Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A venomous New World spider with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the abdomen.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bite of SCORPIONS.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.
Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Agents that cause clotting.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.

Purification from black widow spider venom of a protein factor causing the depletion of synaptic vesicles at neuromuscular junctions. (1/704)

The aqueous extract of the venom glands of black widow spiders was fractionated on a column of Sephadex G-200 and then on a column of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 pH 8.2. A protein fraction was obtained that caused a great increase in the frequency of occurrence of miniature end plate potentials at the frog neuromuscular junction, and caused swelling of the nerve terminals and depleted them of their vesicles. The fraction consists of a least four protein components that are similar in their molecular weights (about 130,000) and isoelectric points (ranging from pH 5.2 to 5.5) and are immunologically indistinguishable. It contains no sugar residues and has little or no lipolytic or proteolytic activity. The fraction is toxic to mice and is different from the fractions that act on houseflies, the crayfish stretch receptor and the cockroach heart. It seems pure enough to warrant a detailed study of its site and mode of action.  (+info)

Glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions of exendin-4: studies in obese diabetic (ob/ob, db/db) mice, diabetic fatty Zucker rats, and diabetic rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). (2/704)

Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the salivary secretions of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). It shows 53% sequence similarity to glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Unlike GLP-1, exendin-4 has a prolonged glucose-lowering action in vivo. We compared the potency and duration of glucose-lowering effects of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in hyperglycemic db/db and ob/ob mice. Whereas reductions in plasma glucose of up to 35% vanished within 1 h with most doses of GLP-1, the same doses of exendin-4 resulted in a similar glucose-lowering effect that persisted for >4 h. Exendin-4 was 5,530-fold more potent than GLP-1 in db/db mice (effective doses, 50% [ED50s] of 0.059 microg/kg +/-0.15 log and 329 microg/kg+/-0.22 log, respectively) and was 5,480-fold more potent in ob/ob mice (ED50s of 0.136 microg/kg+/-0.10 log and 744 microg/kg+/-0.21 log, respectively) when the percentage fall in plasma glucose at 1 h was used as the indicator response. Exendin-4 dose-dependently accelerated glucose lowering in diabetic rhesus monkeys by up to 37% with an ED50 of 0.25 microg/kg +/-0.09 log. In two experiments in which diabetic fatty Zucker rats were injected subcutaneously twice daily for 5-6 weeks with doses of exendin-4 up to 100 microg x rat(-1) x day(-1) (approximately 250 microg/kg), HbA1c was reduced relative to saline-injected control rats. Exendin-4 treatment was also associated in each of these experiments with weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by increases of up to 32 and 49%, respectively, in the glucose infusion rate (GIR) in the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. ED50s for weight loss and the increase in clamp GIR were 1.0 microg/kg+/-0.15 log and 2.4 microg/kg+/-0.41 log, respectively. In conclusion, acute and chronic administration of exendin-4 has demonstrated an antidiabetic effect in several animal models of type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Characterization of a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP-39)-formed cation-selective channel from platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom. (3/704)

1. The lipid bilayer technique is used to characterize the biophysical and pharmacological properties of a novel, fast, cation-selective channel formed by incorporating platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom (OaV) into lipid membranes. 2. A synthetic C-type natriuretic peptide OaCNP-39, which is identical to that present in platypus venom, mimics the conductance, kinetics, selectivity and pharmacological properties of the OaV-formed fast cation-selective channel. The N-terminal fragment containing residues 1-17, i.e. OaCNP-39(1-17), induces the channel activity. 3. The current amplitude of the TEACl-insensitive fast cation-selective channel is dependent on cytoplasmic K+, [K+]cis. The increase in the current amplitude, as a function of increasing [K+]cis, is non-linear and can be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. At +140 mV, the values of gammamax and KS are 63.1 pS and 169 mM, respectively, whereas at 0 mV the values of gammamax and KS are 21.1 pS and 307 mM, respectively. gammamax and KS are maximal single channel conductance and concentration for half-maximal gamma, respectively. The calculated permeability ratios, PK:PRb:PNa:PCs:PLi, were 1:0.76:0.21:0.09:0.03, respectively. 4. The probability of the fast channel being open, Po, increases from 0.15 at 0 mV to 0.75 at +140 mV. In contrast, the channel frequency, Fo, decreases from 400 to 180 events per second for voltages between 0 mV and +140. The mean open time, To, increases as the bilayer is made more positive, between 0 and +140 mV. The mean values of the voltage-dependent kinetic parameters, Po, Fo, To and mean closed time (Tc), are independent of [KCl]cis between 50 and 750 mM (P > 0. 05). 5. It is proposed that some of the symptoms of envenomation by platypus venom may be caused partly by changes in cellular functions mediated via the OaCNP-39-formed fast cation-selective channel, which affects signal transduction.  (+info)

Effects of size, motility and paralysation time of prey on the quantity of venom injected by the hunting spider Cupiennius salei. (4/704)

Previous experimental studies have shown that neotropical wandering spiders (Cupiennius salei) inject more venom when attacking larger crickets. It has been postulated that this is a consequence of predator-prey interactions during envenomation, which increase in intensity with the size of a given prey species. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis using anaesthetized crickets of different sizes that were moved artificially. Cupiennius salei was found (1) to inject more venom the greater the intensity of the struggling movement of the crickets (prey size kept constant); (2) to inject more venom the longer the duration of the struggling movement of the crickets (prey size and intensity of movement kept constant); and (3) to inject equal amounts into crickets of different size (duration and intensity of movement kept constant). These results indicate that C. salei alters the amount of venom it releases according to the size and motility of its prey. Venom expenditure depends mainly on the extent of the interactions with the prey during the envenomation process, whereas prey size is of minor significance. The regulation of venom injection in concert with behavioural adaptations in response to various types of prey minimizes the energetic cost of venom production, thus increasing the profitability of a given prey item.  (+info)

Solution structure of a defensin-like peptide from platypus venom. (5/704)

Three defensin-like peptides (DLPs) were isolated from platypus venom and sequenced. One of these peptides, DLP-1, was synthesized chemically and its three-dimensional structure was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The main structural elements of this 42-residue peptide were an anti-parallel beta-sheet comprising residues 15-18 and 37-40 and a small 3(10) helix spanning residues 10-12. The overall three-dimensional fold is similar to that of beta-defensin-12, and similar to the sodium-channel neurotoxin ShI (Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I). However, the side chains known to be functionally important in beta-defensin-12 and ShI are not conserved in DLP-1, suggesting that it has a different biological function. Consistent with this contention, we showed that DLP-1 possesses no anti-microbial properties and has no observable activity on rat dorsal-root-ganglion sodium-channel currents.  (+info)

Functional studies of a glucagon receptor isolated from frog Rana tigrina rugulosa: implications on the molecular evolution of glucagon receptors in vertebrates. (6/704)

In this report, the first amphibian glucagon receptor (GluR) cDNA was characterized from the liver of the frog Rana tigrina rugulosa. Functional expression of the frog GluR in CHO and COS-7 cells showed a high specificity of the receptor towards human glucagon with an EC(50) value of 0.8+/-0.5 nM. The binding of radioiodinated human glucagon to GluR was displaced in a dose-dependent manner only with human glucagon and its antagonist (des-His(1)-[Nle(9)-Ala(11)-Ala(16)]) with IC(50) values of 12.0+/-3. 0 and 7.8+/-1.0 nM, respectively. The frog GluR did not display any affinity towards fish and human GLP-1s, and towards glucagon peptides derived from two species of teleost fishes (goldfish, zebrafish). These fish glucagons contain substitutions in several key residues that were previously shown to be critical for the binding of human glucagon to its receptor. By RT-PCR, mRNA transcripts of frog GluR were located in the liver, brain, small intestine and colon. These results demonstrate a conservation of the functional characteristics of the GluRs in frog and mammalian species and provide a framework for a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the GluR and its physiological function in vertebrates.  (+info)

Secreted phospholipases A(2), a new class of HIV inhibitors that block virus entry into host cells. (7/704)

Mammalian and venom secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) have been associated with a variety of biological effects. Here we show that several sPLA(2)s protect human primary blood leukocytes from the replication of various macrophage and T cell-tropic HIV-1 strains. Inhibition by sPLA(2)s results neither from a virucidal effect nor from a cytotoxic effect on host cells, but it involves a more specific mechanism. sPLA(2)s have no effect on virus binding to cells nor on syncytia formation, but they prevent the intracellular release of the viral capsid protein, suggesting that sPLA(2)s block viral entry into cells before virion uncoating and independently of the coreceptor usage. Various inhibitors and catalytic products of sPLA(2) have no effect on HIV-1 infection, suggesting that sPLA(2) catalytic activity is not involved in the antiviral effect. Instead, the antiviral activity appears to involve a specific interaction of sPLA(2)s to host cells. Indeed, of 11 sPLA(2)s from venom and mammalian tissues assayed, 4 venom sPLA(2)s were found to be very potent HIV-1 inhibitors (ID(50) < 1 nM) and also to bind specifically to host cells with high affinities (K(0.5) < 1 nM). Although mammalian pancreatic group IB and inflammatory-type group IIA sPLA(2)s were inactive against HIV-1 replication, our results could be of physiological interest, as novel sPLA(2)s are being characterized in humans.  (+info)

Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins. (8/704)

Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin.  (+info)

CONTEXT We wanted to understand the effects of once-weekly vs. twice-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonism for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to compare effects of exenatide once weekly (ExQW) and exenatide twice daily (ExBID) on glycemic control, body weight, and safety. DESIGN This was a 24-wk, randomized, open-label, comparator-controlled study. SETTING The study was conducted at 43 sites in the United States. PATIENTS The study population was 252 intent-to-treat patients with type 2 diabetes [baseline (mean ± SD): glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.4 ± 1.2%, fasting plasma glucose 171 ± 47 mg/dl, weight 96 ± 20 kg] that were drug naïve (19%) or previously treated with one (47%) or multiple (35%) oral antidiabetic medications. INTERVENTIONS Interventions included ExQW 2 mg for 24 wk or ExBID 5 μg for 4 wk followed by ExBID 10 μg for 20 wk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The change in HbA1c from baseline to wk 24 was measured.
Preliminary evidence suggests that exenatide (Byetta®) may have several beneficial direct and indirect effects on NAFLD and liver lipid metabolism. Ad hoc analysis of phase III studies has shown that exenatide treatment is associated with improvement and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury, and that this effect is most pronounced in those with the greatest weight loss. In addition, treatment of leptin deficient ob/ob mice with exenatide reduced weight, liver lipid content, serum ALT and liver lipid peroxidation. Additional evidence suggests that the effects of exenatide on the liver are not simply a result of weight loss, but rather due to direct effects on the liver. Hepatocytes express GLP-1 receptors that are responsive to both GLP-1 and exenatide. Furthermore, exenatide treatment of ob/ob mice or isolated hepatocytes reduces mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and SREBP-1c, which would be expected to reduce DNL.. Based upon this data, we ...
Preliminary evidence suggests that exenatide (Byetta®) may have several beneficial direct and indirect effects on NAFLD and liver lipid metabolism. Ad hoc analysis of phase III studies has shown that exenatide treatment is associated with improvement and normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury, and that this effect is most pronounced in those with the greatest weight loss. In addition, treatment of leptin deficient ob/ob mice with exenatide reduced weight, liver lipid content, serum ALT and liver lipid peroxidation. Additional evidence suggests that the effects of exenatide on the liver are not simply a result of weight loss, but rather due to direct effects on the liver. Hepatocytes express GLP-1 receptors that are responsive to both GLP-1 and exenatide. Furthermore, exenatide treatment of ob/ob mice or isolated hepatocytes reduces mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and SREBP-1c, which would be expected to reduce DNL.. Based upon this data, we ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs biliary effects were limited. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of exenatide on bile acids (BAs) and investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed T2DM participants without glucose-lowering drugs intake were recruited. Plasma total bile acids in fasting state (FTBAs) and other parameters were tested at baseline. Then exenatide were applied to the T2DM participants for 12 weeks. FTBAs and glycemic parameters were measured again after exenatide treatment, and correlation analysis between changes of FTBAs and glycemic parameters were conducted to investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide. The baseline FTBAs level of T2DM patients had no significance (3.84 ± 2.06 vs. 3.87 ± 2.89, P = 0.954) compared with healthy subjects. After 12
Symptomatic defined as patient with signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia with or without confirmatory blood glucose measurement.. Glycemic control significantly (but modestly) improved with once-weekly exenatide when compared to daily insulin glargine. Not surprising, the reduction in fasting glucose was greater with insulin glargine. We can assume that post-prandial blood glucose was substantially reduced by exenatide given that overall glycemic control was better in the exenatide group. The proportion of patients who were able to achieve an A1c ≤ 6.5% was significantly greater with exenatide (number needed to treat = 10). Weight loss with exenatide was maintained throughout the study.. Common adverse effects noted in the exenatide group included nausea and diarrhea during the first 26 weeks of treatment but relative few patients reporting these symptoms during the study extension period (nausea 2.1% and diarrhea 3.4%). Serious adverse events reported in the exenatide group included one case of: ...
China Exenatide Acetate (Exendin-4) CAS 141758-74-9 for Body Supplements Peptides, Find details about China Exenatide Acetate, Polypeptide Hormones from Exenatide Acetate (Exendin-4) CAS 141758-74-9 for Body Supplements Peptides - Shenzhen Simeiquan Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
The natural GLP-1 substance is rapidly degraded, and to be useful, must be infused. Two strategies have been used to take advantage of the GLP-1 effects. The first is to produce substances that increase the half life of endogenous GLP-1. Several medications are under investigation using this strategy.. Another strategy is to look for what have been termed incretin mimetics - incretin analogs that mimic the effect of incretin hormones but are resistant to the degradation processes that limit the half life of natural GLP-1. There are a variety of these compounds in various phases of development including liraglutide (Novo Nordisk), CJC-1311 (ConjuChem, Montreal, Canada) and, exenatide, the synthetic version of exendin-4 (Amylin Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, Calif.) This was recently released by the FDA.. Exendin-4 is a naturally occurring substance found in the salivary secretions of the lizard Heloderma suspectun - the gila monster. This animal eats only every several months, which poses a ...
Exenatide, which is widely used for patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibits gastric emptying and small intestinal motility (1). We report a diabetic patient with panhypopituitarism who developed general fatigue and appetite loss with hypotension because of absorption delay of hydrocortisone in association with exenatide treatment.. A 50-year-old diabetic woman was admitted to our hospital because of poor glycemic control in December 2011. She had been treated with hydrocortisone and L-thyroxine for hypopituitarism as a result from surgeries and radiotherapy for carniopharyngioma. She was started on treatment with 5 μg exenatide twice a day. Nine days after exenatide treatment, the dose was increased to 10 μg twice a day. Although glycemic control improved rapidly, she complained of general fatigue, appetite loss, and hypotension in the morning, but symptoms improved before noon. We reasoned the symptoms by insufficiency of hydrocortisone replacement but investigated first whether exenatide ...
Introduction: Liraglutide and Exenatide are used in adults who are affected by type-2 diabetes to control their blood glucose level. They are administered by the patients by subcutaneous injection, Liraglutide once a day while Exenatide twice a day. The aim of this study was to evaluate medication adherence and persistence of treatment with Liraglutide and Exenatide with a new strategy of calculation also giving economic evaluations on therapy costs for Received Daily Dose. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we took into account 16 months from 1st September 2011 to 31st December 2012. Treatment adherence was quantified utilizing the ratio between RDD and Prescribed Daily Dose (PDD). Persistence is calculated into account the actual therapy days, comparing posology with supplied dose and the graph is drawn using Kaplan-Meir method. Results: The number of patients studied for Liraglutide was 114 and 220 and 58 and 60 for Exenatide respectively in 2011 and 2012. Adherence to therapy,
Objective: This review examines the use of exenatide twice daily in managing changes in markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Background: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive metabolic disorder, which results from defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action leading to chronic hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular complications. Despite the use of diet, exercise, oral antihyperglycaemic agents and insulin, the progressive nature of the condition means that the levels of the preventive and treatment measures would have to be increased and/or new therapies have to be developed in order to address the long term impact of type 2 diabetes. The advent of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist provides a useful basis for managing type 2 diabetes and related cardiovascular complications without the side effects of regular diabetes therapies. However, exenatide twice daily is often used in combination with other therapies, although the mechanism of exenatide in
AIMS: To investigate the effect of adding the short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide to insulin treatment on markers of cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 108 individuals with type 1 diabetes aged ≥18 years on multiple daily injection therapy with a body mass index ,22.0 kg/m2 and glycated haemoglobin concentration of 59 to 88 mmol/mol (7.5%-10.0%) were randomized (1:1) to preprandial subcutaneous injection of 10 μg exenatide (Byetta®) or placebo three times daily over 26 weeks as add-on treatment to existing insulin therapy. Reported markers of cardiovascular risk were secondary endpoints and were analyzed in a baseline-adjusted linear mixed model in the intention-to-treat population. The primary results of this study, the MAG1C (Meal-time Administration of exenatide for Glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes Cases) trial, were previously reported.. RESULTS: Exenatide changed ...
Buy Exendin-4 (Exenatide) (CAS 141758-74-9), a water soluble potent GLP-1 receptor agonist. Join researchers using high quality Exendin-4 (Exenatide) from…
Aims/Introduction:? To judge the basic safety and efficiency from the glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist exenatide in Japan sufferers with type?2 diabetes mellitus suboptimally controlled despite therapeutic dosages of the sulfonylurea alone or SU 11654 coupled with a biguanide or thiazolidinedione. (placebo) ?0.39?±?0.28 (exenatide 5?μg) and ?1.54?±?0.27 (exenatide 10?μg; placebo). Nausea mild to average was reported … Continue reading Aims/Introduction:? To judge the basic safety and efficiency from the glucagon‐like. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Hiroko Mori, Takashi Otsuka, Mayuko Kawaguchi, Megumi Matsuda, Fumi Kuno, Kei Sugai, Satomi Sonoda, Maiko Hajime, Kenichi Tanaka, Tadashi Arao, Yoshiya Tanaka].
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects 18.2 million people in the United States.1 Type 2 diabetes is the most commonly diagnosed type; it is frequently caused by peripheral insulin resistance or impaired insulin secretion.2 Combination therapy is often necessary when a single drug fails to control plasma glucose. The FDA has approved Byetta (exenatide), manufactured by Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc, as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients who cannot achieve blood sugar control on metformin and/or sulfonylurea.3 Pharmacology Byetta is an incretin mimetic agent that is composed of a 39-amino acid peptide. Incretins improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon release. Byetta leads to an increase in insulin secretion, a decrease in glucagon release, a decrease in food intake, delayed gastric emptying, and an elevated beta-cell production.3,4 Clinical Trials A triple-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of ...
This eMedTV resource discusses how exenatide treats type 2 diabetes by increasing the production of insulin and decreasing the production of sugar. This page also explains that there are no universally accepted off-label exenatide uses.
Exenatide is a licensed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and seems to exert neuro-protective properties when tested in the laboratory. This award will allow Dr. Foltynie to perform a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Exenatide, self-administered by patients by subcutaneous injection, over a 12 month period at the UCL Institute of Neurology ...
Does Bydureon once weekly show benefit in type 2 diabetic patients?... Exenatide ER (Bydureon™) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist
Antwi K, Fani M, Nicolas G, Rottenburger C, Heye T, Reubi JC, Gloor B, Christ E, Wild D. Localization of hidden insulinomas with 68Ga-DOTA-Exendin-4 PET/CT: a pilot study. J Nucl Med. 2015; 56(7): 1075-1078.. Gao H, Kiesewetter DO, Zhang X, Huang X, Guo N, Lang L, Hida N, Wang H, Wang H, Cao F, Niu G, Chen X. PET of glucagonlike peptide receptor upregulation after myocardial ischemia or reperfusion injury. J Nucl Med. 2012; 53: 1960-1968.. Jodal A, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Brom M, Schibli R, Béhé M. A comparison of three 67/68Ga-labelled exendin-4 derivatives for β-cell imaging on the GLP-1 receptor: the influence of the conjugation site of NODAGA as chelator. EJNMMI Res. 2014; 4:31.. Kiesewetter DO, Gao H, Ma Y, Niu G, Quan Q, Guo N, Chen X. 18F-radiolabeled analogs of exendin-4 for PET imaging of GLP-1 in insulinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012a; 39(3): 463-473.. Kiesewetter DO, Guo N, Guo J, Gao H, Zhu L, Ma Y, Niu G, Chen X. Evaluation of an [18F]AIF-NOTA analog of exendin-4 for imaging ...
Choosing antihyperglycemic agents is determined by their efficacy in lowering blood glucose and their extraglycemic effects (including effects on cardiovascular disease and microangiopathy), adverse events, and costs. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are relatively novel classes of drugs. To unequivocally recommend these two new drug types, the following information is lacking and should be provided: 1) Current data on the durability of glycemic control are insufficient, 2) the durability and magnitude of weight regulation are currently unknown, 3) neither GLP-1 receptor agonists nor DPP-4 inhibitors have been investigated in trials of sufficient size and duration to evaluate their effects on cardiovascular outcomes, and 4) long-term trials on safety with prospective collection of adverse events are needed over and above what has been reported so far.. The AMIGO studies showed that after 30 weeks of exenatide treatment, the reduction in A1C was ∼0.8-1.0% compared with placebo ...
Incretin mimetics or GLP-1 receptor agonists are commonly used in Type 2 Diabetes. Recent evidence favors their use for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Explore the live graph.. ...
Medscape - Type 2 diabetes mellitus dosing for Bydureon, Bydureon BCise (exenatide injectable suspension) frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
the most common side effects of exenatide include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, feeling jittery, dizziness, headache, acid stomach, constipation, and weakness. these symptoms usually go away after the f
Molecular Formula: C184H282N50O60S Relative Molecular Mass: 4186.63 g/mol CAS-Number: 141758-74-9 (net), 141732-76-5 (Acetate) Synonyms: Exendin-4 Sequence:...
Treatment with daily GLP-1 receptor agonist at maximum dose according to local label (i.e. 1.8 mg OD Victoza® (liraglutide) or 10 microgram twice daily (BID) Byetta® (exenatide)) or documented maximum tolerated dose (i.e. 1.2 mg OD Victoza® (liraglutide) or 5 microgram BID Byetta® (exenatide)) in combination with a stable daily dose of metformin (, 1500 mg or documented maximum tolerated dose) ± stable daily dose of pioglitazone (≥30 mg) ±stable daily dose of sulphonylurea (≥ half of the max approved dose according to local label) ≥90 days prior to screening visit (Visit 1 ...
Discover the clinical data for BYDUREON Pen, including pharmacokinetic profile, impact on glucose fluctuations, A1C, safety, and dosing.
The platypus is one of the few living mammals to produce venom. Males have a pair of spurs on their hind limbs that secrete venom that is only seasonally active to breeding season, supporting the theory that the use of venom is for competition of mates only, not protection. While the spur remains available for defense outside of breeding season, the platypuss venom gland lacks secretion. While the after effects are described as excruciatingly painful, this venom is not lethal to humans. Many archaic mammal groups possess similar tarsal spurs, so it is thought that, rather than having developed this characteristic uniquely, the platypus simply inherited its venom from its distant ancestors. Rather than being a unique outlier, the platypus is the last demonstration of what was once a common mammalian characteristic, and it can be used as a model for non-therian mammals and their venom delivery and properties. The venom is produced in the crural glands of the male, which are kidney-shaped alveolar ...
article: The effects of Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) on cardiac remodelling: exploring the role of medication and physiological modulation after metabolic surgery: a narrative review - Minerva Endocrinology 2021 Mar 16 - Minerva Medica - Riviste
Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding
Doctors often prescribe drugs to help patients with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar. They use a blood test (called hemoglobin A1c) to assess sugar control. In most cases, doctors should aim for optimal control of sugar levels (hemoglobin A1c values less than 7%), depending on several factors. Some patients need more than 1 drug to get their blood sugar levels under optimal control. Drugs that may be used include insulin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose and miglitol), biguanides (metformin), sulfonyureas (glipizide or glyburide), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). Exenatide is a new drug called an incretin mimetic. Few studies have assessed whether adding this drug to TZD treatment improves sugar control ...
The European Commission has approved Byetta® (exenatide) for treatment of Type 2 diabetes. This drug is a new class of anti-diabetic drug known as incretin mimetics. The European Commission has permitted marketing and sale of Byetta (exenatide). To improve the blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes the European Union has authorized exenatide as adjunctive therapy. This is for patients who have not accomplished adequate glycaemic control on maximally tolerated doses of two common oral medications viz. metformin and/or a sulfonylurea. Exenatide is the first in its class of medicines.. Patients have long-term blood sugar control with the help of exenatide. This was revealed in the clinical trials conducted by the company. The drug lowers both fasting and postprandial glucose levels (peak levels after meals). To gauge blood glucose management health care providers often use of haemoglobin A1c. The haemoglobin A1c measures a persons average glucose level over a period of three months. ...
TABLE-US-00002 [0073] H-(Lys)6-des Pro36 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2, des Asp28 Pro36, Pro37, Pro38Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2, H-des Asp28 Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-NH2, des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-Asn-(Glu)5-des Pro36, Pro37, Pro38 [Trp(O2)25, Asp28] Exendin-4(1-39)-(Lys)6-NH2, H-(Lys)6-des Pro36 [Met(O)14, Asp28] ...
OBJECTIVE: The CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy (CHOICE) study assessed time to, and reasons for, significant treatment change after patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) initiated their first injectable glucose-lowering therapy (exenatide twice daily [BID] or insulin) in routine clinical practice, and these patients clinical outcomes, in six European countries. This paper reports interim data from the first 12 months of the study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: CHOICE (NCT00635492) is a prospective, noninterventional, observational study. Clinical data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy and after approximately 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Of 2497 patients enrolled in CHOICE, 1096 in the exenatide BID and 1239 in the insulin cohorts had ≥1 post-baseline assessment and were included in this analysis. Overall, 32.2% of the exenatide BID cohort and 29.1% of the insulin cohort (Kaplan-Meier estimates) had significant
FROM EASD 2016. The combination of exenatide and dapagliflozin produced better results than did either drug alone in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glucose levels arent controlled effectively by metformin.. At 28 weeks, HbA1c levels were lower in the combination group, where a third of patients lost more than 5% of their body weight, and 45% reached HbA1c levels under 7.0%, outpacing those on the solo treatments.. Cristian Guja, MD, of the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, Romania, presented the findings of DURATION-8 , a 28-week randomized, double-blinded study at 109 sites in six countries, Sept. 16 at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. The study was published simultaneously in the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.. In 2014 and 2015, 695 adults with type 2 diabetes and insufficient glycemic control, defined as HbA1c 8%-12%, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exenatide plus dapagliflozin (n = 231), exenatide ...
Onglyza and Kombiglyze XR belong to a class of diabetes drugs known as DPP-4 inhibitors. The two drugs are almost identical as both contain the same active ingredient, Saxagliptin.. Unfortunately, a growing amount of research has linked the drugs to an increase in a patient risk for heart failure, congestive heart failure, cardiac failure or cardiac-related death.. These drugs work by lowering blood-sugar levels by influencing a hormone called GLP-1, which stimulates the growth of the cells in the pancreas as that produces insulin. Drugs like these are called incretin mimetics because they mimic metabolic hormones that increase insulin production. The issue with incretin mimetics like Onglyza and Kombiglyze XR is that the long-term risks are not fully known since the drugs are still new.. ...
I have previously discussed the not too uncommon association between obesity and psoriasis, a chronic, autoimmune disease that causes red, scaly patches to appear on the skin, and affects 2-3% of the population in Western countries.. Hogan and colleagues, St Vincents University Hospital, University College Dublin, Ireland, in a paper just published in Diabetologia, now report improvement of psoriasis in three obese patients with type 2 diabetes several weeks after the initiation of therapy with the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exenatide and liraglutide.. Regular readers may recall that GLP-1 receptor agonists were recently introduced for the treatment of diabetes and are currently under investigation for the treatment of obesity.. In addition to the clinical improvement, with reduced itching and/or a reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, they also provide evidence that GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment had immunological effects in that it ...
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a major player in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. It acts on pancreatic beta cells to stimulate insulin secretion and on the brain to inhibit appetite. Thus, it may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Despite the physiological and clinical importance of GLP-1, molecular interaction with the GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) is not well understood. Particularly, the specific amino acid residues within the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the receptor that may confer ligand-induced receptor activation have been poorly investigated. Amino acid sequence comparisons of GLP-1 and GLP1R with their orthologs and paralogs in vertebrates, combined with biochemical approaches, are useful to determine which amino acid residues in the peptide and the receptor confer selective ligand-receptor interaction. This article reviews how the molecular evolution of GLP-1 and GLP1R contributes to the selective interaction
In this study, we isolated a 25-kDa novel snake venom protein, designated ablomin, from the venom of the Japanese Mamushi snake (Agkistrodon blomhoffi). The amino-acid sequence of this protein was determined by peptide sequencing and cDNA cloning. The deduced sequence showed high similarity to helothermine from the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum horridum), which blocks voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels, and ryanodine receptors. Ablomin blocked contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle elicited by high K+-induced depolarization in the 0. ...
In this study, the researchers hope to learn about SGLT2 inhibition on EGP (endogenous glucose production) and plasma glucose concentration in diabetic
In a person who hasnt been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes, GLP-1 aids in the production of insulin whenever the individuals blood pressure starts climbing. This is important since the insulin is responsible for taking stored sugar from the fat cells and using it for energy. In addition to helping those with Type 2 diabetes properly use their fat stores, the exenatide-4 found in the Gila monster venom decreases the length of time it takes to digest meals, which means the individual doesnt feel hungry as often, which helps them maintain a healthier weight. While its possible to inject GLP-1 into the system and therefore help regulate the blood sugar level. The problem with they system is that GLP-1 doesnt last long once it enters the system. In order for the person to get the help needed, theyd need another injection approximately once every hour. Exenatide-4 doesnt break down as quickly, which means significantly fewer shots, lowering the risk of infection while improving overall quality of ...
AMHERST, Mass. -- Scoffing at or cutting funds for basic biological research on unusual animal adaptations from Gila monster venom to snail sex, though politically appealing to some, is short-sighted and only makes it more likely that important economic and social benefits will be missed in the long run, say a group of evolutionary biologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.. Writing in a recent issue of BioScience, researchers Patricia Brennan, Duncan Irschick, Norman Johnson and Craig Albertson argue that innovations often arise from unlikely sources and reducing our ability to creatively examine unique biological phenomena will ultimately harm not only education and health but also the ability to innovate, a major driver of the global economy.. First author Brennan, known for her duck genitalia studies that could eventually aid human medical science points out, Basic science has increasingly come under attack, and there is a growing perception that studying odd science ideas ...
Novo Nordisk A/S: Switching to Once-Daily Victoza(R) (Liraglutide [rDNA Origin] Injection) from Exenatide Further Improves Blood Sugar Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Any bite can lead to infection. However, that has nothing to do with the early emerging symptoms from a varanid bite (prolonged bleeding, stinging, muscle pain, dizziness etc). These animals have a very large gland running the length of the lower jaw. It is the exact same gland as the venom gland of the gila monster. The venom produced by a varanid lizard also shares many toxins with the gila monster, such as phospholipase A2 toxins that block the aggregation of platelets, an essential aspect of being able to form a blood clot to stop bleeding. This works well with the deep wounds produced by the serrated teeth. Other components include potent hypotensive toxins, that would help knock a prey item out ...
This study establishes that while acute, intermittent, and prolonged infusions of exogenous GLP-1 all slow gastric emptying substantially in health, the magnitude of this effect is attenuated during prolonged stimulation, which reduces the effect of GLP-1 on postprandial glycemic excursions.. These observations were anticipated and are consistent with the notion that short-acting agonists appear to have a substantial, and sustained, effect to slow gastric emptying, whereas the acute effects of long-acting agonists on gastric emptying diminish with ongoing use (6,9,10,16). Indeed, while prolonged stimulation with exenatide once a week lowers postprandial glycemia, the magnitude of lowering is greater when exenatide twice daily is administered (6).. While a similar effect on gastric emptying was suggested by both Nauck et al. (11) and Näslund et al. (8) there were limitations with both studies. In both studies, the methods used to measuring measure gastric emptying were less than optimal and, in ...
A new study finds that combining the newer diabetes drug exenatide with insulin provides better blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes than insulin alone and helps promote weight loss.
VIENNA -- Acute pancreatitis was not more common with exenatide (Byetta) use compared with other drugs for type 2 diabetes, researchers said here.
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between exenatide and Maxifed-G CDX. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Sathananthan M, Farrugia LP, Miles JM, Piccinini F, Dalla Man C, Zinsmeister AR, Cobelli C, Rizza RA, Vella A. Direct Effects of Exendin-(9,39) and GLP-1-(9,36)amide on Insulin Action, β-Cell Function, and Glucose Metabolism in Nondiabetic Subjects. Diabetes 2013;62:2752-2756. In the article listed above, there was an error in the sentence reading, On the other hand, exendin-(9,39), which arises from the removal of the two NH2-terminal amino acids, is a competitive antagonist of GLP-1 at the GLP-1R (5). The sentence should read, On the other hand, exendin-(9,39), which differs from exendin-(7,39) by the loss of two NH2-terminal amino acids, is a competitive antagonist of GLP-1 at the GLP-1R (5).. The online version reflects these changes.. ...
Currently GLP-1 agonists are only available as a once daily or once weekly injection, not in a pill form. It works to help control your blood sugars by increasing insulin release from your pancreas, as well as slowing down your digestion. The twice daily GLP-1 agonist is marketed as Byetta (Exenatide) and the once daily GLP-1 agonist is marketed as Victoza (Liraglutide) and Adlyxine (Lixisenatide). Once weekly GLP-1 agonists are marketed as Ozempic (Semaglutide), Trulicity (Dulaglutide) and Bydureon (Exenatide XR). Speak with your doctor or pharmacist about whether a GLP-1 agonist can help you with managing your diabetes.. ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. exendin-4 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you dont have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Blood glucose level (mmol/l) (average) Comparative C40-PEG-Ex4 Example 1b Control Time Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 (Lys27- group Untreated (h) (PEG5K) (PEG20K) (PEG20K) (PEG23K) (PEG50K) PEG20K-Ex4) (Ex-4) group 0 23.38 24.28 24.44 24.22 24.56 24.13 22.61 24.23 0.5 7.62 7.96 7.86 7.97 7.63 7.97 6.95 24.21 1 7.36 6.13 6.89 6.99 6.25 6.56 6.41 23.44 2 5.09 5.29 5.04 4.96 5.45 5.24 5.80 24.58 3 4.46 4.18 4.15 4.11 4.64 4.22 5.85 22.96 4 4.93 4.34 4.66 4.54 4.23 4.29 8.02 24.54 6 5.73 4.9 4.67 4.87 4.26 4.85 10.69 23.43 8 9.04 4.57 5.11 4.66 4.69 5.13 16.01 24.94 12 16.2 5.86 7.89 4.9 4.87 5.40 23.89 22.47 24 21.1 8.54 15.09 5.52 5.11 12.98 -- 24.42 36 -- 11.47 20.14 8.08 6.31 17.34 -- 23.92 48 -- 15.34 24.21 8.66 7.26 20.45 -- 22.66 60 -- 20.45 23.76 11.34 8.87 23.02 -- 23.41 72 -- 23.02 -- 14.12 13.49 -- -- 22.26 96 -- -- -- 18.79 17.07 -- -- 24.51 120 -- -- -- 24.53 23.02 -- -- 23.75 ...
Lyxumia is a glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist that is taken once daily among people with type 2 diabetes. Lyxumia is the market name of lixisenatide.
Bydureon is the trade name of the drug exenatide. Bydureon is a once weekly injectable medication for people with type 2 diabetes.
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This spider's venom shows varied action mechanisms that affect the different parts of the nervous impulse transmission chain. ... This is a polyamine toxin isolated from the Argiope lobata's venom. However, there are still some difficulties, as ArgTX-636 ... Argiotoxin can be classified, according to the 1980s classification of spider venoms, as a toxin of the acylpolyamines family, ... Acylpolyamines are neurotoxic compounds that are found only in the venom glands of spiders at a picomolecular level. ...
With a median lethal dose (LD50) of 7.3mg/kg, the venom is relatively weak in comparison to other Myrmecia ants, whose LD50 is ... However, in a 2011 study, at least one patient had an allergic reaction to M. nigriceps venom. This study also concluded that ... Like other Myrmecia species, M. nigriceps ants possess a powerful and painful sting, and the venom is capable of inducing ... Bettini, Sergio (1978). Arthropod Venoms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. p. 477. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-45501-8. ISBN 978- ...
The largest egg measured 1.0 cm × 0.6 cm (0.39 in × 0.24 in). No information is available regarding the venom of A. barbouri, ... 15-40 [24]. In: Lee CY (1979). Snake venoms. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology (continuation of Handbuch der ...
Pb(HCOO)2 + H2S → 2HCOOH + PbS Formic acid is named after ants which have high concentrations of the compound in their venom. ... Hoffman, Donald R (2010). "Ant venoms". Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 10 (4): 342-6. doi:10.1097/ACI. ...
This species complex is equipped with powerful venom, using about 20-55 percent of venom in one bite, and will defend ... The venom of the western rattlesnake is a complexly structured mixture of different proteins with enzymes such as proteases and ... Besides the hemotoxine and its tissue destructive effect, the venom also has neurotoxic properties. Western rattlesnakes, ... "Venoms"). Hamburg: Nikol Verlag. ISBN 978-3868200058. (in German). C. viridis Ashton KG, de Queiroz A. 2001. "Molecular ...
"Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution". Proceedings of ... and the copy is selectively expressed in the venom gland. Previous literature hypothesized that venoms were modifications of ... Snake venom has been shown to have evolved via a process by which a gene encoding for a normal body protein, typically one ... Venom has been known in the clades Caenophidia, Anguimorpha, and Iguania, and has been shown to have evolved a single time ...
Some predation entails venom that subdues a prey before the predator ingests it, as in the box jellyfish, or disables it, as in ... Toxins and venoms. Author: Edmund D.Brodie Mountain Lake Biological Station, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, ... In some cases, the venom contributes to the digestion of the prey, as in rattlesnakes and some spiders. In contrast, baleen ...
Venom is available; however, no commercial venom extract is available that can be used for skin testing. Venom extract is only ... The ant venom is particularly immunogenic for an insect venom; the venom causes about 90% of Australian ant allergies. In ... attached to a single venom gland connected by the venom sac, which is where the venom is accumulated. Exocrine glands are known ... Substantial amounts of ant venom have been analysed to characterise venom components, and the jack jumper has been a main ...
Some venoms cannot induce the immune system enough on its own or the combination of two or more venoms result in a better ... The venom is first detoxified to prevent too much damage and death. This is mostly done by complexing the venom with an ... For example, cobra venom has been found to have a bioavailability of 41.7% when injected intramuscular, and for other venoms ... 2010). "Proteolytic activity of elapid and viperid snake venoms and its implication to digestion". J Venom Res. 1: 18-28. Varon ...
Melittin is the main toxin of bee venom, and it damages red blood cells and white blood cells. Apamin is a neurotoxin that ... He was forced to use a venom extractor and seek medical attention. Dol scale to measure pain Starr sting pain scale by ... His original paper in 1983 was an attempt to systematize and compare the hemolytic properties of insect venoms. The index ... Schmidt, Justin O. (1990). "Hymenoptera Venoms: Striving Toward the Ultimate Defense Against Vertebrates". In D. L. Evans; J. O ...
1971). Snake Venoms and Envenomation. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 1-197. ISBN 978-0824714635. Minton, Sherman A., Jr. (1979 ... and snake venoms, especially the effects of bites from rear-fanged venomous snakes. Madge worked as Sherman's field assistant, ... cared for his live reptile collection and learned to milk venomous snakes for his research into venoms. The couple also ...
"Snake venom protein C activators". In: Tu, A., editor. Reptile venoms and Toxins. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 265-79. Mertens ... Studies of snake venom on blood coagulation. Part I: The thromboserpentin (thrombin-like) enzyme in the venoms. Thromb. Res. 2 ... V. ammodytes venom is used in the production of antivenin for the bite of other European vipers and the snake is farmed for ... The venom can be quite toxic [based on tests conducted solely on mice], but varies over time and among different populations. ...
Intravenous : Venom is injected directly into a vein. Intramuscular : Venom is injected into a muscle. Intraperitoneal : Venom ... The average venom yield is 25-26 milligrams (0.39-0.40 gr) with a maximum of 300 milligrams (4.6 gr) of dried venom. The venom ... the average venom quantity was 421 mg (dry weight of milked venom). The maximum venom yield is approximately 1000 mg (dry ... compensating for the lower venom potency. Average venom yield is 180 mg and they have a maximum yield of 600 mg. The venom of ...
"Venom". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-15. Mason, Stewart. "Firefrost Arcanum review". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-15. Sharpe- ...
"Venom". Allmovie. Retrieved November 15, 2011. Buchanan, Jason. "Voice". Allmovie. Retrieved December 24, 2011. Dillard, Brian ...
"Venom - Metal Black Review". About.com. Retrieved 27 May 2013. Prato, Greg. "Metal Black - Venom". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 May ... Metal Black is the eleventh studio album by heavy metal band Venom. It was released in 2006 through Castle/Sanctuary. It is the ... "VENOM. Metal Black (Sanctuary)". Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved 27 May 2013. ...
Inland Taipan Venom vs. Sea Snakes Venom (most notable Belcher's sea snake) Oakley, Cecily (2011). Interview with Associate ... Jamie Venom deathmatch "They have the most toxic venom towards humans then any other snake in the world" (min 1:49) National ... "The venom of the Inland Taipan is extremely potent and is rated as the most toxic of all snake venoms in LD50 tests on mice". ... World's Worst Venom, (Min 44.33) "Among the reptiles tested, the most toxic venom belongs to inland taipan, killing over 60% of ...
doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[541:tcmati]2.0.co;2. Shrew handbook Shrew venom Northern short-tailed shrew venom Platypus venom ... the venom apparatus, which delivers the venom by injection during a bite or sting. The venom apparatus in this definition ... The absence of venom spurs in non-Mammaliaformes cynodonts suggests that venom was an ancient mammalian synapomorphy and ... In spite of the rarity of venom among extant mammals, venom may be an ancestral feature among mammals, as venomous spurs akin ...
... 's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. ... Wasps and hornets have serotonin in their venom, which causes pain and inflammation. as do scorpions. If flies are fed ... Jun Chena, William R. Larivier The nociceptive and anti-nociceptive effects of bee venom injection and therapy: A double-edged ... ISBN 978-1-4200-3212-3. Postma, Terri L (2009). "Neurotoxic Animal Poisons and Venoms". In Dobbs, Michael R. Clinical ...
Bjarnason, J.B.; Fox, J.W. (1989). "Hemorrhagic toxins from snake venoms". J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 7: 121-209. doi:10.3109/ ... Bjarnason, J.B.; Tu, A.T. (1978). "Hemorrhagic toxins from western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom: isolation ... removes C-terminal Leu from small peptides This endopeptidase is one of six hemorrhagic toxins in the venom of western ... Crotalus ruber ruber venom". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 253 (1): 108-121. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(87)90643-6. PMID 2949699. ...
Due to their stings' quick acting venom they rely to lesser extent on their slender pinchers (chelae) to hold onto prey. It is ... suspected that three species, P. schlechteri, P. transvaalicus and P. villosus can spray venom from their tails. These three ...
The venom of C. atrox is primarily hemotoxic, affecting mainly the blood vessels, blood cells and the heart. The venom contains ... Like most other American pit vipers, the venom contains proteolytic enzymes. Proteolytic venoms are concentrated secretions ... the western diamondback rattlesnake can deliver a significant amount of venom in a single bite. The average venom yield per ... The venom also contains cytotoxins and myotoxins which destroy cells and muscles that add to the failure of the cardiovascular ...
Not all chemical components of the venom have been identified but it is currently known that histamine or histamine-like ... Even if the spines do not contain venoms, they still serve to protect larvae as physical barriers from small invertebrate ... Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kumada, Nobuo (1984). "Biology and venoms of Lepidoptera". Handbook of Natural Toxins. 2: 291-330. Bellows ... Various lepidopteran larvae are known to have urticating spines or stinging hairs that contain venoms. ...
... (Cvtx-II) is a toxin in the venom of Coremiocnemis validus (Singapore or Blue femur tarantula). This spider ... Grishin, E. (1999). "Polypeptide neurotoxins from spider venoms". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 264 (2): 276-280. ... which are present in the venom of cone snails. It has low homology with two peptides: 47% homology with spider peptide PLTX-II ... a short insect-specific neurotoxic peptide from the venom of the Coremiocnemis validus (Singapore tarantula)". FEBS Lett. 474 ( ...
The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D. russelii is considerable. Reported venom yields for adult ... This test is often referred to as dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT). The coagulant in the venom directly activates ... "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration. I. Venom composition and relative fraction function". Toxicon. 5 (3 ... The venom is diluted to give a clotting time of 23 to 27 seconds and the phospholipid is reduced to make the test extremely ...
Venom sacs contain both saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons of a chain length between 11 and 18 carbon atoms. The ... The inner passage between the two lancets is the canal through which venom travels as it exits the sting. In P. raphigastra, ... Field experiments in which crushed venom glands and stings of P. raphigastra workers were placed in close proximity to the ... P. raphigastra venom is also known to contain phenol, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, napthalene, indene, limonene and ...
The substance, a short kinin with nine amino acids only, was detected in the blood plasma of dogs after the addition of venom ... Rosenfeld was concerned about the lack of medical knowledge about the actions of venoms on the human body and its medical ... Among other things, he investigated the action of the venom of this snake on fibrinolysis and blood coagulation. In 1948, as ... Rosenfeld was interested in the study of biochemistry of the action of snake venom toxins in animals and humans, particularly ...
Like other mamba species, western green mamba venom is among the most rapid-acting venom of snakes. Human fatalities as a ... The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. The toxicity of ... Its venom is a highly potent mixture of rapid-acting presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins and ... This snake pursues its prey, striking rapidly and often until the prey succumbs to the venom. The western green mamba, as a ...
Beaded lizards are immune to the effects of their own venom. Some compounds in its venom have been shown to have ... The venom glands of the beaded lizard are modified salivary glands located in the reptile's lower jaw. Each gland has a ... However, this venom has been found to contain several enzymes useful for manufacturing drugs in the treatment of diabetes, and ... The beaded lizard's venom is a weak hemotoxin, and although human deaths are rare, it can cause respiratory failure. It ...
... the venom targets vital organs and systems. Spiders paralyze prey with neurotoxic venom of some sort. A few have a venom that ... While venoms are by definition toxic substances, most spiders do not have venom that is toxic to humans (in the quantities ... Not all spider bites inject venom - a dry bite, and the amount of venom injected can vary based on the type of spider and the ... Tarantulas are typically far larger than spiders with the most toxic kinds of venom. However, the sheer volume of the venom may ...
VENOMS. Br Med J 1957; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5047.752-b (Published 28 September 1957) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
The Five Venoms. Shaw Brothers. 8/12/78. The 5 Deadly Venoms; Shaolin Deadly Poisons; Five Deadly Venoms ... Venom-Related Films[edit]. Films directed by Chang Cheh that feature Venoms in supporting roles or fewer than three Venoms in ... Venom Films[edit]. Films directed by Chang Cheh (or a Venom) that feature at least three Venoms in starring roles. ... Mortal Combat; Return of the Five Deadly Venoms; The Return of the 5 Deadly Venoms ...
Unlike snake venom, there appears to be no necrotising component in the Platypus venom - although some muscle wastage has been ... and it can be used as a model for non-therian mammals and their venom delivery and properties. The venom is produced in the ... those involved in reptilian venom production. This appears to be an example of convergent evolution of venom genes from ... Although platypus venom has a broadly similar range of effects and is known to consist of a similar selection of substances to ...
Identification of a cono-RFamide from the venom of Conus textile that targets ASIC3 and enhances muscle pain Catharina Reimers ...
Stinging tumors with scorpion and honeybee venom When honeybees and scorpions sting, it is usually an act of defense -- a ... With its webbed feet, fur-covered body and venom-shooting spurs, the platypus is famously one of natures strangest-looking ... Scientists, however, may have found a way to co-opt those venoms as a means… ... painful one at that, thanks to the venom injected through the stingers. ...
The venom ducts extend through the chelicerae and open near the tips of the fangs. Venom glands probably originated as ... Venom: Venom glands are present in most spiders, but they are absent in the family Uloboridae. The glands are located either in ... and venoms of a few species are effective against predators, including vertebrates. The spitting spiders (Scytodes, family ... Venom. Venom glands are present in most spiders, but they are absent in the family Uloboridae. The glands are located either in ...
Deadly Venoms - Ardipithecus Ramidus Shaka Amazulu The 7th ft. Deadly Venoms - Marima (Floyd 2) Shaq ft. Deadly Venoms & K-Raw ... Party Chedda/Venom Interlude (featuring Ill Knob) 03. Venom Everywhere 04. You Do The Things 05. Worldwide 06. Sunrise 07. ... Hunting Season - (dirty) 1998: One More to Go 1999: Venom Everywhere 2000: Dont Give Up Kurupt ft. Deadly Venoms - Its Time ... Deadly Venoms is a Wu-Tang Clan-affiliated all-female hip hop group formed in 1997 consisting of N-Tyce, J-Boo, Champ MC, and ...
The most common form of venom immunization is bee venom therapy (BVT), with honeybee venom or stingers used to treat conditions ... Other products used in apitherapy include bee pollen and royal jelly . Source for information on Venom Immunotherapy: Gale ... Venom immunotherapy Definition Venom immunotherapy is the process of injecting venom to treat various conditions. ... Venom immunotherapy. Definition. Venom immunotherapy is the process of injecting venom to treat various conditions. The most ...
Animal venoms contain highly toxic components that cause inflammation and tissue destruction at the point of contact or in the ... Venoms. W Dias da Silva, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Thereza L Kipnis, State University ... Animal venoms contain highly toxic components that cause inflammation and tissue destruction at the point of contact or in the ... Simard MJ and Watt DD (1990) Venoms and toxins. In: Polis GA (ed.) The Biology of Scorpions, pp. 414-443. Stanford, CA: ...
Their venom could kill you - or save your life ... Drugs with bite: The healing powers of venoms. By James ... In 1981, captopril, a drug based on pit viper venom, became the first venom-derived drug to be approved by the US Food and Drug ... Unlikely as it sounds, venoms have many of the attributes a good drug needs. When a venomous animal pounces on its prey, the ... In fact, the toxic mixtures of chemicals we call venoms have a long history as medical treatments. From poisonous toads to ...
http://www.mediafire.com/file/fy90wir6jkgjqfh/Gusion_Venom_Skin_v-1.0.apk/file. .header { position: absolute; width: 230px; ...
Venom Prison. 32 New Songs Out Today. Listen to new songs by Megan Thee Stallion, CupcakKe, Burna Boy, Mikey Erg, Big Boi, ... Homewrecker, Venom Prison, Call of the Void touring together. The Great American Ghost and Joy are also opening select dates of ...
2. Does venom collection kill bees? Bee venom can be collected without killing bees. During the 1950s and 1960s, venom ... Freeze-drying is perhaps the most effective method of preserving bee venom. 4. What is bee venom used for? Bee venom is a rich ... bee venom. Pure whole dried bee venom is the purest venom. It is white in color (often it is snow white), not contaminated with ... venom sac extract). In this category, bee venom is also mixed with snake and centipede venoms and is taken orally to treat ...
... they include mimicking snail venom for powerful pain relief, a promising strategy for fighting HIV and a trick for synthesising ... Snail-venom pain relief. By Justin Mullins. The venom of the predatory marine snail Conus Magus is one of the most potent ... The snails venom - which it uses to stun and paralyse its prey - targets proteins in cell membranes whose job it is to allow ... The venom targets a particular subgroup known as N-type calcium channels , which play a role in some kinds of pain. ...
The reptiles most known to use venom are snakes, some species of which inject venom into their prey via fangs. Snake venom is ... Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another. The potency of different venoms ... Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in the venom is as complex as the proteins found in snake venom. ... Modified sweat glands are what evolved into platypus venom glands. Although it is proven that reptile and platypus venom have ...
The study of venoms is driven by a desire to understand the structural and functional diversity of venom components and, in ... Venoms to Drugs: Venom as a Source for the Development of Human Therapeutics ... Initially, target-driven venom screens were rare. Bioassays in whole animals or isolated tissues were used to characterise ... Venoms-Based Drug Discovery: Bioassays, Electrophysiology, High-Throughput Screens and Target Identification. Irina Vetter, ...
Browse the Marvel Comics issue Venom (2016) #164. Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, variants, ... And after years together, this is the one secret that their relationship might not bounce back from…The march to Venoms 30th ... And after years together, this is the one secret that their relationship might not bounce back from…The march to Venoms 30th ... EDDIE BROCK, together with his symbiote partner, is VENOM! But just when things seemed like they were going back to normal, ...
Browse the Marvel Comics issue Venom (2018) #7. Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, variants, writers ... Donny Cates and special guest artist and Venom veteran IBAN COELLO (VENOMVERSE, VENOMIZED) turn the story on its head AGAIN! ... Donny Cates and special guest artist and Venom veteran IBAN COELLO (VENOMVERSE, VENOMIZED) turn the story on its head AGAIN! ...
The soft-scaled viper carries a type of venom known as hemotoxin, a venom that attacks the circulatory system and causes blood ... while harvesting its venom. "Their venom completely prevents the clotting of blood," says Haast. "Its even worse than the ... Other venoms, such as those of the deadly Asian cobras and kraits, are neurotoxins, which affect the nervous system, causing ... Haast, featured in the NATURE program Victims of Venom, has spent more than 50 years working with venomous snakes. Like many ...
In pictures: Venom - Killer and Cure In pictures: Venom - Killer and Cure. By Things To Do Editors Posted: Friday November ... Venom: Killer and Cure is on at the Natural History Museum until May 13 2018. £9, £5 concs. ... It might look pretty but the emerald cockroach wasp uses its venom to paralyse and enslave cockroaches. ... The lesser weeverfish secretes a potent venom from tiny spikes on its fin. ...
Tag: Venom sequel Venom Sequel In the Works From Original Co-Writer Kelly Marcel. by Vinnie Mancuso January 7, 2019 ...
Centipede venom trumps morphine in mouse study of pain. Posted by Arielle Duhaime-Ross , Categories: Drugs, drugs and more ... as a healing effect may in fact have been the handiwork of a pain-inhibiting peptide contained within this centipedes venom, ...
Get the subscription to Venom (2011-2013) and get your Digital Magazine on your device. ... All the issues of Venom (2011-2013) on our Newsstand. ... VENOM BY RICK REMENDER VOL. 1 - Special. SPIDER-ISLAND TIE-IN ... Can he maintain his cool or will his volatile emotional state unleash the Venom symbiote? ...
De Havilland Sea Venom. de Havilland DH 112 Venom er et britisk etterkrigs, enseters enmotors jetfly utviklet og bygget av de ... juli 1952, the første Hawarden-bygget Venom levert til RAF.[20] I tillegg, bygging ble utført av flere Venom FB.1, FB.4 og NF. ... Den siste ikke-RAF Venom som forlot aktiv tjeneste var ved Swiss Air Force.[23] Om lag10-20 Venom fortsatte å fly til 2017, ... Venom ble bruk i flere angrep mot varierte installasjoner. Bare en enkel RAF Venom ble tapt.[29] ...
Take a wild ride with Venom 1, the countrys only SWAT team for snakebites, as they handle emergencies from coast to coast. ... Venom 911. Take a wild ride with Venom 1, the countrys only SWAT team for snakebites, as they handle emergencies from coast to ... Venom 911. Take a wild ride with Venom 1, the countrys only SWAT team for snakebites, as they handle emergencies from coast to ... Take a wild ride with Venom 1, the countrys only SWAT team for snakebites, as they handle emergencies from coast to coast. ...
That really make no sense; why does everybody get their Venom SteelBook on 12/18/2018 and Best Buy Canada get theirs on 01-08- ... BAD Quality Footage of Brock Becoming Venom HERE!!. By cammyrfc in forum Movie News ...
Tento článok je čiastočný alebo úplný preklad článku Venom (band) na anglickej Wikipédii. ... Venom je jedna z prvých black/thrash metalových hudobných skupín, ktorá bola založená v roku 1978 v anglickom Newcastli. ... Retrieved from "https://sk.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Venom&oldid=6827550" ...
Antidote to venom.. [Freeman Wills Crofts] -- Mr Wills Crofts is deservedly a first favourite with all who want a real puzzle ... Antidote to venom./Freeman Wills Crofts; United Kingdom : The British Library Publishing Division ... schema:name "Antidote to venom."@en ;. schema:productID "904380322" ;. schema:publication # Antidote to venom.. a schema:Book, schema:CreativeWork ;. library:oclcnum "904380322 ...
Don Rickles, The Merchant Of Venom "Hello, dummies!" Top insult comedian Don Rickles is still as sharp as ever. At age 82, he ...
On the hunt for the snake that nearly ended his life, Venom Hunter Tim Fitzer pushes his team to the very edge. But as darkness ... On the hunt for the snake that nearly ended his life, Venom Hunter Tim Fitzer pushes his team to the very edge. But as darkness ...
  • EDDIE BROCK, together with his symbiote partner, is VENOM! (marvel.com)
  • Can he maintain his cool or will his volatile emotional state unleash the Venom symbiote? (zinio.com)
  • Venom is a gooey alien symbiote that bonds with a human host and imbues them with super strength, shapeshifting powers, and the ability to copy Spider-man's webslinging - but you wouldn't know that from Sony's dull trailer. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Development of a movie starring Venom goes all the way back to the 1990s, when David S. Goyer wrote a script for a Venom movie to be produced by New Line Cinema that would pit Venom against Carnage (a seed of the symbiote that grew on its own and bonded with a serial killer, created after Venom became too, um, heroic) and star Dolph Lundgren. (tor.com)
  • Eddie Brock takes vengeance on his skeptics as the all-consuming, spine-chilling symbiote, Venom. (booksamillion.com)
  • The symbiote and its host roar with exaltation as Venom steps outside the tank that had recently been a prison for him, his long gruesome tongue flicking the air, hungry for the taste of a certain webslinger. (geekalerts.com)
  • The Venom Symbiote is an alien life form that bonds with a host, giving it enhanced powers. (geekalerts.com)
  • It's been a hero, a villain, and a Black Ops agent, and now the alien symbiote has transformed into these cool-looking Venom Leggings. (geekalerts.com)
  • A symbiote leaps out of the comic books and into real life with the Venom Premium Format Figure. (geekalerts.com)
  • Sometimes a villain, sometimes an antihero, the alien Symbiote know as Venom strikes fear into the hearts of the Marvel Universe! (entertainmentearth.com)
  • Snake venom is produced by glands below the eye (the mandibular gland) and delivered to the victim through tubular or channeled fangs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snake venoms contain a variety of peptide toxins, including proteases, which hydrolyze protein peptide bonds, nucleases, which hydrolyze the phosphodiester bonds of DNA, and neurotoxins, which disable signalling in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists believe the origin of snake venom began with gene duplication of genes that had been expressed in the body tissues of ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike snake venom, there appears to be no necrotising component in the Platypus' venom - although some muscle wastage has been observed in cases of envenomation in humans, it is likely that this is due to the inability to use the limb while the effects of the venom persist. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994) Pro‐inflammatory activities in elapid snake venoms. (els.net)
  • Endo T and Tamiya N (1991) Structure-function relationships of postsynaptic neurotoxins from snake venoms. (els.net)
  • Markland FS (1998) Snake venoms and their hemostatic system (review paper). (els.net)
  • Harvey AL (ed.) (1991) Snake Venoms. (els.net)
  • There are not many people in the world who know more about snakes and snake venom than Bill Haast does. (pbs.org)
  • On the hunt for the snake that nearly ended his life, Venom Hunter Tim Fitzer pushes his team to the very edge. (discovery.com)
  • The venom of the Black Mamba, rated the world's seventh most potent snake poison , has been suggested as a future painkiller for humans. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Science has learned to harness the power of many venoms for human benefit in recent years - snake venom can help with heart attacks and blood clots, for example, while spider venom may stop brain damage from a stroke. (treehugger.com)
  • By contrast, one can be quite careful on a walk through the southwestern United States or Australian outback and still have an unfortunate accident involving the venom of a snake. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, snake venoms typically contain neurotoxins, but they also often include enzymes that promote various hydrolysis reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Enzymes from Snake Venom. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Quantitative analysis of snake venoms using soluble polymer-based isotope labeling. (nih.gov)
  • We present the design and synthesis of a new quantitative strategy termed soluble polymer-based isotope labeling (SoPIL) and its application as a novel and inclusive method for the identification and relative quantification of individual proteins in complex snake venoms. (nih.gov)
  • Snake venom identification using SoPIL. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • The pEKW and pHpG peptides inhibit the proteolytic activity of the haemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), EoVMP-2, and the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus venom. (nih.gov)
  • The team named tested the proteins - dubbed "mambalgins - on mice, and found that the ASIC-blocking snake venom was as effective as some opiates, including morphine, in dulling pain. (theweek.com)
  • It's very exciting," says Dr. Nicholas Casewell , a snake venom expert at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. (theweek.com)
  • Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. (mdpi.com)
  • This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. (mdpi.com)
  • In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase, with half-lives of 5 to 48 min and 0.8 to 28 h, respectively, following rapid intravenous injection of the venoms or toxins. (mdpi.com)
  • Isbister, G.K. Pharmacokinetics of Snake Venom. (mdpi.com)
  • De Lima ME and Martin‐Eauclaire MF (1995) The toxins purified from Tityus serrulatus (Lutz and Mello) venom. (els.net)
  • Simard MJ and Watt DD (1990) Venoms and toxins. (els.net)
  • Venoms contain hundreds of different ingredients, some of which are not the harmful toxins we assume them to be. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Spider venoms are a complex cocktail of toxins that have evolved specifically to kill insects. (springer.com)
  • In cell cultures, the camouflaged sponges act as decoys, luring the toxins from MRSA, Streptococcus (the bacteria that causes strep throat) and bee venom to their surface, then binding to the structure the 'poisons' normally use to poke through cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • While spider toxins that lead to shock, paralysis, and death are well studied, far less is known about how spider venoms cause pain. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The properties of this cyclic molecule aren't well-known yet, but knowing that it's being produced by toxins in venoms might heighten interest," Cordes said. (medindia.net)
  • Cobra venom is among the more noxious toxins in the animal kingdom-potent enough to fell an elephant. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When the venoms or toxins were administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, an initial absorption phase and slow elimination phase were observed. (mdpi.com)
  • The bioavailability of venoms or toxins ranged from 4 to 81.5% following intramuscular administration and 60% following subcutaneous administration. (mdpi.com)
  • why does everybody get their Venom SteelBook on 12/18/2018 and Best Buy Canada get theirs on 01-08-2019. (movie-list.com)
  • But we got a Venom movie in 2018 anyhow. (tor.com)
  • The Venom headphones are now available to early bird backers priced at just $39 or roughly £30 and will start shipping during December 2018. (geeky-gadgets.com)
  • Venoms adapt to their environment and victims and accordingly evolve to become maximally efficient on a predator's particular prey (particularly the precise ion channels within the prey). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bees synthesize and employ an acidic venom (apitoxin) to cause pain in those that they sting to defend their hives and food stores, whereas wasps use a chemically different alkaline venom designed to paralyze prey, so it can be stored alive in the food chambers of their young. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reptiles most known to use venom are snakes, some species of which inject venom into their prey via fangs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not used as a method of disabling nor killing prey, and although it acts as a defensive mechanism, only males produce venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venom glands probably originated as accessory digestive glands whose secretions aided in the external digestion of prey. (britannica.com)
  • Although the secretions of some spiders may consist entirely of digestive enzymes , those of many species effectively subdue prey, and venoms of a few species are effective against predators, including vertebrates. (britannica.com)
  • The snail's venom - which it uses to stun and paralyse its prey - targets proteins in cell membranes whose job it is to allow calcium ions to pass in and out. (newscientist.com)
  • Whether you're talking about Spider-man's archenemy or the deadly poisons that animals and insects use to kill their prey, venom most often conjures up negative thoughts. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Instead, corals inject a potent neurotoxin by grabbing hold of their prey and gnawing for 20 to 30 seconds with their little teeth to work in the venom-people who have been bitten liken the experience of removing a coral to that of peeling Velcro. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The researchers also say that mice, a creature among the Black Mamba's favorite prey, are immune to its venom and experience an analgesic effect when bitten. (theregister.co.uk)
  • A wide range of animals have evolved a wide range of venoms over time, chemicals that tend to be painful and are often used to disable prey. (treehugger.com)
  • Medolife said Escozine is an effective cancer treatment because a peptide in the venom called chlorotoxin -- the same chemical that paralyzes prey -- also happens to target and kill cancer cells. (go.com)
  • The strength of the venom varies and can affect prey differently. (softschools.com)
  • Conotoxins are bioactive peptides found in the venom that marine cone snails produce for prey capture and defense. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cone snail paralyses and kills their prey with the help of a very selective and potent cocktail of venom peptides, which is injected into prey through a harpoon-like needle. (eurekalert.org)
  • lethal venoms are often characterised by the median lethal dose (LD50, LD50, or LD-50), expressed in terms of mass fraction (e.g., milligrams of toxin per kilogram of body mass), that will kill 50% of the target of a specified type (e.g., laboratory mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many caterpillars have defensive venom glands associated with specialized bristles on the body, known as urticating hairs, which can be lethal to humans (e.g., that of the Lonomia moth), although the venom's strength varies depending on the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the after effects are described as excruciatingly painful, this venom is not lethal to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although powerful enough to paralyze smaller animals, the venom is not lethal to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of venoms is driven by a desire to understand the structural and functional diversity of venom components and, in particular, the mechanism of action of lethal components from medically important animals such as scorpions, spiders, stonefish and snakes. (rsc.org)
  • To produce antivenin, scientists inject horses with small, non-lethal doses of venom. (pbs.org)
  • One of the research's authors, Anne Baron of France's Centre national de la recherche scientifique , told Agence France Press "(It) is surprising that mambalgins, which represent less than 0.5 percent of the total venom protein content, has analgesic (pain-relief) properties without neurotoxicity in mice, whereas the total venom of black mamba is lethal and among the most neurotoxic ones. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Marvel's lethal protector is ready to play (and eat brains) as the Venom: Dark Origins Statue. (geekalerts.com)
  • This Spider-Man Venom Lethal Protector Throw Blanket not only looks cool, it will keep you warm. (geekalerts.com)
  • A modified peptide derived from wasp venom prevented lethal E. coli infections in mice, according to a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (smartbrief.com)
  • Other venoms, such as those of the deadly Asian cobras and kraits, are neurotoxins, which affect the nervous system, causing paralysis and sometimes respiratory arrest. (pbs.org)
  • For many who study the chemistry of venoms, the neurotoxins hold particular interest. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Venomous mammals How do male platypuses deliver venom? (wikipedia.org)
  • Haast, featured in the NATURE program Victims of Venom , has spent more than 50 years working with venomous snakes. (pbs.org)
  • They're also venomous, and as a new study has found, fang blenny venom is unlike any other venom known to science. (treehugger.com)
  • The SoPIL strategy was used to quantify venom proteins from two pairs of venomous snakes: Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus type A, C. scutulatus scutulatus type B, Crotalus oreganus helleri, and Bothrops colombiensis. (nih.gov)
  • The venom is produced in the crural glands of the male, which are kidney-shaped alveolar glands located in the upper thigh connected by a thin-walled duct to a calcaneus spur, or calcar, on each hind limb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venom glands are present in most spiders, but they are absent in the family Uloboridae . (britannica.com)
  • The high domed carapace of the spitting spiders is a modification to house the large venom glands. (britannica.com)
  • Their secret weapons are two large grooved teeth on the lower jaw that are linked to venom glands. (treehugger.com)
  • In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct. (encyclopedia.com)
  • venom glands? (scienceblogs.com)
  • The various protein components of the venom affect specific organisms, different components affecting mammals and insects. (britannica.com)
  • Changes caused by oxidation of certain components of the venom may decrease its healing effect. (ibiblio.org)
  • Scientists also use bee venom or its components in their research of the effects of the whole or separated components of the venom. (ibiblio.org)
  • Until now, however, scientists did not know the exact components of the venom responsible for this effect. (redorbit.com)
  • Components of the venom from marine cone snails can block the transmission of signals between nerve cells in minute quantities. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Venom is the story of Eddie Brock, a reporter who believes in doing the right thing, even by using unconventional methods, and even if it means telling the truth about powerful people. (amzn.com)
  • Sam Raimi's incarnation of Venom, which corrupted Tobey McGuire's Peter Parker and Eddie Brock in 2007's Spider-man 3, was widely disliked by fans, which is why comicbook aficionados have been so excited about the forthcoming standalone Venom movie. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Marvel Venom Eddie Brock Pop! (entertainmentearth.com)
  • Animal venoms contain highly toxic components that cause inflammation and tissue destruction at the point of contact or in the region of a sting or bite. (els.net)
  • The aim of this chapter is to summarise the various assays that are being used to identify and determine the mode of action of drug leads derived from animal venoms. (rsc.org)
  • The crural gland produces a venom secretion containing at least nineteen peptides, in addition to non-protein components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tambourgi DV, Magnoli F, Eickstedt VRD, Petricevich VL and Dias da Silva W (1995) Incorporation of a 35‐kilodalton purified protein from Loxosceles intermedia venom transforms human erythrocytes into activators of autologous complement alternative pathway. (els.net)
  • In a similar study, Samuel A. Wickline, a biomedical engineer at Washington University School of Medicine, altered a protein found in bee venom-which often causes inflammation after stings-called melittin. (popularmechanics.com)
  • A new pesticide using spider venom and plant protein could be a valuable tool in stemming the collapse of honeybee populations. (voanews.com)
  • Sachs and his colleagues were researching the properties of the Chilean rose tarantula, and discovered that a protein within the venom may be suitable to keep muscular dystrophy at bay. (zdnet.com)
  • Now scientists are reporting an advance toward deciphering the chemical composition of the venom, with the first identification of a dozen protein building blocks. (redorbit.com)
  • They identified 11 new peptides, or protein subunits, in the venom. (redorbit.com)
  • One of few common spiders whose bites can have a seriously harmful effect on humans, brown recluse spider venom contains a rare protein that can cause a blackened lesion at the site of a bite wound, or a much less common, but more dangerous, systemic reaction in humans. (medindia.net)
  • This is not a protein that is usually found in the venom of poisonous animals," said Matthew Cordes, an associate professor in the UA's department of chemistry and biochemistry, who led the study, published today in the journal PLOS ONE . (medindia.net)
  • The research team has discovered that in the test tube, the venom protein causes lipids to bend into a ring structure upon the loss of the head portion, generating a cyclical chemical product that is very different than the linear molecule it was assumed to produce. (medindia.net)
  • The lipid knocks off its own head by making a ring within itself, prompted by the protein from the spider venom, Cordes explained. (medindia.net)
  • The hemorrhagic, hemolytic, clotting ability, and fibrinogenolytic activities of crude venoms were measured and correlated with difference in protein abundance determined by the SoPIL analysis. (nih.gov)
  • A and B , comparison of the protein composition of the venom from C. scutulatus scuculatus A and B and from C. oreganus helleri and B. colombiensis , respectively. (nih.gov)
  • But researchers have found that tacking a snippet of protein from cobra venom onto human immune molecules is a novel and effective way of suppressing inflammatory chemicals involved in several difficult-to-treat ailments, such as rheumatoid arthritis, heart attacks and strokes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cobra venom factor (CVF), a key protein in the snakes' toxin , has long been known to interfere with complement activity in mammals by using up components of the system to the point that it stops working. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers altered the section of the protein believed to make the wasp's venom toxic to human cells, and the new molecule killed bacteria without inducing severe side effects. (smartbrief.com)
  • Sylvie Diochot and Anne Baron from France's Institute of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology began their animal venom research by looking for chemicals that could block a type of protein called acid-sensing ion channels - ASICs - that help us feel pain. (theweek.com)
  • Come face to face with two of Spider-Man's most vicious villains with Carnage and Venom on the front of this hoodie. (hottopic.com)
  • If we rewind a few months, to the 18th installment of Baddies, I highlighted Venom's, and Spidey's for that matter, powerful nemesis Carnage and most of you felt that you couldn't include Carnage without first introducing (or reintroducing) Venom into the mix, and I agree. (comicbookmovie.com)
  • Researchers at Newcastle University in England developed the pesticide using the venom of an Australian funnel web spider and snowdrop lectin. (voanews.com)
  • Here we show that the ω-ACTX-Hv1a toxin (Hvt), a component of the venom of the Australian funnel web spider ( Hadronyche versuta ) that is a calcium channel antagonist, retains its biological activity when expressed in a heterologous system. (springer.com)
  • A peptide in the venom of the funnel web spider could protect against brain injury caused by stroke, say researchers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers found that the peptide Hi1a - present in the venom of the Australian funnel web spider - blocks ion channels in the brain that play a role in stroke-induced brain damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to subfunctionalization, in which an ancestral function is split between the copied genes, one of the duplicates becomes limited to only the venom (salivary) gland and as a result, evolved in to the toxin producing gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venom contains a nerve toxin that causes severe pain in humans, especially in the abdominal region, though a bite is usually not fatal. (britannica.com)
  • Nanoparticles containing bee venom toxin melittin can destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while at the same time leaving surrounding cells unharmed, scientists from Washington University School of Medicine reported in the March 2013 issue of Antiviral Therapy . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is the complex of the Nav1.4 channel from human muscle cells with the Hm-3 toxin extracted from the venom of the Heriaeus melloteei spider. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the first time they suggested a blocking agent for leakage currents - a toxin Hm-3 extracted from the venom of Heriaeus melloteei spider. (eurekalert.org)
  • The platypus is one of the few living mammals to produce venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many archaic mammal groups possess similar tarsal spurs, so it is thought that, rather than having developed this characteristic uniquely, the platypus simply inherited its venom from its distant ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than being a unique outlier, the platypus is the last demonstration of what was once a common mammalian characteristic, and it can be used as a model for non-therian mammals and their venom delivery and properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although platypus venom has a broadly similar range of effects and is known to consist of a similar selection of substances to reptilian venom, it appears to have a different function from those poisons produced by non-mammalian species: its effects are not life-threatening but nevertheless powerful enough to cause serious impairment to the victim, which can lead to temporary paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • With its webbed feet, fur-covered body and venom-shooting spurs, the platypus is famously one of nature's strangest-looking animals -- a motley combination of bird, mammal and reptile. (pbs.org)
  • Masaki Kita, Daisuke Uemura, and colleagues note that spurs in the hind limb of the male platypus can deliver the venom, a cocktail of substances that cause excruciating pain. (redorbit.com)
  • To unlock its secrets, the scientists collected samples of platypus venom and used high-tech analytical instruments to separate and characterize its components. (redorbit.com)
  • Image Caption: Despite its cuddly look, the male duck-billed platypus has stingers on its hind limbs that can deliver a painful venom. (redorbit.com)
  • So what's in platypus venom that makes it so painful? (slate.com)
  • But figuring out what's in platypus venom is more than just biology navel-gazing. (slate.com)
  • For one thing, we don't have an antivenom for platypus venom-something that the occasional platypus victim would certainly appreciate. (slate.com)
  • And for another, by studying painful platypus venom, scientists could figure out how it overcomes morphine, which could help them design better painkillers. (slate.com)
  • So unless you're a brave scientist trying to get some venom to figure out a better painkiller, you shouldn't pet the platypus. (slate.com)
  • along with scorpions and stinging insects, which inject venom with a sting. (wikipedia.org)
  • When honeybees and scorpions sting, it is usually an act of defense -- a painful one at that, thanks to the venom injected through the stingers. (pbs.org)
  • 1994) Antigenic cross‐reactivity among the venoms from several species of Brazilian scorpions. (els.net)
  • He can easily eat 20 or more scorpions at a time, and even though he does still get stung, the venom no longer affects him. (opposingviews.com)
  • Snakes use their venom principally for hunting, though they do not hesitate to employ it defensively. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the Serpentarium, Haast "milks" his snakes by forcing the reptiles to release their venom into a beaker. (pbs.org)
  • Different species of snakes carry different types of venom, with varying degrees of toxicity, and larger, older snakes typically pack more wallop into a bite than their smaller brethren. (pbs.org)
  • However, young snakes, born primed with venom, tend to be less discriminating and more aggressive than adults. (pbs.org)
  • Snakes are not the only animals that use venom. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A team of Russian scientists together with foreign colleagues found out that the venom of crab spider Heriaeus melloteei may be used as a basis for developing treatment against hypokalemic periodic paralysis. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scientists previously showed that the venom triggers certain chemical changes in cultured human nerve cells that can lead to the sensation of pain. (redorbit.com)
  • The parasitic jewel wasp uses a venom injected directly into a cockroach's brain to inhibit its victim's free will, scientists have discovered. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • With the tools of modern molecular biology, scientists are starting to decipher what makes this "little-studied venom" so painful. (slate.com)
  • However, the scientists were able to produce the specific venom chemically in vitro for use in additional analyses. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Cone snails can control their venom composition depending if they hunt or defend themselves," says Markus Muttenthaler from the Institute of Biological Chemistry at the University of Vienna. (eurekalert.org)
  • The different chemicals in the venom have a range of effects from lowering blood pressure to causing pain and increasing blood flow around the wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the toxic mixtures of chemicals we call venoms have a long history as medical treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • Venoms are extremely biologically active and these chemical concoctions provide a great natural resource for researchers to study different chemicals, some of which can be developed into drugs. (popularmechanics.com)
  • As a follow-up, the researchers want to see whether the method works in human blood, and against other toxic chemicals, such as scorpion venom and anthrax, which use similar attack strategies. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The hairy arachnid's venom was found to include chemicals that target the same pain pathways as chili peppers, causing maximum distress to bite victims. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Most are rather complicated mixtures of chemicals, each of which plays some role in the action that the venom takes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hosseini died by drinking a concoction made of honey, milk, tea and cobra venom, had a mystical experience and then returned to talk about it. (riverfronttimes.com)
  • Unreal (eagerly): What about the cobra venom? (riverfronttimes.com)
  • Does cobra venom make you independently wealthy? (riverfronttimes.com)
  • So in order to conquer their fear, they all drank this concoction of milk and honey and tea and cobra venom. (riverfronttimes.com)
  • Either a doctor ministered to him or the monks are so experienced, they know the exact dosage of cobra venom. (riverfronttimes.com)
  • Jim doesn't recommend cobra venom, by the way. (riverfronttimes.com)
  • F ans have waited 10 years to see Spider-Man's nemesis Venom return to the big screen, and now the teaser trailer has dropped, it seems they're going to have to wait even longer. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Venom was created by David Michelinie and Todd McFarlane, first teased in the lead-up to Amazing Spider-Man #300 in 1988, though the character spun out of 1984's Secret Wars where among the many "permanent changes" made to the characters participating (all of which were reversed) was Spider-Man's new black costume that obeyed his every thought. (tor.com)
  • Spider-Man's alien suit is bigger and badder than ever with the Marvel Premier Collection Venom Statue . (geekalerts.com)
  • Once thought to just be a cool new look for everyone's favorite wall-crawler, Venom eventually revealed himself to be one of Spider-Man's most formidable foes… and who sometimes manages to also be one of Spidey's greatest allies. (geekalerts.com)
  • Venom is one of Spider-Man's archenemies, and also the subject of this really cool Venom Big Grin T-Shirt. (geekalerts.com)
  • The deathstalker scorpion, native to North Africa and the Middle East, is highly dangerous because of its venom-a neurotoxin powerful enough to kill a child or elderly person, often by causing pulmonary edema. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Recently, Miqin Zhang, a materials scientist at the University of Washington, and her research team showed that a certain compound found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion could help in the treatment of brain cancer. (popularmechanics.com)
  • But Nongjing has found a novel way to raise its standard of living - scorpion farming - mainly to supply venom for use in traditional Chinese medicine. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Scorpion Venom: Can It Really Cure What Ails You? (go.com)
  • Dominican-based company promises scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer. (go.com)
  • Nov. 4, 2013 -- A Dominican Republic-based company is making the controversial claim that its scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer, but some oncologists in the United States warn it may provide nothing more than a stiff dose of false hope. (go.com)
  • Russian émigré Dr. Arthur Mikaelian and his company, Medolife, produce a drug called Escozine, whose sole active ingredient is blue scorpion venom. (go.com)
  • He said he has seen too many claims about alternative medicines, such as scorpion venom, that turn out not to work and leave patients in despair. (go.com)
  • So did scorpion venom make her cancer go away? (go.com)
  • In addition to attacking cancer cells, Medolife says that scorpion venom might also combat auto-immune diseases, everything from HIV to hepatitis, and even male impotence. (go.com)
  • When asked why large pharmaceutical companies, which spend billions of dollars on cancer research each year, haven't marketed scorpion venom, Mikaelin said, pharmaceutical companies don't study "natural compounds because you can't patent [a] natural product. (go.com)
  • Each scorpion yields only five to seven drops of venom a month, and only a tiny amount is inserted into small bottles, which go for $700 each, a month's supply for the average customer. (go.com)
  • Scorpion venom is a substance that has recently gone through testing to determine its possible benefits for human medicine. (opposingviews.com)
  • It seems that scorpion venom is more than a potentially dangerous defense mechanism for a funny looking arachnid. (opposingviews.com)
  • Current research on scorpion venom is slow going, but there are a number of medical possibilities. (opposingviews.com)
  • Some people believe scorpion venom can one day be used to cure Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis. (opposingviews.com)
  • Some people hope scorpion venom will be used as a painkiller one day. (opposingviews.com)
  • Early research has found that painkillers derived from a chemical in scorpion venom are very effective for certain types of pain. (opposingviews.com)
  • Therefore, researchers are being very cautious about possible addiction to scorpion venom. (opposingviews.com)
  • Stories from the other side of the world have people wondering if scorpion venom is more likely to be abused than people had hoped. (opposingviews.com)
  • Most of their clients become addicted to the venom and to the thrill of getting stung by a scorpion. (opposingviews.com)
  • Venom , starring Tom Hardy as the Marvel antihero, earned $10 million of its China total from 553 Imax screens - Sony's biggest opening-weekend performance ever on Imax in the market. (hollywoodreporter.com)
  • They revealed that a few stars will be returning to reprise their roles, including Tom Hardy, who has actually signed on for two more Venom films. (popsugar.com)
  • Tom Hardy (last seen in this rewatch in The Dark Knight Rises ), was cast in the lead role, playing Brock and also the voice of Venom. (tor.com)
  • Utilization of venom across a large number of species demonstrates an example of convergent evolution and a homoplastic trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least one ant species (Polyrhachis dives) has been shown to use venom topically for the sterilisation of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of Haast's scariest bites occurred in 1990, when he was bitten by a very dangerous species, the soft-scaled viper, while harvesting its venom. (pbs.org)
  • The findings, which will appear tomorrow in the journal Nature, are based on the venom of the Trinidad chevron tarantula, a large, long-legged species from the Caribbean ( map of Trinidad and Tobago ). (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The specific venom used by these animals varies not only with its type (spider venom is different from bee venom, for example), but also within a species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cordes, Bandarian and Daniel Lajoie, a PhD candidate in Cordes' lab, tested venom from three species of brown recluse spiders from North and South America. (medindia.net)
  • Here we demonstrate that the sub-10-kDa components of venom from two African viper species (Echis ocellatus and Cerastes cerastes cerastes) are predominantly composed of the tri-peptide pyroglutamate-lysine-tryptophan (pEKW). (nih.gov)
  • After studying the venom of 50 species, Diochot and Baron identified two proteins in mamba venom that effectively block ASICs - reducing pain. (theweek.com)
  • Characteristics of the venom of various spiders, especially the black widow (genus Latrodectus ), have been determined. (britannica.com)
  • A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Arizona has revealed that the venom of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles produces a unique chemical. (medindia.net)
  • Binford, an arachnologist who has traveled the world in search of the eight-legged creatures, collected the spiders, isolated their DNA and milked their venom, which was then frozen and shipped to the UA labs for analysis. (medindia.net)
  • The team of researchers at Ben-Gurion University believe that the octopamine discovery is an important piece of the puzzle of how the tropical wasp's venom turns its victims into the living dead. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The most common form of venom immunization is bee venom therapy (BVT), with honeybee venom or stingers used to treat conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In mainstream allopathic medicine, honeybee venom is used to treat people who are allergic to bee stings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Honeybee venom immunotherapy is used to treat many other conditions in alternative medicine . (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the new study, a team led by neuropharmacologist David Julius from the University California, San Francisco, identified three pain-causing molecules in tarantula venom. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This appears to be an example of convergent evolution of venom genes from existing immune system genes (defensins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the development of high-throughput platforms such as the FLIPR and automated electrophysiology devices, these miniaturised assays have facilitated the high-throughput screening of venoms components against enzymes, receptors and ion channels, many of which are validated drug targets. (rsc.org)
  • Though it's still early, the isolated mambalgins identified in the snake's venom don't appear to have any toxic side effects. (theweek.com)
  • Other insects, such as true bugs and many ants, also produce venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • But a mouse study published today suggests that what the Chinese interpreted as a healing effect may in fact have been the handiwork of a pain-inhibiting peptide contained within this centipede's venom, which kills insects but is harmless in humans. (nature.com)
  • A letter in Nature suggests the application is viable as the venom contains "a new class of three-finger peptides … able to abolish pain through inhibition of Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in central or peripheral neurons. (theregister.co.uk)
  • If the peptides in Black Mamba venom shut them down, that's good news. (theregister.co.uk)
  • A typical venom contains hundreds to thousands of bioactive peptides, with typical lengths of 10 to 40 amino acids. (eurekalert.org)
  • venom or zootoxin, any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In twelve European countries, in the drug category, we can find twenty-four products containing bee venom. (ibiblio.org)
  • To be safe, Rodial recommends that those with allergies stay away from products containing bee venom. (sheknows.com)
  • Fans of Marvel Comics and zombies will want to combine their passions with the Marvel Zombies Venom Mini Bust, featuring a detailed look at the animated corpse of the former villain/hero. (geekalerts.com)
  • Take this Spider-Man Venom Spinner Ring for a spin and unleash your inner Venom. (geekalerts.com)
  • Bee venom and its major component, melittin, may be effective treatments for atopic dermatitis (or eczema), according to a British Journal of Pharmacology study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Through studies conducted in mice and in human cells, investigators found that bee venom and melittin suppress inflammation through various mechanisms on immune cells and inflammatory molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study demonstrated that bee venom and melittin have immunomodulatory activity, and such activity was associated with the regulation of T helper cell differentiation, thereby ameliorating the inflammatory skin diseases caused by atopic dermatitis," the authors wrote. (eurekalert.org)
  • That #Venom teaser seems less like a trailer for a film about a would be anti-hero/proto-villain and more about a guy being really angry about the medical bill he just received for an MRI and extensive tests that his health insurance won't cover. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Given that Venom owes some of its signature powers to Spidey, and it usually set up as a 'dark version' of Peter Parker, this must have caused some difficulties, and it will be interesting to see how the 'chaotic evil' villain is represented without its 'lawful good' foil. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Throughout the 1990s, Venom was Spidey's most popular villain, to the point where he got his own spinoff titles. (tor.com)
  • When he is a villain, the hulking brute that is Venom is one of the deadliest foes of Spider-Man. (entertainmentearth.com)
  • The black mamba's venom contains proteins that could potentially dull pain in humans, according to new research. (theweek.com)
  • A peptide derived from spider venom could be key to preventing brain damage caused by stroke, according to the results of a new study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Molecular fractionation of venom components required more specific bioassays to identify components based on pharmacological or physiological responses of anaesthetised whole animals or tissue preparations such as skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and isolated blood vessels. (rsc.org)
  • During the 1950s and 1960s, venom collectors used a thick rubber sheet to collect bee stingers. (ibiblio.org)
  • Read the full snail-venom pain relief patent application . (newscientist.com)
  • McIntosh has a record of working with snail venom. (enn.com)
  • Hunting Season - (dirty) 1998: One More to Go 1999: Venom Everywhere 2000: Don't Give Up Kurupt ft. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995) Properties of the venom from the South American 'armed' spider Phoneutria nigriventer (Keiserling, 1891). (els.net)
  • The venom ducts extend through the chelicerae and open near the tips of the fangs. (britannica.com)
  • The venom of the predatory marine snail Conus Magus is one of the most potent painkillers on the planet. (newscientist.com)
  • The lesser weeverfish secretes a potent venom from tiny spikes on its fin. (timeout.com)
  • In a study published in the monthly journal ACS Nano , Zhang showed off a way to use an ingredient of the venom called chlorotoxin (which, despite its name, is nontoxic) to help treat brain cancer. (popularmechanics.com)
  • In other cases like Parischnogaster striatula, the venom is applied all over their body in order to make themselves immune to certain harmful diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those who do have a reaction to the venom, the most common response is an inflammation that after one to two days can develop into a dark lesion surrounding the bite site. (medindia.net)
  • Males have a pair of spurs on their hind limbs that secrete venom that is only seasonally active to breeding season, supporting the theory that the use of venom is for competition of mates only, not protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have found people interested in bee venom therapy to be inquisitive and therefore I have referenced my information sources to enable the readers to begin research on their own on this fascinating topic. (ibiblio.org)
  • The team found that the spider venom peptide protected the brain tissue of the rodents, as well as their neurological and motor function. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The venom blocks a chemical substance called octopamine in the cockroach's brain that controls its motivation to walk, the study found. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The "neglected operations" part of the VENOM name refers to the all-but-forgotten portion of the QEMU code where the flaw is found. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Marvel fans who love the anti-hero Venom and his symbiotic suit, check out this Marvel Minimates Venom Through the Ages Box Set. (geekalerts.com)
  • He came across University at Buffalo scientist Frederick Sachs, PhD, a professor of physiology and biophysics who was studying the medical benefits of venom. (zdnet.com)
  • Cavinato RA, Remold H and Kipnis TL (1998) Putrification and variability in the thrombin‐like activity of Bothrops atrox venom from different geographic regions. (els.net)
  • 1998) Endotoxemic like shock induced by Loxosceles intermedia spider venom: pathological changes and putative cytokine mediators. (els.net)
  • But even if he didn't know about the venom, Home would still see the loser collapse, its limbs paralyzed, while the winner went off to be a lover. (slate.com)