The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.
Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.
Veins which drain the liver.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
An anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the right PULMONARY VEIN is not connected to the LEFT ATRIUM but to the INFERIOR VENA CAVA. Scimitar syndrome is named for the crescent- or Turkish sword-like shadow in the chest radiography and is often associated with hypoplasia of the right lung and right pulmonary artery, and dextroposition of the heart.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Retroperitoneal neoplasms are a diverse group of tumors that originate in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum and includes the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and major blood vessels.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The act of constricting.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.
Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Excision of kidney.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A chronic inflammatory condition of the KIDNEY resulting in diffuse renal destruction, a grossly enlarged and nonfunctioning kidney associated with NEPHROLITHIASIS and KIDNEY STONES.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
Inferior and external epigastric arteries arise from external iliac; superficial from femoral; superior from internal thoracic. They supply the abdominal muscles, diaphragm, iliac region, and groin. The inferior epigastric artery is used in coronary artery bypass grafting and myocardial revascularization.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Placement of one of the surgeon's gloved hands into the ABDOMINAL CAVITY to perform manual manipulations that facilitate the laparoscopic procedures.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.

Fluid state and blood pressure control in patients treated with long and short haemodialysis. (1/1121)

BACKGROUND: Patients treated at the haemodialysis (HD) centre in Tassin, France have been reported to have superior survival and blood pressure (BP) control. This control has been ascribed to maintenance of an adequate fluid state, antihypertensive drugs being required in < 5% of the patients, although it could not be excluded that a high dose of HD regarding removal of uraemic toxins might also have been of value. METHODS: The aim of the study was to assess the fluid state and BP in normotensive patients on long HD (8 h) in Tassin (group TN) using bioimpedance to measure extracellular volume (ECV), ultrasound for determining the inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD), and 'on-line' monitoring of the change in blood volume (BV), and to compare them with normotensive (group SN) and hypertensive (group SH) patients on short HD (3-5 h) at centres in Sweden. ECV was normalized (ECVn) by arbitrarily setting the median ECV (in % of body weight) in SN patients at 100% for each gender, recalculating the individual values and combining the results for male and female patients in each group. RESULTS: The dose of HD (Kt/V urea) was higher for TN patients than for Swedish patients who had a similar Kt/V, whether hypertensive or not. SH patients had significantly higher ECVn and IVCD than TN and SN patients. TN and SN patients did not differ significantly regarding ECVn and IVCD before and after HD. However, in a subgroup of eight TN patients, ECVn was below the range of that in SH and SN patients, due to obesity with a high body mass index. Another subgroup of 14 TN patients had a higher ECVn than most of the SN patients and also higher than the median ECVn in the SH group, without any difference in body mass index, but they were nevertheless normotensive. The fall in BV was greater in SN than in TN patients, presumably due to a higher ultrafiltration rate in SN patients. However, SH patients had a smaller change in BV than SN patients, presumably because their state of overhydration facilitated refilling of BV from the interstitial fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Normotension can be achieved independently of the duration and dose (Kt/V urea) of HD, if the control of post-dialysis ECV is adequate. However, this is more difficult to achieve with short than with more prolonged HD during which the ultrafiltration rate is lower, BV changes are smaller and intradialysis symptoms less frequent. The results in the subgroup of patients with high ECVn at Tassin suggest that normotension may also be achieved in patients with fluid overload provided that the dialysis time is long enough to ensure more efficient removal of one or more vasoactive factors that cause or contribute to hypertension.  (+info)

Caval contribution to flow in the branch pulmonary arteries of Fontan patients with a novel application of magnetic resonance presaturation pulse. (2/1121)

BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of fluid mechanics in Fontan physiology includes knowledge of the caval contributions to right (RPA) and left (LPA) pulmonary arterial blood flow, total systemic venous return, and relative blood flow to each lung. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten Fontan patients underwent cine MRI. Three cine scans of the pulmonary arteries were performed: (1) no presaturation pulse, (2) a presaturation pulse labeling inferior vena cava (IVC) blood (signal void), and (3) a presaturation pulse labeling superior vena cava (SVC) blood. The relative signal decrease is proportional to the amount of blood originating from the labeled vena cava. This method was validated in a phantom. Whereas 60+/-6% of SVC blood flowed into the RPA, 67+/-12% of IVC blood flowed toward the LPA. Of the blood in the LPA and RPA, 48+/-14% and 31+/-17%, respectively, came from the IVC. IVC blood contributed 40+/-16% to total systemic venous return. The distributions of blood to each lung were nearly equal (RPA/LPA blood=0.94+/-11). CONCLUSIONS: In Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connection, SVC blood is directed toward the RPA and IVC blood is directed toward the LPA. Although the right lung volume is larger than the left, an equal amount of blood flow went to both lungs. LPA blood is composed of equal amounts of IVC and SVC blood because IVC contribution to total systemic venous return is smaller than that of the SVC. This technique and these findings can help to evaluate design changes of the systemic venous pathway to improve Fontan hemodynamics.  (+info)

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. (3/1121)

A proposed technique for systemic pressure reduction during deployment of a stent graft was studied. A 67-year-old man, who had a descending thoracic aneurysm, was successfully treated with an endovascular procedure. An occluding balloon was introduced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the femoral vein. The balloon volume was manipulated with carbon dioxide gas to reduce the venous return, resulting in a transient and well-controlled hypotension. This IVC-occluding technique for systemic pressure reduction may be safe and convenient to minimize distal migration of stent grafts.  (+info)

Acute renal impairment due to a primary aortocaval fistula is normalised after a successful operation. (4/1121)

OBJECTIVES: To study renal function in patients with aortocaval fistula, before and after surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the last 22 years nine male patients (median age 67, age range 50-72) with spontaneous aortocaval fistula in combination with AAA were operated upon. This constitutes 4% of the patients with ruptured AAA and 1.5% of all patients with AAA. RESULTS: A preoperative diagnosis of aortocaval fistula was established in three of the nine cases. The medium duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 5 days (range 4 h-14 days). The fistula was combined with an extravasating ruptured AAA in only three patients. Seven of the patients had acute renal insufficiency, with creatinine levels of in median 292 mumol (IQR 218-342). Creatinine declined to 172 mumol/l (IQR 170-313) on the fifth postoperative day in uncomplicated cases and to 86 mumol at discharge. One patient died due to multi-organ failure, whereas the other left hospital well and alive with normal renal function. CONCLUSION: Acute preoperative renal insufficiency due to an aortocaval fistula in patients with AAA is often due to venous congestion, and is normalised after successful surgery.  (+info)

Bypass graft of an occluded inferior vena cava: report of a case with patency at five years. (5/1121)

Venous reconstructive surgery for chronic occlusive disease has evolved slower than its arterial counterpart. Factors intrinsic to the venous system that have been implicated in discouraging experimental and clinical results include enhanced graft thrombogenicity, low velocity of blood flow, and wall collapsibility. 1,2 We present a case of a 24-year-old man with symptomatic occlusion of the inferior vena cava, treated with a prosthetic bypass graft to the supra diaphragmatic cava. The graft was patent 5 years later, and the patient remained asymptomatic.  (+info)

Characteristics of blood flow in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled cord. (6/1121)

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of fetoplacental blood flow of growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled umbilical cord. SUBJECTS: Eight growth-restricted fetuses with hypercoiled cord. METHODS: Flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical cord artery and vein, fetal abdominal aorta and fetal inferior vena cava were analyzed. RESULTS: The resistance index in the umbilical artery in the hypercoiled cases was lower than that in normal fetuses. Early-diastolic reversed flow was observed in the abdominal aorta in some cases. In all cases, umbilical venous pulsation was observed in the entire cord until delivery. In one case, fetal heart failure occurred, resulting in pre-mature delivery. An atrophic type of single umbilical artery was observed in four cases. CONCLUSION: Fetal blood flow disturbance caused by a hypercoiled umbilical cord may be a cause of growth restriction.  (+info)

Abnormal ductus venosus blood flow: a clue to umbilical cord complication. (7/1121)

We report a case of umbilical cord complication causing, fetal hypoxemia and acidemia. At 30 weeks of gestation, the patient was referred because of slightly increased amniotic fluid volume and a non-reactive cardiotocogram. Biometry was appropriate for gestational age. Umbilical artery and fetal aortic Doppler findings were normal, whereas diastolic blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery were increased and the ductus venosus showed severely abnormal flow velocity waveforms with reversal of flow during atrial contraction. Since other reasons for fetal hypoxemia could be excluded, careful examination of the umbilical cord was performed. Traction of the hypercoiled umbilical cord due to its course around the fetal neck and shoulders was suspected. Cesarean section confirmed the sonographic findings and fetal blood gases revealed fetal acidemia. This case indicates that investigation of fetal venous blood flow may also help to identify fetal jeopardy due to reasons other than increased placental vascular resistance.  (+info)

Pulmonary embolism caused by acrylic cement: a rare complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty. (8/1121)

A pulmonary embolus of acrylic cement was present in a 41-year-old woman with Langerhans' cell vertebral histiocytosis (LCH) after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Chest radiograph and CT confirmed pulmonary infarction and the presence of cement in the pulmonary arteries. She was treated with anticoagulants, and responded favorably. This rare complication occurred because perivertebral venous migration was not recognized during vertebroplasty. Adequate preparation of cement and biplane fluoroscopy are recommended for vertebroplasty.  (+info)

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

The superior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also known as the internal jugular and subclavian veins) near the base of the neck. The superior vena cava runs posteriorly to the sternum and enters the upper right portion of the right atrium, just posterior to the opening of the inferior vena cava. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory system by allowing blood returning from the head, neck, upper limbs, and thorax to bypass the liver before entering the heart.

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS) is a medical condition characterized by the obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC), which is the large vein that carries blood from the upper body to the heart. This obstruction can be caused by cancerous tumors, thrombosis (blood clots), or other compressive factors.

The obstruction results in the impaired flow of blood from the head, neck, arms, and upper chest, leading to a variety of symptoms such as swelling of the face, neck, and upper extremities; shortness of breath; cough; chest pain; and distended veins visible on the skin surface. In severe cases, SVCS can cause life-threatening complications like cerebral edema (swelling of the brain) or pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with suspected SVCS to prevent further complications and to manage the underlying cause. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, anticoagulation therapy, or surgery, depending on the etiology of the obstruction.

Vena cava filters are medical devices that are implanted into the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood from the lower half of the body to the heart. These filters are designed to trap blood clots that form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) and prevent them from traveling to the lungs (pulmonary embolism or PE), which can be a life-threatening condition.

The filter is typically implanted using a catheter-based procedure, and it has legs or arms that extend out to trap the blood clots as they flow through the vein. Over time, the trapped clots may dissolve on their own or become organized and incorporated into the wall of the vein.

Vena cava filters are typically used in patients who are at high risk for PE but cannot take anticoagulation medication or have failed anticoagulation therapy. However, there is some controversy surrounding the use of these devices due to concerns about their long-term safety and effectiveness.

"Venae Cavae" is a term that refers to the two large veins in the human body that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The "Superior Vena Cava" receives blood from the upper half of the body, including the head, neck, upper limbs, and chest, while the "Inferior Vena Cava" collects blood from the lower half of the body, including the abdomen and lower limbs.

Together, these veins play a crucial role in the circulatory system by ensuring that oxygen-depleted blood is efficiently returned to the heart for reoxygenation in the lungs.

The azygos vein is a large, unpaired venous structure in the thoracic cavity of the human body. It begins as the ascending lumbar vein, which receives blood from the lower extremities and abdominal organs. As it enters the thorax through the diaphragm, it becomes the azygos vein and continues to ascend along the vertebral column.

The azygos vein receives blood from various tributaries, including the intercostal veins, esophageal veins, mediastinal veins, and bronchial veins. It then arches over the right mainstem bronchus and empties into the superior vena cava, which returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

The azygos vein provides an important collateral pathway for venous return in cases where the inferior vena cava is obstructed or occluded. It also plays a role in the spread of certain thoracic diseases, such as tuberculosis and cancer.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

The inferior colliculi are a pair of rounded eminences located in the midbrain, specifically in the tectum of the mesencephalon. They play a crucial role in auditory processing and integration. The inferior colliculi receive inputs from various sources, including the cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, and cortical areas. They then send their outputs to the medial geniculate body, which is a part of the thalamus that relays auditory information to the auditory cortex.

In summary, the inferior colliculi are important structures in the auditory pathway that help process and integrate auditory information before it reaches the cerebral cortex for further analysis and perception.

The renal veins are a pair of large veins that carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood to the heart. The renal veins are formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain blood from different parts of the kidney.

In humans, the right renal vein is shorter and passes directly into the inferior vena cava, while the left renal vein is longer and passes in front of the aorta before entering the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein also receives blood from the gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins, suprarenal (adrenal) veins, and the lumbar veins.

It is important to note that the renal veins are vulnerable to compression by surrounding structures, such as the overlying artery or a tumor, which can lead to renal vein thrombosis, a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the obstruction of the hepatic veins, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the liver to the heart. This obstruction can be caused by blood clots, tumors, or other abnormalities, and it can lead to a backflow of blood in the liver, resulting in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, and liver enlargement. In severe cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome can cause liver failure and other complications if left untreated. The diagnosis of this condition typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and treatment may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolytic therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction.

The hepatic veins are blood vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. There are typically three major hepatic veins - right, middle, and left - that originate from the posterior aspect of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava just below the diaphragm. These veins are responsible for returning the majority of the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the heart. It's important to note that the hepatic veins do not have valves, which can make them susceptible to a condition called Budd-Chiari syndrome, where blood clots form in the veins and obstruct the flow of blood from the liver.

Vascular neoplasms are a type of tumor that develops from cells that line the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign vascular neoplasms, such as hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, are usually harmless and may not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or complications. Malignant vascular neoplasms, on the other hand, are known as angiosarcomas and can be aggressive, spreading to other parts of the body and potentially causing serious health problems.

Angiosarcomas can develop in any part of the body but are most commonly found in the skin, particularly in areas exposed to radiation or chronic lymph edema. They can also occur in the breast, liver, spleen, and heart. Treatment for vascular neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot, often formed in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis), breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications like low oxygen levels, hypotension, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with anticoagulant medications or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot.

The iliac veins are a pair of large veins in the human body that carry deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic area back to the heart. They are formed by the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the lower abdomen and legs, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

The combined iliac vein is called the inferior vena cava, which continues upward to the right atrium of the heart. The iliac veins are located deep within the pelvis, lateral to the corresponding iliac arteries, and are accompanied by the iliac lymphatic vessels.

The left common iliac vein is longer than the right because it must cross the left common iliac artery to join the right common iliac vein. The external and internal iliac veins are the two branches of the common iliac vein, with the external iliac vein carrying blood from the lower limbs and the internal iliac vein carrying blood from the pelvic organs.

It is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the iliac veins to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

Leiomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that arises from the smooth muscle cells, which are responsible for the involuntary contractions of various organs and blood vessels. It most commonly occurs in the uterus, soft tissues (such as muscles and fat), and the gastrointestinal tract.

Leiomyosarcomas can vary in their aggressiveness and may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The prognosis for leiomyosarcoma depends on several factors, including the location and size of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the extent of metastasis. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to help prevent recurrence or spread of the cancer.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The coronary sinus is a large vein that receives blood from the heart's muscle tissue. It is located on the posterior side of the heart and is a part of the cardiovascular system. The coronary sinus collects oxygen-depleted blood from the myocardium (the heart muscle) and drains it into the right atrium, where it will then be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

The coronary sinus is an essential structure in medical procedures such as cardiac catheterization and electrophysiological studies. It is also a common site for the implantation of pacemakers and other cardiac devices.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

The Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA) is a major artery that supplies blood to the distal portion of the large intestine, including the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. It originates from the abdominal aorta, typically at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3), and descends anteriorly to the left psoas major muscle before crossing the iliac crest and entering the pelvis.

Once in the pelvis, the IMA divides into several branches, including the left colic artery, which supplies the descending colon; the sigmoidal branches, which supply the sigmoid colon; and the superior rectal artery, which supplies the upper part of the rectum. The inferior mesenteric artery plays a crucial role in maintaining blood flow to the distal gut and is often evaluated during surgical procedures involving the abdomen or pelvis.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare and complex congenital disorder characterized by the abnormal lateralization or arrangement of internal organs in the chest and abdomen. In this condition, the normal left-right (LR) asymmetry of the thoracic and abdominal organs is disrupted, resulting in either complete or partial reversal of the usual LR orientation. The term "heterotaxy" literally means "different arrangement."

Heterotaxy syndrome can be further classified into two main types:

1. **Ivemark's syndrome** (or left atrial isomerism): In this type, there is a mirror-image reversal of the normal LR organization of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This results in both sides of the body having structures that are typically found on the left side (left atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complete heart block or complex congenital heart defects, such as transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Bilateral bilobed lungs with a central location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral eparterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of situs inversus totalis (complete mirror-image reversal of the normal LR arrangement).

2. **Right atrial isomerism** (or asplenia syndrome): In this type, there is a lack of normal LR organization, and both sides of the body have structures that are typically found on the right side (right atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complex congenital heart defects, such as single ventricle, double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis or atresia, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Absent or multiple spleens (polysplenia) with varying degrees of functional asplenia.
* Bilateral trilobed lungs with a right-sided location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral hyperarterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Both situs ambiguus and heterotaxy syndrome are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to the complex congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, and immunological dysfunction in cases of asplenia or hyposplenia. Early diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team are crucial for improving outcomes in these patients.

Venous pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of a vein, which varies depending on several factors such as the volume and flow of blood within the vein, the contractile state of the surrounding muscles, and the position of the body. In clinical settings, venous pressure is often measured in the extremities (e.g., arms or legs) to assess the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

Central venous pressure (CVP) is a specific type of venous pressure that refers to the pressure within the large veins that enter the right atrium of the heart. CVP is an important indicator of right heart function and fluid status, as it reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump it forward. Normal CVP ranges from 0 to 8 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) in adults.

Elevated venous pressure can be caused by various conditions such as heart failure, obstruction of blood flow, or fluid overload, while low venous pressure may indicate dehydration or blood loss. Accurate measurement and interpretation of venous pressure require specialized equipment and knowledge, and are typically performed by healthcare professionals in a clinical setting.

Scimitar Syndrome, also known as "congenital venolobar syndrome," is a rare congenital heart defect characterized by the following features:

1. An anomalous pulmonary vein (or veins) that drains into the inferior vena cava or right atrium instead of the left atrium. This vein often has a curved, scimitar-like appearance on imaging studies, hence the name of the syndrome.
2. Hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the right lung or part of the right lung, which is often associated with abnormalities of the pulmonary artery and bronchial tree in that area.
3. Cardiac shunting, either from left to right (resulting in increased blood flow to the lungs) or right to left (resulting in cyanosis).
4. Other congenital heart defects may also be present, such as atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, or patent ductus arteriosus.

Symptoms of Scimitar Syndrome can vary widely depending on the severity of the anomaly and associated cardiac shunting. Mild cases may be asymptomatic, while severe cases can present with respiratory distress, heart failure, or cyanosis in infancy or early childhood. Treatment typically involves surgical correction of the anomalous pulmonary vein and any associated cardiac defects.

A "Heart Bypass, Right" or Right Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (RCA Bypass) is a surgical procedure that aims to improve the blood supply to the right side of the heart. It involves grafting a healthy blood vessel, usually taken from another part of the body, to divert blood flow around a blocked or narrowed section of the right coronary artery (RCA). The RCA supplies blood to the right ventricle and the back of the left ventricle. By creating this bypass, the surgery helps restore adequate oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle, reducing the risk of damage or failure due to insufficient blood supply, and alleviating symptoms such as angina and shortness of breath.

It is important to note that "Heart Bypass, Right" specifically refers to bypass surgery on the right coronary artery, while a standard "Heart Bypass Surgery," also known as Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG), typically involves bypassing blockages in multiple coronary arteries.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Situs Inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are situated in mirror-image positions to their normal locations. Instead of being on the left side, the heart and its large blood vessels are on the right side, while the liver is on the left side and the lungs are reversed. The stomach, spleen, and pancreas may also be affected. It's important to note that this condition is generally asymptomatic and often goes unnoticed unless there are complications or associated abnormalities.

There are two types of Situs Inversus: total (complete reversal of all organs) and partial (reversal of only some organs). Total Situs Inversus is also sometimes referred to as "mirror-image dextrocardia" because the heart, which is usually on the left side, is located on the right side in a mirrored position.

While Situs Inversus itself does not typically cause health problems, people with this condition may have an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defects or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which can lead to chronic respiratory infections and infertility.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

The subclavian vein is a large venous structure that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb and part of the thorax back to the heart. It forms when the axillary vein passes through the narrow space between the first rib and the clavicle (collarbone), becoming the subclavian vein.

On the left side, the subclavian vein joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein, while on the right side, the subclavian vein directly merges with the internal jugular vein to create the brachiocephalic vein. These brachiocephalic veins then unite to form the superior vena cava, which drains blood into the right atrium of the heart.

The subclavian vein is an essential structure for venous access in various medical procedures and interventions, such as placing central venous catheters or performing blood tests.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia that originates in the atria - the upper chambers of the heart. In atrial flutter, the atria beat too quickly, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is much faster than the normal resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

This rapid beating causes the atria to quiver or "flutter" instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles - the lower chambers of the heart - which can lead to reduced cardiac output and symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or chest discomfort.

Atrial flutter is often caused by underlying heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart defects. It can also be a complication of cardiac surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, atrial flutter may occur without any apparent underlying cause, which is known as lone atrial flutter.

Treatment for atrial flutter typically involves medications to control the heart rate and rhythm, electrical cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that are causing the arrhythmia. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat atrial flutter.

Vascular diseases are medical conditions that affect the circulatory system, specifically the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). These diseases can include conditions such as:

1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, which can restrict blood flow.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): A condition caused by atherosclerosis where there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, most commonly in the legs. This can lead to pain, numbness, and cramping.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. This can increase the risk of stroke.
5. Cerebrovascular Disease: Conditions that affect blood flow to the brain, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke").
6. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes it to bulge outward and potentially rupture.
7. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, which can cause pain, swelling, and increased risk of pulmonary embolism if the clot travels to the lungs.
8. Varicose Veins: Swollen, twisted, and often painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood, usually appearing in the legs.
9. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage and narrowing, leading to reduced blood flow.
10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: A condition where the small arteries that supply blood to the skin become narrowed, causing decreased blood flow, typically in response to cold temperatures or stress.

These are just a few examples of vascular conditions that fall under the umbrella term "cerebrovascular disease." Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many of these conditions.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Retroperitoneal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the retroperitoneal space. This is the area located behind the peritoneum, which is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. The retroperitoneal space contains several vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, aorta, and lymphatic vessels.

Retroperitoneal neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant retroperitoneal neoplasms are often aggressive and can invade surrounding tissues and organs, leading to various complications. Common types of retroperitoneal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and metastatic tumors from other primary sites. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor but can include abdominal or back pain, weight loss, and swelling in the legs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI, followed by a biopsy to determine the type and grade of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The mandibular nerve provides both sensory and motor innervation to the lower third of the face, below the eye and nose down to the chin.

More specifically, it carries sensory information from the lower teeth, lower lip, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as the skin over the jaw and chin. It also provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication (chewing), which include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

Damage to the mandibular nerve can result in numbness or loss of sensation in the lower face and mouth, as well as weakness or difficulty with chewing and biting.

In medical terms, constriction refers to the narrowing or tightening of a body part or passageway. This can occur due to various reasons such as spasms of muscles, inflammation, or abnormal growths. It can lead to symptoms like difficulty in breathing, swallowing, or blood flow, depending on where it occurs. For example, constriction of the airways in asthma, constriction of blood vessels in hypertension, or constriction of the esophagus in certain digestive disorders.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

A thrombectomy is a medical procedure that involves the removal of a blood clot (thrombus) from a blood vessel. This is typically performed to restore blood flow in cases where the clot is causing significant blockage, which can lead to serious complications such as tissue damage or organ dysfunction.

During a thrombectomy, a surgeon makes an incision and accesses the affected blood vessel, often with the help of imaging guidance. Specialized tools are then used to extract the clot, after which the blood vessel is usually repaired. Thrombectomies can be performed on various blood vessels throughout the body, including those in the brain, heart, lungs, and limbs.

This procedure may be recommended for patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), or certain types of stroke, depending on the specific circumstances and the patient's overall health. It is generally considered when anticoagulation therapy or clot-dissolving medications are not sufficient or appropriate to treat the blood clot.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

Thrombophlebitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and clotting of blood in a vein, usually in the legs. The term thrombophlebitis comes from two words: "thrombo" which means blood clot, and "phlebitis" which refers to inflammation of the vein.

The condition can occur in superficial or deep veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis affects the veins just below the skin's surface, while deep vein thrombophlebitis (DVT) occurs in the deeper veins. DVT is a more serious condition as it can lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism if the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs.

Symptoms of thrombophlebitis may include redness, warmth, pain, swelling, or discomfort in the affected area. In some cases, there may be visible surface veins that are hard, tender, or ropy to touch. If left untreated, thrombophlebitis can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and other long-term complications. Treatment typically involves medications such as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, or thrombolytics, along with compression stockings and other supportive measures.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The mesenteric veins are a set of blood vessels that are responsible for draining deoxygenated blood from the small and large intestines. There are two main mesenteric veins: the superior mesenteric vein and the inferior mesenteric vein. The superior mesenteric vein drains blood from the majority of the small intestine, as well as the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon. The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. These veins ultimately drain into the portal vein, which carries the blood to the liver for further processing.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

The olivary nucleus is a structure located in the medulla oblongata, which is a part of the brainstem. It consists of two main parts: the inferior olive and the accessory olive. The inferior olive is further divided into several subnuclei.

The olivary nucleus plays an important role in the coordination of movements, particularly in the regulation of fine motor control and rhythmic movements. It receives input from various sources, including the cerebellum, spinal cord, and other brainstem nuclei, and sends output to the cerebellum via the climbing fibers.

Damage to the olivary nucleus can result in a variety of neurological symptoms, including ataxia (loss of coordination), tremors, and dysarthria (speech difficulties). Certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, may also affect the olivary nucleus and contribute to its degeneration.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

An Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a type of heart attack that occurs when there is a significant reduction or complete blockage of blood flow to the inferior (lower) region of the heart muscle, specifically the areas supplied by the right coronary artery or one of its branches. This reduction in blood flow, often caused by a blood clot forming around a ruptured plaque within the artery, can lead to ischemia and ultimately result in damage or death of the heart muscle cells (myocardial necrosis). Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, or vomiting. Diagnosis typically involves an electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarker tests, such as troponin levels. Treatment includes medications, lifestyle changes, and possibly interventions like angioplasty or bypass surgery to restore blood flow.

A portacaval shunt is a surgical procedure that creates an alternate pathway for blood flow between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. The portal vein carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. In certain medical conditions, such as severe liver disease or portal hypertension, the blood pressure in the portal vein becomes abnormally high, which can lead to serious complications like variceal bleeding.

In a surgical portacaval shunt procedure, a surgeon creates a connection between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, allowing a portion of the blood from the portal vein to bypass the liver and flow directly into the systemic circulation. This helps reduce the pressure in the portal vein and prevent complications associated with portal hypertension.

There are different types of portacaval shunts, including:

1. Direct portacaval shunt: In this procedure, the surgeon directly connects the portal vein to the inferior vena cava.
2. Side-to-side portacaval shunt: Here, the surgeon creates an anastomosis (connection) between a side branch of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava.
3. H-type shunt: This involves creating two separate connections between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava, forming an "H" shape.

It is important to note that while portacaval shunts can be effective in managing complications of portal hypertension, they may also have potential risks and side effects, such as worsening liver function, encephalopathy, or heart failure. Therefore, the decision to perform a portacaval shunt should be made carefully, considering the individual patient's medical condition and overall health.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Leiomyomatosis is a medical term that refers to the benign growth (non-cancerous) of smooth muscle cells, which form tumors known as leiomyomas or fibroids. These growths can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, uterus, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs.

The term "leiomyomatosis" is often used to describe a condition where multiple smooth muscle tumors develop in a single organ or throughout the body. For example:

1. Cutaneous leiomyomatosis - Multiple benign tumors of the smooth muscle in the skin.
2. Uterine leiomyomatosis - Multiple fibroids in the uterus, also known as uterine fibroids or myomas.
3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) leiomyomatosis - Multiple benign smooth muscle tumors in the gastrointestinal tract.
4. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis - Multiple benign smooth muscle tumors spread across the peritoneum, the lining of the abdominal cavity.

These conditions are usually not cancerous but can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options may include surveillance, medication, or surgical removal of the tumors.

Collateral circulation refers to the alternate blood supply routes that bypass an obstructed or narrowed vessel and reconnect with the main vascular system. These collateral vessels can develop over time as a result of the body's natural adaptation to chronic ischemia (reduced blood flow) caused by various conditions such as atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, or vasculitis.

The development of collateral circulation helps maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to affected tissues, minimizing the risk of tissue damage and necrosis. In some cases, well-developed collateral circulations can help compensate for significant blockages in major vessels, reducing symptoms and potentially preventing the need for invasive interventions like revascularization procedures. However, the extent and effectiveness of collateral circulation vary from person to person and depend on factors such as age, overall health status, and the presence of comorbidities.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Cardiovascular abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies in the heart or blood vessels. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life. They can affect the heart's chambers, valves, walls, or blood vessels, leading to various complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Examples of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Septal defects - holes in the walls separating the heart's chambers (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect)
2. Valvular stenosis or insufficiency - narrowing or leakage of the heart valves
3. Patent ductus arteriosus - a persistent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery
4. Coarctation of the aorta - narrowing of the aorta
5. Tetralogy of Fallot - a combination of four heart defects, including ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy

Examples of acquired cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Atherosclerosis - the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage
2. Cardiomyopathy - disease of the heart muscle, causing it to become enlarged, thickened, or stiffened
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure, which can damage the heart and blood vessels over time
4. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - damage to the heart muscle due to blocked blood supply
5. Infective endocarditis - infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

These abnormalities can be diagnosed through various tests, such as echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the abnormality and may include medications, medical procedures, or surgery.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Right atrial function refers to the role and performance of the right atrium in the heart. The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body via the superior and inferior vena cava. It then contracts to help pump the blood into the right ventricle, which subsequently sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.

Right atrial function can be assessed through various methods, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormalities in right atrial function may indicate underlying heart conditions such as right-sided heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or other cardiovascular diseases. Proper evaluation and monitoring of right atrial function are essential for effective diagnosis, treatment, and management of these conditions.

Mediastinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves. Mediastinal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from any of the tissues or organs within the mediastinum.

Benign mediastinal neoplasms may include thymomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, or teratomas, among others. These tumors are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause symptoms or complications by compressing adjacent structures within the mediastinum, such as the airways, blood vessels, or nerves.

Malignant mediastinal neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Common types of malignant mediastinal neoplasms include thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, germ cell tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors often require aggressive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, to control their growth and spread.

It is important to note that mediastinal neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location, size, and type. Some patients may be asymptomatic, while others may experience cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, or swallowing difficulties. A thorough diagnostic workup, including imaging studies and biopsies, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the best course of treatment for mediastinal neoplasms.

Mediastinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the mediastinum, which is the area in the chest separating the lungs and containing various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and nerves. These diseases can be benign or malignant (cancerous) and may cause symptoms due to compression or invasion of surrounding tissues. Examples of mediastinal diseases include:

1. Mediastinal tumors: Abnormal growths in the mediastinum, which can be benign or malignant. Common types include thymomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and neurogenic tumors.
2. Mediastinitis: Inflammation of the mediastinal tissues, often caused by infections, trauma, or complications from medical procedures.
3. Enlarged lymph nodes: Abnormal swelling of the lymph nodes in the mediastinum can be a sign of various conditions, including infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
4. Mediastinal cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop in the mediastinum, which are usually benign but may cause symptoms due to compression or infection.
5. Aneurysms or dissections of the aorta: Abnormal weakening or tearing of the aortic wall within the mediastinum, which can lead to life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
6. Esophageal diseases: Conditions affecting the esophagus, such as tumors, strictures, or motility disorders, may present with symptoms related to the mediastinum.
7. Thyroid disorders: Enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter) can extend into the mediastinum and cause compression symptoms.
8. Hematomas or effusions: Accumulation of blood (hematoma) or fluid (effusion) in the mediastinal space due to trauma, surgery, or other underlying conditions.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing mediastinal diseases and improving patient outcomes.

Multiple trauma, also known as polytrauma, is a medical term used to describe severe injuries to the body that are sustained in more than one place or region. It often involves damage to multiple organ systems and can be caused by various incidents such as traffic accidents, falls from significant heights, high-energy collisions, or violent acts.

The injuries sustained in multiple trauma may include fractures, head injuries, internal bleeding, chest and abdominal injuries, and soft tissue injuries. These injuries can lead to a complex medical situation requiring immediate and ongoing care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, critical care specialists, nurses, rehabilitation therapists, and mental health providers.

Multiple trauma is a serious condition that can result in long-term disability or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

The Fontan procedure is a type of open-heart surgery used to treat specific types of complex congenital (present at birth) heart defects. It's typically performed on children with single ventricle hearts, where one of the heart's lower chambers (the right or left ventricle) is underdeveloped or missing.

In a normal heart, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns from the body to the right atrium, then flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blue blood to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and turns red. Oxygen-rich (red) blood then returns from the lungs to the left atrium, flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and the left ventricle pumps it out to the body through the aorta.

However, in a single ventricle heart, the underdeveloped or missing ventricle cannot effectively pump blood to the lungs and the body simultaneously. The Fontan procedure aims to separate the blue and red blood circulation to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues.

The Fontan procedure involves two stages:

1. In the first stage, usually performed in infancy, a shunt or a band is placed around the pulmonary artery (the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) to control the amount of blood flowing into the lungs. This helps prevent lung congestion due to excessive blood flow.
2. The second stage, the Fontan procedure itself, takes place when the child is between 18 months and 4 years old. During this surgery, the surgeon creates a connection between the inferior vena cava (the large vein that returns blue blood from the lower body to the heart) and the pulmonary artery. This allows oxygen-poor blood to flow directly into the lungs without passing through the underdeveloped ventricle.

The Fontan procedure significantly improves the quality of life for many children with single ventricle hearts, although they may still face long-term complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and protein-losing enteropathy (a condition where the body loses too much protein in the stool). Regular follow-up care with a pediatric cardiologist is essential to monitor their health and manage any potential issues.

Replantation is a surgical procedure in which a body part that has been completely detached or amputated is reattached to the body. This procedure involves careful reattachment of bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to restore function and sensation to the greatest extent possible. The success of replantation depends on various factors such as the level of injury, the condition of the amputated part, and the patient's overall health.

Liver circulation, also known as hepatic circulation, refers to the blood flow through the liver. The liver receives blood from two sources: the hepatic artery and the portal vein.

The hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver, accounting for about 25% of the liver's blood supply. The remaining 75% comes from the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.

In the liver, these two sources of blood mix in the sinusoids, small vessels with large spaces between the endothelial cells that line them. This allows for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes (liver cells). The blood then leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, which merge into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the heart.

The unique dual blood supply and extensive sinusoidal network in the liver enable it to perform various critical functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, synthesis, storage, and secretion of numerous substances, maintaining body homeostasis.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Chylothorax is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of lymphatic fluid called chyle in the pleural space, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. Chyle is a milky-white fluid that contains nutrients, electrolytes, and immune cells, and it is normally transported through the thoracic duct to the bloodstream.

Chylothorax can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma, surgery, tumors, or congenital abnormalities that disrupt the normal flow of chyle. As a result, chyle leaks into the pleural space, causing symptoms such as cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever.

The diagnosis of chylothorax is usually made through imaging studies such as chest X-ray or CT scan, and confirmed by analyzing the fluid for the presence of chylomicrons, which are lipid particles found in chyle. The treatment options for chylothorax include dietary modifications, such as a low-fat diet with medium-chain triglycerides, chest tube drainage, and surgical interventions such as thoracic duct ligation or pleurodesis.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

A portal system in medicine refers to a venous system in which veins from various tissues or organs (known as tributaries) drain into a common large vessel (known as the portal vein), which then carries the blood to a specific organ for filtration and processing before it is returned to the systemic circulation. The most well-known example of a portal system is the hepatic portal system, where veins from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and stomach merge into the portal vein and then transport blood to the liver for detoxification and nutrient processing. Other examples include the hypophyseal portal system, which connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland, and the renal portal system found in some animals.

Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within it. This buildup of fluid can cause the belly to swell and become distended. Ascites can be caused by various medical conditions, including liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney disease. The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity can lead to complications such as infection, reduced mobility, and difficulty breathing. Treatment for ascites depends on the underlying cause and may include diuretics, paracentesis (a procedure to remove excess fluid from the abdomen), or treatment of the underlying medical condition.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Cyanosis is a medical term that refers to the bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood. This occurs when the level of deoxygenated hemoglobin (the form of hemoglobin that has released its oxygen) in the blood is increased, causing a blue or purple tint to appear, especially in the lips, fingertips, and nail beds.

Cyanosis can be central or peripheral. Central cyanosis affects the entire body and results from low levels of oxygen in the arterial blood, often due to heart or lung conditions that impair oxygen exchange. Peripheral cyanosis is localized to the extremities, usually caused by poor circulation or cold exposure, which can lead to sluggish blood flow and slow oxygen uptake in the tissues.

It's important to note that cyanosis may not always be visually apparent, particularly in individuals with darker skin tones. In these cases, other signs of hypoxia (low oxygen levels) should be considered for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

The pericardium is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart. It has an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer, which further divides into two parts: the parietal layer lining the fibrous pericardium and the visceral layer (epicardium) closely adhering to the heart surface.

The space between these two layers is filled with a small amount of lubricating serous fluid, allowing for smooth movement of the heart within the pericardial cavity. The pericardium provides protection, support, and helps maintain the heart's normal position within the chest while reducing friction during heart contractions.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Implanted electrodes are medical devices that are surgically placed inside the body to interface directly with nerves, neurons, or other electrically excitable tissue for various therapeutic purposes. These electrodes can be used to stimulate or record electrical activity from specific areas of the body, depending on their design and application.

There are several types of implanted electrodes, including:

1. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes: These are placed deep within the brain to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. DBS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that modulate abnormal neural activity in targeted brain regions.
2. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) electrodes: These are implanted along the spinal cord to treat chronic pain syndromes. SCS electrodes emit low-level electrical pulses that interfere with pain signals traveling to the brain, providing relief for patients.
3. Cochlear Implant electrodes: These are surgically inserted into the cochlea of the inner ear to restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve directly, bypassing damaged hair cells within the cochlea.
4. Retinal Implant electrodes: These are implanted in the retina to treat certain forms of blindness caused by degenerative eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The electrodes convert visual information from a camera into electrical signals, which stimulate remaining retinal cells and transmit the information to the brain via the optic nerve.
5. Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) electrodes: These are placed near the sacral nerves in the lower back to treat urinary or fecal incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. SNS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that regulate the function of the affected muscles and nerves.
6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) electrodes: These are wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck to treat epilepsy and depression. VNS electrodes provide intermittent electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which has connections to various regions of the brain involved in these conditions.

Overall, implanted electrodes serve as a crucial component in many neuromodulation therapies, offering an effective treatment option for numerous neurological and sensory disorders.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins located in the arm or shoulder. This condition can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, surgery, cancer, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clotting.

The deep veins are larger vessels that run through the body's muscles and are surrounded by fascia, a connective tissue. UEDVT can cause partial or complete blockage of blood flow in the affected vein, leading to swelling, pain, redness, warmth, and decreased function in the arm or hand. In some cases, the clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism (PE).

Diagnosis of UEDVT typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot, or surgical intervention in severe cases. Compression stockings or other devices may also be used to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

Point-of-care (POC) systems refer to medical diagnostic tests or tools that are performed at or near the site where a patient receives care, such as in a doctor's office, clinic, or hospital room. These systems provide rapid and convenient results, allowing healthcare professionals to make immediate decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of a patient's condition.

POC systems can include various types of diagnostic tests, such as:

1. Lateral flow assays (LFAs): These are paper-based devices that use capillary action to detect the presence or absence of a target analyte in a sample. Examples include pregnancy tests and rapid strep throat tests.
2. Portable analyzers: These are compact devices used for measuring various parameters, such as blood glucose levels, coagulation status, or electrolytes, using small volumes of samples.
3. Imaging systems: Handheld ultrasound machines and portable X-ray devices fall under this category, providing real-time imaging at the point of care.
4. Monitoring devices: These include continuous glucose monitors, pulse oximeters, and blood pressure cuffs that provide real-time data to help manage patient conditions.

POC systems offer several advantages, such as reduced turnaround time for test results, decreased need for sample transportation, and increased patient satisfaction due to faster decision-making and treatment initiation. However, it is essential to ensure the accuracy and reliability of these tests by following proper testing procedures and interpreting results correctly.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) is a rare and severe form of chronic pyelonephritis, which is an infection and inflammation of the renal pelvis. In XPN, there is a proliferation of lipid-laden macrophages (also known as xanthoma cells) and other inflammatory cells in the kidney parenchyma, leading to the formation of multiple granulomas.

XPN typically affects middle-aged to older women with underlying urologic abnormalities such as obstructive uropathy, calculi (stones), or chronic urinary tract infections. The condition can be difficult to diagnose and often requires a combination of imaging studies, urinalysis, and histopathological examination of renal tissue.

The clinical presentation of XPN is variable and may include fever, flank pain, weight loss, and symptoms related to urinary tract obstruction or infection. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, surgical removal of the affected kidney (nephrectomy), and management of any underlying urologic abnormalities. If left untreated, XPN can lead to irreversible kidney damage and even sepsis.

Pathologic dilatation refers to an abnormal and excessive widening or enlargement of a body cavity or organ, which can result from various medical conditions. This abnormal dilation can occur in different parts of the body, including the blood vessels, digestive tract, airways, or heart chambers.

In the context of the cardiovascular system, pathologic dilatation may indicate a weakening or thinning of the heart muscle, leading to an enlarged chamber that can no longer pump blood efficiently. This condition is often associated with various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or long-standing high blood pressure.

In the gastrointestinal tract, pathologic dilatation may occur due to mechanical obstruction, neuromuscular disorders, or inflammatory conditions that affect the normal motility of the intestines. Examples include megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease, toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis, or volvulus (twisting) of the bowel.

Pathologic dilatation can lead to various complications, such as reduced organ function, impaired circulation, and increased risk of infection or perforation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the root problem and prevent further enlargement.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

A Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) is a medical procedure that creates an alternative pathway for blood flow from the portal vein to the hepatic vein within the liver. This shunt is composed of a stent, which is a small metal tube that is inserted into the liver using a long needle that is passed through a vein in the neck (jugular vein).

TIPS is typically used to treat complications of portal hypertension, such as variceal bleeding, ascites, and hepatic hydrothorax. By creating a shunt that bypasses the liver, TIPS reduces the pressure in the portal vein, which can help to alleviate these symptoms. However, because the shunt allows blood to bypass the liver, it can also impair liver function and lead to other complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy.

It is important to note that TIPS is a complex procedure that should only be performed by experienced interventional radiologists in a hospital setting with appropriate medical backup and monitoring capabilities.

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid heart rhythm that originates above the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This type of tachycardia includes atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT). SVT usually causes a rapid heartbeat that starts and stops suddenly, and may not cause any other symptoms. However, some people may experience palpitations, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, dizziness, or fainting. SVT is typically diagnosed through an electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitor, and can be treated with medications, cardioversion, or catheter ablation.

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are medical devices used to access the central venous system, typically placed in one of the large great veins such as the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein. They can be used for a variety of purposes including administration of medications and fluids, monitoring central venous pressure, and obtaining blood samples. CVCs come in different types, such as non-tunneled, tunneled, and implantable ports, each with its own specific indications and uses. Proper placement and maintenance of CVCs are crucial to prevent complications such as infection, thrombosis, and catheter-related bloodstream infections.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

The epigastric arteries are a pair of blood vessels that supply the anterior abdominal wall. The inferior epigastric artery originates from the external iliac artery and ascends toward the umbilicus (navel), passing along the posterior surface of the rectus sheath. It anastomoses (joins) with the superior epigastric artery, which is a branch of the internal thoracic artery. Together, these arteries supply blood to the muscles and skin of the anterior abdominal wall.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A Peritoneovenous Shunt is a medical device used to treat severe ascites, a condition characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid in the abdominal cavity. The shunt consists of a small tube or catheter that is surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity and connected to another tube that is inserted into a vein, usually in the chest or neck.

The shunt works by allowing the excess fluid in the abdomen to flow through the tube and into the bloodstream, where it can be eliminated from the body through the kidneys. This helps to alleviate the symptoms of ascites, such as abdominal pain and swelling, and can improve the patient's quality of life.

Peritoneovenous shunts are typically used in patients who have not responded to other treatments for ascites, such as diuretics or paracentesis (a procedure in which excess fluid is drained from the abdomen using a needle and syringe). While peritoneovenous shunts can be effective in managing ascites, they do carry some risks, including infection, bleeding, and blockage of the shunt. As with any surgical procedure, it's important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before deciding whether a peritoneovenous shunt is right for them.

Auditory pathways refer to the series of structures and nerves in the body that are involved in processing sound and transmitting it to the brain for interpretation. The process begins when sound waves enter the ear and cause vibrations in the eardrum, which then move the bones in the middle ear. These movements stimulate hair cells in the cochlea, a spiral-shaped structure in the inner ear, causing them to release neurotransmitters that activate auditory nerve fibers.

The auditory nerve carries these signals to the brainstem, where they are relayed through several additional structures before reaching the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain. Here, the signals are processed and interpreted as sounds, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other environmental noises.

Damage or dysfunction at any point along the auditory pathway can lead to hearing loss or impairment.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Atrial function in a medical context refers to the role and performance of the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The main functions of the atria are to receive blood from the veins and help pump it into the ventricles, which are the lower pumping chambers of the heart.

The atria contract in response to electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This contraction helps to fill the ventricles with blood before they contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial function can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECGs), which can help identify any abnormalities in atrial structure or electrical activity that may affect heart function.

Hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL) is a surgical technique that combines the principles of traditional open surgery and minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. In HAL, a small incision is made, typically in the abdomen, through which the surgeon's hand can be introduced into the abdominal cavity while maintaining a pneumoperitoneum (insufflation of carbon dioxide gas to create a working space). This approach allows the surgeon to use their hands to perform complex surgical procedures with the aid of laparoscopic instruments, which are inserted through other small incisions.

The hand-assisted technique provides several advantages over traditional laparoscopy, including improved tactile feedback, enhanced dexterity, and more precise dissection and manipulation of tissues. This approach is often used in complex urological, gynecological, and general surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy (removal of the kidney), colectomy (removal of part of the colon), and gastrectomy (removal of part of the stomach).

Hand-assisted laparoscopy offers several benefits over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker recovery times, and improved cosmetic outcomes. However, HAL still requires general anesthesia and carries the risks associated with any surgical procedure, such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues or organs.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a medical procedure that involves the use of an artificial device to regulate and stimulate the contraction of the heart muscle. This is often necessary when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart is beating too slowly or irregularly.

The artificial pacemaker consists of a small generator that produces electrical impulses and leads that are positioned in the heart to transmit the impulses. The generator is typically implanted just under the skin in the chest, while the leads are inserted into the heart through a vein.

There are different types of artificial cardiac pacing systems, including single-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate either the right atrium or right ventricle, and dual-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate both chambers of the heart. Some pacemakers also have additional features that allow them to respond to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or sleep.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a safe and effective treatment for many people with abnormal heart rhythms, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a medical condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT is a blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, while PE occurs when a clot breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking a pulmonary artery or one of its branches. This condition can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

The medical definition of Venous Thromboembolism is:

"The formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, most commonly in the legs, which can then dislodge and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening blockage of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches (pulmonary embolism). VTE is a complex disorder resulting from an interplay of genetic and environmental factors that affect the balance between thrombosis and fibrinolysis."

Some common risk factors for VTE include immobility, surgery, trauma, cancer, hormonal therapy, pregnancy, advanced age, and inherited or acquired thrombophilia. Symptoms of DVT may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected limb, while symptoms of PE can range from shortness of breath and chest pain to coughing up blood or even sudden death. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical assessment, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as D-dimer). Treatment usually includes anticoagulation therapy to prevent further clot formation and reduce the risk of recurrence.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a medical procedure in which the body temperature is lowered to around 15-20°C (59-68°F), and the circulation of blood is temporarily stopped. This technique is often used during complex cardiac surgeries, such as aortic arch reconstruction or repair of congenital heart defects, to reduce the body's metabolic demand for oxygen and allow surgeons to operate in a still and bloodless field.

During DHCA, the patient is connected to a heart-lung machine that takes over the function of pumping blood and oxygenating it. The blood is then cooled down using a cooling device before being returned to the body. Once the body temperature reaches the desired level, the circulation is stopped for a short period, usually no more than 30 minutes, during which time the surgeon can work on the heart or great vessels.

After the surgical procedure is complete, the patient is gradually rewarmed, and the circulation is restarted. DHCA carries some risks, including neurological complications such as stroke, cognitive impairment, or delirium, but it remains an important tool in complex cardiac surgery.

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... (IVCS) is a very rare constellation of symptoms resulting from either an obstruction, or stenosis ... M.G. Kerr; D.B. Scott; Eric Samuel (1964). "Studies of the inferior vena cava in late pregnancy". British Medical Journal. 1 ( ... Minor compression of the inferior vena cava during pregnancy is a relatively common occurrence. It is seen most commonly when ... 90% of women lying in the supine position during pregnancy experience some form of inferior vena cava syndrome; however, not ...
"Double vena cava filter insertion in congenital duplicated inferior vena cava: a case report and literature review". ... An inferior vena cava filter is a medical device made of metal that is implanted by vascular surgeons or interventional ... "Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filters: initial Communication: Risk of Adverse Events with Long Term Usage". United States Food and ... Holly, BP; Funaki, B; Lessne, ML (September 2018). "Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Why, Who, and for How Long?". Clinics in Chest ...
The valve of the inferior vena cava (eustachian valve) is a venous valve that lies at the junction of the inferior vena cava ... Following birth and separation from the placenta, the oxygen content in the inferior vena cava falls. With the onset of ... The superior vena cava (SVC) does not have any homologous valve or valvule. The eustachian valve is frequently seen with ... directs oxygen-rich blood returning from the placenta to mix with blood from the hepatic veins in the inferior vena cava. ...
Compression of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and pelvic veins by the uterus leads to increased hydrostatic pressure in the ... Lawrensia S, Khan YS (July 2020). "Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome". StatPearls. PMID 32809720. Retrieved 10 May 2020. {{cite ... advising patient to sleep on her side to prevent the uterus from compressing the inferior vena cava, reflexology, water ...
... includes inferior vena cava, excludes esophagus) Kidney Inferior vena cava Duodenum (distal 1st part - 4th part)* Colon ( ... vena caval foramen) (2: IR): Inferior vena cava, (branches of the) Right phrenic nerve Esophageal hiatus (2: VO): (anterior and ... vena cava - T8 O - oesophagus - T10 A - aortic hiatus - T12 Vena cava = 8 letters = T8p. 1 Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10 Aortic ... "Inferior vena cava: tributaries". LifeHugger. 27 September 2009. "Mediastinum". "Posterior mediastinum: Contents". LifeHugger. ...
2010). "Inferior Vena Cava Placement". Endovascular Surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 664. This article incorporates text ... because its six spokes opened to widen the inferior vena cava, the large vein that brings blood into the right atrium of the ... Cohn of the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn applied for the patent to the earliest version of the inferior vena cava ...
"Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Placement". Johns Hopkins Medicine. 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020. Partsch H, Blättler W ( ... Rarely, a clot in the inferior vena cava can cause both legs to swell. Superficial vein thrombosis, also known as superficial ... Extensive lower-extremity DVT can even reach into the inferior vena cava (in the abdomen). Upper extremity DVT most commonly ... The placement of an inferior vena cava filter (IVC filter) is possible when either the standard treatment for acute DVT, ...
... vascular injuries such as an injury to the local vena cava. Injuries to the inferior vena cava are challenging, those behind ... and the inferior phrenic veins enter the inferior vena cava. The placement of the shunt allowed venous return to the heart and ... An atriocaval shunt (ACS) is an intraoperative surgical shunt between the atrium of the heart and the inferior vena cava. It is ... Buckman RF, Pathak AS, Badellino MM, Bradley KM (Dec 2001). "Injuries of the inferior vena cava". Surg Clin North Am. 81 (6): ...
Rarely periptosis left inferior vena cava. Bumpy ekfysis the right subclavian artery and both carotids (1955). • Human Anatomy ... Rare periptosis doubling of the inferior vena cava met'aplasias the right kidney and ureter (March 1949). • About the doubling ...
... is a genetic defect of the inferior vena cava. It comes about when, during development of the foetus ... Development of The Venous System: The Inferior Vena Cava. In Review of Medical Embryology. New York: Macmillan; London: Collier ... the right subcardinal vein does not connect as it should to the hepatic sinusoids.: 628 . Agenesis of the superior vena cava ... "The first reported case of factor V Leiden mutation with agenesis of superior vena cava". Medicine. 97 (22): e10511. doi: ...
Inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are not recommended in those who are on anticoagulants. IVCFs may be used in clinical ... Rajasekhar, Anita (2015-04-01). "Inferior vena cava filters: current best practices". Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. ...
... the right ends in the inferior vena cava; the left is often represented by two branches, one of which ends in the left renal or ... while the other passes in front of the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm and opens into the inferior vena cava. This article ... The inferior phrenic veins drain the diaphragm and follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteries; ...
The lower two pairs of lumbar veins all drain directly into the inferior vena cava, whereas the fate of the upper two pairs is ... The 3rd and 4th lumbar veins drain into the inferior vena cava. The fate of the two superior lumbar veins is far more variable ... There is variation in which lumbar veins drain to the inferior vena cava and which drain to the ascending lumbar vein, the ... During central venous catheterisation of the inferior vena cava, the catheter may enter a lumbar vein. The catheter may need to ...
... it also distributes filaments to the inferior vena cava. The abdominal aortic plexus contains the spermatic ganglia, the ... It is situated upon the sides and front of the aorta, between the origins of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. ... From this plexus arise part of the spermatic, the inferior mesenteric, and the hypogastric plexuses; ... inferior mesenteric ganglion, and the prehypogastric ganglion. The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the ...
Routine inferior vena cava filter placement is not recommended. In patients with non-operable CTEPH or persistent/recurrent PH ...
... is a congenital anomaly in which the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava has an aberrant ... Congenital stenosis of the vena cava is a rare congenital heart disease affecting 0.7 - 8.7% of the population. Vena cava ... Congenital stenosis of the inferior vena cava is asymptomatic in many patients. Adolescent males with the condition have shown ... Diagnosis of congenital stenosis of the inferior vena cava can be rarely discovered through abdominal CT examinations, and may ...
The hepatic vein subsequently drains into the inferior vena cava. The hepatic artery provides 30 to 40% of the oxygen to the ... into the portal vein while the lower 2/3 are drained into the internal iliac vein that goes directly in the inferior vena cava ... The inferior mesenteric vein connects in the majority of people on the splenic vein, but in some people, it is known to connect ... and the inferior mesenteric artery. The portal venous system is responsible for directing blood from parts of the ...
The inferior vena cava is the larger of the two. The inferior vena cava is retroperitoneal and runs to the right and roughly ... Compression of the superior vena cava most usually by a malignant tumor can lead to superior vena cava syndrome. A vascular ... There is a valve at the junction of the inferior vena cava (one of the great vessels) and the right atrium known as the valve ... All of the systemic veins are tributaries of the largest veins, the superior and inferior vena cava, which empty the oxygen- ...
This transmits the inferior vena cava and right phrenic nerve. The central tendon is shaped somewhat like a trefoil leaf, ... and prevents constriction of the inferior vena cava. Rarely, a central tendon defect may be involved in a central congenital ... It is inferior to the fibrous pericardium, which fuses with the central tendon of the diaphragm via the pericardiacophrenic ...
All the hepatic veins drain into the inferior vena cava. The hepatic veins are divided into an upper and a lower group. The ... The veins of the upper group drain into the suprahepatic part of the inferior vena cava (i.e. part superior to the liver).: ... All veins of the lower group drain into the retrohepatic part of the inferior vena cava (i.e. part posterior to the liver).: ... In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the veins that drain venous blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava (as ...
The collision tore the inferior vena cava in his heart. The injury itself is most commonly seen in high-speed vehicle accidents ...
PÁâ L1 (December 2002). "CONGENITAL INTERRUPTION OF THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA WITH HEMIAZYGOS CONTINUATION" (PDF). Med. Department ... The hemiazygos vein (vena azygos minor inferior) is a vein running superiorly in the lower thoracic region, just to the left ...
Blood drains from the kidneys, ultimately into the inferior vena cava. After filtration occurs, the blood moves through a small ...
... of the inferior vena cava is at L5 and therefore below that of the bifurcation of the aorta. inferior phrenic a. celiac a. left ... The peak of this convexity is at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3). It runs parallel to the inferior vena cava, which ... The abdominal aorta's venous counterpart, the inferior vena cava (IVC), travels parallel to it on its right side. Above the ... the inferior vena cava is in contact with the aorta below. On the left side are the left crus of the diaphragm, the left celiac ...
Behind rests the inferior vena cava, and the common bile duct. In front sits the peritoneal membrane and the transverse colon. ... The superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries run along the back and front surfaces of the head of the pancreas ... To the right sits the descending part of the duodenum, and between these travel the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal ...
It is situated at the base of the inferior vena cava.[citation needed] The valve may be completely absent; it is present in 73- ...
... radiologist to gain access to the patient's hepatic vein by traveling from the superior vena cava into the inferior vena cava ... Pressure in the portal vein and inferior vena cava are often measured.[citation needed] Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous ...
Over 50,000 Inferior vena cava filter are placed in United States each year.[needs update] Hussain, SA (2005). "Kazi Mobin- ... In 1969 he developed the first Inferior vena cava filter while on faculty at University of Miami for patients with deep vein ... Stein PD, Kayali F, Olson RE (2004). "Twenty-one-year trends in the use of inferior vena cava filters". Archives of Internal ... American College of Chest Physicians has incorporated Inferior vena cava filter into guidelines for management of deep vein ...
Persistent left superior vena cava Superior vena cava syndrome Inferior vena cava "General Practice Notebook". www.gpnotebook. ... Superior vena cava obstruction refers to a partial or complete obstruction of the superior vena cava, typically in the context ... Superior vena cava in a cadaveric specimen. Cross-section of the thorax showing the formation of the superior vena cava. ... It is also known as the cranial vena cava in other animals. No valve divides the superior vena cava from the right atrium. The ...
Inferior vena cava Inferior vena cava front view Image of an inferior vena cava filter Image showing an inferior vena cava ... Rarely, the inferior vena cava may vary in its size and position. In transposition of the great arteries the inferior vena cava ... In the embryo, the inferior vena cava and right auricle are separated by the valve of the inferior vena cava, also known as the ... the inferior vena cava may be duplicated beneath the level of the renal veins. The inferior vena cava is a vein. It carries ...
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement is most commonly indicated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE ... What is a Günther Tulip inferior vena cava (IVC) filter?. What are the properties and capabilities of inferior vena cava (IVC) ... encoded search term (Inferior Vena Cava Filters) and Inferior Vena Cava Filters What to Read Next on Medscape ... Inferior Vena Cava Filters. Anteroposterior image from an inferior venacavographic examination demonstrates an inferior vena ...
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement is most commonly indicated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE ... What is a Günther Tulip inferior vena cava (IVC) filter?. What are the properties and capabilities of inferior vena cava (IVC) ... encoded search term (Inferior Vena Cava Filters) and Inferior Vena Cava Filters What to Read Next on Medscape ... Inferior Vena Cava Filters. Anteroposterior image from an inferior venacavographic examination demonstrates an inferior vena ...
Cardiologists and radiologists often implant the device, called a retrievable inferior vena cava filter, inside people who are ... inferior vena cava filters, pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism ...
Vena-Tech IVC filter. Diagnostic Findings. Inferior Vena Cava filter thrombosis. CT Scan in a Patient with Inferior Vena Cava ( ... An inferior vena cava filter is a medical device that is implanted into the inferior vena cava to prevent pulmonary emboli (PEs ... Corriere MA, Sauve KJ, Ayerdi J, Craven BL, Stafford JM, Geary RL, et al Vena cava filters and inferior vena cava thrombosis J ... Millward SF, Aquino J Jr, Peterson RA Oversized inferior vena cava: use of a single Vena Tech--LGM filter Can Assoc Radiol J ...
... resulting in venous drainage of the lower extremities by way of a compensatory enlarged vena azygos system. We report the case ... Infrahepatic interruption of the inferior vena cava is a congenital anomaly, ... Deep vein thrombosis as a presenting symptom of congenital interruption of the inferior vena cava Int J Clin Pract. 1999 Jan- ... Infrahepatic interruption of the inferior vena cava is a congenital anomaly, resulting in venous drainage of the lower ...
The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the large vein in the abdomen that returns blood to the heart from the lower body. In patients ... The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the large vein in the abdomen that returns blood to the heart from the lower body. In patients ...
Massive haemoptysis caused by congenital absence of a segment of inferior vena cava. ... Massive haemoptysis caused by congenital absence of a segment of inferior vena cava. ...
MR Inferior vena cava Active Fully-Specified Name. Component. Multisection. Property. Find. Time. Pt. System. Abdomen,Vena cava ... Abdomen> Vena cava inferior:. Documento:. MR. it-IT. Italian (Italy). Sezioni multiple:. Osservazione:. Pt:. Addome>Vena cava. ... vena cava.inferior:. Narrativo:. resonancia magnética. es-MX. Spanish (Mexico). Multisección:. Tipo:. Punto temporal:. ... Changed System from Vena cava.inferior for conformance with the LOINC/RadLex unified model.. Order vs. Observation. Both. HL7 ...
The inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and degree of inspiratory collapse are used as echocardiographic indices in the ... Correlation of natriuretic peptides and inferior vena cava size in patients with congestive heart failure Virginia Hebl, Marina ... Correlation of natriuretic peptides and inferior vena cava size in patients with congestive heart failure. ... inferior vena cava, natriuretic peptides ...
Inferior Vena Cava and Iliac Veins. A vascular ultrasound of the inferior vena cava and iliac veins is an exam to check the ... Cedars-Sinai Programs & Services Imaging Center Exams Vascular Ultrasound Inferior Vena Cava and Iliac Veins ... Cedars-Sinai Programs & Services Imaging Center Exams Vascular Ultrasound Inferior Vena Cava and Iliac Veins ...
Ultrasound examination of respiratory variation in IVC diameter in patients who are hemodynamically unstable may be used to determine whether the patient is potentially responsive to a bolus of intravenous fluids. The vertical white dots in the ultrasound view indicate where M-mo
Inferior Vena Cava 3D. *Description ** Is formed on the right side of L5 by the union of the two common iliac veins, below the ... Receives the right gonadal, suprarenal, and inferior phrenic veins. On the left side, these veins usually drain into the left ... Receives the right gonadal, suprarenal, and inferior phrenic veins. On the left side, these veins usually drain into the left ... Superior and Inferior Gluteal Lymph Nodes 3D. 1.5 view. Dr. Mobeen Syed ...
After being readmitted to the hospital, a CAT scan revealed that the Inferior Vena Cava filter became occluded. According to ... Hundreds of IVC filter lawsuits have already accumulated against Inferior Vena Cava filter manufacturers. The manufacturers ...
Anomalies of the Inferior Vena Cava (2016). This piece was created as an assignment for a course in anatomical dissection. This ... diagram is based on a preserved specimen with anomalies in the Inferior Vena Cava, at Grants Museum. ...
Inferior vena cava thrombosis treatment. Acute or subacute inferior vena cava thrombosis that causes at least moderate pelvic ... Thrombus that involves the upper inferior vena cava may make it impossible to place an inferior vena cava filter for pulmonary ... With these devices, concomitant lytic infusion and possible inferior vena cava filter placement are necessary to ensure PE ... Indications for intervention include the relatively rare phlegmasia or symptomatic inferior vena cava thrombosis that responds ...
Rare Congenital Obstruction of the Inferior Vena Cava Diagnosed by Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography. Mark Caridi ... We present a case of rare congenital obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) outlet detected intraoperatively on ...
Nephrectomy with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombectomy. This complex surgical approach is appropriate when the cancer has extended ...
Obstructed inferior vena cava. *Portal vein obstruction (liver). *Blockage or narrowing of the arteries that supply the kidneys ...
hidden message from v3 (new repo)". ...
Ateşli Silah Yaralanmasına Bağlı Karaciğer, Ana Portal Ven, Vena Cava İnferior ve Renal Vasküler Yapılarda Yaralanma ...
Safety and Success Rates of Excimer Laser Sheath-Assisted Retrieval of Embedded Inferior Vena Cava Filters. JAMA Netw Open. ... Safety and Success Rates of Excimer Laser Sheath-Assisted Retrieval of Embedded Inferior Vena Cava Filters. ... Safety and Success Rates of Excimer Laser Sheath-Assisted Retrieval of Embedded Inferior Vena Cava Filters. ...
3D How To: Inferior Vena Cava Exam 3D How To: Inferior Vena Cava Exam. ... 3D How To: Inferior Vena Cava Exam. 3D animation demonstrating an Inferior Vena Cava ultrasound exam. ...
The filter is an implanted device that is placed through a tiny puncture in the neck and into the inferior vena cava, a large ... Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Placement, Removal, Venous Reconstruction and Thrombectomy Procedures. Our team of ... or in the case of Superior Vena Cava syndrome, swelling of the arms and face, our team directs small catheters to reconstruct ...
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is clotting of blood in a deep ... Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter An IVC filter may help prevent pulmonary embolism in patients with lower extremity DVT who have ... An IVC filter is placed in the inferior vena cava just below the renal veins via catheterization of an internal jugular or ... Upper extremity DVT occasionally occurs as part of superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome (compression or invasion of the superior ...
The inferior vena cava is also referred to as the posterior vena cava. The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries ...
Introduction Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) involving the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or right atrium (RA) often ... Palliating Symptoms in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Involving the Inferior Vena Cava With External Beam Radiation ... Palliating Symptoms in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma Involving the Inferior Vena ...
  • exp venous thrombosis/OR deep vein thrombosis.mp OR DVT.mp OR exp deep vein thrombosis OR deep venous thrombo.mp] AND [exp vena cava filters/OR inferior vena cava filters.mp OR IVC$.mp] LIMIT to human and English. (bmj.com)
  • A clinical trial of vena caval filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis. (bmj.com)
  • Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are small, cone-shaped devices that may be surgically implanted near your kidneys to impede blood clots that have broken loose from one of the deep veins in your leg (a condition known as deep vein thrombosis). (injuredcare.com)
  • Extensive deep vein thrombosis extending to the inferior vena cava was demonstrated in colour Doppler study. (who.int)
  • Anteroposterior image from an inferior venacavographic examination demonstrates an inferior vena cava of normal diameter without thrombus. (medscape.com)
  • CT of the abdomen and pelvis did not show any pancreatic abnormality but revealed a duplicated inferior vena cava (IVC) with a thrombus located in the right IVC. (nih.gov)
  • In this video we highlight surgical steps of a right radical nephrectomy and level IIIb inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy using an occluding balloon Fogarty catheter to control the upper boundary of IVC thrombus under transesophageal ultrasound guidance. (auanet.org)
  • A 60-year-old woman presented with synchronous adrenal metastasis and an inferior vena cava tumor thrombus in the adrenal vein that developed from an ovarian carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There have been no reports of synchronous adrenal metastasis with an inferior vena cava thrombus that developed from an ovarian carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tumor thrombus was adhered to the right adrenal vein ostium, and a portion of the IVC wall was resected en bloc by primary adrenal resection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During surgery the tumor thrombus disappeared from the inferior vena cava. (umin.ac.jp)
  • We used angioscopy of the pulmonary artery and detected the tumor thrombus at the orifice of the inferior pulmonary artery. (umin.ac.jp)
  • We are presenting a case of metastatic left-sided RCC with massive hypermetabolic tumor thrombus extending from left kidney to left renal vein and inferior vena cava giving an interesting "Suspension Bridge" appearance on PET/CT images. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Implants (e.g, inferior vena cava filter, patent foramen ovale treatment, and prosthetics valves). (mddionline.com)
  • Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement is most commonly indicated for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) when anticoagulation therapy is contraindicated. (medscape.com)
  • The most common extraintestinal complication of Entamoeba histolytica is amebic liver abscess (ALA). Hepatic vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis are rare but well-documented complications of ALA, typically attributed to mechanical compression and inflammation associated with a large abscess. (mcmaster.ca)
  • 17. Inferior vena cava thrombosis. (nih.gov)
  • August 11, 2010 (Rockville, Maryland and York, Pennsylvania) - The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received more than 900 reports of adverse events with inferior vena cava (IVC) filters, leading the agency to remind clinicians that the devices should be removed as soon as it is safely possible [1]. (medscape.com)
  • In these patients, as well as those still at risk for continued embolization despite anticoagulation, vena cava filters are used. (medscape.com)
  • Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are designed for their physical properties, clot-trapping effectiveness, ability to preserve flow in the IVC, and ease of placement. (medscape.com)
  • People who suffer traumatic injuries face a "life-threatening" risk for blood clots, but inferior vena cava (IVC) filters don't give them a survival benefit, according to a new study. (drugwatch.com)
  • Introduction: Placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) may be beneficial in high risk morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric procedures. (sages.org)
  • Cook Medical is engaged in two clinical studies that will provide additional data on the safety and effectiveness of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. (cookmedical.com)
  • The first study, the Cook Inferior Vena Cava Filter (CIVC) study, will add to Cook's existing clinical data on its commercially available IVC filters. (cookmedical.com)
  • A short cut review was carried out to establish whether inferior vena cava filters were better than standard anticoagulation therapy in reducing pulmonary emboli in patients with proximal vein lower limb DVTs. (bmj.com)
  • Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been linked to hundreds of reports involving severe and disabling complications, including instances where the device migrated, tilted, fractured or caused small parts to travel through the body, potentially entering the heart and lungs. (youhavealawyer.com)
  • There is a paucity of data comparing the long-term outcomes after inferior vena cava (IVC) filters placement for patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) between those with and without active cancer. (efim.org)
  • Purpose: To review the available literature on retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters to examine the effectiveness and risks of these devices. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Global Clot Management Devices Market Size, Trends and Growth Opportunity, By Product Type (Neurovascular Embolectomy Devices, Embolectomy Balloon Catheters, Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (CDT) Devices, and Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF), Percutaneous Thrombectomy Devices), By End-Use (Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers, Others). (researchandmarkets.com)
  • By Product Type such as Neurovascular Embolectomy Devices, Embolectomy Balloon Catheters, Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (CDT) Devices, and Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF), Percutaneous Thrombectomy Devices. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava volume were measured between the L1-L2 disk and L3-L4 disk levels using magnetic resonance images. (qxmd.com)
  • While scanning head to foot in a longitudinal direction using this coronal plane, the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the aorta can be viewed side-by-side. (iame.com)
  • We used magnetic resonance imaging to compare the effects of right-lateral and left-lateral tilt positions on abdominal aortic and inferior vena cava volumes in pregnant women. (qxmd.com)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the relationship of the variations of the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) to the aortic bifurcation level and inferior vena cava (IVC) confluence level using CT angiography. (edu.lb)
  • The most common site of aortic bifurcation was at L4-L5 disc space (34.8percent) and that of vena confluence was at the upper of L5 (29.3percent). (edu.lb)
  • If you image the SMA from a transverse aortic view, the vessel will appear disk-like lying immediately inferior to the celiac artery and superior to the left renal vein as it crosses over the anterior aortic wall (FIGURE 6). (iame.com)
  • The inferior vena cava is the lower ("inferior") of the two venae cavae, the two large veins that carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium of the heart: the inferior vena cava carries blood from the lower half of the body whilst the superior vena cava carries blood from the upper half of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior vena cava begins as the left and right common iliac veins behind the abdomen unite, at about the level of L5. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the right, the gonadal veins and suprarenal veins drain into the inferior vena cava directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, all the lumbar veins and hepatic veins usually drain directly into the inferior vena cava. (wikipedia.org)
  • In between 0.2% to 0.3% of people, the inferior vena cava may be duplicated beneath the level of the renal veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava is too short for a filter placement, the filter should be placed above the renal veins. (medscape.com)
  • Upper extremity DVT occasionally occurs as part of superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome (compression or invasion of the superior vena cava by a tumor and causing symptoms such as facial swelling, dilated neck veins, and facial flushing) or results from a hypercoagulable state or subclavian vein compression at the thoracic outlet. (msdmanuals.com)
  • On the left, they drain into the renal vein which in turn drains into the inferior vena cava. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hepatic vein subsequently drains into the inferior vena cava . (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior vena cava is also referred to as the posterior vena cava. (healthline.com)
  • The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries the deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior vena cava is a vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corresponding vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body is the superior vena cava. (wikipedia.org)
  • A woman presented with back pain, and when biopsied, she was found to have an inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma - specifically involving the infrahepatic vena cava, the origin of the left renal vein, and the hilum of the right kidney. (jomi.com)
  • The inferior mesenteric vein connects in the majority of people on the splenic vein , but in some people, it is known to connect on the portal vein or the superior mesenteric vein . (wikipedia.org)
  • So is the largest vein, the inferior vena cava. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical data of all patients who underwent venous reconstruction for iliofemoral or inferior vena caval (IVC) occlusion due to nonmalignant disease between January 1985 and June 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The case involved a 73-year-old woman who underwent surgical resection for right renal cell carcinoma extending to the inferior vena cava. (umin.ac.jp)
  • It is a continuation of the inferior mesenteric artery. (healthline.com)
  • Roughly, the portal venous system corresponds to areas supplied by the celiac trunk , the superior mesenteric artery , and the inferior mesenteric artery . (wikipedia.org)
  • Blockage of the inferior vena cava is rare and is treated urgently as a life-threatening condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific levels of the tributaries are as follows: Because the inferior vena cava is located to the right of the midline, drainage of the tributaries is not always symmetrical. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in a subset of patients, the 30° right-lateral tilt position achieved the optimal inferior vena cava volume. (qxmd.com)
  • Perioperative and oncologic outcomes of our first 35 patients treated with robotic radical nephrectomy and inferior vena cava thrombectomy in two tertiary referral centers were reported. (auanet.org)
  • The most common abnormality is a persistent left superior vena cava. (lvhn.org)
  • The tumor had invaded and blocked the Inferior Vena Cava, which compromised my right kidney. (cancer.org)
  • The presence of persistent left superior vena cava or inferior vena cava anomalies requires further evaluation to rule out congenital heart disease in infants. (lvhn.org)
  • Since the inferior vena cava is primarily a right-sided structure, unconscious pregnant women should be turned on to their left side (the recovery position), to relieve pressure on it and facilitate venous return[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of Right-Lateral Versus Left-Lateral Tilt Position on Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava in Pregnant Women Determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (qxmd.com)
  • Mean inferior vena cava volume in pregnant women was not increased at either angle of the right-lateral tilt position compared with the 30° left-lateral tilt position. (qxmd.com)
  • In transposition of the great arteries the inferior vena cava may lie on the left. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superiority of right versus left positioning for optimal inferior vena cava volume is unknown. (qxmd.com)
  • The 30° left-lateral tilt position most consistently reduced inferior vena cava compression by the gravid uterus compared with the supine position. (qxmd.com)
  • Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Inferior Vena Cava Dual Drainag" by Susannah Pitt, Jennifer Chen et al. (lvhn.org)
  • Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Inferior Vena Cava Dual Drainage to Coronary Sinus: A Case Report. (lvhn.org)
  • Iatrogenic diversion of inferior vena cava to the left atrium presented as recurrent foetal loss: a case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • Iatrogenic diversion of inferior vena cava (IVC) to the left atrium (LA) after atrial septal defect repair (ASD) is an unusual complication. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trauma to the vena cava is usually fatal as unstoppable excessive blood loss occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inferior vena cava oxygen saturations were significantly different between the study and control groups. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Inferior vena cava oxygen saturation was found to be significantly different between preterm infants with and without PDA. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Plaque areas in the aortas, measured by the en face method, and in the brachiocephalic arteries, measured histopathologically, were significantly increased in the SWCNT-treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • A small amount of blood from the inferior vena cava passes through the right atrioventricular orifice with blood from the superior vena cava. (gpnotebook.com)
  • K. Sugaya, S. Nishijima, K. Kadekawa and K. Ashitomi, "Relationship between Microscopic Hematuria and Inferior Vena Cava Reflux on Color Doppler Ultrasonography," Open Journal of Urology , Vol. 3 No. 8, 2013, pp. 299-303. (scirp.org)