Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.
'Health resorts' are establishments, often located in scenic or climatically favorable areas, that offer a range of services and facilities aimed at promoting, maintaining, or restoring the health and well-being of individuals, typically through a combination of medical treatments, therapeutic interventions, healthy lifestyle practices, and relaxation techniques.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.

Mid-term results of endoscopic perforator vein interruption for chronic venous insufficiency: lessons learned from the North American subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery registry. The North American Study Group. (1/535)

PURPOSE: The safety, feasibility, and early efficacy of subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency were established in a preliminary report. The long-term clinical outcome and the late complications after SEPS are as yet undetermined. METHODS: The North American Subfascial Endoscopic Perforator Surgery registry collected information on 148 SEPS procedures that were performed in 17 centers in the United States and Canada between August 1, 1993, and February 15, 1996. The data analysis in this study focused on mid-term outcome in 146 patients. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six patients (79 men and 67 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 27 to 87 years) underwent SEPS. One hundred and one patients (69%) had active ulcers (class 6), and 21 (14%) had healed ulcers (class 5). One hundred and three patients (71%) underwent concomitant venous procedures (stripping, 70; high ligation, 17; varicosity avulsion alone, 16). There were no deaths or pulmonary embolisms. One deep venous thrombosis occurred at 2 months. The follow-up periods averaged 24 months (range, 1 to 53 months). Cumulative ulcer healing at 1 year was 88% (median time to healing, 54 days). Concomitant ablation of superficial reflux and lack of deep venous obstruction predicted ulcer healing (P <.05). Clinical score improved from 8.93 to 3.98 at the last follow-up (P <. 0001). Cumulative ulcer recurrence at 1 year was 16% and at 2 years was 28% (standard error, < 10%). Post-thrombotic limbs had a higher 2-year cumulative recurrence rate (46%) than did those limbs with primary valvular incompetence (20%; P <.05). Twenty-eight of the 122 patients (23%) who had class 5 or class 6 ulcers before surgery had an active ulcer at the last follow-up examination. CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of perforators with ablation of superficial reflux is effective in decreasing the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and rapidly healing ulcers. Recurrence or new ulcer development, however, is still significant, particularly in post-thrombotic limbs. The reevaluation of the indications for SEPS is warranted because operations in patients without previous deep vein thrombosis are successful but operations in those patients with deep vein thrombosis are less successful. Operations on patients with deep vein occlusion have poor outcomes.  (+info)

Bypass graft of an occluded inferior vena cava: report of a case with patency at five years. (2/535)

Venous reconstructive surgery for chronic occlusive disease has evolved slower than its arterial counterpart. Factors intrinsic to the venous system that have been implicated in discouraging experimental and clinical results include enhanced graft thrombogenicity, low velocity of blood flow, and wall collapsibility. 1,2 We present a case of a 24-year-old man with symptomatic occlusion of the inferior vena cava, treated with a prosthetic bypass graft to the supra diaphragmatic cava. The graft was patent 5 years later, and the patient remained asymptomatic.  (+info)

Endothelial activation response to oral micronised flavonoid therapy in patients with chronic venous disease--a prospective study. (3/535)

BACKGROUND: Endothelial activation is important in the pathogenesis of skin changes due to chronic venous disease (CVD). Purified micronised flavonoid fraction has been used for symptomatic treatment of CVD for a considerable period of time. The exact mode of action of these compounds remains unknown. AIM: To study the effects of micronised purified flavonoidic fraction (Daflon 500 mg, Servier, France) treatment on plasma markers of endothelial activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic venous disease were treated for 60 days with DAFLON 500 mg twice daily. Duplex ultrasonography and PPG was used to assess the venous disease. Blood was collected from a foot vein immediately before starting treatment and within 1 week of stopping treatment. Plasma markers of endothelial activation were measured using commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Reduction in the level of ICAM-1, 32% (141 ng/ml: 73 ng/ml) and VCAM 29% (1292 ng/ml: 717 ng/ml) was seen. Reduction in plasma lactoferrin (36% decrease, 760 ng/ml: 560 ng/ml) and VW factor occurred in the C4 group only. CONCLUSIONS: Micronised purified flavonoidic fraction treatment for 60 days seems to decrease the levels of some plasma markers of endothelial activation. This could ameliorate the dermatological effects of (CVD). This could also explain some of the pharmacological actions of these compounds. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as markers for treatment.  (+info)

Movement-related variation in forces under compression stockings. (4/535)

OBJECTIVES: Compression therapy is widely used in the treatment of venous leg ulcers, but the efficacy of this treatment is variable. Assessment of variation in compression forces associated with movement may help to elucidate the mechanism of action of compression therapy. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a system to investigate forces under compression stockings during movement. METHOD: Three sensors were placed on the medial aspect of the left leg on six healthy volunteers to monitor forces under class 2 (Continental European classification) compression stockings. Data were recorded during dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the left foot and also during short periods of walking. RESULTS: Changes in pressure were observed, associated with dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot. These changes were dependent on sensor position. Changes in pressure during walking were also position-dependent and of variable duration. CONCLUSIONS: The system enables forces associated with compression therapy to be examined during movement and may thus be of value in further understanding its mechanism of action. Foot movement can be associated with clear changes in pressure under compression stockings and rapid changes in pressure may occur during walking.  (+info)

Risk factors for erysipelas of the leg (cellulitis): case-control study. (5/535)

OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for erysipelas of the leg (cellulitis). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: 7 hospital centres in France. SUBJECTS: 167 patients admitted to hospital for erysipelas of the leg and 294 controls. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, a disruption of the cutaneous barrier (leg ulcer, wound, fissurated toe-web intertrigo, pressure ulcer, or leg dermatosis) (odds ratio 23.8, 95% confidence interval 10.7 to 52.5), lymphoedema (71.2, 5.6 to 908), venous insufficiency (2.9, 1.0 to 8.7), leg oedema (2.5, 1.2 to 5.1) and being overweight (2.0, 1.1 to 3.7) were independently associated with erysipelas of the leg. No association was observed with diabetes, alcohol, or smoking. Population attributable risk for toe-web intertrigo was 61%. CONCLUSION: This first case-control study highlights the major role of local risk factors (mainly lymphoedema and site of entry) in erysipelas of the leg. From a public health perspective, detecting and treating toe-web intertrigo should be evaluated in the secondary prevention of erysipelas of the leg.  (+info)

Leukocyte activation in patients with venous insufficiency. (6/535)

PURPOSE: Cell activation may play an important role in the production of venous insufficiency, just as leukocytes participate in the cause of venous ulcer. If activated, monocytes observed on venous endothelium can migrate into the venous wall and produce toxic metabolites and free oxygen radicals that may participate in valve destruction and venous wall weakening. At present, it remains uncertain to what degree leukocytes are actually activated in patients. This study was designed to explore the level of activation and to examine whether patient plasma contains an activator that leads to leukocyte activation of unstimulated naive leukocytes from volunteers without venous insufficiency disease. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (4 men, 17 women), who ranged in age from 34 to 69 years (mean age, 53.2 years), with chronic venous disease were compared with 16 healthy control volunteers (4 men, 12 women), who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years (mean age, 48.4 years). All the patients underwent evaluation with Doppler ultrasound scanning and were classified with the CEAP score.1 Nearly all the patients who smoked or were hypertensive were excluded. The blood types (ABO and Rh) of the controls were matched to the study group. Isolates of patient whole blood, plasma, or leukocytes were incubated with isolates of control whole blood, plasma, or leukocytes to separate actual activation from spontaneously observed activation. The granulocyte activation was measured with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction and quantitation of granulocyte pseudopod formation. Hydrogen peroxide production in patient plasma was measured with a recently developed electrode method. RESULTS: Leukocytes from healthy blood and patient plasma had significantly higher NBT-positive granulocyte counts than either patient blood, healthy blood, or patient blood incubated in healthy plasma. In a comparison of patient groups across the CEAP classes, the NBT-positive granulocyte counts were significantly greater in classes 4, 5, and 6 than in classes 2 and 3 (P <.001). Pseudopod formation was significantly greater in mixtures of granulocytes in healthy blood and patient plasma than in all other groups. There was no difference in the level of pseudopod formation in control leukocytes incubated with patient plasma in patients across the CEAP spectrum. The patient plasma produced significantly higher hydrogen peroxide values than did the controls. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patient plasma may contain an activating factor for granulocytes. The finding that activated neutrophils were fewer in number in patient whole blood than in healthy blood incubated in patient plasma could suggest that activated neutrophils in patients with chronic venous insufficiency might be trapped in the peripheral circulation. It is unknown what factors in the plasma might induce activation of naive neutrophils, but such activators could possibly be important in the pathogenesis of primary venous dysfunction and the development of chronic venous insufficiency.  (+info)

Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study. (7/535)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the general population. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: City of Edinburgh. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 18-64 years selected randomly from age-sex registers of 12 general practices. MAIN RESULTS: In 1566 subjects examined, the age adjusted prevalence of trunk varices was 40% in men and 32% in women (p < or = 0.01). This sex difference was mostly a result of higher prevalence of mild trunk varices in men. More than 80% of all subjects had mild hyphenweb and reticular varices. The age adjusted prevalence of CVI was 9% in men and 7% in women (p < or = 0.05). The prevalence of all categories of varices and of CVI increased with age (p < or = 0.001). No relation was found with social class. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of men and women aged 18-64 years had trunk varices. In contrast with the findings in most previous studies, mainly conducted in the 1960s and 1970s, chronic venous insufficiency and mild varicose veins were more common in men than women. No evidence of bias in the study was found to account for this sex difference. Changes in lifestyle or other factors might be contributing to an alteration in the epidemiology of venous disease.  (+info)

Prophylactic inferior vena cava filters in trauma patients at high risk: follow-up examination and risk/benefit assessment. (8/535)

PURPOSE: The efficacy of prophylactic inferior vena cava filters in selected trauma patients at high risk has come into question in relation to risk/benefit assessment. To evaluate the usefulness of prophylactic inferior vena cava filters, we reviewed our experience and overall complication rate. METHODS: From February 1991 to April 1998, the trauma registry identified 7333 admissions. One hundred eighty-seven prophylactic inferior vena cava filters were inserted. After the exclusion of 27 trauma-related deaths (none caused by thromboembolism), 160 patients were eligible for the study. The eligible patients were contacted and asked to complete a survey and return for a follow-up examination to include physical examination, Doppler scan study, vena cava duplex scanning, and fluoroscopic examination. The patients' hospital charts were reviewed in detail. The indications for prophylactic inferior vena cava filter insertion included prolonged immobilization with multiple injuries, closed head injury, pelvic fracture, spine fracture, multiple long bone fracture, and attending discretion. RESULTS: Of the 160 eligible patients, 127 were men, the mean age was 40.3 years, and the mean injury severity score was 26.1. The mean day of insertion was hospital day 6. Seventy-five patients (47%) returned for evaluation, with a mean follow-up period of 19.4 months after implantation (range, 7 to 60 months). On survey, patients had leg swelling (n = 27), lower extremity numbness (n = 14), shortness of breath (n = 9), chest pain (n = 7), and skin changes (n = 4). All the survey symptoms appeared to be attributable to patient injuries and not related to prophylactic inferior vena cava filter. Physical examination results revealed edema (n = 12) and skin changes (n = 2). Ten Doppler scan studies had results that were suggestive of venous insufficiency, nine of which had histories of deep vein thrombosis. With duplex scanning, 93% (70 of 75) of the vena cavas were visualized, and all were patent. Only 52% (39 of 75) of the prophylactic inferior vena cava filters were visualized with duplex scanning. All the prophylactic inferior vena cava filters were visualized with fluoroscopy, with no evidence of filter migration. Of the total 187 patients, 24 (12.8%) had deep vein thrombosis develop after prophylactic inferior vena cava filter insertion, including 10 of 75 (13.3%) in the follow-up group, and one patient had a nonfatal pulmonary embolism despite filter placement. Filter insertion complications occurred in 1.6% (three of 187) of patients and included one groin hematoma, one arteriovenous fistula, and one misplacement in the common iliac vein. CONCLUSION: This study's results show that prophylactic inferior vena cava filters can be placed safely with low morbidity and no attributable long-term disabilities. In this patient population with a high risk of pulmonary embolism, prophylactic inferior vena cava filters offered a 99.5% protection rate, with only one of 187 patients having a nonfatal pulmonary embolism.  (+info)

Venous insufficiency is a medical condition that occurs when the veins, particularly in the legs, have difficulty returning blood back to the heart due to impaired valve function or obstruction in the vein. This results in blood pooling in the veins, leading to symptoms such as varicose veins, swelling, skin changes, and ulcers. Prolonged venous insufficiency can cause chronic pain and affect the quality of life if left untreated.

A varicose ulcer is a type of chronic wound that typically occurs on the lower leg, often as a result of poor circulation and venous insufficiency. These ulcers form when there is increased pressure in the veins, leading to damage and leakage of fluids into the surrounding tissues. Over time, this can cause the skin to break down and form an open sore or ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are often associated with varicose veins, which are swollen and twisted veins that are visible just beneath the surface of the skin. These veins have weakened walls and valves, which can lead to the pooling of blood and fluid in the lower legs. This increased pressure can cause damage to the surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of an ulcer.

Varicose ulcers are typically slow to heal and may require extensive treatment, including compression therapy, wound care, and sometimes surgery. Risk factors for developing varicose ulcers include obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and a history of deep vein thrombosis or other circulatory problems.

Varicose veins are defined as enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins often appearing blue or dark purple, which usually occur in the legs. They are caused by weakened valves and vein walls that can't effectively push blood back toward the heart. This results in a buildup of blood, causing the veins to bulge and become varicose.

The condition is generally harmless but may cause symptoms like aching, burning, muscle cramp, or a feeling of heaviness in the legs. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious problems, such as skin ulcers, blood clots, or chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, compression stockings, and medical procedures like sclerotherapy, laser surgery, or endovenous ablation.

Venous pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of a vein, which varies depending on several factors such as the volume and flow of blood within the vein, the contractile state of the surrounding muscles, and the position of the body. In clinical settings, venous pressure is often measured in the extremities (e.g., arms or legs) to assess the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

Central venous pressure (CVP) is a specific type of venous pressure that refers to the pressure within the large veins that enter the right atrium of the heart. CVP is an important indicator of right heart function and fluid status, as it reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump it forward. Normal CVP ranges from 0 to 8 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) in adults.

Elevated venous pressure can be caused by various conditions such as heart failure, obstruction of blood flow, or fluid overload, while low venous pressure may indicate dehydration or blood loss. Accurate measurement and interpretation of venous pressure require specialized equipment and knowledge, and are typically performed by healthcare professionals in a clinical setting.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

Postphlebitic syndrome, also known as postthrombotic syndrome or post-thrombotic limb, is a long-term complication that can occur after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It's characterized by chronic venous insufficiency due to damage in the valves and walls of the affected veins. This results in impaired return of blood from the extremities back to the heart, leading to symptoms such as:

1. Swelling (edema) in the affected limb, usually the lower leg or calf.
2. Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs.
3. Heaviness or fatigue in the legs.
4. Skin changes like redness, warmth, or itchiness.
5. Development of venous ulcers or sores, particularly around the ankles.

The severity of postphlebitic syndrome can vary from mild to severe and may significantly impact a person's quality of life. Risk factors for developing this condition include having had a previous DVT, obesity, older age, lack of physical activity, and a family history of blood clotting disorders. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of deep vein thrombosis can help reduce the risk of developing postphlebitic syndrome.

A bandage is a medical dressing or covering applied to a wound, injury, or sore with the intention of promoting healing or preventing infection. Bandages can be made of a variety of materials such as gauze, cotton, elastic, or adhesive tape and come in different sizes and shapes to accommodate various body parts. They can also have additional features like fasteners, non-slip surfaces, or transparent windows for monitoring the condition of the wound.

Bandages serve several purposes, including:

1. Absorbing drainage or exudate from the wound
2. Protecting the wound from external contaminants and bacteria
3. Securing other medical devices such as catheters or splints in place
4. Reducing swelling or promoting immobilization of the affected area
5. Providing compression to control bleeding or prevent fluid accumulation
6. Relieving pain by reducing pressure on sensitive nerves or structures.

Proper application and care of bandages are essential for effective wound healing and prevention of complications such as infection or delayed recovery.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

"Gravity suits" is not a recognized medical term. However, in the context of space medicine and space travel, gravity suits, also known as g-suits or anti-G suits, are specialized garments worn by pilots and astronauts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of high gravitational forces (G-forces) on their bodies during high-speed maneuvers or while re-entering the Earth's atmosphere.

These suits work by applying pressure to specific areas of the body, typically around the lower abdomen and legs, to prevent the pooling of blood in those areas due to the increased G-forces. This helps maintain adequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs, reducing the risk of loss of consciousness (G-induced Loss of Consciousness or G-LOC) and other symptoms associated with high G-forces such as blackouts, vision impairment, and disorientation.

It's important to note that gravity suits are not used as a medical treatment for any specific condition but rather as a protective measure during space travel and high-performance aviation.

A leg ulcer is a chronic wound that occurs on the lower extremities, typically on the inner or outer ankle. It's often caused by poor circulation, venous insufficiency, or diabetes. Leg ulcers can also result from injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. These ulcers can be painful, and they may take a long time to heal, making them prone to infection. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and wound care are essential for healing leg ulcers and preventing complications.

Plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in volume or blood flow within an organ or body part, typically in the lungs or extremities. There are several types of plethysmography, including:

1. **Whole Body Plethysmography (WBP):** This type of plethysmography is used to assess lung function and volumes by measuring changes in pressure within a sealed chamber that contains the patient's entire body except for their head. The patient breathes normally while wearing a nose clip, allowing technicians to analyze respiratory patterns, airflow, and lung volume changes.
2. **Segmental or Local Plethysmography:** This technique measures volume or blood flow changes in specific body parts, such as the limbs or digits. It can help diagnose and monitor conditions affecting peripheral circulation, like deep vein thrombosis, arterial occlusive disease, or Raynaud's phenomenon.
3. **Impedance Plethysmography (IPG):** This non-invasive method uses electrical impedance to estimate changes in blood volume within an organ or body part. By applying a small electrical current and measuring the opposition to flow (impedance), technicians can determine variations in blood volume, which can help diagnose conditions like deep vein thrombosis or heart failure.
4. **Optical Plethysmography:** This technique uses light to measure changes in blood volume, typically in the skin or mucous membranes. By shining a light on the area and analyzing the reflected or transmitted light, technicians can detect variations in blood volume related to cardiac output, respiration, or other physiological factors.

Overall, plethysmography is an essential tool for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions affecting circulation, respiratory function, and organ volumes.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

The azygos vein is a large, unpaired venous structure in the thoracic cavity of the human body. It begins as the ascending lumbar vein, which receives blood from the lower extremities and abdominal organs. As it enters the thorax through the diaphragm, it becomes the azygos vein and continues to ascend along the vertebral column.

The azygos vein receives blood from various tributaries, including the intercostal veins, esophageal veins, mediastinal veins, and bronchial veins. It then arches over the right mainstem bronchus and empties into the superior vena cava, which returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

The azygos vein provides an important collateral pathway for venous return in cases where the inferior vena cava is obstructed or occluded. It also plays a role in the spread of certain thoracic diseases, such as tuberculosis and cancer.

The iliac veins are a pair of large veins in the human body that carry deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic area back to the heart. They are formed by the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the lower abdomen and legs, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

The combined iliac vein is called the inferior vena cava, which continues upward to the right atrium of the heart. The iliac veins are located deep within the pelvis, lateral to the corresponding iliac arteries, and are accompanied by the iliac lymphatic vessels.

The left common iliac vein is longer than the right because it must cross the left common iliac artery to join the right common iliac vein. The external and internal iliac veins are the two branches of the common iliac vein, with the external iliac vein carrying blood from the lower limbs and the internal iliac vein carrying blood from the pelvic organs.

It is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the iliac veins to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

The popliteal vein is the continuation of the tibial and fibular (or anterior and posterior tibial) veins, forming in the lower leg's back portion or popliteal fossa. It carries blood from the leg towards the heart. The popliteal vein is located deep within the body and is accompanied by the popliteal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg. This venous structure is a crucial part of the venous system in the lower extremities and is often assessed during physical examinations for signs of venous insufficiency or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

Compression stockings are a specialized type of hosiery that applies pressure to your legs, promoting better blood flow. They are tightest at the ankle and gradually become less constrictive up the leg. This gradient compression helps to counteract the force of gravity and promote venous return, reducing the pooling of blood in the lower extremities.

Compression stockings are often used to help prevent or treat various conditions related to poor circulation, including:

1. Varicose veins: Enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins that are easily visible just under the surface of the skin.
2. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs. Compression stockings can help reduce the risk of DVT after certain surgeries or during long periods of immobilization.
3. Edema: Swelling in the legs and ankles due to fluid buildup.
4. Chronic venous insufficiency: A condition where the veins have difficulty returning blood from the legs back to the heart, leading to symptoms like leg pain, swelling, and skin changes.
5. Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS): A long-term complication of DVT characterized by chronic leg pain, swelling, and skin ulcers. Compression stockings can help manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

There are different levels of compression available, ranging from mild (15-20 mmHg) to extra firm (50-60 mmHg). Your healthcare provider will recommend the appropriate level based on your specific condition and needs. It is essential to wear compression stockings correctly for them to be effective and avoid skin irritation or other complications.

Venous valves are one-way flaps made of thin, flexible tissue that lie inside your veins. They allow blood to flow towards the heart but prevent it from flowing backward. These valves are especially important in the veins of the legs, where they help to counteract the force of gravity and ensure that blood flows back up to the heart. When venous valves become damaged or weakened, blood can pool in the veins, leading to conditions such as varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by the reduced ability to digest and absorb nutrients due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine glands in the pancreas. These enzymes, including lipases, amylases, and proteases, are necessary for breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food during the digestion process.

When EPI occurs, undigested food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, which can result in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and steatorrhea (fatty stools). EPI is often associated with chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or other conditions that damage the exocrine glands in the pancreas.

EPI can be diagnosed through various tests, including fecal elastase testing, fecal fat quantification, and imaging studies to assess the structure and function of the pancreas. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing enzymes with oral supplements taken with meals and snacks to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition, dietary modifications and management of underlying conditions are essential for optimal outcomes.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Placental insufficiency is a condition in which the placenta does not provide adequate nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as poor placental development, damage to the placenta, or problems with the blood flow to the placenta. As a result, the fetus may receive less oxygen and nutrients than it needs for proper growth and development, which can lead to a range of complications, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and developmental delays.

The medical definition of placental insufficiency is: "a condition in which the placenta fails to provide adequate support to the developing fetus, resulting in impaired fetal growth and development." This condition can be diagnosed through various tests, such as ultrasound, fetal monitoring, and blood tests, and may require close monitoring and management throughout pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

A tourniquet is a device or material used to apply pressure around an extremity, typically an arm or leg, with the goal of controlling severe bleeding (hemorrhage) by compressing blood vessels and limiting arterial flow. Tourniquets are usually applied as a last resort when direct pressure and elevation have failed to stop life-threatening bleeding. They should be used cautiously because they can cause tissue damage, nerve injury, or even amputation if left on for too long. In a medical setting, tourniquets are often applied by healthcare professionals in emergency situations; however, there are also specialized tourniquets available for use by trained individuals in the military, first responder communities, and civilians who have undergone proper training.

Sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to treat varicose veins and spider veins. It involves the injection of a solution (called a sclerosant) directly into the affected vein, which causes the vein to collapse and eventually fade away. The sclerosant works by irritating the lining of the vein, causing it to swell and stick together, which then leads to clotting and the eventual reabsorption of the vein by the body.

The procedure is typically performed in a doctor's office or outpatient setting and may require multiple sessions depending on the severity and number of veins being treated. Common side effects include bruising, swelling, and discomfort at the injection site, as well as the possibility of developing brownish pigmentation or small ulcers near the treatment area. However, these side effects are usually temporary and resolve on their own within a few weeks.

Sclerotherapy is considered a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins and spider veins, with high success rates and low complication rates. It is important to note that while sclerotherapy can improve the appearance of affected veins, it does not prevent new veins from developing in the future.

Laser therapy, also known as phototherapy or laser photobiomodulation, is a medical treatment that uses low-intensity lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to stimulate healing, reduce pain, and decrease inflammation. It works by promoting the increase of cellular metabolism, blood flow, and tissue regeneration through the process of photobiomodulation.

The therapy can be used on patients suffering from a variety of acute and chronic conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, arthritis, neuropathic pain, and wound healing complications. The wavelength and intensity of the laser light are precisely controlled to ensure a safe and effective treatment.

During the procedure, the laser or LED device is placed directly on the skin over the area of injury or discomfort. The non-ionizing light penetrates the tissue without causing heat or damage, interacting with chromophores in the cells to initiate a series of photochemical reactions. This results in increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of transcription factors that lead to improved cellular function and reduced pain.

In summary, laser therapy is a non-invasive, drug-free treatment option for various medical conditions, providing patients with an alternative or complementary approach to traditional therapies.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS), also known as postphlebitic syndrome, is a chronic complication that can occur after deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It's characterized by a combination of symptoms including pain, swelling, cramping, itching, and skin changes in the affected limb. PTS happens when the damaged valves in the veins are unable to properly move blood back to the heart, leading to venous hypertension and fluid accumulation in the lower extremities.

The symptoms of PTS can vary in severity, but they often worsen with prolonged standing or sitting. In some cases, patients may develop open sores (ulcers) on the skin, particularly around the ankles. The risk of developing PTS is higher in individuals who have experienced a recurrent DVT, those with more extensive clotting, and those who do not receive appropriate anticoagulation therapy after their initial DVT diagnosis.

Preventive measures such as early mobilization, use of compression stockings, and maintaining adequate anticoagulation can help reduce the risk of developing PTS following a DVT.

Health resorts, also known as wellness retreats or spa towns, are places that offer a combination of medical treatments, therapies, and recreational activities to promote health, relaxation, and well-being. They are often located in areas with natural mineral springs, sea air, or other beneficial environmental factors.

Health resorts may provide various services such as:

1. Hydrotherapy: using water in the form of baths, showers, or wraps to promote relaxation and healing.
2. Balneotherapy: utilizing natural mineral waters for therapeutic purposes.
3. Massages and bodywork: providing different types of massages and manual therapies to relieve tension, improve circulation, and reduce stress.
4. Exercise programs: offering activities like yoga, Pilates, swimming, or hiking to enhance physical fitness and flexibility.
5. Nutritional counseling: providing guidance on healthy eating habits and personalized meal plans.
6. Mental health support: offering services like psychotherapy, mindfulness training, or stress management techniques.
7. Educational workshops: conducting seminars on topics related to health, wellness, and self-care.
8. Aesthetic treatments: providing beauty and skincare services such as facials, peels, or makeup consultations.

Health resorts can be an excellent option for individuals seeking a holistic approach to improving their physical, mental, and emotional well-being in a peaceful and supportive environment.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

The term "lower extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the human body that includes the structures below the hip joint. This includes the thigh, lower leg, ankle, and foot. The lower extremities are responsible for weight-bearing and locomotion, allowing individuals to stand, walk, run, and jump. They contain many important structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

An anatomic variation refers to a deviation from the typical or normal anatomical structure, position, or configuration of organs, tissues, or bodily parts. These variations can occur in any part of the body and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life).

Anatomic variations are relatively common and usually do not cause any symptoms or problems. However, in some cases, they may affect the function of adjacent structures, predispose to injury or disease, or complicate medical procedures or surgeries. Therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be aware of these variations during diagnoses, treatment planning, and surgical interventions.

Examples of anatomic variations include:

* Variations in the course or number of blood vessels, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or an accessory renal artery.
* Variations in the position or shape of organs, such as a mobile cecum or a horseshoe kidney.
* Variations in the number or configuration of bones, such as an extra rib or a bifid uvula.
* Variations in the innervation or sensory distribution of nerves, such as a variant course of the brachial plexus or a cross-innervated hand.

Anatomic variations can be detected through various imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound examinations. Sometimes, they are discovered during surgical procedures or autopsies. Understanding anatomic variations is crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and optimal patient outcomes.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive method used to measure changes in blood volume in the microvascular bed of tissue, typically the skin. It is based on the principle that light absorption and reflection by the skin change as the amount of blood in the capillaries changes due to the cardiac cycle.

A PPG sensor consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) that emits light at a specific wavelength, typically red or infrared, and a photodiode detector that measures the intensity of the transmitted or reflected light. The LED is placed in contact with the skin, and as the blood volume in the capillaries changes during the cardiac cycle, the amount of light absorbed or reflected by the skin also changes.

The PPG signal provides information about the cardiovascular system, including heart rate, blood pressure, and peripheral vascular tone. It is widely used in medical devices such as pulse oximeters, which measure oxygen saturation in the blood, and wearable devices for monitoring vital signs.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, called myelin, leading to damage and scarring (sclerosis). This results in disrupted communication between the brain and the rest of the body, causing a variety of neurological symptoms that can vary widely from person to person.

The term "multiple" refers to the numerous areas of scarring that occur throughout the CNS in this condition. The progression, severity, and specific symptoms of MS are unpredictable and may include vision problems, muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, difficulty with balance and coordination, cognitive impairment, and mood changes. There is currently no cure for MS, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, modify the course of the disease, and improve quality of life for those affected.

Rutin is a flavonoid, a type of plant pigment that is found in various plants and foods including citrus fruits, buckwheat, and asparagus. It has antioxidant properties and is known to help strengthen blood vessels and reduce inflammation. In medical terms, rutin may be mentioned in the context of discussing treatments for conditions related to these effects, such as varicose veins or hemorrhoids. However, it's important to note that while rutin has potential health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and proper dosages.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Periostitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the periosteum, which is the highly vascularized tissue that covers the outer surface of bones. The periosteum contains nerves and blood vessels that supply the bone and assist in bone repair and remodeling. Periostitis can occur as a result of various factors such as repetitive trauma, infection, or inflammatory diseases, leading to pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, periostitis may also lead to the formation of new bone tissue, resulting in bony outgrowths known as exostoses.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Sclerosing solutions are medications or substances that are used to intentionally cause the scarring and hardening (sclerosis) of tissue, usually in the context of treating various medical conditions. These solutions work by irritating the interior lining of blood vessels or other targeted tissues, leading to the formation of a fibrous scar and the eventual closure of the affected area.

One common use of sclerosing solutions is in the treatment of abnormal veins, such as varicose veins or spider veins. A solution like sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol is injected directly into the problematic vein, causing inflammation and eventual closure of the vein. The body then gradually absorbs the closed vein, reducing its appearance and associated symptoms.

Other medical applications for sclerosing solutions include the treatment of lymphatic malformations, hydroceles, and certain types of tumors or cysts. It is essential to administer these substances under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to complications such as infection, tissue damage, or embolism.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Onychomycosis is a medical term that refers to a fungal infection in the nails (both fingernails and toenails). This condition occurs when fungi, usually dermatophytes, invade the nail bed and cause damage to the nail plate. It can lead to symptoms such as discoloration, thickening, crumbling, and separation of the nail from the nail bed. Onychomycosis can be challenging to treat and may require long-term antifungal therapy, either topical or oral, or even removal of the infected nail in severe cases.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

A nursing assessment is the process of collecting and analyzing data about a patient's health status, including their physical, psychological, social, cultural, and emotional needs. This information is used to identify actual or potential health problems, develop a plan of care, and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Nursing assessments may include observing and documenting the patient's vital signs, appearance, behavior, mobility, nutrition, elimination, comfort level, cognitive status, and emotional well-being. They are typically conducted upon admission to a healthcare facility, during transitions of care, and on a regular basis throughout the course of treatment to ensure that the patient's needs are being met and that any changes in their condition are promptly identified and addressed.

Subcutaneous tissue, also known as the subcutis or hypodermis, is the layer of fatty connective tissue found beneath the dermis (the inner layer of the skin) and above the muscle fascia. It is composed mainly of adipose tissue, which serves as a energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body. The subcutaneous tissue also contains blood vessels, nerves, and immune cells that support the skin's functions. This layer varies in thickness depending on the location in the body and can differ significantly between individuals based on factors such as age, genetics, and weight.

The ankle, also known as the talocrural region, is the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements. The ankle is composed of three bones: the tibia and fibula of the lower leg, and the talus of the foot. The bottom portion of the tibia and fibula, called the malleoli, form a mortise that surrounds and articulates with the talus.

The ankle joint is strengthened by several ligaments, including the medial (deltoid) ligament and lateral ligament complex. The ankle also contains important nerves and blood vessels that provide sensation and circulation to the foot.

Damage to the ankle joint, such as sprains or fractures, can result in pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. Proper care and rehabilitation are essential for maintaining the health and function of the ankle joint.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Chronic Progressive is a form of Multiple Sclerosis, a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). In this form, the disease follows a steady progression with no distinct relapses or remissions. The symptoms worsen over time, leading to a decline in physical functioning and increased disability.

The term "chronic progressive" is used to describe the course of the disease, which is characterized by a continuous worsening of neurological functions from the onset, or after an initial relapsing-remitting phase. There are two types of chronic progressive MS: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Chronic Progressive MS (PCP): This form of MS shows a steady progression of symptoms from the beginning, with no distinct remissions or relapses. The disability accumulates gradually over time, and the person may experience varying degrees of physical and cognitive impairment.

2. Secondary Chronic Progressive MS (SCP): In this form, an individual initially has a relapsing-remitting course of MS (RRMS), characterized by unpredictable relapses followed by periods of partial or complete recovery (remissions). However, after some time, the disease transitions to a steady progression of symptoms and disability, even without distinct relapses. This is known as secondary chronic progressive MS.

The exact cause of Multiple Sclerosis remains unknown; however, it is believed to be influenced by genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The disease involves the immune system attacking the myelin sheath, a protective covering surrounding nerve fibers in the CNS. This results in lesions or scars (scleroses) that disrupt communication between the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the body, leading to various physical, cognitive, and sensory symptoms.

Management of Chronic Progressive MS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, focusing on symptom management, rehabilitation, and maintaining quality of life. Currently, there are no approved disease-modifying therapies specifically for chronic progressive MS; however, some medications used to treat relapsing-remitting MS may help slow the progression of disability in certain individuals with secondary chronic progressive MS.

Thrombophlebitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and clotting of blood in a vein, usually in the legs. The term thrombophlebitis comes from two words: "thrombo" which means blood clot, and "phlebitis" which refers to inflammation of the vein.

The condition can occur in superficial or deep veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis affects the veins just below the skin's surface, while deep vein thrombophlebitis (DVT) occurs in the deeper veins. DVT is a more serious condition as it can lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism if the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs.

Symptoms of thrombophlebitis may include redness, warmth, pain, swelling, or discomfort in the affected area. In some cases, there may be visible surface veins that are hard, tender, or ropy to touch. If left untreated, thrombophlebitis can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and other long-term complications. Treatment typically involves medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, or thrombolytics, along with compression stockings and other supportive measures.

Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is a type of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). In RRMS, the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers (myelin sheath) in the CNS, leading to the formation of lesions or scars (scleroses). These attacks result in episodes of new or worsening symptoms, known as relapses or exacerbations.

The distinguishing feature of RRMS is that these relapses are followed by periods of partial or complete recovery (remissions), during which symptoms may improve, stabilize, or even disappear temporarily. The duration and severity of relapses and remissions can vary significantly among individuals with RRMS. Over time, the accumulation of damage to the nervous system can lead to progressive disability.

Approximately 85% of people with MS are initially diagnosed with the relapsing-remitting form. With appropriate treatment and management, many people with RRMS can effectively manage their symptoms and maintain a good quality of life for several years.

Vascular diseases are medical conditions that affect the circulatory system, specifically the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). These diseases can include conditions such as:

1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, which can restrict blood flow.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): A condition caused by atherosclerosis where there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, most commonly in the legs. This can lead to pain, numbness, and cramping.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. This can increase the risk of stroke.
5. Cerebrovascular Disease: Conditions that affect blood flow to the brain, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke").
6. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes it to bulge outward and potentially rupture.
7. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, which can cause pain, swelling, and increased risk of pulmonary embolism if the clot travels to the lungs.
8. Varicose Veins: Swollen, twisted, and often painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood, usually appearing in the legs.
9. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage and narrowing, leading to reduced blood flow.
10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: A condition where the small arteries that supply blood to the skin become narrowed, causing decreased blood flow, typically in response to cold temperatures or stress.

These are just a few examples of vascular conditions that fall under the umbrella term "cerebrovascular disease." Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many of these conditions.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Hepatic insufficiency, also known as liver insufficiency, refers to the reduced ability of the liver to perform its vital functions due to damage or disease. The liver plays a crucial role in metabolism, detoxification, synthesis, storage, and secretion. When it becomes insufficient, it can lead to various complications such as:

1. Impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
2. Buildup of toxic substances in the blood due to reduced detoxification capacity
3. Decreased synthesis of essential proteins, including clotting factors
4. Reduced glycogen storage and impaired glucose regulation
5. Fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites) and legs (edema) due to decreased production of albumin and increased pressure in the portal vein
6. Impaired immune function, making the individual more susceptible to infections
7. Hormonal imbalances leading to various symptoms such as changes in appetite, weight loss, and sexual dysfunction

Hepatic insufficiency can range from mild to severe, and if left untreated, it may progress to liver failure, a life-threatening condition requiring immediate medical attention.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the dysfunction and underproduction of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, stress response, and immune system function.

The primary cause of Addison disease is the destruction of more than 90% of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands responsible for hormone production. This damage can be due to an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the adrenal gland tissue, infections such as tuberculosis or HIV, cancer, genetic disorders, or certain medications.

The symptoms of Addison disease often develop gradually and may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, low blood pressure, darkening of the skin, and mood changes. In some cases, an acute crisis known as acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis can occur, which is a medical emergency characterized by sudden and severe symptoms such as extreme weakness, confusion, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and coma.

Diagnosis of Addison disease typically involves blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs to assess the adrenal glands' size and structure, and stimulation tests to evaluate the adrenal glands' function. Treatment usually involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and sometimes mineralocorticoids. With proper treatment and management, individuals with Addison disease can lead normal and productive lives.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to visualize and measure the velocity of blood flow in the cerebral arteries located in the skull. This imaging modality employs the Doppler effect, which describes the change in frequency of sound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells. By measuring the frequency shift of the reflected ultrasound waves, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is primarily used to assess cerebrovascular circulation and detect abnormalities such as stenosis (narrowing), occlusion (blockage), or embolism (obstruction) in the intracranial arteries. It can also help monitor patients with conditions like sickle cell disease, vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments such as thrombolysis or angioplasty. The procedure is typically performed by placing a transducer on the patient's skull after applying a coupling gel, and it does not involve radiation exposure or contrast agents.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

... can refer to: Varicose veins Chronic venous insufficiency Venous stasis This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Venous insufficiency. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
"Chronic Venous Insufficiency". Society for Vascular Surgery. December 1, 2009. Whiteley MS (2011). "Understanding Venous Reflux ... Anxiety Depression Inflammation Cellulitis The most common cause of chronic venous insufficiency is reflux of the venous valves ... According to Widmer Classification for assessment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), diagnosis of chronic venous ... it is referred to as chronic venous disease. It is sometimes called chronic peripheral venous insufficiency and should not be ...
A similar condition involving the head and neck venous system may cause chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and ... A chronic state of impaired venous drainage from the central nervous system, termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency ... truncular venous malformation in the extracranial venous pathways as the cause of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency ... truncular venous malformation in the extracranial venous pathways as the cause of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency ...
In chronic venous insufficiency, sonographic examination is of most benefit; in confirming varicose disease, making an ... As a further complication to the examination, where venous insufficiency is evidenced, the examination needs to be done with ... Ultrasonography of suspected or previously confirmed chronic venous insufficiency of leg veins is a risk-free, non-invasive ... Unlike the arterial ultrasound study, when the sonographer studies venous insufficiency, the vein wall itself has no relevance ...
Chronic venous insufficiency. Poor diet or malabsorption disease resulting in malnutrition of micronutrients essential for ... Findings consistent with McArdle's disease would include a failure of lactate to rise in venous blood and exaggerated ammonia ... McArdle noticed this patient's cramps were electrically silent and his venous lactate levels failed to increase upon ischemic ...
... a review of its use in chronic venous insufficiency, venous ulcers and haemorrhoids". Drugs. 63 (1): 71-100. doi:10.2165/ ... For venous insufficiency, the dosage is 2 tablets of 500mg daily. For acute hemorrhoidal attack, the dosage is 6 tablets daily ... Diosmiplex, a micronized purified flavonoid fraction of daflon, with similar venous insufficiency indication, is sold as a ... "Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (11): CD003229. doi:10.1002/14651858. ...
VascularWeb: Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Retrieved January 15, 2009, from [6] Archived 2009-01-21 at the Wayback Machine. ... is used to remove varicose veins from the legs in disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency. A nail avulsion is performed ... Talbi, M., Stussi, J. D., & Meley, M. Microsurgical replantation of a totally amputated ear without venous repair. (2001, ... but its success rate is lower because of the need for venous drainage. The ear can also be reconstructed with cartilage and ...
... but a common denominator is generally venous stasis, which may be caused by chronic venous insufficiency, and/or congestive ... that fails to heal spontaneously and is sustained by chronic venous disease, based on venous duplex ultrasound testing." Venous ... Venous insufficiency may also cause white blood cells (leukocytes) to accumulate in small blood vessels, releasing inflammatory ... "Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)". Cleveland Clinic. Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/14/2019. ...
... is a dietary supplement used to aid treatment of hemorrhoids and venous diseases, i.e., chronic venous insufficiency ... which are used to treat chronic venous insufficiency or hemorrhoids. In 2017, the American Working Group in Chronic Venous ... November 2020). "Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD003229. doi: ... Chronic Venous Insufficiency". Vascular Medicine: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease (Second ed.). Elsevier Health ...
Garg, Nitin; Gloviczki, Peter (2013). "55-Chronic Venous Insufficiency". Vascular Medicine: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart ... Anorectal varices due to portal hypertension (blood pressure in the portal venous system) may present similar to hemorrhoids ... Hemorrhoid symptoms are believed to result when these vascular structures slide downwards or when venous pressure is ... and restricted in Spain for the treatment of chronic venous diseases. A number of office-based procedures may be performed. ...
2020-11-03). "Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (11): CD003229. doi: ... 3 November 2020). "Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (11): CD003229. ... venous insufficiency, or endothelial dysfunction, but there was no high-quality evidence for their safe and effective uses as ...
However, untreated venous insufficiency can progress into a combined venous/lymphatic disorder known as phlebetic lymphedema ( ... Lymphedema should not be confused with edema arising from chronic venous insufficiency, which is caused by compromise of venous ... Cutaneous Changes in Peripheral Venous and Lymphatic Insufficiency". In Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS, Leffell ... Nicholls, S. C. (2005). "Sequelae of Untreated Venous Insufficiency". Seminars in Interventional Radiology. 22 (3): 162-168. ...
Virchow's triad "Chronic Venous Insufficiency". 2021-08-08. Retrieved 2022-11-17. Zhu, Ruiqi; Hu, Yu; ... Potential complications of venous stasis are: Venous ulcers Blood clot formation in veins (venous thrombosis), that can occur ... Venous stasis, or venostasis, is a condition of slow blood flow in the veins, usually of the legs. ... Recommendations by clinicians to reduce venous stasis and DVT/PE often encourage increasing walking, calf exercises, and ...
Venous insufficiency is the most common disorder of the venous system, and is usually manifested as either spider veins or ... Postphlebitic syndrome is venous insufficiency that develops following deep vein thrombosis. Venous thrombosis is the formation ... Goel, RR; Hardy, SC; Brown, T (30 September 2021). "Surgery for deep venous insufficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... In the venous system disorders are often caused by a slow return of blood due to insufficient valves, or to a blood clot. Most ...
Chronic venous thrombosis and venous insufficiency. In: Peripheral vascular sonography: a practical guide. Baltimore: Williams ... In that sense, venous blood has a greater ability to reflect light. When an arterial-venous fistulae is transluminated, there ... Nicolaides, AN, Investigation of Chronic Venous Insufficiency - A Consensus Statement (Circulation. 2000; 102:e 126.) 2000 ... Venous disorders: a manual of diagnosis and treatment. Cidade: Saundres; 1995:41. Cranley, JJ. Diagnostic tests for venous ...
Michaelides M, Luthert PJ, Cooling R, Firth H, Moore AT (November 2004). "Norrie disease and peripheral venous insufficiency". ... In a study of 56 patients with Norrie disease, 21 patients (38%) reported PVD (including varicose veins, peripheral venous ...
In a 1990 study, a treatment approach was used to repair isolated glans insufficiency due to venous leakage. The diagnosis was ... Schramek, P.; Waldhauser, M. (April 1990). "Isolated glans insufficiency due to venous leakage". Urology. 35 (4): 307-309. doi: ... Glans insufficiency syndrome, also known as the soft glans, cold glans, or glans insufficiency, is a medical condition that ... The method included venous stripping procedure of the retrocoronal plexus, followed by ligation of the dorsal deep vein (DDV) ...
Correlation with antepartum umbilical venous fetal pH". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 169 (4): 755-63. doi: ... Placental insufficiency or utero-placental insufficiency is the failure of the placenta to deliver sufficient nutrients to the ... The following characteristics of placentas have been said to be associated with placental insufficiency, however all of them ... so none of them can be used to accurately diagnose placental insufficiency:[citation needed] Abnormally thin placenta (less ...
"Chronic Venous Insufficiency". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 9 July 2021. "Varicose Vein Surgery Workup: ... Occasionally they result from chronic venous insufficiency. Underlying causes include weak or damaged valves in the veins. They ... Curri SB, Annoni F (April 1988). "Changes of cutaneous microcirculation from elasto-compression in chronic venous insufficiency ... Gloviczki P (2008). Handbook of Venous Disorders : Guidelines of the American Venous Forum Third Edition. CRC Press. p. 6. ISBN ...
Ghezzi A, Comi G, Federico A (February 2011). "Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis". ... December 2010). "Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and the doubtful promise of an endovascular treatment for multiple ... April 2009). "Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis". Journal of Neurology, ... March 2010). "Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis". Annals of Neurology. 67 (3): 286-90. ...
Short stature decreases risk of venous insufficiency. Growth hormone treatment Sizonenko PC, Rabinovitch A, Schneider P, ...
... decreases the risk of venous insufficiency. During World War I in Britain, the minimum height for soldiers was 5 ...
Pittler, Max H.; Ernst, Edzard (2012-11-14). "Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency". The Cochrane ... is a safe and effective treatment for short-term treatment of chronic venous insufficiency; however, more high quality ...
Cutaneous Changes in Peripheral Venous and Lymphatic Insufficiency. In: Wolff K, ed. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General ...
Pittler MH, Ernst E. (2012). "Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 11 (11 ... suggested that horse chestnut seed extract may be an efficacious and safe short-term treatment for chronic venous insufficiency ... of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency". Lancet ... is possibly useful in traditional medicine for its effect on venous tone. A Cochrane Review ...
Short stature decreases the risk of venous insufficiency. Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health ... Short stature decreases the risk of venous insufficiency. When populations share genetic backgrounds and environmental factors ...
Hristakieva E, Gancheva D, Gancheva T (2014). "Contact dermatitis in patient with chronic venous insufficiency". Trakia Journal ...
In venous insufficiency, venous stasis results in abnormally high venous pressure (venous hypertension) and greater ... venous reflux), slowing the return of the blood to the heart (venous stasis). The venous pressure in the legs changes ... Causes may include venous insufficiency, heart failure, kidney problems, low protein levels, liver problems, deep vein ... Phlebetic lymphedema (or phlebolymphedema) is seen in untreated chronic venous insufficiency and is the most common type of ...
Cutaneous Changes in Peripheral Venous and Lymphatic Insufficiency. In: Wolff K, ed. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General ...
In 2010, he published the book Principles of venous hemodynamics detailing hemodynamic concepts of the venous insufficiency and ... the cause of the venous insufficiency, but the result of venous valves incompetence instead and/or obstacles to the flow. ... The CHIVA technique as a treatment of venous insufficiency is now accepted as the standard of care in those situations where it ... Venous insufficiency and dynamic fractionating of the hydrostatic pressure column STV. Sang thrombose vaisseaux 2001, 13, 307 ...
Venous insufficiency can refer to: Varicose veins Chronic venous insufficiency Venous stasis This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Venous insufficiency. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins have problems sending blood from the legs back to the heart. ... Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins have problems sending blood from the legs back to the heart. ... Chronic venous stasis; Chronic venous disease; Leg ulcer - venous insufficiency; Varicose veins - venous insufficiency ... Chronic venous insufficiency tends to get worse over time. However, it can be managed if treatment is started in the early ...
Venous insufficiency syndromes are most commonly caused by valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system ... venous blood escapes from its normal antegrade path of flow and refluxes backward down the veins into an already congested leg ... Superficial venous insufficiency. In superficial venous insufficiency, the deep veins are normal, but venous blood escapes from ... Deep venous insufficiency. Deep venous insufficiency can be due to congenital valve or vessel abnormalities, but it most ...
Most cases of venous insufficiency are chronic. In this article, we look at the types, causes, and treatments for venous ... Venous insufficiency occurs when the veins are less able to transport blood back to the heart. ... People with serious cases of venous insufficiency may require surgery. Some surgical procedures that treat venous insufficiency ... venous insufficiency can lead to other health conditions, such as dermatitis, venous ulceration, and chronic venous ...
Venous insufficiency syndromes are most commonly caused by valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system ... venous blood escapes from its normal antegrade path of flow and refluxes backward down the veins into an already congested leg ... encoded search term (Venous Insufficiency) and Venous Insufficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ... Physiologic tests of venous function are important in assessing the cause and severity of venous insufficiency. The physiologic ...
Quantitative differentiation of peripheral venous insufficiency]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Analysis of VarianceFemaleHumansLegMalePhlebographyPostureThrombophlebitisVaricose VeinsVenous InsufficiencyVenous Pressure ... Supine pedal venous measurement in patients with venous disease.. *[Musculo-venous pump of the lower extremities (review of the ... Quantitative Differentiation of Peripheral Venous Insufficiency]." VASA. Zeitschrift Fur Gefasskrankheiten, vol. 2, no. 1, 1973 ...
Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins ... Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins fail to ...
Find out which supplements help for varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency, including citrus bioflavonoids and grape ... Do any supplements help for varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency? ... Learn about the health benefits of grape seed extract, and find out it improves venous insufficiency, leg swelling, swelling ... or improve symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency, a related condition in which weakened blood vessels in the leg can cause ...
Both trauma and venous insufficiency result in the localized pooling of blood, which the body quickly begins to break down into ... The most common of these is chronic venous insufficiency. This is a condition in which structural changes to the one-way valves ...
Decrease Quantity of Vinnie Venous Insufficiency Leg Model Increase Quantity of Vinnie Venous Insufficiency Leg Model ... Designed for Vinnie Venous Insufficiency Leg or Annie Arterial Insufficiency Leg Models. The case can hold one... ... Designed for Vinnie Venous Insufficiency Leg or Annie Arterial Insufficiency Leg Models. The case can hold one... ... Vinnie Venous Insufficiency Leg is a great tool for teaching, training, competency testing and skills assessment in the care ...
... and HCSE therapy are alternative therapies for the effective treatment of patients with oedema resulting from chronic venous ... of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency Lancet. ... of both therapies was examined in a novel hierarchical statistical design in 240 patients with chronic venous insufficiency. ... Background: Diseases of the venous system are widespread disorders sometimes associated with modern civilisation and are among ...
ICD-10 code N52.03 for Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction is a medical ... Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction N52. Excludes1: psychogenic impotence (F52.21 ... ICD-10-CM Code for Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction N52.03 ICD-10 code N52.03 ... for Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction is a medical classification as listed by ...
... affecting the principal cerebrospinal venous segments; this provides a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency ( ... In this way it was possible to delineate a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) associated with MS, ... Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure. J Physiol 2004;560:317-27. ... Patterns of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Selective venography enabled us to localise exactly not only the places ...
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is when the veins and valves in the legs do not work as they should. This can cause a backup ... Venous insufficiency. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated ... Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is when the veins and valves in the legs do not work as they should. This can cause a backup ... ...
Superficial venous insufficiency involves abnormal retrograde flow of blood in the superficial venous system of the legs. Are ... venous insufficiency/reflux (eg, varicose veins [shown], chronic venous insufficiency) and veno-occlusive disease, including ... which is also termed venous insufficiency syndrome. Mild forms of venous insufficiency are merely uncomfortable, annoying, or ... The presence of venous reflux or outflow insufficiency should be determined.. If present, venous disease should be treated with ...
What are the symptoms of varicose veins or venous insufficiency?. April 26, 2017. insufficiency symptoms varicose veins venous ... What helps prevent or alleviate the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency?. *What are the symptoms of venous insufficiency ... Symptoms caused by venous insufficiency and varicose veins include aching pain, easy leg fatigue, and leg heaviness, all of ... In more severe cases, venous insufficiency and reflux can cause skin discoloration and ulceration, which may be very difficult ...
... called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), and its treatment (known as liberation therapy) was immediately ... Scientific Versus Experiential Evidence: Discourse Analysis of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Debate in a ... Scientific Versus Experiential Evidence: Discourse Analysis of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Debate in a ... Scientific Versus Experiential Evidence: Discourse Analysis of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Debate in a ...
Review of venous anatomy for venographic interpretation in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. J Vasc Interv Radiol ... Investigation of chronic venous insufficiency: a consensus statement (France, March 5-9, 1997). Circulation 2000;102:E126-63. ... Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is an entity proposed to be associated with MS and said to be detected in 90% of ... Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009;80:392-99. ...
... position Statement Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI). Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency is a ... Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Home>Patient Information>Chronic cerebrospinal ... Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosisiconicadmin2020-09-30T10:29:22+10:00 ANZSVS ... A prospective open‐label study of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Journal of Vascular ...
Venous Insufficiency treatment New Haven CT by our vein specialists puts an end to leg pain, leg swelling and leg cramps with ... VENOUS INSUFFICIENCY CAN LEAD TO A DEADLY PULMONARY EMBOLISM. Venous insufficiency is caused by malfunctioning veins deep in ... we can determine if you have venous insufficiency. If so, we can treat your venous insufficiency using the most advanced vein ... you may have venous insufficiency.. If you do have venous insufficiency, treatment is very important to prevent the progression ...
Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Postphlebitic Syndrome - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis ... Chronic venous insufficiency occurs when venous obstruction (eg, in DVT Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) Deep venous thrombosis ( ... syndrome is symptomatic chronic venous insufficiency after deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Causes of chronic venous insufficiency ... Prevention of Chronic Venous Insufficiency Primary prevention of chronic venous insufficiency involves adequate anticoagulation ...
... the researchers recommended Flexitouch with conservative therapy to reduce costs in patients with chronic venous insufficiency- ... a new clinical study demonstrating the health and economic benefits of the Flexitouch system for chronic venous insufficiency- ... marketing at-home therapy devices that treat chronic swelling conditions such as lymphedema and chronic venous insufficiency. ... New Clinical Publication Demonstrating the Health and Economic Benefits of Flexitouch for Chronic Venous Insufficiency-related ...
You dont need to struggle with chronic venous insufficiency. Symptoms can be managed if you spot them early and seek ... You dont need to struggle with chronic venous insufficiency. Symptoms can be managed if you spot them early and seek ... Chronic venous insufficiency (or CVI) is the most common vascular condition in the United States. A product of malfunctioning ... Recognizing the Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency. June 12, 2018. , Written By Center for Vein Restoration ...
Chronic venous insufficiency is a condition that occurs when the venous wall and/or valves in the leg veins are not working ... Chronic venous insufficiency that develops as a result of DVT is also known as post-thrombotic syndrome. As many as 30 percent ... These venous stasis ulcers are difficult to heal and can become infected. When the infection is not controlled, it can spread ... and this pooling is called venous stasis. ...
... , Angiology, February 1988, SAGE Publications, DOI: 10.1177/000331978803900204. You can ...
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The venous refill test is a reliable indicator of venous valvular insufficiency. PADnet™+ was tested for substantial ... Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is an under-diagnosed and significant health problem in the US, affecting over 10 million of ... PADnet™+ Venous Edition is a diagnostic tool for primary diagnosis of insufficiencies and incompetence (damaged valves that no ... Is PADnet ™ + Venous Edition a clinically accurate and reproducible test? A PADnet™+ venous test includes a thorough physical ...
Chronic venous insufficiency occurs as a result from an occlusion of the venous valves in the legs or the back flow of blood ... Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Leave a Comment / Complicated Rescues, First Aid / By Admin ... The resulting insufficiency of venous blood results in hypertension whenever there has been a … ...
Venous insufficiency refers to any dysfunction of the circulation, on the return path of blood from the lower limbs to the ... Venous insufficiency is one of the most common chronic conditions in developed countries. It is characterized by poor ... This is why venous insufficiency mainly affects the legs: this is where the blood tends to stagnate, causing pain, dilation of ... HOW TO PREVENT THE APPEARANCE OF VENOUS DISORDERS?. 1/ Regularly benefit from Patricia BLANCO medical endermologie ® treatments ...
  • Venous insufficiency can refer to: Varicose veins Chronic venous insufficiency Venous stasis This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Venous insufficiency. (
  • See Superficial Venous Insufficiency: Varicose Veins and Venous Ulcers , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the common risk factors and features of this condition and its management options. (
  • Many patients with venous insufficiency have clinically unrecognized chronic recurrent varicose thrombosis due to stasis in areas with abnormal veins. (
  • A study from the United Kingdom compared 27 consecutive patients seen at a varicose vein clinic with 23 normal ambulatory volunteers and found evidence to suggest that the presence of pulsatile flow in the GSV might be a marker of severe chronic insufficiency of the superficial veins. (
  • In other words, a proper technique that would allow the proper visualization to assess for obstructive disease, varicose veins, perforating veins, and other venous abnormalities is required. (
  • Although few studies document the natural history of varicose veins (shown) , superficial venous insufficiency is considered to be progressive over time, typically beginning as reticular veins or corona phlebectatica ("corona"), developing into isolated calf varicosities and, eventually, resulting in a tortuous and distended great saphenous vein. (
  • What are the symptoms of varicose veins or venous insufficiency? (
  • Symptoms caused by venous insufficiency and varicose veins include aching pain, easy leg fatigue, and leg heaviness, all of which worsen as the day progresses. (
  • So, if you have started to notice the development of varicose veins or spider veins on your legs, or if you have unexplained leg pain, swelling, cramping or heaviness, you may have venous insufficiency . (
  • So if you have symptoms of leg heaviness, cramping or swelling or you have any concerns about the way your legs look, varicose veins on your legs, it can be a sign of a more serious problem underneath, which is venous insufficiency. (
  • Approximately 24 million Americans have varicose veins, 6 million have skin changes associated with CVI and venous stasis ulcers affect 500,000 people. (
  • al, 35 patients with RLS and superficial venous insufficiency underwent endovenous ablation of refluxing superficial veins and ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy of varicose veins. (
  • If a patient has restless legs symptoms and evidence of varicose veins of the legs, a work-up for venous insufficiency should be considered. (
  • For more information on varicose veins and eliminating underlying venous insufficiency, check this link out full of resources. (
  • Venous reflux is often the underlying cause of painful varicose veins, and it worsens over time. (
  • Can my varicose veins lead to Deep Venous Thrombosis? (
  • In many patients varicose veins will also be present in conjunction with chronic venous insufficiency, but this is not always the case. (
  • Risks from static standing: There are numerous potential health risks from prolonged standing or walking on hard surfaces, such as lower back pain, leg pain and discomfort, fatigue, lower-extremity swelling, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency (see below), and (more rarely) a poorer prognosis after diagnosis of coronary artery disease and preterm births. (
  • Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins have problems sending blood from the legs back to the heart. (
  • In venous insufficiency states, venous blood escapes from its normal antegrade path of flow and refluxes backward down the veins into an already congested leg. (
  • Arterial inflow fills the leg veins slowly, and the only source of venous pressure is the hydrostatic pressure of a column of blood as high as the nearest competent valve. (
  • In venous insufficiency, after prolonged standing, the veins are completely filled, and all the venous valves float open. (
  • First, bicuspid valves in the veins prevent backflow and venous pooling. (
  • Venous insufficiency occurs when the valves in a person's veins do not work properly. (
  • When a person has venous insufficiency, their veins have trouble moving deoxygenated blood from the arms and legs back to the heart. (
  • Faulty valves inside the veins usually cause venous insufficiency. (
  • redirection of venous flow to the vertebral veins (VVs) occurs in the upright position, with compliant reduction of the CSA of the IJV. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is when the veins and valves in the legs do not work as they should. (
  • In more than 50% of the general population, superficial venous disease appears in the form of "spider" or reticular veins, but in approximately 20%-25% of the population, the disease can progress to visible varicosities at its extremes, such as ulceration or skin changes. (
  • Nine consecutive patients undergoing digital subtraction venography for petrosal venous sampling or parathormone sampling had images of their internal jugular veins obtained as part of their procedure, and they were assessed for stenosis. (
  • Venous insufficiency is caused by malfunctioning veins deep in your legs. (
  • Venous insufficiency is the failure of the veins to circulate the blood properly, especially in the lower legs. (
  • Venous return from the lower extremities relies on contraction of calf muscles to push blood from intramuscular (soleal) sinusoids and gastrocnemius veins into and through deep veins. (
  • venous valvular insufficiency, or decreased contraction of muscles surrounding the veins (eg, due to immobility) decrease forward venous flow and increase venous pressure (venous hypertension). (
  • A product of malfunctioning venous valves, it causes blood to gather in the veins, placing greater pressure on them. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency is a condition that occurs when the venous wall and/or valves in the leg veins are not working effectively, causing the blood to leak downwards consequently making it difficult for blood to return to the heart from the legs and causes blood to "pool" or collect in these veins, and this pooling is called venous stasis. (
  • This is why venous insufficiency mainly affects the legs: this is where the blood tends to stagnate, causing pain, dilation of the veins and edema. (
  • However, patients with chronic venous insufficiency Davenport have problems in their veins and thus do not transport all blood back to the heart, thus leading to an accumulation of blood in the legs and feet. (
  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency is a medical condition in which the veins are unable to pump deoxygenated blood back to the heart. (
  • This is caused because the one-way valves that are inside the veins are damaged (incompetent) and this causes venous reflux (blood pooling on the legs instead of returning to the heart) often resulting in chronic swelling of the legs, skin discoloration, Venous Eczema (itching), and Lipodermatosclerosis (thin, shiny, leathery skin). (
  • Insufficiency of venous usually occurs when valves in a patient's veins stop working correctly. (
  • If a person has venous insufficiency, their veins can't move deoxygenated blood from the legs back to the heart. (
  • These defective valves inside the veins lead to venous insufficiency. (
  • Many adults struggle with pain from chronic venous insufficiency, a condition where the blood that is meant to return to the heart through the veins does not do so effectively due to narrowed veins in the legs. (
  • They are one of the effects of chronic venous insufficiency , a term used to describe disease in the tissues of the leg resulting from prolonged high pressures in the veins of the leg. (
  • Instead, when you have chronic venous insufficiency, the blood will pool in the damaged veins, which is something that can cause a lot of problems. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency is a medical condition that fundamentally alters the integrity of your leg veins. (
  • Chronic Venous Disease (CVD) is a condition involving venous hypertension caused by obstruction of the flow and/or insufficiency of the valves of the superficial or deep veins. (
  • In the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to contrast venography, and it has now replaced venography in this setting. (
  • Postphlebitic (postthrombotic) syndrome is symptomatic chronic venous insufficiency after deep venous thrombosis (DVT). (
  • Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is clotting of blood in a deep vein of an extremity (usually calf or thigh) or the pelvis. (
  • We know that prolonged bed rest itself can result in venous thrombosis. (
  • Patients should be tested for CVI if they have significant signs and/or symptoms of possible venous valve incompetence or if they have a family history of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). (
  • Specific factors might increase a patient's risk of deep vein thrombosis and subsequent chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • Colloquially known as blood clots, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are forms of venous thromboembolism (VTE). (
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE, including deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [PE]) in surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia has been extensively studied. (
  • Early prophylaxis in surgical patients with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been associated with significant reductions in postoperative venous thrombosis. (
  • For more information, see Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism . (
  • Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE). (
  • CT venography showing bilateral deep venous thrombosis. (
  • Arrows indicate bilateral deep venous thrombosis. (
  • [ 2 ] and as many as 50% of those with image-documented venous thrombosis lack specific symptoms. (
  • Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are manifestations of a single disease entity, namely, venous thromboembolism (VTE). (
  • this provides a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) with four different patterns of distribution of stenosis and substitute circle. (
  • This article reports the results of sonographic findings in patients with MS and controls, looking for evidence of the controversial entity chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. (
  • Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency is a condition named to describe the concept of impaired Cerebrovascular Venous Drainage which could contribute to adverse physiological conditions of raised cerebral venous pressure, a postulated mechanism in the development of Multiple Sclerosis (and some other neurological conditions). (
  • These venous stasis ulcers are difficult to heal and can become infected. (
  • If Venous Reflux is left untreated, it will cause Venous Ulcers (skin sores) and it can take years for them to heal. (
  • When blood does no go back to the heart, blood pools and thus causes vein diseases and may result in many signs of venous insufficiencies, such as skin discoloration, leg ulcers, swelling, and pain. (
  • Even with ongoing professional treatment, healing rates are poor, with up to 50% of venous ulcers remaining present and unhealed after 9 months. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is the cause of chronic ulcers, therefore the early stages of chronic venous insufficiency may indicate the commencement of a chronic ulcer. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency can lead to the development of leg ulcers . (
  • Sheath-Based Combined Foam Sclerotherapy to Promote Management of Extensive Insufficiency of the Great Saphenous Vein in Venous Ulcers. (
  • To present a modification of the sclerotherapy tehcnique where the presence of venous ulcers poses an extra challenge to the treatment of GSV treatment . (
  • It commonly includes symptoms such as "heavy" or painful legs, but there can more rarely have more serious consequences such as skin ulcers, blood clots, and chronic venous stasis disease. (
  • Wound etiologies included 3 pressure ulcers, 1 diabetic foot ulcer, 1 venous leg ulcer, 2 postsurgical wound dehiscences, 1 ulcer secondary to calciphylaxis, and 1 traumatic wound secondary to hematoma. (
  • However, pregnancy is a risk factor for chronic venous insufficiency because a woman's legs and feet carry a lot of weight, including the woman and her unborn baby. (
  • Under normal conditions, two major mechanisms in the body operate to prevent venous hypertension. (
  • When these valves become incompetent, retrograde flow of blood predominates and leads to venous hypertension, resulting in the changes seen with superficial venous disease. (
  • This evokes venous hypertension, blood-brain barrier breakdown, hemosiderin deposition, and a secondary immune-mediated response with resultant demyelinating plaque. (
  • The original pathological description by Zamboni (Zamboni, 2006), was based upon the concept of chronic lower limb ambulatory venous hypertension (although lower limb venous pressures are significantly greater due to gravitational effects). (
  • Vascular clinicians are well aware of the detrimental effects of venous hypertension on the skin of the lower limbs and postulated that the delicate neural tissue might be susceptible to such physiological forces. (
  • Causes of chronic venous insufficiency are disorders that result in venous hypertension, usually through venous damage or incompetence of venous valves, as occurs (for example) after DVT. (
  • Fluid accumulation in the lower extremities (eg, in right heart failure) can also contribute by causing venous hypertension. (
  • Several days up to a week of strict bed rest is enough to see some improvement in complications or venous hypertension. (
  • Regardless of cause, when valves do not work properly, it can cause a buildup of venous pressure in the leg, leading to venous hypertension, or high blood pressure in the vein. (
  • Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), which are compounds found in substances such as pine bark extract and grape seed extract , have been found to reduce leg pain and swelling associated with chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • What are the symptoms associated with Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)? (
  • This results in many of the symptoms associated with venous insufficiency, such as skin discoloration, swelling, and pain. (
  • In more severe cases, venous insufficiency and reflux can cause skin discoloration and ulceration, which may be very difficult to treat. (
  • When used to evaluate patterns of venous reflux, ultrasonography is both sensitive and specific. (
  • Ultrasonographic reflux mapping is essential for the evaluation of peripheral venous insufficiency syndromes. (
  • The ideal treatment of venous valvular reflux disease is the elimination of gravity. (
  • Probably continuous bed rest is as effective as space travel to relieve the symptoms of venous reflux. (
  • This is called venous reflux. (
  • Foam sclerotherapy is considered an acceptable method to treat great saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency, promoting occlusion of its trunk and eradicating reflux. (
  • How to Treat and prevent chronic venous insufficiency? (
  • PADnet™+ Venous Edition is a diagnostic tool for primary diagnosis of insufficiencies and incompetence (damaged valves that no longer close properly) of the superficial venous system. (
  • Contact Vascular Vein Centers to schedule a comprehensive evaluation of your symptoms to confirm your chronic venous diagnosis and begin a treatment plan that will guarantee restored blood flow in your legs and feet. (
  • Consultation with healthcare professionals is pivotal for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and ongoing monitoring of venous insufficiency. (
  • Accurate diagnosis of venous insufficiency is crucial to ensure effective treatment and management of symptoms. (
  • Remembering these changes help manage venous insufficiency and contribute to overall cardiovascular health is important. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - [Quantitative differentiation of peripheral venous insufficiency]. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency occurs as a result from an occlusion of the venous valves in the legs or the back flow of blood through the valves. (
  • This self-adhesive wound represents a venous leg ulcer, a substance defect in the tissue of the lower leg as a result of a chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • Prolonged bed rest may be desirable during the initial phase of treating venous insufficiency with complications: severe stasis dermatitis or ulcer. (
  • However, these terms have been largely abandoned because they do not include another common cause of the disease, the congenital absence of venous valves. (
  • This finding reduces the usefulness of that test for the evaluation of patients with suspected acute venous thromboembolic disease. (
  • Intravascular ultrasonography has been gaining acceptance in the management of venous disease. (
  • This test uses a catheter-based ultrasound probe to visualize periluminal vascular anatomy in order to assess for obstructive or stenotic disease of the venous system. (
  • Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) is the most sensitive and specific test for the assessment of deep and superficial venous disease in the lower legs and pelvis, areas not accessible by means of other modalities. (
  • In most centers, it has been replaced by duplex sonography for the routine evaluation of venous disease. (
  • Wounds associated with venous disease and other wounds on the lower leg & foot are often extremely painful for the patient, thus adding urgency to their effective and efficient identification and treatment. (
  • The location of venous obstructions plays a key role in determining the clinical course of the disease. (
  • thus, they help clinicians to stratify and communicate the severity of venous disease. (
  • If you do have venous insufficiency, treatment is very important to prevent the progression of this dangerous vein disease and to help put an end to your debilitating symptoms. (
  • Multiple treatment options and methods can help you alleviate the symptoms of this painful venous health disease. (
  • The ultimate goal of medication in venous insufficiency is not just symptom management, but also slowing the progression of the disease and preventing complications. (
  • The Assessment of Burden in Chronic Venous Disease questionnaire (ABC-V) is a valuable tool for assessing the impact that chronic venous disease (CVD) has on patients' quality of life (QL). (
  • The venous supply to the leg is via a deep and superficial low-pressure system. (
  • The incidence of contrast-induced DVT in patients who undergo venography for the assessment of venous insufficiency is not known. (
  • Sixty-five patients affected by CDMS, and 235 controls composed, respectively, of healthy subjects, healthy subjects older than CDMS patients, patients affected by other neurological diseases and older controls not affected by neurological diseases but scheduled for venography (HAV-C) blindly underwent a combined transcranial and extracranial colour-Doppler high-resolution examination (TCCS-ECD) aimed at detecting at least two of five parameters of anomalous venous outflow. (
  • According to the TCCS-ECD screening, patients and HAV-C further underwent selective venography of the azygous and jugular venous system with venous pressure measurement. (
  • 1 2 MR venography 3 - 6 and postmortem studies 7 have demonstrated a topographic correspondence between MS plaques and cerebral venous system. (
  • In contrast, MR and selective injection venography are of course limited in evaluating cerebral venous haemodynamics under different postural and respiratory conditions. (
  • We present the results of a study that evaluated the abnormalities of the cerebral venous outflow in patients with MS using ECD-TCCS and selective venography. (
  • Those with 2 positive findings consented to undergo contrast digital subtraction venography for delineation of possible venous stenosis. (
  • Venous angioplasty CCVSI found enthusiasm among many procedural specialists worldwide who were willing to perform a relatively simple procedure with purported benefits for longstanding sufferers of a devastating chronic neurological illness. (
  • There were calls for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with the control arm being subjected to a "sham" venous angioplasty. (
  • The venous angioplasty procedure was the subject of an initial Cochrane review in 2012 but there were no publications that met the suitable inclusion criteria due to their poor methodology (non-randomised nature of those reports). (
  • Traboulsee, 2018 & Zamboni, 2018), that compared the venous angioplasty intervention with a "sham" procedure. (
  • The conclusion of the latest Cochrane review was that although venous angioplasty was proven to be a safe technique (without any serious adverse outcomes in the 3 publications included) it was concluded that the intervention was ineffective and could not be recommended in people with MS. Furthermore, the Cochrane reviewers felt that there was no requirement for further randomised clinical studies on this procedure. (
  • The best treatment for chronic venous insufficiency will vary from person to person. (
  • These results indicate that compression stocking therapy and HCSE therapy are alternative therapies for the effective treatment of patients with oedema resulting from chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • Venous insufficiency treatment in New Haven County, performed by our expert vascular specialists will help resolve your leg pain, leg swelling and leg heaviness. (
  • So it is important to have venous insufficiency treatment early and before damage is done that's irreversible. (
  • That is why it is best to be diagnosed and have venous insufficiency treatment as soon as possible, before irreversible damage is done. (
  • MINNEAPOLIS, June 22, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - Tactile Systems Technology, Inc. ("Tactile Medical") (Nasdaq:TCMD), a medical technology company focused on developing medical devices for the treatment of chronic diseases at home, today announced the publication of a new clinical study demonstrating the health and economic benefits of the Flexitouch system for chronic venous insufficiency-related lymphedema ("CVI-related lymphedema," also known as "Phlebolymphedema"), compared to other treatment modalities. (
  • Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended Flexitouch with conservative therapy to reduce costs in patients with chronic venous insufficiency-related lymphedema, compared to the other treatment modalities. (
  • Dr Schoenhaus also reviews potential treatment options as well as demonstrates how to perform endovenous procedures for venous insufficiency. (
  • Treatment is aimed at correcting the underlying venous insufficiency. (
  • In our study, 98% of the patients with venous insufficiency and restless legs, had resolution of symptoms following treatment. (
  • There's not just one treatment option for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). (
  • What is the best treatment for chronic venous insufficiency? (
  • Diabetes is serious due to its complications, namely: cardiovascular ailments, cerebral vascular accidents, renal insufficiency, blindness, sexual impotence and gangrene of the feet leading to amputation. (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency, left untreated, can lead to severe leg swelling, development of blood clots, and development of ulcerations where the skin can actually start to die. (
  • If left untreated, venous insufficiency can eventually cause skin ulcerations on your legs. (
  • With long-term (chronic) venous insufficiency, vein walls are weakened and valves are damaged. (
  • Dalsing MC, Maleti O. Chronic venous insufficiency: deep vein valve reconstruction. (
  • Venous duplex ultrasound exam, which provides an ultrasound image (a picture of the vein) to detect any blockage caused by blood clots or poor vein function. (
  • This condition happens when the walls of the vein, often called the venous wall, do not work as efficiently. (
  • The extracranial venous outflow routes in clinically defined multiple sclerosis (CDMS) have not previously been investigated. (
  • A PADnet™+ venous test includes a thorough physical examination and automated diagnostic procedure utilizing clinically proven optical probe (photoplethysmography (PPG) technology). (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. (
  • Vinnie' Venous Insufficiency Leg is a great tool for teaching, training, competency testing and skills assessment in the care of patients with this condition. (
  • This condition is what is called venous insufficiency . (
  • Chronic venous insufficiency (or CVI) is the most common vascular condition in the United States. (
  • In that case, you are at risk of developing the condition, which may trigger chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • In case of experiencing a chronic medical health condition such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), the blood valves in the vessel stop functioning properly. (
  • Venous insufficiency is a serious condition requiring active management participation, including lifestyle changes, medication, minimally invasive treatments, regular check-ups, and developing a strong support network. (
  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency is a common condition that involves problems with the return of blood from the legs back up to the heart, often as a result of defective valves in the leg. (
  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) is treated at ProVas using various therapies including Sclerotherapy, Ablation therapy and VenaSeal therapy. (
  • Laboratory tests may be helpful in patients with venous insufficiency due to Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber (KTW) syndrome because such patients can develop consumptive thrombocytopenia. (
  • Equivalence of both therapies was examined in a novel hierarchical statistical design in 240 patients with chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • The drainage through the extracranial venous outflow routes has not previously been investigated in MS patients. (
  • Some of the symptoms patients with chronic venous insufficiency present include inflammation and pain that make it difficult to walk or attend work. (
  • Smoking: Physicians usually discuss with patients on their lifestyle to detect any habits that might jeopardize venous structure and function. (
  • The draft version was completed by 31 patients at the Chronic Venous Diseases Department of Padre Anchieta's Teaching Hospital. (
  • CDMS is strongly associated with CCSVI, a scenario that has not previously been described, characterised by abnormal venous haemodynamics determined by extracranial multiple venous strictures of unknown origin. (
  • Venous valve. (
  • Chyle valve insufficiency may allow backflow from the thoracic duct within the LAMLNC. (
  • Pregnancy: There are many reasons pregnant women are vulnerable to chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • Venous insufficiency syndromes are most commonly caused by valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system (see the image below) but may also be caused by valvular incompetence in the high-pressure deep venous system (or, rarely, both). (
  • Duplex ultrasonography is the study of choice for the evaluation of venous insufficiency syndromes. (
  • Fiber is going to play a pivotal role in managing the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • Aside from fiber, there are a few herbs that have been shown to help with the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. (
  • Both trauma and venous insufficiency result in the localized pooling of blood, which the body quickly begins to break down into its components. (
  • The vascular specialists here at Milford Vascular Institute can quickly and easily diagnose and treat your venous insufficiency using the most advanced, minimally-invasive methods available anywhere. (
  • Minimally invasive treatments have emerged as an effective alternative to traditional surgery in managing venous insufficiency. (
  • The gold standard for treating CVI is minimally invasive venous closure . (
  • Delivered by a patented medical device, medical Endermologie® gently mobilizes the tissue to stimulate the venous and lymphatic circulation while limiting the risk of edema. (
  • If chronic venous insufficiency poses serious risks of heart failure and kidney diseases, your surgeon might prescribe strong medication to draw excess fluid away from your body. (
  • Lower-leg venous anatomy. (
  • During ambulation, the normal pressure in the venous system of the lower leg is nearly zero. (