation during episodic memory retrieval. Precuneus activation occurred in visual and auditory presentation modalities and for both highly imaginable and abstract words. The present study therefore provides further evidence that the precuneus has a specific function in episodic memory retrieval as a multimodal association area. (+info)
Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (2/948)Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (+info)
Infants' learning about words and sounds in relation to objects. (3/948)In acquiring language, babies learn not only that people can communicate about objects and events, but also that they typically use a particular kind of act as the communicative signal. The current studies asked whether 1-year-olds' learning of names during joint attention is guided by the expectation that names will be in the form of spoken words. In the first study, 13-month-olds were introduced to either a novel word or a novel sound-producing action (using a small noisemaker). Both the word and the sound were produced by a researcher as she showed the baby a new toy during a joint attention episode. The baby's memory for the link between the word or sound and the object was tested in a multiple choice procedure. Thirteen-month-olds learned both the word-object and sound-object correspondences, as evidenced by their choosing the target reliably in response to hearing the word or sound on test trials, but not on control trials when no word or sound was present. In the second study, 13-month-olds, but not 20-month-olds, learned a new sound-object correspondence. These results indicate that infants initially accept a broad range of signals in communicative contexts and narrow the range with development. (+info)
Cognitive deficits in spinocerebellar ataxia 2. (4/948)This is one of the first studies assessing the pattern of cognitive impairment in spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2). Cognitive function was studied in 17 patients with genetically confirmed SCA2 and 15 age- and IQ- matched controls using a neuropsychological test battery comprising tests for IQ, attention, verbal and visuospatial memory, as well as executive functions. Twenty-five percent of the SCA2 subjects showed evidence of dementia. Even in non-demented SCA2 subjects, there was evidence of verbal memory and executive dysfunction. Tests of visuospatial memory and attention were not significantly impaired in the non-demented group compared with controls. There was no relationship between test performance and motor disability, repeat length or age of onset, while disease duration was shown to be inversely correlated with two tests reflecting the progression of cognitive deficits during the course of the disease. Intellectual impairment should therefore not be interpreted as a secondary effect of progressive motor disability, but represents an important and independent part of the SCA2 phenotype. (+info)
Learning-related neuronal responses in prefrontal cortex studied with functional neuroimaging. (5/948)We assessed time-dependent neuronal activity accompanying learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An artificial grammar learning paradigm enabled us to dissociate activations associated with individual item learning from those involved in learning the underlying grammar system. We show that a localized region of right prefrontal cortex (PFC) is preferentially sensitive to individual item learning during the early stages of the experiment, while the left PFC region is sensitive to grammar learning which occurred across the entire course of the experiment. In addition to dissociating these two types of learning, we were able to characterize the effect of rule acquisition on neuronal responses associated with explicit learning of individual items. This effect was expressed as modulation of the time-dependent right PFC activations such that the early increase in activation associated with item learning was attenuated as the experiment progressed. In a further analysis we used structural equation modelling to explore time-dependent changes in inter-regional connectivity as a function of both item and grammar rule learning. Although there were no significant effects of item learning on the measured path strengths, rule learning was associated with a decrease in right fronto-parietal connectivity and an increase in connectivity between left and right PFC. Further fronto-parietal path strengths were observed to change, with an increase in left fronto-parietal and a decrease in right fronto-parietal connectivity path strength from right PFC to left parietal cortex. We interpret our findings in terms of a left frontal system mediating the semantic analysis of study items and directly influencing a right fronto-parietal system associated with episodic memory retrieval. (+info)
A comparison of language achievement in children with cochlear implants and children using hearing aids. (6/948)English language achievement of 29 prelingually deaf children with 3 or more years of cochlear implant (CI) experience was compared to the achievement levels of prelingually deaf children who did not have such CI experience. Language achievement was measured by the Rhode Island Test of Language Structure (RITLS), a measure of signed and spoken sentence comprehension, and the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn), a measure of expressive (signed and spoken) English grammar. When the CI users were compared with their deaf age mates who contributed to the norms of the RITLS, it was found that CI users achieved significantly better scores. Likewise, we found that CI users performed better than 29 deaf children who used hearing aids (HAs) with respect to English grammar achievement as indexed by the IPSyn. Additionally, we found that chronological age highly correlated with IPSyn levels only among the non-CI users, whereas length of CI experience was significantly correlated with IPSyn scores for CI users. Finally, clear differences between those with and without CI experience were found by 2 years of post-implant experience. These data provide evidence that children who receive CIs benefit in the form of improved English language comprehension and production. (+info)
Direct comparison of the neural substrates of recognition memory for words and faces. (7/948)For the purpose of identifying the relatively specific brain regions related to word and face recognition memory on the one hand and the regions common to both on the other, regional cerebral blood flow associated with different cognitive tasks for recognition memory was examined using [H215O]PET in healthy volunteers. The tasks consisted of recognizing two types of stimuli (faces and words) in two conditions (novel and familiar), and two baseline tasks (reading words and gender classification). The statistical analyses used to identify the specific regions consisted of three subtractions: novel words minus novel faces, familiar words minus familiar faces, and reading words minus gender classification. These analyses revealed relative differences in the brain circuitry used for recognizing words and for recognizing faces within a defined level of familiarity. In order to find the regions common to both face and word recognition, overlapping areas in four subtractions (novel words minus reading words, novel faces minus gender classification, familiar words minus reading words, and familiar faces minus gender classification) were identified. The results showed that the activation sites in word recognition tended to be lateralized to the left hemisphere and distributed as numerous small loci, and particularly included the posterior portion of the left middle and inferior temporal gyri. These regions may be related to lexical retrieval during written word recognition. In contrast, the activated regions for face recognition tended to be lateralized to the right hemisphere and located in a large aggregated area, including the right lingual and fusiform gyri. These findings suggest that strikingly different neural pathways are engaged during recognition memory for words and for faces, in which a critical role in discrimination is played by semantic cueing and perceptual loading, respectively. In addition, the investigation of the regions common to word and face recognition indicates that the anterior and posterior cingulate have dissociable functions in recognition memory that vary with familiarity, and that the cerebellum may serve as the co-ordinator of all four types of recognition memory processes. (+info)
Isolating the contributions of familiarity and source information to item recognition: a time course analysis. (8/948)Recognition memory may be mediated by the retrieval of distinct types of information, notably, a general assessment of familiarity and the recovery of specific source information. A response-signal speed-accuracy trade-off variant of an exclusion procedure was used to isolate the retrieval time course for familiarity and source information. In 2 experiments, participants studied spoken and read lists (with various numbers of presentations) and then performed an exclusion task, judging an item as old only if it was in the heard list. Dual-process fits of the time course data indicated that familiarity information typically is retrieved before source information. The implications that these data have for models of recognition, including dual-process and global memory models, are discussed. (+info)
Some common types of memory disorders include:
1. Amnesia: A condition where an individual experiences memory loss, either partial or total, due to brain damage or other causes.
2. Dementia: A broad term that describes a decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication and daily activities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.
3. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not as severe as dementia.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Memory problems are often a component of ADHD.
5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A condition that occurs when the brain is injured due to a blow or jolt to the head, which can result in memory loss and other cognitive problems.
6. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to brain cell death and potential memory loss.
7. Meningitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
8. Encephalitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the brain directly, leading to memory loss and other cognitive problems.
9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): A condition characterized by persistent fatigue, memory loss, and other cognitive symptoms.
10. Sleep Disorders: Sleep disturbances can affect memory and cognitive function, including conditions such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.
The diagnosis of memory disorders typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and neuropsychological evaluations. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause of the memory loss, but may include medication, behavioral interventions, and lifestyle changes.
Types of Cognition Disorders: There are several types of cognitive disorders that affect different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some common types include:
1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head that disrupts brain function, resulting in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes.
3. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cognitive impairment and other symptoms.
5. Parkinson's Disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and cognition.
6. Huntington's Disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms.
7. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD): A group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language.
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A condition that develops after a traumatic event, characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, avoidance, and hypervigilance.
9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not severe enough to interfere with daily life.
Causes and Risk Factors: The causes of cognition disorders can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common risk factors include:
1. Genetics: Many cognitive disorders have a genetic component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Age: As people age, their risk of developing cognitive disorders increases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and poor diet can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
4. Traumatic brain injury: A severe blow to the head or a traumatic brain injury can increase the risk of developing cognitive disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can cause cognitive disorders if they damage the brain tissue.
6. Stroke or other cardiovascular conditions: A stroke or other cardiovascular conditions can cause cognitive disorders by damaging the blood vessels in the brain.
7. Chronic substance abuse: Long-term use of drugs or alcohol can damage the brain and increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
8. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, can increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
9. Depression and anxiety: Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
10. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive disorders.
It's important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop a cognitive disorder, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop a cognitive disorder. If you have concerns about your cognitive health, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.
There are several types of learning disorders, including:
1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.
Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.
There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:
1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.
It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.
The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."
There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:
1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.
The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.
There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:
1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.
There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:
1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.
It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
The diagnosis of MCI requires a comprehensive medical evaluation, including a thorough history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and cognitive assessments. The goal of the diagnosis is to differentiate MCI from normal aging and other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as depression or medication side effects.
There are several subtypes of MCI, including:
1. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI): Characterized by memory loss, especially for episodic memory (memory of events and experiences).
2. Non-amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (naMCI): Characterized by cognitive impairment without memory loss.
3. Mixed Mild Cognitive Impairment (mMCI): Characterized by a combination of amnestic and non-amnestic symptoms.
The main risk factor for developing MCI is advancing age, but other factors such as family history, genetics, and lifestyle factors may also contribute to the development of the condition. There is currently no cure for MCI, but there are several treatment options available to slow down cognitive decline and improve quality of life. These include:
1. Cognitive training and rehabilitation: To improve memory, attention, and other cognitive functions.
2. Medications: Such as cholinesterase inhibitors, which can improve cognitive function and slow down decline.
3. Lifestyle changes: Such as regular exercise, social engagement, and management of chronic health conditions.
4. Alternative therapies: Such as cognitive training, mindfulness-based interventions, and herbal supplements.
Early detection and treatment of MCI can potentially delay progression to dementia, improve quality of life, and reduce caregiver burden. However, the exact timing and duration of these benefits are not yet fully understood. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying MCI and to develop more effective treatments for this condition.
In summary, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition characterized by cognitive decline beyond what is expected for an individual's age and education level, but not severe enough to interfere with daily life. There are three subtypes of MCI, and the main risk factor is advancing age. Treatment options include cognitive training and rehabilitation, medications, lifestyle changes, and alternative therapies. Early detection and treatment may potentially delay progression to dementia and improve quality of life.
The exact cause of schizotypal personality disorder is not known, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. There is no single test that can diagnose STPD, but a mental health professional will typically use a combination of interviews and questionnaires to assess the individual's symptoms and determine if they meet the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.
Treatment for schizotypal personality disorder usually involves talk therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication, such as antipsychotic drugs or antidepressants. The goal of treatment is to help the individual manage their symptoms, improve their functioning, and enhance their quality of life.
It is important for individuals with schizotypal personality disorder to receive ongoing support and care, as the disorder can be challenging to treat and may require long-term management. With appropriate treatment and support, however, many people with STPD are able to lead fulfilling lives.
There are different types of amnesia, including:
1. Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory of events that occurred before the onset of amnesia.
2. Anterograde amnesia: inability to form new memories after the onset of amnesia.
3. Transient global amnesia: temporary and reversible loss of memory due to a specific cause, such as a stroke or a head injury.
4. Korsakoff's syndrome: a condition caused by alcoholism and malnutrition that affects the hippocampus and the ability to form new memories.
5. Dissociative amnesia: loss of memory due to psychological trauma or stress, often accompanied by dissociation from reality.
The symptoms of amnesia can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:
1. Difficulty learning new information
2. Forgetting recent events or conversations
3. Inability to recall past events or experiences
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Difficulty with problem-solving and decision-making
The diagnosis of amnesia is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuropsychological tests. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be used to rule out other causes of memory loss.
Treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or cognitive impairment.
2. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy to improve memory and problem-solving skills.
3. Behavioral interventions to help the individual adapt to their condition.
4. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of amnesia, such as a tumor or a blood clot.
Overall, amnesia can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Some common types of psychotic disorders include:
1. Schizophrenia: A chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.
2. Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder that causes extreme changes in mood, energy, and behavior. It can lead to manic or hypomanic episodes, as well as depression.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental disorder that combines symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and mood swings.
4. Brief Psychotic Disorder: A short-term episode of psychosis that can be triggered by a stressful event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
5. Postpartum Psychosis: A rare condition that occurs in some new mothers after childbirth. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
6. Drug-Induced Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by taking certain medications or drugs. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
7. Alcohol-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by alcohol use disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
8. Trauma-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by a traumatic event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
9. Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): A catch-all diagnosis for psychotic episodes that do not meet the criteria for any other specific psychotic disorder.
Symptoms of psychotic disorders can vary depending on the individual and the specific disorder. Common symptoms include:
1. Hallucinations: Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there.
2. Delusions: False beliefs that are not based in reality.
3. Disorganized thinking and speech: Difficulty organizing thoughts and expressing them in a clear and logical manner.
4. Disorganized behavior: Incoherent or bizarre behavior, such as dressing inappropriately for the weather or neglecting personal hygiene.
5. Catatonia: A state of immobility or abnormal movement, such as rigidity or agitation.
6. Negative symptoms: A decrease in emotional expression or motivation, such as a flat affect or a lack of interest in activities.
7. Cognitive impairment: Difficulty with attention, memory, and other cognitive functions.
8. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions and relationships.
9. Lack of self-care: Neglecting personal hygiene, nutrition, and other basic needs.
10. Suicidal or homicidal ideation: Thoughts of harming oneself or others.
It's important to note that not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely from person to person. With proper treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.
There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.
Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.
There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.
Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.
The DSM-5 defines marijuana abuse as:
1. Taking marijuana in larger amounts or for a longer period than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of use.
4. Craving or strong desire to use marijuana.
5. Interference with work, school, or home responsibilities due to use.
6. Continuing to use despite social or personal problems caused by use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to use.
8. Using marijuana in hazardous situations, such as while driving or operating machinery.
9. Continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by use.
10. Developing tolerance (needing to use more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when stopping or reducing use.
Marijuana abuse can lead to a range of negative consequences, including:
* Addiction: Marijuana can be addictive, and long-term use can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop.
* Mental Health Problems: Marijuana use has been linked to an increased risk of depression, anxiety, psychosis, and other mental health issues.
* Respiratory Problems: Smoking marijuana can irritate the lungs and increase the risk of respiratory problems, such as bronchitis and lung infections.
* Cognitive Impairment: Marijuana use can impair memory, attention, and decision-making skills.
* Impaired Coordination and Judgment: Marijuana use can impair coordination and judgment, which can increase the risk of accidents and injuries.
If you or someone you know is struggling with marijuana abuse, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. Treatment options may include counseling, medication, and support groups. With the right treatment and support, it is possible to overcome marijuana abuse and achieve a healthier, happier life.
Bipolar Disorder Types:
There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:
1. Bipolar I Disorder: One or more manic episodes with or without depressive episodes.
2. Bipolar II Disorder: At least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode (a less severe form of mania).
3. Cyclothymic Disorder: Periods of hypomania and depression that last at least 2 years.
4. Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types.
5. Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types, but there is still a noticeable impact on daily life.
Bipolar Disorder Causes:
The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Some potential causes include:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of bipolar disorder are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Brain structure and function: Imbalances in neurotransmitters and abnormalities in brain structure have been found in individuals with bipolar disorder.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as serotonin, dopamine, and cortisol have been linked to bipolar disorder.
4. Life events: Traumatic events or significant changes in life circumstances can trigger episodes of mania or depression.
5. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or stroke, can increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms:
The symptoms of bipolar disorder can vary depending on the individual and the specific type of episode they are experiencing. Some common symptoms include:
1. Manic episodes: Increased energy, reduced need for sleep, impulsivity, and grandiosity.
2. Depressive episodes: Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities.
3. Mixed episodes: A combination of manic and depressive symptoms.
4. Hypomanic episodes: Less severe than full-blown mania, but still disrupt daily life.
5. Rapid cycling: Experiencing four or more episodes within a year.
6. Melancholic features: Feeling sad, hopeless, and worthless.
7. Atypical features: Experiencing mania without elevated mood or grandiosity.
8. Mood instability: Rapid changes in mood throughout the day.
9. Anxiety symptoms: Restlessness, feeling on edge, and difficulty concentrating.
10. Sleep disturbances: Difficulty falling or staying asleep, or oversleeping.
11. Substance abuse: Using drugs or alcohol to cope with symptoms.
12. Suicidal thoughts or behaviors: Having thoughts of harming oneself or taking actions that could lead to death.
It's important to note that not everyone with bipolar disorder will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely between individuals.
There are several types of dementia, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common types of dementia include:
* Alzheimer's disease: This is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 50-70% of all cases. It is a progressive disease that causes the death of brain cells, leading to memory loss and cognitive decline.
* Vascular dementia: This type of dementia is caused by problems with blood flow to the brain, often as a result of a stroke or small vessel disease. It can cause difficulty with communication, language, and visual-spatial skills.
* Lewy body dementia: This type of dementia is characterized by the presence of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies in the brain. It can cause a range of symptoms, including memory loss, confusion, hallucinations, and difficulty with movement.
* Frontotemporal dementia: This is a group of diseases that affect the front and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in personality, behavior, and language.
The symptoms of dementia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Memory loss: Difficulty remembering recent events or learning new information.
* Communication and language difficulties: Struggling to find the right words or understand what others are saying.
* Disorientation: Getting lost in familiar places or having difficulty understanding the time and date.
* Difficulty with problem-solving: Trouble with planning, organizing, and decision-making.
* Mood changes: Depression, anxiety, agitation, or aggression.
* Personality changes: Becoming passive, suspicious, or withdrawn.
* Difficulty with movement: Trouble with coordination, balance, or using utensils.
* Hallucinations: Seeing or hearing things that are not there.
* Sleep disturbances: Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.
The symptoms of dementia can be subtle at first and may progress slowly over time. In the early stages, they may be barely noticeable, but as the disease progresses, they can become more pronounced and interfere with daily life. It is important to seek medical advice if you or a loved one is experiencing any of these symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes.
There are several types of atrophy that can occur in different parts of the body. For example:
1. Muscular atrophy: This occurs when muscles weaken and shrink due to disuse or injury.
2. Neuronal atrophy: This occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to a loss of cognitive function and memory.
3. Cardiac atrophy: This occurs when the heart muscle weakens and becomes less efficient, leading to decreased cardiac output.
4. Atrophic gastritis: This is a type of stomach inflammation that can lead to the wasting away of the stomach lining.
5. Atrophy of the testes: This occurs when the testes shrink due to a lack of use or disorder, leading to decreased fertility.
Atrophy can be diagnosed through various medical tests and imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may involve physical therapy, medication, or surgery. In some cases, atrophy can be prevented or reversed with proper treatment and care.
In summary, atrophy is a degenerative process that can occur in various parts of the body due to injury, disease, or disuse. It can lead to a loss of function and decreased quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, it may be possible to prevent or reverse some forms of atrophy.
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting approximately 1% of the population over the age of 60. It is more common in men than women and has a higher incidence in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups.
The primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease are:
* Tremors or trembling, typically starting on one side of the body
* Rigidity or stiffness, causing difficulty with movement
* Bradykinesia or slowness of movement, including a decrease in spontaneous movements such as blinking or smiling
* Postural instability, leading to falls or difficulty with balance
As the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
* Difficulty with walking, gait changes, and freezing episodes
* Dry mouth, constipation, and other non-motor symptoms
* Cognitive changes, such as dementia, memory loss, and confusion
* Sleep disturbances, including REM sleep behavior disorder
* Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms
The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is associated with the degradation of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. This deficiency disrupts the normal functioning of the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved in movement control, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.
There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but various treatments are available to manage its symptoms. These include:
* Medications such as dopaminergic agents (e.g., levodopa) and dopamine agonists to replace lost dopamine and improve motor function
* Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure that involves implanting an electrode in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and balance
* Speech therapy to improve communication and swallowing difficulties
* Occupational therapy to improve daily functioning
It is important for individuals with Parkinson's disease to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and improves their quality of life. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with Parkinson's disease are able to manage their symptoms and maintain a good level of independence for several years after diagnosis.
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- There is a developing body of research that indicates approximately 5 percent of individuals with learning disabilities display the cognitive and academic difficulties that are associated with nonverbal learning disabilities. (ldaamerica.org)
- Research indicates that nonverbal learning disabilities are associated with impairment in three broad areas, including motoric skills, visual-spatial organizational memory, and social abilities. (ldaamerica.org)
- A, p.Arg1986Gln) and early onset major depression accompanied by a psychotic episode (before age 10) that occurred in the context of longer standing nonverbal learning disability and a past history of obsessions and compulsions. (bvsalud.org)
- Previously diagnosed children were less likely to have parents with early concerns about verbal skills, nonverbal communication, learning, and unusual gestures or movements. (cdc.gov)
- The TI-Nspire™ CX Navigator™ System connects the teacher and student devices to close the learning gap by providing instant visibility into student understanding, enabling formative assessment far beyond multiple-choice, and presenting opportunities to adjust instruction in real time. (ti.com)
- Currently non-verbal learning disabilities are not listed in IDEA or the DSM-5 as a specific type of learning disability. (ldaamerica.org)
- Individuals with this type of learning disability have a well-developed vocabulary, as well as strong reading recognition ability and rote language skills. (ldaamerica.org)
- De novo variant of TRRAP in a patient with very early onset psychosis in the context of non-verbal learning disability and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report. (bvsalud.org)
- Dig into these creative expressions of what it is like to have a learning disability or to care for a child with a learning disability. (ldonline.org)
- Specific Learning Disability: A disorder in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations. (ldonline.org)
- Introductory information on learning disabilities is provided to help managers handle accommodation issues. (ldonline.org)
- What are learning disabilities? (ldonline.org)
- According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2006), learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention. (ldonline.org)
- Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. (ldonline.org)
- Approximately 15 million children, adolescents, and adults have learning disabilities in the United States (National Center for Learning, 2006b). (ldonline.org)
- What types of learning disabilities are there? (ldonline.org)
- Learning disabilities can be divided into three broad categories: developmental speech and language disorders, academic skills disorders, and other (such as coordination disorders). (ldonline.org)
- Lies could be uncovered by facts and/or by clues in lier behavior, such as non-verbal behavior. (bvsalud.org)
- This study objective is to verify if: 1) blindess non-verbal behaviour during deceit defer of liying non-verbal behavior of normal sight. (bvsalud.org)
- Acording to the results blind non-verbal behavior during deception is different. (bvsalud.org)
- We have lessons for all non-verbal reasoning and exam skills topics - learn more and request a timetable here . (atomlearning.com)
- Educational Objectives: The reader will (1) understand the relationship between increased linguistic demands and working memory, and (2) learn about working memory skills in adults with language learning disorders. (nau.edu)
- Communicate ideas using verbal and written skills. (bangor.ac.uk)
- The information and skills the patient learns will enhance the ability to make the best personal health choices. (medlineplus.gov)
- Rather than presenting with a uniform impairment in verbal memory, they exhibit verbal memory deficits only when their capacity limitations are exceeded under relatively high combined memory and language processing demands. (nau.edu)
- DISSERTATION: All learning and skill outcomes are formally assessed through a dissertation in the form of an empirical research report. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Assess children's memory abilities by comparing memory and learning to ability, attention, and achievement. (pearsonassessments.com)
- The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of adults with language-based learning disorders (L/LD) and normal language controls on verbal short-term and verbal working memory tasks. (nau.edu)
- However, it is also important to recognize that we are still learning about how to characterize the role of this dynamic ecological community and delineate mechanistic pathways," she said. (medscape.com)
- There is no denying that the study of music increases the general ability to learn in children and there are many theories as to why this is so. (lifehack.org)
- Implement CCSS with learning tools that facilitate multiple entry points into problems, classroom discourse, differentiated instruction and formative assessment. (ti.com)
- Learn how TI can support your CCSS instruction and enhance student success on AP, ACT and SAT exams when you reserve your place at the Upcoming Teachers Teaching with Technology (T³™) International Conference . (ti.com)
- Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. (bvsalud.org)
- Non-verbal reasoning involves analysing visual information and solving problems using shapes, diagrams and pictures . (atomlearning.com)
- So today in this blog entry I will discuss the "7 Methods for Unraveling the Non-verbal Communication of Attraction" Thus, How about we start? (goodmenproject.com)
- Methods/Analyses To obtain information on lessons learned, we used qualitative analyses of verbal and written evaluations gathered in key informant interviews, meetings, and trainings on Guideline use. (cdc.gov)
- Eighteen adults with L/LD and 18 normal language controls were compared on verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory tasks under low, moderate, and high linguistic processing loads. (nau.edu)
- Results indicate no significant group differences on all verbal short-term memory tasks and verbal working memory tasks with low and moderate language loads. (nau.edu)
- Statistically significant group differences were found on the most taxing condition, the verbal working memory task involving high language processing load. (nau.edu)
- The Children's Memory Scale™ (CMS) fills the need for a comprehensive learning and memory test for children ages five to 16. (pearsonassessments.com)
- Subtest Scaled Scores and Index Scores representing critical domains of learning, attention and memory. (pearsonassessments.com)
- What's more, u know, I accept that Non-verbal communication or body language is really significant, particularly with regard to sentiment and love stuff. (goodmenproject.com)
- 4. Learning music makes you an expert in reading non-verbal communication. (lifehack.org)
- Think about it: When you first meet someone, you look into their eyes because eye contact is an integral part of non-verbal as well as verbal communication. (shootingillustrated.com)
- The alternative syllabic bridge hypothesis, based on the saliency and early availability of syllables, assumes that learning to associate letters to phonological syllables enables phoneme units to be the mirror of the letters and to become accessible, thereby developing phonemic awareness of prereaders. (nature.com)
- This has implications for theories of order of acquisition and bilingual construction learning. (cambridge.org)
- We study how the learning of argument structure constructions in a second language (L2) is affected by two basic input properties often discussed in literature - the amount of input and the time of L2 onset. (cambridge.org)
- Because diet influences the potential for learning as well as health, an objective of the first national education goal is that children 'receive the nutrition and health care needed to arrive at school with healthy minds and bodies' (3). (cdc.gov)
- The power of this statement is relevant when summarising the role of visual elements in the field of language learning and teaching: posters, diagrams, symbols and images cover the walls of language classrooms and are abundant in textbooks. (napier.ac.uk)
- The TI-84 Plus graphing calculator family provides students with functionality that delivers a powerfully visual approach to learning that helps them conceptualize and make connections. (ti.com)
- and learning differences. (medlineplus.gov)
- TI provides technology to support the Common Core State Standards and Mathematical Practices, making them ideal tools for teaching and learning math, including topics like transformational geometry, probability, and statistics. (ti.com)
- As you are teaching, provide reinforcement for learning. (medlineplus.gov)
- as well as an up to date list of non-verbal reasoning question types. (atomlearning.com)
- Build teachers' confidence and expertise through a combination of on-site workshops, coaching and online learning designed to meet their specific needs for mastering instructional practices and content knowledge and integrating TI technology to facilitate standards implementation. (ti.com)
- Created and presented by teachers for teachers, the conference provides a unique opportunity to learn, share and investigate strategies to engage students in math, science and STEM using TI technology and resources. (ti.com)
- The individual may also have difficulties with learning to translate printed words into spoken words with ease. (ldonline.org)
- Anything that can help a learner see an immediate meaning has been proven to enhance language learning. (napier.ac.uk)
- Following this research project, Mabel states that further investigation is necessary to explore the complex interplay between language and visuals in a learning environment. (napier.ac.uk)
- Focus group questions asked respondents to describe experiences of bullying, how the bullying affected meeting their clinical learning objectives, and to provide suggestions to address bullying of student nurses in the clinical setting. (cdc.gov)
- When children have learning problems, their parents are usually the first to notice that something is just not right. (ldonline.org)
- The main assumption in the literature is that learning the alphabetic code through letter-to-phoneme correspondences is the best way to improve phonemic awareness. (nature.com)
- A total of 222 French-speaking prereaders took part in a 4-session learning program based on correspondences either between letters and syllables (letters-to-syllable group) or between letters and phonemes (letter-to-phoneme group), and the fifth last session on coding and decoding. (nature.com)
Opportunity to learn1
- These guidelines are based on a synthesis of research, theory, and current practice and are consistent with the principles of the national health education standards (29), the opportunity-to-learn standards for health education (29), the position papers of leading voluntary organizations involved in child nutrition (30), and the national action plan to improve the American diet (31). (cdc.gov)
- In this non-verbal reasoning lesson , Wing show us how to match shapes to a group and to a pair. (atomlearning.com)
- When they're ready, your child can access unlimited non-verbal reasoning papers to hone their exam technique - as well as practice tests for all major exam boards, 11+ subjects, grammar schools and independent schools. (atomlearning.com)
- Access resources to learn more about how to use your TI technology to address the CCSS Math Practices. (ti.com)
- Keep assessing your patient's level of understanding, concerns and readiness to learn. (medlineplus.gov)
- If your child is preparing for secondary school entrance exams, now is a key time for non-verbal reasoning practice at home. (atomlearning.com)
- Help the patient learn how to talk about personal health and medical issues and discuss what is needed to help manage the current condition and feel better. (medlineplus.gov)
- This contains ten sample non-verbal reasoning practice questions. (atomlearning.com)