The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
An opening in the wall between the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a fetal heart. Oval foramen normally closes soon after birth; when it fails to close the condition is called PATENT OVAL FORAMEN.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
A compression of ILIAC VEIN that results in a decreased flow in the vein and in the left LOWER EXTREMITY due to a vascular malformation. It may result in left leg EDEMA, pain, iliofemoral DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS and POSTTHROMBOTIC SYNDROME. Compression of the left common ILIAC VEIN by the right common ILIAC ARTERY against the underlying fifth LUMBAR VERTEBRA is the typical underlying malformation.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Veins which drain the liver.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.
Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain DITERPENES.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.
Downward displacement of the UTERUS. It is classified in various degrees: in the first degree the UTERINE CERVIX is within the vaginal orifice; in the second degree the cervix is outside the orifice; in the third degree the entire uterus is outside the orifice.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A dead body, usually a human body.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.
A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Congenital arteriovenous malformation involving the VEIN OF GALEN, a large deep vein at the base of the brain. The rush of arterial blood directly into the vein of Galen, without passing through the CAPILLARIES, can overwhelm the heart and lead to CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).

No data available that match "veins or posterior cardinal veins iliac vein"

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  • Later in the development stages, the posterior cardinal veins are replaced by the subcardinal and supracardinal veins. (
  • The supracardinal veins form part of the inferior vena cava, the intercostal veins, hemiazygos vein and azygos vein. (
  • supracardinal v's paired vessels in the embryo developing later than the subcardinal veins and persisting chiefly as the lower segment of the inferior vena cava. (
  • supracardinal veins (2) appear last, left supracardinal vein regresses , and right supracardinal vein forms infrarenal IVC. (
  • IVC duplication results from a persistent left supracardinal vein. (
  • Absence of the infrarenal IVC would be the result of failure of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins to develop. (
  • Normal IVC has a complex embryological development with many embryological veins contributing to different parts, in order of appearance, the posterior cardinal , the subcardinal , and the supracardinal veins , each predominating temporarily, then regressing, and remaining only partly in the final definitive system. (
  • As the subcardinal and supracardinal veins form, they first supplement but soon replace the posterior cardinal veins. (
  • Above the kidneys , anastomoses join the supracardinal veins , forming the azygos and hemiazygos veins. (
  • Below the kidneys, the right supracardinal vein contributes to IVC, while the left supracardinal vein degenerates. (
  • At 4-6 weeks of gestation, regression and fusion of three sets of paired veins- posterior cardinal, subcardinal, and supracardinal veins forms IVC. (
  • The development of the IVC involves fusion, regression, and establishment of midline anastomoses between parts of three paired fetal venous systems: the two posterior cardinal veins, the two subcardinal, and two supracardinal νeins. (
  • An absent infrarenal inferior vena cava can be congenital, due to the failure of development of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins, or acquired, as a result of intrauterine or perinatal inferior vena cava thrombosis . (
  • at the level of the seventh thoracic vertebra, the accessory hemiazygos vein bends rightward, runs behind the aorta, and drains into the azygos vein. (
  • Tributaries of the accessory hemiazygos vein include the left superior intercostal veins, the upper left intercostal veins, and left bronchial veins. (
  • The patterns and interconnections of the azygos, hemiazygos, and accessory azygos veins are variable. (
  • A blood return from the lower extremities was shown through enlarged collateral veins of the abdominal wall, vena azygos and hemiazygos continuation, and multiple liver veins emptying into the right cardiac atrium. (
  • Absent azygos vein with enlargement of the hemiazygos which drains to the left. (
  • Drainage of the hemiazygos to the left brachiocephphalic vein. (
  • Full IVC agenesis" should cover those cases in which all four parts of the IVC and the iliac venous system are absent and blood return is accomplished by one or both of the following pathways: (1) vertebrolumbar pathway (anterior external vertebral plexus, ascending lumbar veins, and azygos and hemiazygos veins), and (2) superficial anterior abdominal wall collaterals. (
  • Subsequent ascending venography, abdominal computed tomographic scan, intraarterial digital subtraction angiography, and intra-osseous phlebography revealed full inferior vena cava and iliac venous system agenesis, up to and above the level of the hepatic veins, venous return from the lower limbs and the abdominal viscera being through a series of multiple collateral channels and the azygos-hemiazygos system. (
  • Unable to visualize the right common femoral vein with ultrasound so decision was made to access left common femoral. (
  • 8. The renal portal system consists of veins hind limbs i.e. femoral, sciatic and renal portal veins. (
  • Doppler ultrasound showed extensive thrombosis in left common femoral vein, proximal femoral vein, proximal profundal vein, and popliteal vein. (
  • When defective development occurs in the vascular trunk formation period in the 'later stage' of embryonic development, the defects involve 'named' vessels (eg, iliac, femoral, and popliteal vessels) and are limited to the vessel trunk itself. (
  • 1. circumflex femoral vein (n. (
  • Most of the posterior cardinal veins regress, what remains of them forms the renal segment of the inferior vena cava and the common iliac veins. (
  • The subcardinal veins form part of the inferior vena cava, renal veins and gonadal veins. (
  • anastomotic vein, inferior a vein that interconnects the superficial middle cerebral vein and the transverse sinus. (
  • CT evaluation of anomalies of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein. (
  • The blood from the lower half of the body drains typically through the right-sided inferior vena cava (IVC) , resulting from the confuence of the common iliac veins. (
  • The umbilical vein is connected to the inferior vena cava (IVC) via the ductus venosus , a venous shunt that develops in the liver. (
  • The subcardinal veins appear first, and eventually form parts of the left renal vein, suprarenal vein, gonadal vein, and inferior vena cava (IVC). (
  • We describe a rare case of abdominal subcutaneous wall veins as collaterals caused by a congenitally absent infrarenal inferior vena cava with preservation of a hypoplastic suprarenal segment. (
  • CT abdomen and pelvis revealed congenital atresia of inferior vena cava and of the bilateral common iliac veins, resulting in multiple venous collaterals in the abdomen, retroperitoneum and subcutaneous tissue. (
  • It forms the inferior border of the broad ligament and houses the uterine artery and uterine veins. (
  • The venules feed into larger veins, which eventually merge into the superior and inferior vena cavae, large vessels that consolidate the blood flow from the head, neck, and arms and from the trunk and legs, respectively (see also circulatory system circulatory system, group of organs that transport blood and the substances it carries to and from all parts of the body. (
  • Lower renal artery was arising from the abdominal aorta at the level of L2, then, crossed the inferior vena cava anteriorly and divided into middle, posterior, inferior segmental branches before entering into the lower part of the hilum of the right kidney (Table/Fig 1) . (
  • Left lower renal artery was arising from the lateral part of the abdominal aorta at the upper border of L2 and behind the left renal vein, then runs upwards and winds around the upper border of left renal vein, crossed it anteriorly and divided into posterior and inferior segmental branches before entering into the lower part of the hilum of left kidney (Table/Fig 2) . (
  • On the right side, two renal veins were observed which were coming out from the hilum of the kidney and draining into inferior vena cava and ovarian vein followed as usual course (Table/Fig 1) . (
  • Satyapal (1995) has named any extra vein other than renal vein emerging out of kidney and draining separately in the inferior vena cava as 'additional' renal vein and classified these kidneys as type-3, using the drainage pattern of primary renal vein tributaries and renal vein proper as a basis (3) . (
  • subcardinal veins (2) appear next, left subcardinal vein regresses, and right subcardinal vein forms the suprarenal IVC. (
  • Due to not being a midline structure, there is a degree of asymmetry of drainage, e.g. the gonadal and suprarenal veins drain into the IVC on the right side, but into the left renal vein on the left. (
  • Thus, we describe patent abdominal subcutaneous wall veins as collaterals in a patient with congenital absent IVC with preservation of a hypoplastic suprarenal segment. (
  • Left vitelline veins regress while right vitelline veins form the hepatic veins, and a network of vitelline veins around the duodenum form the portal vein . (
  • The larger of the two is joined by the portal vein, and together they enter the right lobe of the liver. (
  • 2) Innominate Vein 3) Subclavian Vein 4) Pulmonary Vein 5) Hepatic Vein 6) Renal Vein 7) Gonadial.Vein 8) Dorso-Lumbarvein 9) Renal Portal Vein 10) Femororenal Vein 11) Pelvic. (
  • 14. The blood from the parts of the alimentary canal is collected by the Hepatic portal vein and empties into the liver and from there it is transported by Hepatic sinuses into the sinus venosus. (
  • sublobular v's tributaries of the hepatic veins that receive the central veins of hepatic lobules. (
  • vitelline v's veins that return the blood from the yolk sac to the primitive heart of the early embryo. (
  • Derived from three pairs of embryonic veins (cardinal veins, omphalomesenteric or vitelline veins, and umbilical veins), it primarily serves to direct a large volume of oxygenated blood from the placenta, past the liver, and directly into the right atrium. (
  • By the fourth week, the developing heart receives blood from three pairs of veins: the vitelline veins, umbilical veins, and common cardinal veins. (
  • These primordial sinusoids become connected to the vitelline veins. (
  • Vitelline veins pass through the septum transversum and enter sinus venosus , also called as venous end of the heart. (
  • Each sinus horn receives three veins: a) the common cardinal vein, b) the umbilical vein and c) the vitelline vein by way of the hepatocardiac vein. (
  • What are the vitelline veins? (
  • dural sinuses receive blood from cerebral veins and deliver blood to other dural sinuses or to the internal jugular vein. (
  • it empties into the facial, lingual, or internal jugular vein. (
  • This research is the direct outgrowth of those investigations which have preceded it on the development of the posterior vena cava in the cat by Huntington and McClure ('07, '20) and in man by McClure and Butler ('25). (
  • Their study of closely graded developmental stages has revealed hitherto unrecognized factors involved in the formation of the posterior vena cava and has established a detailed knowledge of the ontogeny of this vein in these mammals. (
  • Such knowledge leads directly to a broader field and more comprehensive problem, namely, the development of the posterior vena cava in mammals in general and to a consideration of the primary developmental factors, so far as they can be determined, which influence and govern its formation. (
  • The central aim, therefore, of the present investigation has been to make a careful study, by the method of comparative embryology, of the relative functional role played by the various embryonic veins associated in the development of the mammalian posterior vena cava. (
  • A complete resume of the literature concerned with the development of the posterior vena cava in mammals cannot be attempted within the limits of the present paper, for no other single vein has been the subject of research so extensive or has associated with it so large a bibliography. (
  • In his earlier work Rathke ('30) held that the right posterior cardinal vein, which from the time of its appearance he called the right posterior vena cava, became transformed throughout its entire length into the adult vena cava. (
  • Later, however, in his better-known work, Rathke ('38) abandoned entirely this conception and, influenced probably by the observation of Stark ( '35) that the proximal portion of the vena cava came from a portion of the omphalomesenteric vein within the liver, advanced an entirely different theory regarding the method of development. (
  • Typically the venous return from the upper half of the body it's done by the right-sided superior vena cava (SVC) formed by the confluence of the brachiocephalic veins. (
  • The right anterior cardinal vein and right common cardinal vein eventually become the superior vena cava (SVC), and the posterior cardinal veins contribute to the common iliac veins and the azygos vein . (
  • The left anterio r cardinal vein and left common cardinal vein regresses, persisting only a short segment which forms the left superior intercostal vein, and the coronary sinus, respectively. (
  • Effective arrange- ments are needed in girls, as as phospholipases, which produce the second to fourth tracheal superior intercostal vein superior laryngeal n. (
  • From the uterus, the Broad ligaments fan out laterally while covering the external iliac vessels. (
  • The postcardinal veins or posterior cardinal veins join with the corresponding right and left cardinal veins to form the left common cardinal veins, which empty in the sinus venosus. (
  • emissary vein one passing through a foramen of the skull and draining blood from a cerebral sinus into a vessel outside the skull. (
  • anastomotic vein, superior a vein that interconnects the superficial middle cerebral vein and the superior sagittal sinus. (
  • These two join to form the common cardinal vein, which enters the sinus venosus. (
  • The right horn of the sinus venosus and the right common cardinal vein continue to enlarge and become incorporated into the right atrium. (
  • This pulls the narrow transverse portion of the sinus venosus along with the left sinus horn and common cardinal vein to a position dorsal to the heart in the atrioventricular sulcus. (
  • Which cardiac veins branch off of the coronary sinus? (
  • Which cardiac veins do not branch from the coronary sinus? (
  • 10. The blood from the kidneys is collected by renal veins which open into posterior cardinals, opening into the cuvierian sinus. (
  • 13. The blood collected by the two precavals and one post caval veins directly enters into the sinus venosus. (
  • In the absence of congenital heart disease, a left SVC or left component of a duplicated SVC almost always drains into the coronary sinus, descending lateral to the aortic arch and anterior to the hilum, and entering the pericardium in the posterior atrioventricular groove. (
  • Posteriorlaterally the visceral layer of TV passes to the medial aspect of the epididymis and lines the epididymal sinus, and then passes laterally to its posterior border where it is reflected forwards to become continuous with the parietal layer. (
  • behind the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the vein turns laterally and empties into the external jugular vein (or, sometimes, into the subclavian vein). (
  • it accompanies the axillary artery and becomes the subclavian vein at the lateral border of the first rib. (
  • The venous plexuses of the upper limb fuse to form the subclavian vein, which end up to open into the anterior cardinal veins . (
  • There are axillary lymphatic sacs that develop around the right subclavian vein. (
  • The pulmonary veins possess oxygenated blood. (
  • 4.The blood from the lungs is collected by a pair of pulmonary veins. (
  • 6. The pulmonary veins open into the left auricle. (
  • In the systemic circulation, which serves the body except for the lungs, oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart from two pairs of pulmonary veins, a pair from each lung. (
  • A vein that drains blood from the lower leg and foot and that merges with the posterior tibial vein to form the popliteal vein in the popliteal fossa. (
  • Most veins originate in capillaries and drain into increasingly larger veins until their blood is delivered to the right atrium of the heart. (
  • Portal veins also originate in capillaries, but their branches decrease in size to pass through another set of capillaries before joining more typical veins on their way toward the heart. (
  • The portal veins are having capillaries at their both ends. (
  • Capillaries , which join the arteries and veins, and the lymphatic vessels are not shown. (
  • While humans, as well as other vertebrates , have a closed cardiovascular system (meaning that the blood never leaves the network of arteries , veins and capillaries ), some invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system. (
  • Capillaries form a network of tiny tubes throughout the body, connecting arterioles (smallest arteries) and venules (smallest veins). (
  • Blood leaving the tissue capillaries enters converging vessels, the veins vein, blood vessel that returns blood to the heart. (
  • The oxygen-depleted blood passes from the capillaries to the venules (small veins). (
  • After their passage through body tissues, capillaries merge once again into venules , which continue to merge into veins . (
  • With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), detailed anatomic information regarding the number, origin, course, and drainage of all thoracic veins and their relationships to cardiac and extracardiac structures can be easily obtained. (
  • On the left side, the thoracic duct forms on either side of the left brachiocephalic vein. (
  • Carried to converging vessels of increasing size, the lymph enters the thoracic duct and is emptied into a large vein near the heart. (
  • This historic 1927 paper by Butler describes embryonic vein development. (
  • cardinal v's embryonic vessels that include the pre- and postcardinal veins and the ducts of Cuvier (common cardinal veins). (
  • Absence of the entire IVC would result from failure of all three embryonic veins to develop properly. (
  • Which embryonic artery gives rise to the common and internal iliac arteries? (
  • A defect at any point in the complex development stages of the evolution and involution of multiple paired embryonic veins can result in various conditions of defective venous trunkTherefore, truncular lesions in general are associated with more serious hemodynamic consequences than extratruncular lesions due to their direct involvement with the truncal venous system. (
  • Such venous anomalies are a result of the defective development of embryonic veins during the vascular trunk formation period in the later stage of embryonic development. (
  • A defect at any point in the complex development stages of evolution and involution of multiple paired embryonic veins can result in congenital vascular malformations (CVM). (
  • Acute superficial thrombophlebitis was found in the left great saphenous vein at the proximal calf and in a branch at the left proximal calf. (
  • 7. From the posterior part of the body the blood is collected by i) a pair of posterior cardinal sinuses ii) a pair of lateral abdominal veins iii) a pair of brachial veins. (
  • 11. The brachial veins join the lateral abdominals to form sub clavian veins which open into the ductus cuvieri. (
  • 12. Three pairs cutaneous veins collect blood from the muscles of skin and open into the cardinal sinuses, lateral abdominals and brachial veins. (
  • The cardinal ligament is attached to the lateral cervical side. (
  • It's flattened anteroposteriorly and presents anterior and posterior surfaces, and left and right lateral edges. (
  • After each common iliac artery gives rise to a small axial artery to the lower limb bud, it continues into the umbilical cord as an umbilical artery carrying blood to the chorionic villi. (
  • However, more recent research has shown that the formation of the lymphatic system begins when a subset of endothelial cells from the previously formed jugular vein sprout off to form the lymphatic sacs. (
  • Studies have shown that the development of lymph sacs occurs through swelling and outgrowth of pre-lymphatic clusters from the cardinal vein, in a process termed ballooning. (
  • When the development of the lymphatic system begins from the cardinal vein, all of the endothelial cells appear to have the potential to become lymphatic. (
  • Another school of thought proposes that the lymphatic system, like the rest of the vascular network, originates from cells arising from the mesenchymal layer and develops separately from the veins. (
  • Jugular lymphatic sacs form around the superior cardinal veins (precursors to the jugular veins). (
  • The retroperitoneal, lumbo-iliac and inguinal nodes are derived from the lumbo-iliac lymphatic sacs. (
  • On the opposing side, there is a concavity that is penetrated by the supplying artery, vein and nerve and also allows exit of efferent lymphatic vessels . (
  • It blends with the broad ligament fold and contains the ovarian artery, ovarian vein, ovarian nerve plexus, and lymphatic vessels. (
  • An auxiliary system, the lymphatic system lymphatic system , network of vessels carrying lymph, or tissue-cleansing fluid, from the tissues into the veins of the circulatory system. (
  • In the right posterior cardinal veins, which drain the urine. (
  • In the setting of the anomalous vascular connection, the umbilical vein courses inferiorly to the iliac vein in parallel configuration with the umbilical artery. (
  • The right umbilical vein and cranial part of the left umbilical vein degenerate during seventh week of gestation, leaving only the caudal part of the left umbilical vein . (
  • The caudal part of the left umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood to the embryo from the placenta. (
  • the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left. (
  • Umbilical vein labeled at bottom right. (
  • The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus . (
  • The singular umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus, while two umbilical arteries return deoxygenated blood to the placenta. (
  • Within a week of birth, the infant's umbilical vein is completely obliterated and is replaced by a fibrous cord called the round ligament of the liver (also called the ligamentum teres hepatis , from the Latin meaning the same). (
  • Closure of the umbilical vein usually occurs after the umbilical arteries have closed. (
  • A newborn baby has a patent umbilical vein for at least a few months. (
  • This umbilical vein may be catheterised for ready intravenous access. (
  • In contrast, the superficial or subcutaneous veins typically travel alone. (
  • Many veins, especially superficial ones, have valves formed of reduplication of their lining membrane. (
  • During physical exertion these collaterals inadequately drain the lower limbs, thus causing venous stasis, superficial ulcerations and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (
  • In "full IVC agenesis" thrombosis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity (paresthesias of lower legs and lower back pain on exertion, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, hypertension, ureteric obstruction, and emotional distress due to dilated superficial abdominal wall veins). (
  • As the testes descend superficial to the peritoneum on the posterior abdominal wall and into the the scrotal sac, the testes become enveloped anteriorly by the processus vaginalis. (
  • Veins are subject to inflammation, dilatation or enlargement (as in a varicose vein varicose vein, superficial vessel that is abnormally lengthened, twisted, or dilated, seen most often on the legs and thighs. (
  • The deep veins typically accompany arteries, and artery and vein have the same name, e.g., radial artery and radial vein. (
  • When young frank netter evolved into a large number of men who have undergone a nonnerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, they should be taken to exclude adrenal hyperplasia or the whole of the artery and vein are carefully dissected to reveal a discrete lump, no further abnormality was found. (
  • At which point does blood run in the same direction in an adjacent artery and vein? (
  • The body of uterus is related to the broad ligament and uterine artery and vein. (
  • The MRI showed multiple patent abdominal wall veins (Figure 2 ) and enlarged ascending lumbar veins were shown as collaterals. (
  • One of the small veins running up along the surface of the right ventricle of the heart and draining directly into the right atrium. (
  • anterior veins of right ventricle small veins that drain blood from the ventral aspect of the right ventricle and empty into the right atrium. (
  • to the venules (small veins). (
  • Among the investigations which have contributed to our present knowledge of the embryology of this vein, those of Rathke ('32, '38), Hochstetter ('93), F. T. Lewis ('02), and Huntington and McClure ('07, '20) are preeminent. (
  • Circumaortic left renal vein embryology schematic. (
  • A basic knowledge of vascular embryology and in particular, the evolutional and involutional development of the venous system involved in the maturation of the truncal vein, is essential for the recognition and interpretation of a number of venous anomalies. (
  • The caudal vein is absent. (
  • Valves are most numerous in the veins of the extremities, and are absent in the smallest veins. (
  • These ducts drain into the venous junctions of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. (
  • The lymph sacs identified at the early stage of development are paired (jugular and posterior lymph sacs) and unpaired lymph sacs (retroperitoneal and cisterna chyli). (
  • The lumbo-iliac, jugular and axillary sacs are bilateral structures. (
  • 3. The anterior cardinal system and the interior jugular sinuses collect blood from the head region through a number of sinuses. (
  • Each precaval vein is formed by External jugular, innominate and subclavian veins. (
  • 6. The nutrient sinuses empty into anterior cardinal and interior jugular sinuses which inturn open into the ductus cuvieri. (
  • 3,4 A benign narrowing (stenosis) of the jugular-azygos vein system is a good example of how defective development can cause a unique condition, in this case chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). (
  • At the transverse fissure, the vein divides into two vessels, one larger than the other. (
  • The iliolumbar ligament is composed of thick and strong fibrous bands of connective tissue originating from the tip of the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra and stretching out to the posterior part of the inner lip of the iliac crest. (
  • subcardinal v's paired vessels in the embryo, replacing the postcardinal veins and persisting to some degree as definitive vessels. (
  • Ovarian VV: on right drain directly into the IVC and on the left drain to the renal vein then into the IVC. (
  • By week 8, a large anterior cardinal veins anastomosis (derived from the thymic and thyroid veins) channels the blood from the left anterior cardinal vein toward the right, giving rise to the future left brachiocephalic venous trunk. (
  • By the eighth week, the anterior cardinal veins are connected by a vessel running obliquely between them. (
  • Tributaries of the axillary vein include the brachial, the cephalic, and the subscapular veins. (
  • antebrachial vein, median a vein that arises from a palmar venous plexus and passes up the forearm between the cephalic and the basilic veins to the elbow, where it either joins one of these, bifurcates to join both, or joins the median cubital vein. (
  • Cartilage, Whits Cauda Equina Caudate Lobe Cavernous Plexus & Cavity of the Cervix lA Cell Cephalic Vein Cerebellar Fossa Cerebellar Peduncle Cerebellum , sSb ' Cerebtal Gyi sfc Cerebro.spinal Cavity Cerebrum Cervical Vertebrae CORACO. (
  • however, in veins these are less thick and collapse when the vessel is cut. (
  • This oblique vessel allows for the shunting blood from the left anterior cardinal vein to the right. (
  • Once the caudal part of the left anterior cardinal vein degenerates, this oblique anastomotic vessel becomes the left brachiocephalic vein . (
  • 10. The blood from kidneys is collected by four pairs of renal veins which open into the post caval vein. (
  • During routine dissection of 60-year-old female cadaver, we found double renal arteries with double renal veins for the right kidney and in the left kidney, there were double renal arteries and two renal veins coming out from the hilum and they joined to form the main left renal vein, which passed in front of the aorta. (
  • On the right side, there was double renal arteries and double renal veins and on the left side, there was double renal arteries and two renal veins coming out from the hilum and they joined to form the main left renal vein, which passed in front of the aorta. (