Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Reflex, Monosynaptic: A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Replantation: Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Methocarbamol: A centrally acting muscle relaxant whose mode of action has not been established. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1206)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cantharidin: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Mephenesin: A centrally acting muscle relaxant with a short duration of action.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Motor Neurons, Gamma: Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.Sacrococcygeal Region: The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Pudendal Nerve: A nerve which originates in the sacral spinal cord (S2 to S4) and innervates the PERINEUM, the external GENITALIA, the external ANAL SPHINCTER and the external urethral sphincter. It has three major branches: the perineal nerve, inferior anal nerves, and the dorsal nerve of penis or clitoris.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Baclofen: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Ventral root of spinal nerve. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Peripheral_nervous_system& ...
The ventral roots (motor pathway) are most prone to injury. The cause of injury to the baby is debated, but a probable ... Excess tension may physically tear the nerve roots out from the neonatal spinal column, resulting in total dysfunction. Klumpke ...
Shortly after a spinal nerve forms from the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord it branches into the dorsal ramus and ... The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. terminologyanatplanes at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley ... The dorsal ramus (Latin for branch, plural rami ) is the dorsal branch of a spinal nerve that forms from the dorsal root of the ... The spinal nerve is formed from the dorsal and ventral rami. The dorsal ramus carries information that supplies muscles and ...
The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. Dissection of side wall of pelvis showing sacral and ...
Ventral root afferents are unmyelinated sensory axons located within the pia mater. These ventral root afferents relay sensory ... Remahl, Sten; Angeria (25 October 2010). "Observations at the CNS-PNS Border of Ventral Roots Connected to a Neuroma". ...
There is both excitatory and inhibitory feedback between the left and right flexor and extensor ventral roots of a given spinal ... These neurons are located throughout the reticular formation as well as the lumbar ventral roots of the spinal cord. ... Neurons containing 5-HT2A affect the amplitude of the ventral root discharges. This is consistent with premotor cells involved ... Both lateral and ventral funiculi are able to coordinate activity in the rostral and caudal regions. Although CPGs do exist in ...
The Renshaw cells may also be inhibited by both proprioceptive dorsal root afferents], antidromic ventral axons as well as " ... Renshaw B. Central effects of centripetal impulses in axons of spinal ventral roots. J Neurophysiol 1946 9:191-204 Eccles JC, ... Lloyd, D. P. C., After-currents, after-potentials, excitability, and ventral root electrotonus in spinal motoneurons, J.gen. ... when it was discovered that with antidromic signals from a motor neuron running collaterally back via the ventral root into the ...
"Histochemical localization of cholinesterase in the amphibian spinal cord and alterations following ventral root section". ...
They exit the spinal cord through the ventral roots, carrying motor impulses to skeletal muscle. Of the somatic efferent ... arise from motor neuron cell bodies in the ventral horns of the gray matter within the spinal cord. ...
The dorsal root is the afferent sensory root and carries sensory information to the brain. The ventral root is the efferent ... The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots. Distribution of the cutaneous nerves. Ventral aspect. Distribution of ... Each spinal nerve is formed from the combination of nerve fibers from its dorsal and ventral roots. ... The roots of these nerves begin inside the vertebral column at the level of the L1 vertebra, where the cauda equina begins, and ...
They exit through the ventral root of the spinal cord, and continue through the ventral rami. At that point, they sharply ...
The sciatic nerve consists of the anterior divisions of ventral nerve roots from L4 through S3. These nerve roots are part of ...
The roots terminate in dorsal root ganglia, which are composed of the cell bodies of the corresponding neurons. Ventral roots ... It is made of 31 segments from which branch one pair of sensory nerve roots and one pair of motor nerve roots. The nerve roots ... The ventral (motor) and dorsal (sensory) roots combine to form spinal nerves (mixed; motor and sensory), one on each side of ... Dorsal root ganglion neurons differentiate from neural crest progenitors. As the dorsal and ventral column cells proliferate, ...
The spinal motor neurons project out of the cord to the correct muscles via the ventral root. These connections control ... Sensory neurons provide feedback to the brain via the dorsal root. Some of the sensory information is conveyed directly to ...
Both motor neurons and interneurons in the ventral horn express Plexin A4. Motor axons exiting via the ventral roots and the ... In dorsal root ganglia, Plexin A4 is expressed in the neuronal cell bodies as well as the central and peripheral processes of ... Plexin A4 has been found in dorsal and, to a greater extent, ventral horns of the spinal cord. ... "PlexinA4 distribution in the adult rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia". J. Chem. Neuroanat. 44 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Here they arise from the thoracolumbar (T1-L2) regions' lateral horn of grey and emerge via the ventral root. They enter their ... The bilaterally symmetric sympathetic chain ganglia, also called the paravertebral ganglia, are located just ventral and ...
Number one flagellum is connected to a dorsal root, while number two flagellum is connected to a ventral root. Number three and ... Live Science Strange, Organism Has Unique Roots in the Tree of Life, by Jennifer Welsh, 29 April 2012 Brugerolle, Guy; Bricheux ... and have four flagella and a ventral feeding groove or sulcus. They are devoid of cellulosic cell walls, chloroplasts or ... four flagella are on either side of these two and have dorsal roots. Originally Collodictyon triciliatum was described from the ...
The genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve arises from the ventral primary divisions of L1-L2 spinal nerve roots. It passes ...
Preston, J.B. Influence of pentobarbital on ventral root reflex discharges and on intracellular potentials recorded from single ...
A Myelomere is the segment of spinal cord to which a given pair of dorsal and ventral roots is attached. Because the adult ...
It originates from the brachial plexus, carrying fibers from the ventral roots of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1. The radial ... The radial nerve originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with root values of C5 to C8 and T1. From the ...
It further differs from P. sulamericanus in that the deep root of the ventral anchor has its proximal end directed dorsally. ... The haptor bears two squamodiscs, one ventral and one dorsal. The sclerotized male copulatory organ, or "quadriloculate organ ...
The signal then goes through the ventral rami and down the root ganglion of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 (Brachial Plexus). Next, the ... the corticospinal tracts decussate and the signal goes down the lateral corticospinal tract until it reaches the ventral horns ...
The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, usually from the plexus root (anterior/ventral ramus) of the ...
This technique selectively analyzes each individual nerve root with electromyography to separate dorsal and ventral nerve roots ... The sensory nerve roots, each of which will be tested and selectively eliminated, are placed on top of the pad, while the motor ... SDR is a permanent procedure that addresses the spasticity at its neuromuscular root: i.e., in the central nervous system that ... In 1898 C.S. Sherrington described relief of muscle spasticity by posterior root section in de-cerebrate cats. Between 1908 and ...
Cells that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf.. Phloem. Cells that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose( ... Early in development they are dorsiventrally flattened with both dorsal and ventral surfaces.[14] Compound leaves are closer to ... Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. ... Other plant parts like stems or roots have non-determinate growth, and will usually continue to grow as long as they have the ...
Crankshaw DP, Raper C: Mephenesin, methocarbamol, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam: actions on spinal reflexes and ventral root ...
... the ventral root or anterior root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. At its distal end, the ventral root joins with ... The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots. Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve. Anatomy figure: 02 ... "Spinal Root Nerve Fibers" Diagram at tcc.fl.edu (look for #2). ... the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve. Cervical vertebra ...
The ventral roots (motor pathway) are most prone to injury. The cause of injury to the baby is debated, but a probable ... Excess tension may physically tear the nerve roots out from the neonatal spinal column, resulting in total dysfunction. Klumpke ...
The signal then goes through the ventral rami and down the root ganglion of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 (Brachial Plexus). Next, the ... the corticospinal tracts decussate and the signal goes down the lateral corticospinal tract until it reaches the ventral horns ...

No data available that match "ventral roots"


  • Lewis rats were subjected to unilateral avulsion of lumbar ventral roots (VRA) and divided into three groups: VRA control, VRA at peak of EAE, and VRA during EAE remission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the experimental group (five animals), an NAG obtained from the right peroneal nerve was anastomosed with the sectioned and electrophysiologically selected lumbar ventral roots (left L-3 and L-4) controlling the left quadriceps muscle and then implanted into the left ventrolateral T-10 cord. (thejns.org)
  • In the control group (four animals), the sectioned/selected lumbar ventral roots were only ligated. (thejns.org)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the ventral horn from L4-L5 spinal cord segments revealed a significant upregulation of genes involved in programmed cell death including caspase-3, caspase-8, and related death receptors TRAIL-R, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-R, and Fas following VRA. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the cervical segment, the ventral horn (the lower half of the segment) is enlarged. (washington.edu)
  • Also in the lumbar segment that is illustrated, the ventral horn is large. (washington.edu)
  • The results provide evidence that activation of ventral root afferents evoked an EPSP mediated by glutamate or a related substance in a population of motoneurons. (elsevier.com)
  • This organization of the T11 T12 ventral roots, which are part of the sympathetic outflow, is similar to that of cat ventral roots S3 and Cal, which are part of the parasympathetic outflow, but different from cat ventral roots L7 and S1, which are between the visceral outflows. (utmb.edu)
  • 8. The method of claim 7 wherein the stimulator is implanted in or adjacent to at least one of the mediolateral column of the spinal segment, a ventral root of the spinal segment, and a sympathetic ganglion of the spinal segment. (google.com)
  • The segmented trunk peripheral nervous system is generated by ventrally migrating neural crest cells that exclusively invade the anterior sclerotome and differentiate into metameric dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. (biologists.org)
  • The proximal parts of the III-VII thoracic nerves have been positioned on the pleura in such a way that their dorsal and ventral roots, dorsal rami and communications with the sympathetic trunk are visible. (stanford.edu)
  • SNM therapy with the most commonly used dedicated SNM device (InterStim) involves insertion of electrode(s) in the third and/or fourth sacral foramen next to the nerve root. (karger.com)
  • We previously showed that neuropilin 2 (Nrp2)/semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) signaling is required for segmental neural crest migration, but not for metameric dorsal root gangliogenesis. (biologists.org)