Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A venomous New World spider with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the abdomen.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bite of SCORPIONS.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.
Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Agents that cause clotting.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Benzoate derivatives that contain one or more alkyl or aryl groups linked to the benzene ring structure by OXYGEN.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The Borage plant family is in the class Magnoliopsida, subclass Asteridae, order Lamiales. It is characterized by hairy foliage, usually alternate and simple; flowers are funnel-shaped or tubular. Some of the species contain PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.
Phenolic benzoic acid esters.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.

Purification from black widow spider venom of a protein factor causing the depletion of synaptic vesicles at neuromuscular junctions. (1/704)

The aqueous extract of the venom glands of black widow spiders was fractionated on a column of Sephadex G-200 and then on a column of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 pH 8.2. A protein fraction was obtained that caused a great increase in the frequency of occurrence of miniature end plate potentials at the frog neuromuscular junction, and caused swelling of the nerve terminals and depleted them of their vesicles. The fraction consists of a least four protein components that are similar in their molecular weights (about 130,000) and isoelectric points (ranging from pH 5.2 to 5.5) and are immunologically indistinguishable. It contains no sugar residues and has little or no lipolytic or proteolytic activity. The fraction is toxic to mice and is different from the fractions that act on houseflies, the crayfish stretch receptor and the cockroach heart. It seems pure enough to warrant a detailed study of its site and mode of action.  (+info)

Glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions of exendin-4: studies in obese diabetic (ob/ob, db/db) mice, diabetic fatty Zucker rats, and diabetic rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). (2/704)

Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the salivary secretions of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). It shows 53% sequence similarity to glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Unlike GLP-1, exendin-4 has a prolonged glucose-lowering action in vivo. We compared the potency and duration of glucose-lowering effects of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in hyperglycemic db/db and ob/ob mice. Whereas reductions in plasma glucose of up to 35% vanished within 1 h with most doses of GLP-1, the same doses of exendin-4 resulted in a similar glucose-lowering effect that persisted for >4 h. Exendin-4 was 5,530-fold more potent than GLP-1 in db/db mice (effective doses, 50% [ED50s] of 0.059 microg/kg +/-0.15 log and 329 microg/kg+/-0.22 log, respectively) and was 5,480-fold more potent in ob/ob mice (ED50s of 0.136 microg/kg+/-0.10 log and 744 microg/kg+/-0.21 log, respectively) when the percentage fall in plasma glucose at 1 h was used as the indicator response. Exendin-4 dose-dependently accelerated glucose lowering in diabetic rhesus monkeys by up to 37% with an ED50 of 0.25 microg/kg +/-0.09 log. In two experiments in which diabetic fatty Zucker rats were injected subcutaneously twice daily for 5-6 weeks with doses of exendin-4 up to 100 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1) (approximately 250 microg/kg), HbA1c was reduced relative to saline-injected control rats. Exendin-4 treatment was also associated in each of these experiments with weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by increases of up to 32 and 49%, respectively, in the glucose infusion rate (GIR) in the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. ED50s for weight loss and the increase in clamp GIR were 1.0 microg/kg+/-0.15 log and 2.4 microg/kg+/-0.41 log, respectively. In conclusion, acute and chronic administration of exendin-4 has demonstrated an antidiabetic effect in several animal models of type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Characterization of a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP-39)-formed cation-selective channel from platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom. (3/704)

1. The lipid bilayer technique is used to characterize the biophysical and pharmacological properties of a novel, fast, cation-selective channel formed by incorporating platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom (OaV) into lipid membranes. 2. A synthetic C-type natriuretic peptide OaCNP-39, which is identical to that present in platypus venom, mimics the conductance, kinetics, selectivity and pharmacological properties of the OaV-formed fast cation-selective channel. The N-terminal fragment containing residues 1-17, i.e. OaCNP-39(1-17), induces the channel activity. 3. The current amplitude of the TEACl-insensitive fast cation-selective channel is dependent on cytoplasmic K+, [K+]cis. The increase in the current amplitude, as a function of increasing [K+]cis, is non-linear and can be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. At +140 mV, the values of gammamax and KS are 63.1 pS and 169 mM, respectively, whereas at 0 mV the values of gammamax and KS are 21.1 pS and 307 mM, respectively. gammamax and KS are maximal single channel conductance and concentration for half-maximal gamma, respectively. The calculated permeability ratios, PK:PRb:PNa:PCs:PLi, were 1:0.76:0.21:0.09:0.03, respectively. 4. The probability of the fast channel being open, Po, increases from 0.15 at 0 mV to 0.75 at +140 mV. In contrast, the channel frequency, Fo, decreases from 400 to 180 events per second for voltages between 0 mV and +140. The mean open time, To, increases as the bilayer is made more positive, between 0 and +140 mV. The mean values of the voltage-dependent kinetic parameters, Po, Fo, To and mean closed time (Tc), are independent of [KCl]cis between 50 and 750 mM (P > 0. 05). 5. It is proposed that some of the symptoms of envenomation by platypus venom may be caused partly by changes in cellular functions mediated via the OaCNP-39-formed fast cation-selective channel, which affects signal transduction.  (+info)

Effects of size, motility and paralysation time of prey on the quantity of venom injected by the hunting spider Cupiennius salei. (4/704)

Previous experimental studies have shown that neotropical wandering spiders (Cupiennius salei) inject more venom when attacking larger crickets. It has been postulated that this is a consequence of predator-prey interactions during envenomation, which increase in intensity with the size of a given prey species. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis using anaesthetized crickets of different sizes that were moved artificially. Cupiennius salei was found (1) to inject more venom the greater the intensity of the struggling movement of the crickets (prey size kept constant); (2) to inject more venom the longer the duration of the struggling movement of the crickets (prey size and intensity of movement kept constant); and (3) to inject equal amounts into crickets of different size (duration and intensity of movement kept constant). These results indicate that C. salei alters the amount of venom it releases according to the size and motility of its prey. Venom expenditure depends mainly on the extent of the interactions with the prey during the envenomation process, whereas prey size is of minor significance. The regulation of venom injection in concert with behavioural adaptations in response to various types of prey minimizes the energetic cost of venom production, thus increasing the profitability of a given prey item.  (+info)

Solution structure of a defensin-like peptide from platypus venom. (5/704)

Three defensin-like peptides (DLPs) were isolated from platypus venom and sequenced. One of these peptides, DLP-1, was synthesized chemically and its three-dimensional structure was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The main structural elements of this 42-residue peptide were an anti-parallel beta-sheet comprising residues 15-18 and 37-40 and a small 3(10) helix spanning residues 10-12. The overall three-dimensional fold is similar to that of beta-defensin-12, and similar to the sodium-channel neurotoxin ShI (Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I). However, the side chains known to be functionally important in beta-defensin-12 and ShI are not conserved in DLP-1, suggesting that it has a different biological function. Consistent with this contention, we showed that DLP-1 possesses no anti-microbial properties and has no observable activity on rat dorsal-root-ganglion sodium-channel currents.  (+info)

Functional studies of a glucagon receptor isolated from frog Rana tigrina rugulosa: implications on the molecular evolution of glucagon receptors in vertebrates. (6/704)

In this report, the first amphibian glucagon receptor (GluR) cDNA was characterized from the liver of the frog Rana tigrina rugulosa. Functional expression of the frog GluR in CHO and COS-7 cells showed a high specificity of the receptor towards human glucagon with an EC(50) value of 0.8+/-0.5 nM. The binding of radioiodinated human glucagon to GluR was displaced in a dose-dependent manner only with human glucagon and its antagonist (des-His(1)-[Nle(9)-Ala(11)-Ala(16)]) with IC(50) values of 12.0+/-3. 0 and 7.8+/-1.0 nM, respectively. The frog GluR did not display any affinity towards fish and human GLP-1s, and towards glucagon peptides derived from two species of teleost fishes (goldfish, zebrafish). These fish glucagons contain substitutions in several key residues that were previously shown to be critical for the binding of human glucagon to its receptor. By RT-PCR, mRNA transcripts of frog GluR were located in the liver, brain, small intestine and colon. These results demonstrate a conservation of the functional characteristics of the GluRs in frog and mammalian species and provide a framework for a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the GluR and its physiological function in vertebrates.  (+info)

Secreted phospholipases A(2), a new class of HIV inhibitors that block virus entry into host cells. (7/704)

Mammalian and venom secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) have been associated with a variety of biological effects. Here we show that several sPLA(2)s protect human primary blood leukocytes from the replication of various macrophage and T cell-tropic HIV-1 strains. Inhibition by sPLA(2)s results neither from a virucidal effect nor from a cytotoxic effect on host cells, but it involves a more specific mechanism. sPLA(2)s have no effect on virus binding to cells nor on syncytia formation, but they prevent the intracellular release of the viral capsid protein, suggesting that sPLA(2)s block viral entry into cells before virion uncoating and independently of the coreceptor usage. Various inhibitors and catalytic products of sPLA(2) have no effect on HIV-1 infection, suggesting that sPLA(2) catalytic activity is not involved in the antiviral effect. Instead, the antiviral activity appears to involve a specific interaction of sPLA(2)s to host cells. Indeed, of 11 sPLA(2)s from venom and mammalian tissues assayed, 4 venom sPLA(2)s were found to be very potent HIV-1 inhibitors (ID(50) < 1 nM) and also to bind specifically to host cells with high affinities (K(0.5) < 1 nM). Although mammalian pancreatic group IB and inflammatory-type group IIA sPLA(2)s were inactive against HIV-1 replication, our results could be of physiological interest, as novel sPLA(2)s are being characterized in humans.  (+info)

Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins. (8/704)

Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin.  (+info)

CONTEXT We wanted to understand the effects of once-weekly vs. twice-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonism for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to compare effects of exenatide once weekly (ExQW) and exenatide twice daily (ExBID) on glycemic control, body weight, and safety. DESIGN This was a 24-wk, randomized, open-label, comparator-controlled study. SETTING The study was conducted at 43 sites in the United States. PATIENTS The study population was 252 intent-to-treat patients with type 2 diabetes [baseline (mean ± SD): glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.4 ± 1.2%, fasting plasma glucose 171 ± 47 mg/dl, weight 96 ± 20 kg] that were drug naïve (19%) or previously treated with one (47%) or multiple (35%) oral antidiabetic medications. INTERVENTIONS Interventions included ExQW 2 mg for 24 wk or ExBID 5 μg for 4 wk followed by ExBID 10 μg for 20 wk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The change in HbA1c from baseline to wk 24 was measured.
Preliminary evidence suggests that exenatide (Byetta®) may have several beneficial direct and indirect effects on NAFLD and liver lipid metabolism. Ad hoc analysis of phase III studies has shown that exenatide treatment is associated with improvement and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury, and that this effect is most pronounced in those with the greatest weight loss. In addition, treatment of leptin deficient ob/ob mice with exenatide reduced weight, liver lipid content, serum ALT and liver lipid peroxidation. Additional evidence suggests that the effects of exenatide on the liver are not simply a result of weight loss, but rather due to direct effects on the liver. Hepatocytes express GLP-1 receptors that are responsive to both GLP-1 and exenatide. Furthermore, exenatide treatment of ob/ob mice or isolated hepatocytes reduces mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and SREBP-1c, which would be expected to reduce DNL.. Based upon this data, we ...
Preliminary evidence suggests that exenatide (Byetta®) may have several beneficial direct and indirect effects on NAFLD and liver lipid metabolism. Ad hoc analysis of phase III studies has shown that exenatide treatment is associated with improvement and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury, and that this effect is most pronounced in those with the greatest weight loss. In addition, treatment of leptin deficient ob/ob mice with exenatide reduced weight, liver lipid content, serum ALT and liver lipid peroxidation. Additional evidence suggests that the effects of exenatide on the liver are not simply a result of weight loss, but rather due to direct effects on the liver. Hepatocytes express GLP-1 receptors that are responsive to both GLP-1 and exenatide. Furthermore, exenatide treatment of ob/ob mice or isolated hepatocytes reduces mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and SREBP-1c, which would be expected to reduce DNL.. Based upon this data, we ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs biliary effects were limited. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of exenatide on bile acids (BAs) and investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed T2DM participants without glucose-lowering drugs intake were recruited. Plasma total bile acids in fasting state (FTBAs) and other parameters were tested at baseline. Then exenatide were applied to the T2DM participants for 12 weeks. FTBAs and glycemic parameters were measured again after exenatide treatment, and correlation analysis between changes of FTBAs and glycemic parameters were conducted to investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide. The baseline FTBAs level of T2DM patients had no significance (3.84 ± 2.06 vs. 3.87 ± 2.89, P = 0.954) compared with healthy subjects. After 12
Symptomatic defined as patient with signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia with or without confirmatory blood glucose measurement.. Glycemic control significantly (but modestly) improved with once-weekly exenatide when compared to daily insulin glargine. Not surprising, the reduction in fasting glucose was greater with insulin glargine. We can assume that post-prandial blood glucose was substantially reduced by exenatide given that overall glycemic control was better in the exenatide group. The proportion of patients who were able to achieve an A1c ≤ 6.5% was significantly greater with exenatide (number needed to treat = 10). Weight loss with exenatide was maintained throughout the study.. Common adverse effects noted in the exenatide group included nausea and diarrhea during the first 26 weeks of treatment but relative few patients reporting these symptoms during the study extension period (nausea 2.1% and diarrhea 3.4%). Serious adverse events reported in the exenatide group included one case of: ...
Adverse effects were mild and generally gastrointestinal. Mild hypoglycaemia was noted in 28-36% of patients also receiving SU. An important result was a significant, dose-dependent and progressive weight loss of 1.6kg (SU and SU + metformin) and 2.8kg (metformin) from baseline. In open-label extensions of these studies, exenatide has been given for a total of two years with continued effects on HbA1c and body weight.39 However, some patients (about 38% of patients after 30 weeks) appear to develop low titre antibodies against exenatide, and 6% developed antibodies with higher titres. In about half of these, the glucose lowering effect of exenatide appeared attenuated. Exenatide was approved by the US Fooda and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2005. Information about the new drug - named Byetta - is available on the website of the company ( Most recently, the Amylin Corporation has developed a slow-release formulation of exenatide.40 Exenatide LAR (long-acting release) is a ...
China Exenatide Acetate (Exendin-4) CAS 141758-74-9 for Body Supplements Peptides, Find details about China Exenatide Acetate, Polypeptide Hormones from Exenatide Acetate (Exendin-4) CAS 141758-74-9 for Body Supplements Peptides - Shenzhen Simeiquan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
The natural GLP-1 substance is rapidly degraded, and to be useful, must be infused. Two strategies have been used to take advantage of the GLP-1 effects. The first is to produce substances that increase the half life of endogenous GLP-1. Several medications are under investigation using this strategy.. Another strategy is to look for what have been termed incretin mimetics - incretin analogs that mimic the effect of incretin hormones but are resistant to the degradation processes that limit the half life of natural GLP-1. There are a variety of these compounds in various phases of development including liraglutide (Novo Nordisk), CJC-1311 (ConjuChem, Montreal, Canada) and, exenatide, the synthetic version of exendin-4 (Amylin Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, Calif.) This was recently released by the FDA.. Exendin-4 is a naturally occurring substance found in the salivary secretions of the lizard Heloderma suspectun - the gila monster. This animal eats only every several months, which poses a ...
Exenatide, which is widely used for patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibits gastric emptying and small intestinal motility (1). We report a diabetic patient with panhypopituitarism who developed general fatigue and appetite loss with hypotension because of absorption delay of hydrocortisone in association with exenatide treatment.. A 50-year-old diabetic woman was admitted to our hospital because of poor glycemic control in December 2011. She had been treated with hydrocortisone and L-thyroxine for hypopituitarism as a result from surgeries and radiotherapy for carniopharyngioma. She was started on treatment with 5 μg exenatide twice a day. Nine days after exenatide treatment, the dose was increased to 10 μg twice a day. Although glycemic control improved rapidly, she complained of general fatigue, appetite loss, and hypotension in the morning, but symptoms improved before noon. We reasoned the symptoms by insufficiency of hydrocortisone replacement but investigated first whether exenatide ...
Introduction: Liraglutide and Exenatide are used in adults who are affected by type-2 diabetes to control their blood glucose level. They are administered by the patients by subcutaneous injection, Liraglutide once a day while Exenatide twice a day. The aim of this study was to evaluate medication adherence and persistence of treatment with Liraglutide and Exenatide with a new strategy of calculation also giving economic evaluations on therapy costs for Received Daily Dose. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we took into account 16 months from 1st September 2011 to 31st December 2012. Treatment adherence was quantified utilizing the ratio between RDD and Prescribed Daily Dose (PDD). Persistence is calculated into account the actual therapy days, comparing posology with supplied dose and the graph is drawn using Kaplan-Meir method. Results: The number of patients studied for Liraglutide was 114 and 220 and 58 and 60 for Exenatide respectively in 2011 and 2012. Adherence to therapy,
Objective: This review examines the use of exenatide twice daily in managing changes in markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Background: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive metabolic disorder, which results from defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action leading to chronic hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular complications. Despite the use of diet, exercise, oral antihyperglycaemic agents and insulin, the progressive nature of the condition means that the levels of the preventive and treatment measures would have to be increased and/or new therapies have to be developed in order to address the long term impact of type 2 diabetes. The advent of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist provides a useful basis for managing type 2 diabetes and related cardiovascular complications without the side effects of regular diabetes therapies. However, exenatide twice daily is often used in combination with other therapies, although the mechanism of exenatide in
AIMS: To investigate the effect of adding the short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide to insulin treatment on markers of cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 108 individuals with type 1 diabetes aged ≥18 years on multiple daily injection therapy with a body mass index ,22.0 kg/m2 and glycated haemoglobin concentration of 59 to 88 mmol/mol (7.5%-10.0%) were randomized (1:1) to preprandial subcutaneous injection of 10 μg exenatide (Byetta®) or placebo three times daily over 26 weeks as add-on treatment to existing insulin therapy. Reported markers of cardiovascular risk were secondary endpoints and were analyzed in a baseline-adjusted linear mixed model in the intention-to-treat population. The primary results of this study, the MAG1C (Meal-time Administration of exenatide for Glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes Cases) trial, were previously reported.. RESULTS: Exenatide changed ...
Buy Exendin-4 (Exenatide) (CAS 141758-74-9), a water soluble potent GLP-1 receptor agonist. Join researchers using high quality Exendin-4 (Exenatide) from…
Aims/Introduction:? To judge the basic safety and efficiency from the glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist exenatide in Japan sufferers with type?2 diabetes mellitus suboptimally controlled despite therapeutic dosages of the sulfonylurea alone or SU 11654 coupled with a biguanide or thiazolidinedione. (placebo) ?0.39?±?0.28 (exenatide 5?μg) and ?1.54?±?0.27 (exenatide 10?μg; placebo). Nausea mild to average was reported … Continue reading Aims/Introduction:? To judge the basic safety and efficiency from the glucagon‐like. ...
References. 1. Safety and efficacy study of exenatide once weekly in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. NCT01554618. [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 May 25]. Available from: 2. VICTOZA® US prescribing information. [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 May 25]. Available from: 3. Metformin. [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 May 25]. Available from: 4. American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2000;105(3 Pt 1):671-680.. 5. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th ed. [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 May 25]. Available from: 6. Development timeline for Bydureon. [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 25]. Available from: ...
This regulatory update covers a new warning on azithromycin about abnormal changes in the electrical activity of the heart, and a possible increased risk of pancreatitis and precancerous findings from incretin mimetic drugs.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Hiroko Mori, Takashi Otsuka, Mayuko Kawaguchi, Megumi Matsuda, Fumi Kuno, Kei Sugai, Satomi Sonoda, Maiko Hajime, Kenichi Tanaka, Tadashi Arao, Yoshiya Tanaka].
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects 18.2 million people in the United States.1 Type 2 diabetes is the most commonly diagnosed type; it is frequently caused by peripheral insulin resistance or impaired insulin secretion.2 Combination therapy is often necessary when a single drug fails to control plasma glucose. The FDA has approved Byetta (exenatide), manufactured by Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc, as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients who cannot achieve blood sugar control on metformin and/or sulfonylurea.3 Pharmacology Byetta is an incretin mimetic agent that is composed of a 39-amino acid peptide. Incretins improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon release. Byetta leads to an increase in insulin secretion, a decrease in glucagon release, a decrease in food intake, delayed gastric emptying, and an elevated beta-cell production.3,4 Clinical Trials A triple-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of ...
This eMedTV resource discusses how exenatide treats type 2 diabetes by increasing the production of insulin and decreasing the production of sugar. This page also explains that there are no universally accepted off-label exenatide uses.
Exenatide is a licensed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and seems to exert neuro-protective properties when tested in the laboratory. This award will allow Dr. Foltynie to perform a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Exenatide, self-administered by patients by subcutaneous injection, over a 12 month period at the UCL Institute of Neurology ...
Find everything you need to know about Exenatide (Bydureon Pen), including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. Learn more about Exenatide (Bydureon Pen) at
Does Bydureon once weekly show benefit in type 2 diabetic patients?... Exenatide ER (Bydureon™) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist
Antwi K, Fani M, Nicolas G, Rottenburger C, Heye T, Reubi JC, Gloor B, Christ E, Wild D. Localization of hidden insulinomas with 68Ga-DOTA-Exendin-4 PET/CT: a pilot study. J Nucl Med. 2015; 56(7): 1075-1078.. Gao H, Kiesewetter DO, Zhang X, Huang X, Guo N, Lang L, Hida N, Wang H, Wang H, Cao F, Niu G, Chen X. PET of glucagonlike peptide receptor upregulation after myocardial ischemia or reperfusion injury. J Nucl Med. 2012; 53: 1960-1968.. Jodal A, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Brom M, Schibli R, Béhé M. A comparison of three 67/68Ga-labelled exendin-4 derivatives for β-cell imaging on the GLP-1 receptor: the influence of the conjugation site of NODAGA as chelator. EJNMMI Res. 2014; 4:31.. Kiesewetter DO, Gao H, Ma Y, Niu G, Quan Q, Guo N, Chen X. 18F-radiolabeled analogs of exendin-4 for PET imaging of GLP-1 in insulinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012a; 39(3): 463-473.. Kiesewetter DO, Guo N, Guo J, Gao H, Zhu L, Ma Y, Niu G, Chen X. Evaluation of an [18F]AIF-NOTA analog of exendin-4 for imaging ...
Choosing antihyperglycemic agents is determined by their efficacy in lowering blood glucose and their extraglycemic effects (including effects on cardiovascular disease and microangiopathy), adverse events, and costs. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are relatively novel classes of drugs. To unequivocally recommend these two new drug types, the following information is lacking and should be provided: 1) Current data on the durability of glycemic control are insufficient, 2) the durability and magnitude of weight regulation are currently unknown, 3) neither GLP-1 receptor agonists nor DPP-4 inhibitors have been investigated in trials of sufficient size and duration to evaluate their effects on cardiovascular outcomes, and 4) long-term trials on safety with prospective collection of adverse events are needed over and above what has been reported so far.. The AMIGO studies showed that after 30 weeks of exenatide treatment, the reduction in A1C was ∼0.8-1.0% compared with placebo ...
Incretin mimetics or GLP-1 receptor agonists are commonly used in Type 2 Diabetes. Recent evidence favors their use for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Explore the live graph.. ...
Medscape - Type 2 diabetes mellitus dosing for Bydureon, Bydureon BCise (exenatide injectable suspension) frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
the most common side effects of exenatide include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, feeling jittery, dizziness, headache, acid stomach, constipation, and weakness. these symptoms usually go away after the f
Molecular Formula: C184H282N50O60S Relative Molecular Mass: 4186.63 g/mol CAS-Number: 141758-74-9 (net), 141732-76-5 (Acetate) Synonyms: Exendin-4 Sequence:...
Treatment with daily GLP-1 receptor agonist at maximum dose according to local label (i.e. 1.8 mg OD Victoza® (liraglutide) or 10 microgram twice daily (BID) Byetta® (exenatide)) or documented maximum tolerated dose (i.e. 1.2 mg OD Victoza® (liraglutide) or 5 microgram BID Byetta® (exenatide)) in combination with a stable daily dose of metformin (, 1500 mg or documented maximum tolerated dose) ± stable daily dose of pioglitazone (≥30 mg) ±stable daily dose of sulphonylurea (≥ half of the max approved dose according to local label) ≥90 days prior to screening visit (Visit 1 ...
The crural gland produces a venom secretion containing at least nineteen peptides and some non-nitrogenous components.[6] Those peptides that have been sequenced and identified fall into three categories: defensin-like peptides (OvDLPs), C-type natriuretic peptides (OvCNPs), and nerve growth factor (OvNGF).[1] The OvDLPs are related to, though distinct from, those involved in reptilian venom production.[7] This appears to be an example of convergent evolution of venom genes from existing immune system genes (defensins).[1] A unique feature of the venom is the presence of a D-amino acid. This is the only known such example in mammalian systems.[8] This venom appears to be related to that of several species that are not part of the platypuss evolutionary lineage, such as certain fish, reptiles, insectivores, and spiders, sea anemones, and starfish.[9] The different chemicals in the venom have a range of effects from lowering blood pressure to causing pain and increasing blood flow around the ...
article: The effects of Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) on cardiac remodelling: exploring the role of medication and physiological modulation after metabolic surgery: a narrative review - Minerva Endocrinology 2021 Mar 16 - Minerva Medica - Riviste
Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding
Doctors often prescribe drugs to help patients with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar. They use a blood test (called hemoglobin A1c) to assess sugar control. In most cases, doctors should aim for optimal control of sugar levels (hemoglobin A1c values less than 7%), depending on several factors. Some patients need more than 1 drug to get their blood sugar levels under optimal control. Drugs that may be used include insulin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose and miglitol), biguanides (metformin), sulfonyureas (glipizide or glyburide), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). Exenatide is a new drug called an incretin mimetic. Few studies have assessed whether adding this drug to TZD treatment improves sugar control ...
The European Commission has approved Byetta® (exenatide) for treatment of Type 2 diabetes. This drug is a new class of anti-diabetic drug known as incretin mimetics. The European Commission has permitted marketing and sale of Byetta (exenatide). To improve the blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes the European Union has authorized exenatide as adjunctive therapy. This is for patients who have not accomplished adequate glycaemic control on maximally tolerated doses of two common oral medications viz. metformin and/or a sulfonylurea. Exenatide is the first in its class of medicines.. Patients have long-term blood sugar control with the help of exenatide. This was revealed in the clinical trials conducted by the company. The drug lowers both fasting and postprandial glucose levels (peak levels after meals). To gauge blood glucose management health care providers often use of haemoglobin A1c. The haemoglobin A1c measures a persons average glucose level over a period of three months. ...
Learn the fascinating details of the discovery of incretin-active agents, including DPP4 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and GLP-2 agonists.
TABLE-US-00002 [0073] H-(Lys)6-des Pro36 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2, des Asp28 Pro36, Pro37, Pro38Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2, H-des Asp28 Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36 [Met(O)14, Asp28] ...
OBJECTIVE: The CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy (CHOICE) study assessed time to, and reasons for, significant treatment change after patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) initiated their first injectable glucose-lowering therapy (exenatide twice daily [BID] or insulin) in routine clinical practice, and these patients clinical outcomes, in six European countries. This paper reports interim data from the first 12 months of the study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: CHOICE (NCT00635492) is a prospective, noninterventional, observational study. Clinical data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy and after approximately 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Of 2497 patients enrolled in CHOICE, 1096 in the exenatide BID and 1239 in the insulin cohorts had ≥1 post-baseline assessment and were included in this analysis. Overall, 32.2% of the exenatide BID cohort and 29.1% of the insulin cohort (Kaplan-Meier estimates) had significant
FROM EASD 2016. The combination of exenatide and dapagliflozin produced better results than did either drug alone in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glucose levels arent controlled effectively by metformin.. At 28 weeks, HbA1c levels were lower in the combination group, where a third of patients lost more than 5% of their body weight, and 45% reached HbA1c levels under 7.0%, outpacing those on the solo treatments.. Cristian Guja, MD, of the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, Romania, presented the findings of DURATION-8 , a 28-week randomized, double-blinded study at 109 sites in six countries, Sept. 16 at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. The study was published simultaneously in the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.. In 2014 and 2015, 695 adults with type 2 diabetes and insufficient glycemic control, defined as HbA1c 8%-12%, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exenatide plus dapagliflozin (n = 231), exenatide ...
Onglyza and Kombiglyze XR belong to a class of diabetes drugs known as DPP-4 inhibitors. The two drugs are almost identical as both contain the same active ingredient, Saxagliptin.. Unfortunately, a growing amount of research has linked the drugs to an increase in a patient risk for heart failure, congestive heart failure, cardiac failure or cardiac-related death.. These drugs work by lowering blood-sugar levels by influencing a hormone called GLP-1, which stimulates the growth of the cells in the pancreas as that produces insulin. Drugs like these are called incretin mimetics because they mimic metabolic hormones that increase insulin production. The issue with incretin mimetics like Onglyza and Kombiglyze XR is that the long-term risks are not fully known since the drugs are still new.. ...
I have previously discussed the not too uncommon association between obesity and psoriasis, a chronic, autoimmune disease that causes red, scaly patches to appear on the skin, and affects 2-3% of the population in Western countries.. Hogan and colleagues, St Vincents University Hospital, University College Dublin, Ireland, in a paper just published in Diabetologia, now report improvement of psoriasis in three obese patients with type 2 diabetes several weeks after the initiation of therapy with the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exenatide and liraglutide.. Regular readers may recall that GLP-1 receptor agonists were recently introduced for the treatment of diabetes and are currently under investigation for the treatment of obesity.. In addition to the clinical improvement, with reduced itching and/or a reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, they also provide evidence that GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment had immunological effects in that it ...
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a major player in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. It acts on pancreatic beta cells to stimulate insulin secretion and on the brain to inhibit appetite. Thus, it may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Despite the physiological and clinical importance of GLP-1, molecular interaction with the GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) is not well understood. Particularly, the specific amino acid residues within the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the receptor that may confer ligand-induced receptor activation have been poorly investigated. Amino acid sequence comparisons of GLP-1 and GLP1R with their orthologs and paralogs in vertebrates, combined with biochemical approaches, are useful to determine which amino acid residues in the peptide and the receptor confer selective ligand-receptor interaction. This article reviews how the molecular evolution of GLP-1 and GLP1R contributes to the selective interaction
In this study, we isolated a 25-kDa novel snake venom protein, designated ablomin, from the venom of the Japanese Mamushi snake (Agkistrodon blomhoffi). The amino-acid sequence of this protein was determined by peptide sequencing and cDNA cloning. The deduced sequence showed high similarity to helothermine from the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum horridum), which blocks voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels, and ryanodine receptors. Ablomin blocked contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle elicited by high K+-induced depolarization in the 0. ...
In this study, the researchers hope to learn about SGLT2 inhibition on EGP (endogenous glucose production) and plasma glucose concentration in diabetic
In a person who hasnt been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes, GLP-1 aids in the production of insulin whenever the individuals blood pressure starts climbing. This is important since the insulin is responsible for taking stored sugar from the fat cells and using it for energy. In addition to helping those with Type 2 diabetes properly use their fat stores, the exenatide-4 found in the Gila monster venom decreases the length of time it takes to digest meals, which means the individual doesnt feel hungry as often, which helps them maintain a healthier weight. While its possible to inject GLP-1 into the system and therefore help regulate the blood sugar level. The problem with they system is that GLP-1 doesnt last long once it enters the system. In order for the person to get the help needed, theyd need another injection approximately once every hour. Exenatide-4 doesnt break down as quickly, which means significantly fewer shots, lowering the risk of infection while improving overall quality of ...
AMHERST, Mass. -- Scoffing at or cutting funds for basic biological research on unusual animal adaptations from Gila monster venom to snail sex, though politically appealing to some, is short-sighted and only makes it more likely that important economic and social benefits will be missed in the long run, say a group of evolutionary biologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.. Writing in a recent issue of BioScience, researchers Patricia Brennan, Duncan Irschick, Norman Johnson and Craig Albertson argue that innovations often arise from unlikely sources and reducing our ability to creatively examine unique biological phenomena will ultimately harm not only education and health but also the ability to innovate, a major driver of the global economy.. First author Brennan, known for her duck genitalia studies that could eventually aid human medical science points out, Basic science has increasingly come under attack, and there is a growing perception that studying odd science ideas ...
Novo Nordisk A/S: Switching to Once-Daily Victoza(R) (Liraglutide [rDNA Origin] Injection) from Exenatide Further Improves Blood Sugar Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Any bite can lead to infection. However, that has nothing to do with the early emerging symptoms from a varanid bite (prolonged bleeding, stinging, muscle pain, dizziness etc). These animals have a very large gland running the length of the lower jaw. It is the exact same gland as the venom gland of the gila monster. The venom produced by a varanid lizard also shares many toxins with the gila monster, such as phospholipase A2 toxins that block the aggregation of platelets, an essential aspect of being able to form a blood clot to stop bleeding. This works well with the deep wounds produced by the serrated teeth. Other components include potent hypotensive toxins, that would help knock a prey item out ...
This study establishes that while acute, intermittent, and prolonged infusions of exogenous GLP-1 all slow gastric emptying substantially in health, the magnitude of this effect is attenuated during prolonged stimulation, which reduces the effect of GLP-1 on postprandial glycemic excursions.. These observations were anticipated and are consistent with the notion that short-acting agonists appear to have a substantial, and sustained, effect to slow gastric emptying, whereas the acute effects of long-acting agonists on gastric emptying diminish with ongoing use (6,9,10,16). Indeed, while prolonged stimulation with exenatide once a week lowers postprandial glycemia, the magnitude of lowering is greater when exenatide twice daily is administered (6).. While a similar effect on gastric emptying was suggested by both Nauck et al. (11) and Näslund et al. (8) there were limitations with both studies. In both studies, the methods used to measuring measure gastric emptying were less than optimal and, in ...
A new study finds that combining the newer diabetes drug exenatide with insulin provides better blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes than insulin alone and helps promote weight loss.
VIENNA -- Acute pancreatitis was not more common with exenatide (Byetta) use compared with other drugs for type 2 diabetes, researchers said here.
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between exenatide and Maxifed-G CDX. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
One week after Pelotonia Aaron and I rode 30-ish miles, but then I didnt ride again for another two weeks. Between the heat and stuff at work, it just didnt happen. But we had signed up for a ride on September 1 called Bike the CBus Plus, a metric century (62 miles) around Columbus. Not only did we do that, we also rode to and from the start/finish, which was about 8 miles round trip! Again, another hot and humid day, and the last mile or so going home was in pouring rain. But we made it ...
Sathananthan M, Farrugia LP, Miles JM, Piccinini F, Dalla Man C, Zinsmeister AR, Cobelli C, Rizza RA, Vella A. Direct Effects of Exendin-(9,39) and GLP-1-(9,36)amide on Insulin Action, β-Cell Function, and Glucose Metabolism in Nondiabetic Subjects. Diabetes 2013;62:2752-2756. In the article listed above, there was an error in the sentence reading, On the other hand, exendin-(9,39), which arises from the removal of the two NH2-terminal amino acids, is a competitive antagonist of GLP-1 at the GLP-1R (5). The sentence should read, On the other hand, exendin-(9,39), which differs from exendin-(7,39) by the loss of two NH2-terminal amino acids, is a competitive antagonist of GLP-1 at the GLP-1R (5).. The online version reflects these changes.. ...
Currently GLP-1 agonists are only available as a once daily or once weekly injection, not in a pill form. It works to help control your blood sugars by increasing insulin release from your pancreas, as well as slowing down your digestion. The twice daily GLP-1 agonist is marketed as Byetta (Exenatide) and the once daily GLP-1 agonist is marketed as Victoza (Liraglutide) and Adlyxine (Lixisenatide). Once weekly GLP-1 agonists are marketed as Ozempic (Semaglutide), Trulicity (Dulaglutide) and Bydureon (Exenatide XR). Speak with your doctor or pharmacist about whether a GLP-1 agonist can help you with managing your diabetes.. ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. exendin-4 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Blood glucose level (mmol/l) (average) Comparative C40-PEG-Ex4 Example 1b Control Time Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 (Lys27- group Untreated (h) (PEG5K) (PEG20K) (PEG20K) (PEG23K) (PEG50K) PEG20K-Ex4) (Ex-4) group 0 23.38 24.28 24.44 24.22 24.56 24.13 22.61 24.23 0.5 7.62 7.96 7.86 7.97 7.63 7.97 6.95 24.21 1 7.36 6.13 6.89 6.99 6.25 6.56 6.41 23.44 2 5.09 5.29 5.04 4.96 5.45 5.24 5.80 24.58 3 4.46 4.18 4.15 4.11 4.64 4.22 5.85 22.96 4 4.93 4.34 4.66 4.54 4.23 4.29 8.02 24.54 6 5.73 4.9 4.67 4.87 4.26 4.85 10.69 23.43 8 9.04 4.57 5.11 4.66 4.69 5.13 16.01 24.94 12 16.2 5.86 7.89 4.9 4.87 5.40 23.89 22.47 24 21.1 8.54 15.09 5.52 5.11 12.98 -- 24.42 36 -- 11.47 20.14 8.08 6.31 17.34 -- 23.92 48 -- 15.34 24.21 8.66 7.26 20.45 -- 22.66 60 -- 20.45 23.76 11.34 8.87 23.02 -- 23.41 72 -- 23.02 -- 14.12 13.49 -- -- 22.26 96 -- -- -- 18.79 17.07 -- -- 24.51 120 -- -- -- 24.53 23.02 -- -- 23.75 ...
Lyxumia is a glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist that is taken once daily among people with type 2 diabetes. Lyxumia is the market name of lixisenatide.
Bydureon is the trade name of the drug exenatide. Bydureon is a once weekly injectable medication for people with type 2 diabetes.
The EX-5130 Series Sensor/Transmitters utilize electrochemical type cells to detect the target gas. Our technical staff is here to help you.
The EX-5100 incorporates a catalytic bead sensor. This sensor consists of a matched pair of elements, one active and the other for compensation.
Reviews and information for TD12: Arya Estate FTGFOP1 First Flush (EX-3) Organic tea from Upton Tea Imports on Steepster, a community of tea lovers.
A clean and tidy computer is one of the best ways to avoid problems with axautomntsrv.exe. This means performing malware scans, cleaning your hard disk with cleanmgr and sfc /scannow, uninstalling programs you no longer need, monitoring any auto-start programs (with msconfig), and enabling automatic Windows updates. Dont forget to always make regular backups or at least define recovery points.. If you have a bigger problem, try to remember the last thing you did or the last thing you installed before the problem. Use the resmon command to identify the processes that are causing your problem. Even in case of serious problems, instead of reinstalling Windows, you should try to repair your installation or, in the case of Windows 8, by executing the command DISM.exe /Online /Cleanup-image /Restorehealth. This allows you to repair the operating system without data loss.. To help you analyze the axautomntsrv.exe process on your computer, you may find the following programs useful: Security Task ...
Detect and remove au.exe malware from your computer. Follow the step-by-step instructions to get rid au.exe malware from your computer.
Learn more about stinger.exe malware, and how to protect your computer from such viruses using tried-and-trusted Comodo Antivirus.
Time has come for us to shed some light on SupHPNot.exe virus. Why do we consider this file as malicious, what exactly does it do in the infected PC and what needs to be done in order to remove this infection completely? Many users today are hungry for the information […]. ...
Hello I am in need of help, I did something not smart and downloaded and ran something I probably should not have. I realized my mistake (hopefully) before anything too bad was transferred or installed and unplugged my computer to hard reset it. I dow nloaded malwarebytes immediately and cleaned ...

No data available that match "venoms"

No data available that match "venoms"

  • EDDIE BROCK, together with his symbiote partner, is VENOM! (
  • Can he maintain his cool or will his volatile emotional state unleash the Venom symbiote? (
  • Venom is a gooey alien symbiote that bonds with a human host and imbues them with super strength, shapeshifting powers, and the ability to copy Spider-man's webslinging - but you wouldn't know that from Sony's dull trailer. (
  • Development of a movie starring Venom goes all the way back to the 1990s, when David S. Goyer wrote a script for a Venom movie to be produced by New Line Cinema that would pit Venom against Carnage (a seed of the symbiote that grew on its own and bonded with a serial killer, created after Venom became too, um, heroic) and star Dolph Lundgren. (
  • Eddie Brock takes vengeance on his skeptics as the all-consuming, spine-chilling symbiote, Venom. (
  • The symbiote and its host roar with exaltation as Venom steps outside the tank that had recently been a prison for him, his long gruesome tongue flicking the air, hungry for the taste of a certain webslinger. (
  • The Venom Symbiote is an alien life form that bonds with a host, giving it enhanced powers. (
  • It's been a hero, a villain, and a Black Ops agent, and now the alien symbiote has transformed into these cool-looking Venom Leggings. (
  • A symbiote leaps out of the comic books and into real life with the Venom Premium Format Figure. (
  • Five Deadly Venoms: The best that kung-fu films have to offer! (
  • Sadly, you won't find all of these aspects together in one kung-fu movie, EXCEPT for Five Deadly Venoms! (
  • They appeared in numerous Shaw films, but did not become a group in high demand until Five Deadly Venoms . (
  • Snake venom is a complex substance, containing various enzymes and toxins . (
  • De Lima ME and Martin‐Eauclaire MF (1995) The toxins purified from Tityus serrulatus (Lutz and Mello) venom. (
  • Simard MJ and Watt DD (1990) Venoms and toxins. (
  • Venoms contain hundreds of different ingredients, some of which are not the harmful toxins we assume them to be. (
  • Spider venoms are a complex cocktail of toxins that have evolved specifically to kill insects. (
  • In cell cultures, the camouflaged sponges act as decoys, luring the toxins from MRSA, Streptococcus (the bacteria that causes strep throat) and bee venom to their surface, then binding to the structure the 'poisons' normally use to poke through cells. (
  • While spider toxins that lead to shock, paralysis, and death are well studied, far less is known about how spider venoms cause pain. (
  • The properties of this cyclic molecule aren't well-known yet, but knowing that it's being produced by toxins in venoms might heighten interest," Cordes said. (
  • Cobra venom is among the more noxious toxins in the animal kingdom-potent enough to fell an elephant. (
  • Unlike snake venom , there appears to be no necrotising component in the platypus's venom - although some muscle wastage has been observed in cases of envenomation in humans, it is likely that this is due to the inability to use the limb while the effects of the venom persist. (
  • Immune serum against snake venom, or antivenin, can be prepared by repeatedly injecting sublethal doses of venom into an animal such as the horse. (
  • 1994) Pro‐inflammatory activities in elapid snake venoms. (
  • Endo T and Tamiya N (1991) Structure-function relationships of postsynaptic neurotoxins from snake venoms. (
  • Markland FS (1998) Snake venoms and their hemostatic system (review paper). (
  • Harvey AL (ed.) (1991) Snake Venoms. (
  • There are not many people in the world who know more about snakes and snake venom than Bill Haast does. (
  • On the hunt for the snake that nearly ended his life, Venom Hunter Tim Fitzer pushes his team to the very edge. (
  • The venom of the Black Mamba, rated the world's seventh most potent snake poison , has been suggested as a future painkiller for humans. (
  • Science has learned to harness the power of many venoms for human benefit in recent years - snake venom can help with heart attacks and blood clots, for example, while spider venom may stop brain damage from a stroke. (
  • By contrast, one can be quite careful on a walk through the southwestern United States or Australian outback and still have an unfortunate accident involving the venom of a snake. (
  • Thus, snake venoms typically contain neurotoxins, but they also often include enzymes that promote various hydrolysis reactions. (
  • Enzymes from Snake Venom. (
  • Quantitative analysis of snake venoms using soluble polymer-based isotope labeling. (
  • We present the design and synthesis of a new quantitative strategy termed soluble polymer-based isotope labeling (SoPIL) and its application as a novel and inclusive method for the identification and relative quantification of individual proteins in complex snake venoms. (
  • Snake venom identification using SoPIL. (
  • Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors. (
  • The pEKW and pHpG peptides inhibit the proteolytic activity of the haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), EoVMP-2, and the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus venom. (
  • why does everybody get their Venom SteelBook on 12/18/2018 and Best Buy Canada get theirs on 01-08-2019. (
  • But we got a Venom movie in 2018 anyhow. (
  • Other venoms, such as those of the deadly Asian cobras and kraits, are neurotoxins, which affect the nervous system, causing paralysis and sometimes respiratory arrest. (
  • For many who study the chemistry of venoms, the neurotoxins hold particular interest. (
  • Venom is the story of Eddie Brock, a reporter who believes in doing the right thing, even by using unconventional methods, and even if it means telling the truth about powerful people. (
  • Sam Raimi's incarnation of Venom, which corrupted Tobey McGuire's Peter Parker and Eddie Brock in 2007's Spider-man 3, was widely disliked by fans, which is why comicbook aficionados have been so excited about the forthcoming standalone Venom movie. (
  • It is not used as a method of disabling nor killing prey, and although it acts as a defensive mechanism, only males produce venom. (
  • Venom glands probably originated as accessory digestive glands whose secretions aided in the external digestion of prey. (
  • Although the secretions of some spiders may consist entirely of digestive enzymes , those of many species effectively subdue prey, and venoms of a few species are effective against predators, including vertebrates. (
  • The snail's venom - which it uses to stun and paralyse its prey - targets proteins in cell membranes whose job it is to allow calcium ions to pass in and out. (
  • Whether you're talking about Spider-man's archenemy or the deadly poisons that animals and insects use to kill their prey, venom most often conjures up negative thoughts. (
  • Instead, corals inject a potent neurotoxin by grabbing hold of their prey and gnawing for 20 to 30 seconds with their little teeth to work in the venom-people who have been bitten liken the experience of removing a coral to that of peeling Velcro. (
  • The researchers also say that mice, a creature among the Black Mamba's favorite prey, are immune to its venom and experience an analgesic effect when bitten. (
  • A wide range of animals have evolved a wide range of venoms over time, chemicals that tend to be painful and are often used to disable prey. (
  • Medolife said Escozine is an effective cancer treatment because a peptide in the venom called chlorotoxin -- the same chemical that paralyzes prey -- also happens to target and kill cancer cells. (
  • The strength of the venom varies and can affect prey differently. (
  • Conotoxins are bioactive peptides found in the venom that marine cone snails produce for prey capture and defense. (
  • The cone snail paralyses and kills their prey with the help of a very selective and potent cocktail of venom peptides, which is injected into prey through a harpoon-like needle. (
  • The various protein components of the venom affect specific organisms, different components affecting mammals and insects. (
  • Changes caused by oxidation of certain components of the venom may decrease its healing effect. (
  • Scientists also use bee venom or its components in their research of the effects of the whole or separated components of the venom. (
  • Until now, however, scientists did not know the exact components of the venom responsible for this effect. (
  • Components of the venom from marine cone snails can block the transmission of signals between nerve cells in minute quantities. (
  • The platypus is one of the few living mammals to produce venom . (
  • Rather than being a unique outlier, the platypus is the last demonstration of what was once a common mammalian characteristic, and it can be used as a model for non- therian mammals and their venom delivery and properties. (
  • Crocodiles, Tasmanian devils, and raptors are known local predators to the platypus, all of which can be impacted by the venom. (
  • With its webbed feet, fur-covered body and venom-shooting spurs, the platypus is famously one of nature's strangest-looking animals -- a motley combination of bird, mammal and reptile. (
  • Masaki Kita, Daisuke Uemura, and colleagues note that spurs in the hind limb of the male platypus can deliver the venom, a cocktail of substances that cause excruciating pain. (
  • To unlock its secrets, the scientists collected samples of platypus venom and used high-tech analytical instruments to separate and characterize its components. (
  • Image Caption: Despite its cuddly look, the male duck-billed platypus has stingers on its hind limbs that can deliver a painful venom. (
  • So what's in platypus venom that makes it so painful? (
  • But figuring out what's in platypus venom is more than just biology navel-gazing. (
  • For one thing, we don't have an antivenom for platypus venom-something that the occasional platypus victim would certainly appreciate. (
  • And for another, by studying painful platypus venom, scientists could figure out how it overcomes morphine, which could help them design better painkillers. (
  • So unless you're a brave scientist trying to get some venom to figure out a better painkiller, you shouldn't pet the platypus. (
  • A team of scientists has found that platypus and echidna venom contains a long-lasting version of the hormone GLP-1, which is responsible for releasing insulin to lower blood glucose levels. (
  • A hormone found in platypus venom could lead to new treatments for type 2 diabetes in humans. (
  • The crural gland produces a venom secretion containing at least nineteen peptides and some non-nitrogenous components. (
  • The pharmaceutical industry has become increasingly interested in biologics from animal venoms as a potential source for therapeutic agents in recent years, with a particularly emphasis on peptides. (
  • To date six drugs derived from venom peptides or proteins have been approved by the FDA, with nine further agents currently being investigated in clinical trials. (
  • This unique book provides an up to date and comprehensive account of the potential of peptides and proteins from animal venoms as possible therapeutics. (
  • In 2006,Professor King founded an agricultural biotechnology company, Vestaron Corporation, that is developing spider-venom peptides discovered in the lab as bioinsecticides.His current research is largely focussed on the development of venom peptides as analgesics for the treatment of chronic pain. (
  • They identified 11 new peptides, or protein subunits, in the venom. (
  • A letter in Nature suggests the application is viable as the venom contains "a new class of three-finger peptides … able to abolish pain through inhibition of Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in central or peripheral neurons. (
  • If the peptides in Black Mamba venom shut them down, that's good news. (
  • A typical venom contains hundreds to thousands of bioactive peptides, with typical lengths of 10 to 40 amino acids. (
  • [8] This venom appears to be related to that of several species that are not part of the platypus's evolutionary lineage, such as certain fish, reptiles, insectivores, and spiders, sea anemones, and starfish. (
  • examples include the poison in the rounded warts of the skin of toads, the venoms of spiders, scorpions, bees, and other arthropods, and the poison of jellyfish and other coelenterates. (
  • Venom glands are present in most spiders, but they are absent in the family Uloboridae . (
  • The high domed carapace of the spitting spiders is a modification to house the large venom glands. (
  • Characteristics of the venom of various spiders, especially the black widow (genus Latrodectus ), have been determined. (
  • The study of venoms is driven by a desire to understand the structural and functional diversity of venom components and, in particular, the mechanism of action of lethal components from medically important animals such as scorpions, spiders, stonefish and snakes. (
  • A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Arizona has revealed that the venom of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles produces a unique chemical. (
  • One of few common spiders whose bites can have a seriously harmful effect on humans, brown recluse spider venom contains a rare protein that can cause a blackened lesion at the site of a bite wound, or a much less common, but more dangerous, systemic reaction in humans. (
  • Cordes, Bandarian and Daniel Lajoie, a PhD candidate in Cordes' lab, tested venom from three species of brown recluse spiders from North and South America. (
  • Binford, an arachnologist who has traveled the world in search of the eight-legged creatures, collected the spiders, isolated their DNA and milked their venom, which was then frozen and shipped to the UA labs for analysis. (
  • Tambourgi DV, Magnoli F, Eickstedt VRD, Petricevich VL and Dias da Silva W (1995) Incorporation of a 35‐kilodalton purified protein from Loxosceles intermedia venom transforms human erythrocytes into activators of autologous complement alternative pathway. (
  • In a similar study, Samuel A. Wickline, a biomedical engineer at Washington University School of Medicine, altered a protein found in bee venom-which often causes inflammation after stings-called melittin. (
  • A new pesticide using spider venom and plant protein could be a valuable tool in stemming the collapse of honeybee populations. (
  • Sachs and his colleagues were researching the properties of the Chilean rose tarantula, and discovered that a protein within the venom may be suitable to keep muscular dystrophy at bay. (
  • Now scientists are reporting an advance toward deciphering the chemical composition of the venom, with the first identification of a dozen protein building blocks. (
  • One of the research's authors, Anne Baron of France's Centre national de la recherche scientifique , told Agence France Press "(It) is surprising that mambalgins, which represent less than 0.5 percent of the total venom protein content, has analgesic (pain-relief) properties without neurotoxicity in mice, whereas the total venom of black mamba is lethal and among the most neurotoxic ones. (
  • This is not a protein that is usually found in the venom of poisonous animals," said Matthew Cordes, an associate professor in the UA's department of chemistry and biochemistry, who led the study, published today in the journal PLOS ONE . (
  • The research team has discovered that in the test tube, the venom protein causes lipids to bend into a ring structure upon the loss of the head portion, generating a cyclical chemical product that is very different than the linear molecule it was assumed to produce. (
  • The lipid knocks off its own head by making a ring within itself, prompted by the protein from the spider venom, Cordes explained. (
  • The hemorrhagic, hemolytic, clotting ability, and fibrinogenolytic activities of crude venoms were measured and correlated with difference in protein abundance determined by the SoPIL analysis. (
  • A and B , comparison of the protein composition of the venom from C. scutulatus scuculatus A and B and from C. oreganus helleri and B. colombiensis , respectively. (
  • But researchers have found that tacking a snippet of protein from cobra venom onto human immune molecules is a novel and effective way of suppressing inflammatory chemicals involved in several difficult-to-treat ailments, such as rheumatoid arthritis, heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Cobra venom factor (CVF), a key protein in the snakes' toxin , has long been known to interfere with complement activity in mammals by using up components of the system to the point that it stops working. (
  • The researchers altered the section of the protein believed to make the wasp's venom toxic to human cells, and the new molecule killed bacteria without inducing severe side effects. (
  • Animal venoms contain highly toxic components that cause inflammation and tissue destruction at the point of contact or in the region of a sting or bite. (
  • The aim of this chapter is to summarise the various assays that are being used to identify and determine the mode of action of drug leads derived from animal venoms. (
  • Topics covered include chemistry and structural biology of animal venoms, proteomic and transcriptomic approaches to drug discovery, bioassays, high-throughput screens and target identification, and reptile, scorpion, spider and cone snail venoms as a platform for drug development. (
  • Professor Glenn King has been working on animal venoms since 1996.He has extensive experience in the discovery, production, and structural and functional characterization of venom proteins, and is intimately aware of the issues surrounding their development as drugs and insecticides. (
  • Together with the development of high-throughput platforms such as the FLIPR and automated electrophysiology devices, these miniaturised assays have facilitated the high-throughput screening of venoms components against enzymes, receptors and ion channels, many of which are validated drug targets. (
  • The venom is produced in the crural glands of the male, which are kidney-shaped alveolar glands located in the upper thigh connected by a thin-walled duct to a calcaneus spur, or calcar , on each hind limb. (
  • In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct. (
  • Their secret weapons are two large grooved teeth on the lower jaw that are linked to venom glands. (
  • venom glands? (
  • Researchers at Newcastle University in England developed the pesticide using the venom of an Australian funnel web spider and snowdrop lectin. (
  • Here we show that the ω-ACTX-Hv1a toxin (Hvt), a component of the venom of the Australian funnel web spider ( Hadronyche versuta ) that is a calcium channel antagonist, retains its biological activity when expressed in a heterologous system. (
  • A peptide in the venom of the funnel web spider could protect against brain injury caused by stroke, say researchers. (
  • Researchers found that the peptide Hi1a - present in the venom of the Australian funnel web spider - blocks ion channels in the brain that play a role in stroke-induced brain damage. (
  • The result might look a lot like the Hennessey Venom GT. (
  • The Hennessey Venom GT made headlines by topping the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport 's top speed with a 270.49-mph run. (
  • When honeybees and scorpions sting, it is usually an act of defense -- a painful one at that, thanks to the venom injected through the stingers. (
  • 1994) Antigenic cross‐reactivity among the venoms from several species of Brazilian scorpions. (
  • Haast, featured in the NATURE program Victims of Venom , has spent more than 50 years working with venomous snakes. (
  • They're also venomous, and as a new study has found, fang blenny venom is unlike any other venom known to science. (
  • The SoPIL strategy was used to quantify venom proteins from two pairs of venomous snakes: Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus type A, C. scutulatus scutulatus type B, Crotalus oreganus helleri, and Bothrops colombiensis. (
  • Although powerful enough to paralyse smaller animals, [4] the venom is not lethal to humans. (
  • To produce antivenin, scientists inject horses with small, non-lethal doses of venom. (
  • Marvel's lethal protector is ready to play (and eat brains) as the Venom: Dark Origins Statue. (
  • This Spider-Man Venom Lethal Protector Throw Blanket not only looks cool, it will keep you warm. (
  • A modified peptide derived from wasp venom prevented lethal E. coli infections in mice, according to a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • Nanoparticles containing bee venom toxin melittin can destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while at the same time leaving surrounding cells unharmed, scientists from Washington University School of Medicine reported in the March 2013 issue of Antiviral Therapy . (
  • A team of Russian scientists together with foreign colleagues found out that the venom of crab spider Heriaeus melloteei may be used as a basis for developing treatment against hypokalemic periodic paralysis. (
  • The scientists previously showed that the venom triggers certain chemical changes in cultured human nerve cells that can lead to the sensation of pain. (
  • The parasitic jewel wasp uses a venom injected directly into a cockroach's brain to inhibit its victim's free will, scientists have discovered. (
  • With the tools of modern molecular biology, scientists are starting to decipher what makes this "little-studied venom" so painful. (
  • However, the scientists were able to produce the specific venom chemically in vitro for use in additional analyses. (
  • Cone snails can control their venom composition depending if they hunt or defend themselves," says Markus Muttenthaler from the Institute of Biological Chemistry at the University of Vienna. (
  • Venoms to Drugs will find wide readership with researchers working in academia and industry working in all medicinal and pharmaceutical areas. (
  • Venoms are extremely biologically active and these chemical concoctions provide a great natural resource for researchers to study different chemicals, some of which can be developed into drugs. (
  • Adelaide University evolutionary biologist Frank Grutzner said the longer lifespan of the hormone found in the animal venom raised the potential to develop drugs that extend the release of insulin in type 2 diabetes patients. (
  • Because the hormone found in the animal's venom doesn't degrade as rapidly, researchers are hopeful that this hormone will lead to the development of new drugs to manage diabetes in humans. (
  • Come face to face with two of Spider-Man's most vicious villains with Carnage and Venom on the front of this hoodie. (
  • Venom je jedna z prvých black / thrash metalových hudobných skupín, ktorá bola založená v roku 1978 v anglickom Newcastli . (
  • F ans have waited 10 years to see Spider-Man's nemesis Venom return to the big screen, and now the teaser trailer has dropped, it seems they're going to have to wait even longer. (
  • Venom was created by David Michelinie and Todd McFarlane, first teased in the lead-up to Amazing Spider-Man #300 in 1988, though the character spun out of 1984's Secret Wars where among the many "permanent changes" made to the characters participating (all of which were reversed) was Spider-Man's new black costume that obeyed his every thought. (
  • Spider-Man's alien suit is bigger and badder than ever with the Marvel Premier Collection Venom Statue . (
  • Once thought to just be a cool new look for everyone's favorite wall-crawler, Venom eventually revealed himself to be one of Spider-Man's most formidable foes… and who sometimes manages to also be one of Spidey's greatest allies. (
  • Venom is one of Spider-Man's archenemies, and also the subject of this really cool Venom Big Grin T-Shirt. (
  • Venom , starring Tom Hardy as the Marvel antihero, earned $10 million of its China total from 553 Imax screens - Sony's biggest opening-weekend performance ever on Imax in the market. (
  • They revealed that a few stars will be returning to reprise their roles, including Tom Hardy, who has actually signed on for two more Venom films. (
  • Tom Hardy (last seen in this rewatch in The Dark Knight Rises ), was cast in the lead role, playing Brock and also the voice of Venom. (
  • The venom also contains a compound called melittin, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • Honey bee venom contains many potentially active ingredients, the main ones being melittin (a powerful anti-inflammatory said to be 100 times more powerful than hydrocortisone ), adolapin (also a powerful anti-inflammatory), and also measureable amounts of dopamine , norepinephrine and serotonin . (
  • Bee venom and its major component, melittin, may be effective treatments for atopic dermatitis (or eczema), according to a British Journal of Pharmacology study. (
  • Through studies conducted in mice and in human cells, investigators found that bee venom and melittin suppress inflammation through various mechanisms on immune cells and inflammatory molecules. (
  • This study demonstrated that bee venom and melittin have immunomodulatory activity, and such activity was associated with the regulation of T helper cell differentiation, thereby ameliorating the inflammatory skin diseases caused by atopic dermatitis," the authors wrote. (
  • The team of researchers at Ben-Gurion University believe that the octopamine discovery is an important piece of the puzzle of how the tropical wasp's venom turns its victims into the living dead. (
  • The most common form of venom immunization is bee venom therapy (BVT), with honeybee venom or stingers used to treat conditions. (
  • In mainstream allopathic medicine, honeybee venom is used to treat people who are allergic to bee stings. (
  • Honeybee venom immunotherapy is used to treat many other conditions in alternative medicine . (
  • In the new study, a team led by neuropharmacologist David Julius from the University California, San Francisco, identified three pain-causing molecules in tarantula venom. (
  • The venom contains a nerve toxin that causes severe pain in humans, especially in the abdominal region, though a bite is usually not fatal. (
  • This is the complex of the Nav1.4 channel from human muscle cells with the Hm-3 toxin extracted from the venom of the Heriaeus melloteei spider. (
  • For the first time they suggested a blocking agent for leakage currents - a toxin Hm-3 extracted from the venom of Heriaeus melloteei spider. (
  • In fact, the toxic mixtures of chemicals we call venoms have a long history as medical treatments. (
  • Most are rather complicated mixtures of chemicals, each of which plays some role in the action that the venom takes. (
  • Viper venoms contain one of the most potent mixtures of proteases in natural existence and yet the venom gland and proteins in this mixture are refractory to degradation. (
  • The different chemicals in the venom have a range of effects from lowering blood pressure to causing pain and increasing blood flow around the wound. (
  • As a follow-up, the researchers want to see whether the method works in human blood, and against other toxic chemicals, such as scorpion venom and anthrax, which use similar attack strategies. (
  • The hairy arachnid's venom was found to include chemicals that target the same pain pathways as chili peppers, causing maximum distress to bite victims. (
  • venom or zootoxin, any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. (
  • In twelve European countries, in the drug category, we can find twenty-four products containing bee venom. (
  • To be safe, Rodial recommends that those with allergies stay away from products containing bee venom. (
  • The venoms of various snakes have been used medicinally, according to their specific properties, as painkillers (in arthritis, cancer, and leprosy), antispasmodics (in epilepsy and asthma), and blood coagulants (in hemophilia). (
  • At the Serpentarium, Haast "milks" his snakes by forcing the reptiles to release their venom into a beaker. (
  • Different species of snakes carry different types of venom, with varying degrees of toxicity, and larger, older snakes typically pack more wallop into a bite than their smaller brethren. (
  • However, young snakes, born primed with venom, tend to be less discriminating and more aggressive than adults. (
  • Snakes are not the only animals that use venom. (
  • Fans of Marvel Comics and zombies will want to combine their passions with the Marvel Zombies Venom Mini Bust, featuring a detailed look at the animated corpse of the former villain/hero. (
  • This is a list of the main five (though there are six, Chiang Sheng is actually the fifth member of the Venoms, not Wei Pai, who only appeared in four films with the others). (
  • Chiang Sheng as Yang Tieh, last student of the Venom House. (
  • One of Haast's scariest bites occurred in 1990, when he was bitten by a very dangerous species, the soft-scaled viper, while harvesting its venom. (
  • The findings, which will appear tomorrow in the journal Nature, are based on the venom of the Trinidad chevron tarantula, a large, long-legged species from the Caribbean ( map of Trinidad and Tobago ). (
  • The specific venom used by these animals varies not only with its type (spider venom is different from bee venom, for example), but also within a species. (
  • Venom from two iconic Australian species could be behind the development of new treatments for diabetes, which affects around 1.7 million Australians. (
  • Here we demonstrate that the sub-10-kDa components of venom from two African viper species (Echis ocellatus and Cerastes cerastes cerastes) are predominantly composed of the tri-peptide pyroglutamate-lysine-tryptophan (pEKW). (
  • In ancient Egypt , venom from bee stings was used to treat arthritis. (
  • A small amount of venom is injected during desensitization treatments to help patients develop a tolerance to stings. (
  • direct stings until I was about a year old, I was sensitized to bee proteins and my immune system was primed to mount a full court press against bee venom. (
  • Probably not, but apparently bee venom can have a positive impact on your skin - and a new line of skin care products are bringing those benefits to you without all the nasty stings. (
  • When the bee stings the apparatus, there is a catcher in there that collects the venom. (
  • Case studies are used to illustrate methods and successes and highlight issues surrounding administration and other important lessons that have been learnt from the development of approved therapeutics based on venoms. (
  • A peptide derived from spider venom could be key to preventing brain damage caused by stroke, according to the results of a new study. (
  • Take this Spider-Man Venom Spinner Ring for a spin and unleash your inner Venom. (
  • It might look pretty but the emerald cockroach wasp uses its venom to paralyse and 'enslave' cockroaches. (
  • During the 1950s and 1960s, venom collectors used a thick rubber sheet to collect bee stingers. (
  • The venom targets a particular subgroup known as N-type calcium channels , which play a role in some kinds of pain. (
  • Read the full snail-venom pain relief patent application . (
  • McIntosh has a record of working with snail venom. (
  • Echidnas have a venom gland and produce venom however they do not have a spur and the venom's purpose is a bit of a mystery. (
  • Scorpion Venom: Can It Really Cure What Ails You? (
  • Dominican-based company promises scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer. (
  • Nov. 4, 2013 -- A Dominican Republic-based company is making the controversial claim that its scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer, but some oncologists in the United States warn it may provide nothing more than a stiff dose of false hope. (
  • Russian émigré Dr. Arthur Mikaelian and his company, Medolife, produce a drug called Escozine, whose sole active ingredient is blue scorpion venom. (
  • He said he has seen too many claims about alternative medicines, such as scorpion venom, that turn out not to work and leave patients in despair. (
  • So did scorpion venom make her cancer go away? (
  • In addition to attacking cancer cells, Medolife says that scorpion venom might also combat auto-immune diseases, everything from HIV to hepatitis, and even male impotence. (
  • When asked why large pharmaceutical companies, which spend billions of dollars on cancer research each year, haven't marketed scorpion venom, Mikaelin said, pharmaceutical companies don't study "natural compounds because you can't patent [a] natural product. (
  • It may be tempting to equate the concept of venom with poison, but to do so would be inaccurate. (
  • To be more accurate with the definition of venom, therefore, it must be noted that venom is not just a poison, but one that is injected under the skin of the victim. (
  • The title "E Pluribus Venom" which translates "Out of many, poison" is derived from "E Pluribus Unum" (out of many, one) an early motto adopted by the U.S. Government which appears on U.S. coins and dollar bills. (
  • E Pluribus Venom could be interpreted as saying both that there is poison in the American system, and that many individuals are motivated by venom and anger toward this system. (
  • Poison and venom are very similar and often confused. (
  • Venom is actually a type of poison. (
  • Poison can be ingested in many different ways, whereas venom is injected by the animal that produces it. (
  • Venom is a type of poison produced by an animal to kill or injure other animals. (
  • Hunting Season - (dirty) 1998: "One More to Go" 1999: "Venom Everywhere" 2000: "Don't Give Up" Kurupt ft. (
  • 1995) Properties of the venom from the South American 'armed' spider Phoneutria nigriventer (Keiserling, 1891). (
  • That #Venom teaser seems less like a trailer for a film about a would be anti-hero/proto-villain and more about a guy being really angry about the medical bill he just received for an MRI and extensive tests that his health insurance won't cover. (
  • Given that Venom owes some of its signature powers to Spidey, and it usually set up as a 'dark version' of Peter Parker, this must have caused some difficulties, and it will be interesting to see how the 'chaotic evil' villain is represented without its 'lawful good' foil. (
  • Throughout the 1990s, Venom was Spidey's most popular villain, to the point where he got his own spinoff titles. (
  • The venom of the predatory marine snail Conus Magus is one of the most potent painkillers on the planet. (
  • The lesser weeverfish secretes a potent venom from tiny spikes on its fin. (
  • The patient has to either submit to being stung by several times by honey bees , 2 to 3 times a week for some months, or to have subcutaneous injections of previously collected bee venom (sometimes mixed with a local anaesthetic) although the latter is said to be less potent than fresh from the bee! (
  • Antidote to venom. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: Antidote to venom. (
  • In a study published in the monthly journal ACS Nano , Zhang showed off a way to use an ingredient of the venom called chlorotoxin (which, despite its name, is nontoxic) to help treat brain cancer. (
  • [7] This appears to be an example of convergent evolution of venom genes from existing immune system genes ( defensins ). (
  • For those who do have a reaction to the venom, the most common response is an inflammation that after one to two days can develop into a dark lesion surrounding the bite site. (
  • Molecular fractionation of venom components required more specific bioassays to identify components based on pharmacological or physiological responses of anaesthetised whole animals or tissue preparations such as skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and isolated blood vessels. (
  • And while it's used as a weapon in the wild, this bizzare venom could be uniquely useful to humans, researchers report in the journal Current Biology . (
  • And despite the oddity of blenny venom, Fry and his colleagues say further study of its chemistry could help researchers develop new kind of painkillers for people. (
  • Researchers, including medical biochemist Briony Forbes from Flinders University, admitted they were surprised to find that the hormone was not only active in the gut but in monotreme venom as well. (
  • Venom from an ocean snail may have benefits for people with addictions, depression and Parkinson's disease, University of Utah researchers reported Monday. (
  • On that note, witness the Medicom Real Action Hero Spider-Man 3 Venom doll, distributed by Sideshow Collectibles. (
  • Marvel fans who love the anti-hero Venom and his symbiotic suit, check out this Marvel Minimates Venom Through the Ages Box Set. (
  • Bee venom therapy involves the injection of venom by a needle, insertion of the stinger, or stinging by live bees. (
  • 2. Does venom collection kill bees? (
  • Bee venom can be collected without killing bees. (
  • The Bee Venom products might be worth an (expensive) try since no bees are harmed in making them, according to Hatzistefanis. (
  • Recently, Miqin Zhang, a materials scientist at the University of Washington, and her research team showed that a certain compound found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion could help in the treatment of brain cancer. (
  • He came across University at Buffalo scientist Frederick Sachs, PhD, a professor of physiology and biophysics who was studying the medical benefits of venom. (
  • Cavinato RA, Remold H and Kipnis TL (1998) Putrification and variability in the thrombin‐like activity of Bothrops atrox venom from different geographic regions. (
  • 1998) Endotoxemic like shock induced by Loxosceles intermedia spider venom: pathological changes and putative cytokine mediators. (
  • The venom-delivering spur is found only on the male's hind limbs. (
  • I have found people interested in bee venom therapy to be inquisitive and therefore I have referenced my information sources to enable the readers to begin research on their own on this fascinating topic. (
  • The team found that the spider venom peptide protected the brain tissue of the rodents, as well as their neurological and motor function. (
  • The venom blocks a chemical substance called octopamine in the cockroach's brain that controls its motivation to walk, the study found. (
  • But Nongjing has found a novel way to raise its standard of living - scorpion farming - mainly to supply venom for use in traditional Chinese medicine. (
  • The same hormone produced in the gut of the echidna to regulate blood glucose is also found in their venom. (

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