A compression of ILIAC VEIN that results in a decreased flow in the vein and in the left LOWER EXTREMITY due to a vascular malformation. It may result in left leg EDEMA, pain, iliofemoral DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS and POSTTHROMBOTIC SYNDROME. Compression of the left common ILIAC VEIN by the right common ILIAC ARTERY against the underlying fifth LUMBAR VERTEBRA is the typical underlying malformation.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
Vena Cava, Inferior
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Vena Cava Filters
Retinal Vein Occlusion
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Cranial Fossa, Posterior
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cartoons as Topic
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Disease Models, Animal
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Pattern Recognition, Visual
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Analysis of Variance
Pituitary Gland, Posterior
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lens Capsule, Crystalline
Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease
Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome
Severity of Illness Index
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Vein of Galen Malformations
Blood Flow Velocity
Catheterization, Central Venous
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
Vena Cava, Superior
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Posterior Capsule of the Lens
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
No data available that match "veins or posterior cardinal veins iliac vein"
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SupracardinalHemiazygosFemoralInferiorSuprarenalPortal veinHepatic veinsVitellineInternal juguVenaIntercostalExternal iliacSinusSubclavian veinPulmonary veinsDrainsCapillariesThoracicEmbryonicGreat saphLateralCommon iliacLymphaticRight posterior cardinalUmbilical veinSuperficialArtery and veinLumbar veinsSmall veinsEmbryologyAbsentJugularTransversePostcardinal veinsDrainAnterior cardinal veinsCephalicVesselRenal veins
- Later in the development stages, the posterior cardinal veins are replaced by the subcardinal and supracardinal veins. (wikipedia.org)
- The supracardinal veins form part of the inferior vena cava, the intercostal veins, hemiazygos vein and azygos vein. (wikipedia.org)
- supracardinal v's paired vessels in the embryo developing later than the subcardinal veins and persisting chiefly as the lower segment of the inferior vena cava. (thefreedictionary.com)
- supracardinal veins (2) appear last, left supracardinal vein regresses , and right supracardinal vein forms infrarenal IVC. (radiopaedia.org)
- IVC duplication results from a persistent left supracardinal vein. (radiopaedia.org)
- Absence of the infrarenal IVC would be the result of failure of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins to develop. (radiopaedia.org)
- Normal IVC has a complex embryological development with many embryological veins contributing to different parts, in order of appearance, the posterior cardinal , the subcardinal , and the supracardinal veins , each predominating temporarily, then regressing, and remaining only partly in the final definitive system. (netkey.at)
- As the subcardinal and supracardinal veins form, they first supplement but soon replace the posterior cardinal veins. (kenhub.com)
- Above the kidneys , anastomoses join the supracardinal veins , forming the azygos and hemiazygos veins. (kenhub.com)
- Below the kidneys, the right supracardinal vein contributes to IVC, while the left supracardinal vein degenerates. (kenhub.com)
- At 4-6 weeks of gestation, regression and fusion of three sets of paired veins- posterior cardinal, subcardinal, and supracardinal veins forms IVC. (shmabstracts.com)
- The development of the IVC involves fusion, regression, and establishment of midline anastomoses between parts of three paired fetal venous systems: the two posterior cardinal veins, the two subcardinal, and two supracardinal νeins. (acliatas.net)
- An absent infrarenal inferior vena cava can be congenital, due to the failure of development of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins, or acquired, as a result of intrauterine or perinatal inferior vena cava thrombosis . (radiopaedia.org)
- at the level of the seventh thoracic vertebra, the accessory hemiazygos vein bends rightward, runs behind the aorta, and drains into the azygos vein. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Tributaries of the accessory hemiazygos vein include the left superior intercostal veins, the upper left intercostal veins, and left bronchial veins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The patterns and interconnections of the azygos, hemiazygos, and accessory azygos veins are variable. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A blood return from the lower extremities was shown through enlarged collateral veins of the abdominal wall, vena azygos and hemiazygos continuation, and multiple liver veins emptying into the right cardiac atrium. (biomedcentral.com)
- Absent azygos vein with enlargement of the hemiazygos which drains to the left. (netkey.at)
- Drainage of the hemiazygos to the left brachiocephphalic vein. (netkey.at)
- Full IVC agenesis" should cover those cases in which all four parts of the IVC and the iliac venous system are absent and blood return is accomplished by one or both of the following pathways: (1) vertebrolumbar pathway (anterior external vertebral plexus, ascending lumbar veins, and azygos and hemiazygos veins), and (2) superficial anterior abdominal wall collaterals. (acliatas.net)
- Subsequent ascending venography, abdominal computed tomographic scan, intraarterial digital subtraction angiography, and intra-osseous phlebography revealed full inferior vena cava and iliac venous system agenesis, up to and above the level of the hepatic veins, venous return from the lower limbs and the abdominal viscera being through a series of multiple collateral channels and the azygos-hemiazygos system. (acliatas.net)
- Unable to visualize the right common femoral vein with ultrasound so decision was made to access left common femoral. (radiopaedia.org)
- 8. The renal portal system consists of veins hind limbs i.e. femoral, sciatic and renal portal veins. (com.pk)
- Doppler ultrasound showed extensive thrombosis in left common femoral vein, proximal femoral vein, proximal profundal vein, and popliteal vein. (shmabstracts.com)
- When defective development occurs in the vascular trunk formation period in the 'later stage' of embryonic development, the defects involve 'named' vessels (eg, iliac, femoral, and popliteal vessels) and are limited to the vessel trunk itself. (phlebolymphology.org)
- 1. circumflex femoral vein (n. (synonym.com)
- Most of the posterior cardinal veins regress, what remains of them forms the renal segment of the inferior vena cava and the common iliac veins. (wikipedia.org)
- The subcardinal veins form part of the inferior vena cava, renal veins and gonadal veins. (wikipedia.org)
- anastomotic vein, inferior a vein that interconnects the superficial middle cerebral vein and the transverse sinus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- CT evaluation of anomalies of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein. (radiopaedia.org)
- The blood from the lower half of the body drains typically through the right-sided inferior vena cava (IVC) , resulting from the confuence of the common iliac veins. (netkey.at)
- The umbilical vein is connected to the inferior vena cava (IVC) via the ductus venosus , a venous shunt that develops in the liver. (kenhub.com)
- The subcardinal veins appear first, and eventually form parts of the left renal vein, suprarenal vein, gonadal vein, and inferior vena cava (IVC). (kenhub.com)
- We describe a rare case of abdominal subcutaneous wall veins as collaterals caused by a congenitally absent infrarenal inferior vena cava with preservation of a hypoplastic suprarenal segment. (biomedcentral.com)
- CT abdomen and pelvis revealed congenital atresia of inferior vena cava and of the bilateral common iliac veins, resulting in multiple venous collaterals in the abdomen, retroperitoneum and subcutaneous tissue. (shmabstracts.com)
- It forms the inferior border of the broad ligament and houses the uterine artery and uterine veins. (statpearls.com)
- The venules feed into larger veins, which eventually merge into the superior and inferior vena cavae, large vessels that consolidate the blood flow from the head, neck, and arms and from the trunk and legs, respectively (see also circulatory system circulatory system, group of organs that transport blood and the substances it carries to and from all parts of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Lower renal artery was arising from the abdominal aorta at the level of L2, then, crossed the inferior vena cava anteriorly and divided into middle, posterior, inferior segmental branches before entering into the lower part of the hilum of the right kidney (Table/Fig 1) . (ijars.net)
- Left lower renal artery was arising from the lateral part of the abdominal aorta at the upper border of L2 and behind the left renal vein, then runs upwards and winds around the upper border of left renal vein, crossed it anteriorly and divided into posterior and inferior segmental branches before entering into the lower part of the hilum of left kidney (Table/Fig 2) . (ijars.net)
- On the right side, two renal veins were observed which were coming out from the hilum of the kidney and draining into inferior vena cava and ovarian vein followed as usual course (Table/Fig 1) . (ijars.net)
- Satyapal (1995) has named any extra vein other than renal vein emerging out of kidney and draining separately in the inferior vena cava as 'additional' renal vein and classified these kidneys as type-3, using the drainage pattern of primary renal vein tributaries and renal vein proper as a basis (3) . (ijars.net)
- subcardinal veins (2) appear next, left subcardinal vein regresses, and right subcardinal vein forms the suprarenal IVC. (radiopaedia.org)
- Due to not being a midline structure, there is a degree of asymmetry of drainage, e.g. the gonadal and suprarenal veins drain into the IVC on the right side, but into the left renal vein on the left. (netkey.at)
- Thus, we describe patent abdominal subcutaneous wall veins as collaterals in a patient with congenital absent IVC with preservation of a hypoplastic suprarenal segment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Left vitelline veins regress while right vitelline veins form the hepatic veins, and a network of vitelline veins around the duodenum form the portal vein . (kenhub.com)
- The larger of the two is joined by the portal vein, and together they enter the right lobe of the liver. (bionity.com)
- 2) Innominate Vein 3) Subclavian Vein 4) Pulmonary Vein 5) Hepatic Vein 6) Renal Vein 7) Gonadial.Vein 8) Dorso-Lumbarvein 9) Renal Portal Vein 10) Femororenal Vein 11) Pelvic. (com.pk)
- 14. The blood from the parts of the alimentary canal is collected by the Hepatic portal vein and empties into the liver and from there it is transported by Hepatic sinuses into the sinus venosus. (com.pk)
- sublobular v's tributaries of the hepatic veins that receive the central veins of hepatic lobules. (thefreedictionary.com)
- vitelline v's veins that return the blood from the yolk sac to the primitive heart of the early embryo. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Derived from three pairs of embryonic veins (cardinal veins, omphalomesenteric or vitelline veins, and umbilical veins), it primarily serves to direct a large volume of oxygenated blood from the placenta, past the liver, and directly into the right atrium. (hindawi.com)
- By the fourth week, the developing heart receives blood from three pairs of veins: the vitelline veins, umbilical veins, and common cardinal veins. (kenhub.com)
- These primordial sinusoids become connected to the vitelline veins. (kenhub.com)
- Vitelline veins pass through the septum transversum and enter sinus venosus , also called as venous end of the heart. (kenhub.com)
- Each sinus horn receives three veins: a) the common cardinal vein, b) the umbilical vein and c) the vitelline vein by way of the hepatocardiac vein. (ehd.org)
- What are the vitelline veins? (greek.doctor)
- This research is the direct outgrowth of those investigations which have preceded it on the development of the posterior vena cava in the cat by Huntington and McClure ('07, '20) and in man by McClure and Butler ('25). (edu.au)
- Their study of closely graded developmental stages has revealed hitherto unrecognized factors involved in the formation of the posterior vena cava and has established a detailed knowledge of the ontogeny of this vein in these mammals. (edu.au)
- Such knowledge leads directly to a broader ﬁeld and more comprehensive problem, namely, the development of the posterior vena cava in mammals in general and to a consideration of the primary developmental factors, so far as they can be determined, which inﬂuence and govern its formation. (edu.au)
- The central aim, therefore, of the present investigation has been to make a careful study, by the method of comparative embryology, of the relative functional role played by the various embryonic veins associated in the development of the mammalian posterior vena cava. (edu.au)
- A complete resume of the literature concerned with the development of the posterior vena cava in mammals cannot be attempted within the limits of the present paper, for no other single vein has been the subject of research so extensive or has associated with it so large a bibliography. (edu.au)
- In his earlier work Rathke ('30) held that the right posterior cardinal vein, which from the time of its appearance he called the right posterior vena cava, became transformed throughout its entire length into the adult vena cava. (edu.au)
- Later, however, in his better-known work, Rathke ('38) abandoned entirely this conception and, inﬂuenced probably by the observation of Stark ( '35) that the proximal portion of the vena cava came from a portion of the omphalomesenteric vein within the liver, advanced an entirely different theory regarding the method of development. (edu.au)
- Typically the venous return from the upper half of the body it's done by the right-sided superior vena cava (SVC) formed by the confluence of the brachiocephalic veins. (netkey.at)
- The right anterior cardinal vein and right common cardinal vein eventually become the superior vena cava (SVC), and the posterior cardinal veins contribute to the common iliac veins and the azygos vein . (kenhub.com)
- The left anterio r cardinal vein and left common cardinal vein regresses, persisting only a short segment which forms the left superior intercostal vein, and the coronary sinus, respectively. (netkey.at)
- Effective arrange- ments are needed in girls, as as phospholipases, which produce the second to fourth tracheal superior intercostal vein superior laryngeal n. (kirstieennisfoundation.com)
- From the uterus, the Broad ligaments fan out laterally while covering the external iliac vessels. (statpearls.com)
- The postcardinal veins or posterior cardinal veins join with the corresponding right and left cardinal veins to form the left common cardinal veins, which empty in the sinus venosus. (wikipedia.org)
- emissary vein one passing through a foramen of the skull and draining blood from a cerebral sinus into a vessel outside the skull. (thefreedictionary.com)
- anastomotic vein, superior a vein that interconnects the superficial middle cerebral vein and the superior sagittal sinus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These two join to form the common cardinal vein, which enters the sinus venosus. (kenhub.com)
- The right horn of the sinus venosus and the right common cardinal vein continue to enlarge and become incorporated into the right atrium. (ehd.org)
- This pulls the narrow transverse portion of the sinus venosus along with the left sinus horn and common cardinal vein to a position dorsal to the heart in the atrioventricular sulcus. (ehd.org)
- Which cardiac veins branch off of the coronary sinus? (studystack.com)
- Which cardiac veins do not branch from the coronary sinus? (studystack.com)
- 10. The blood from the kidneys is collected by renal veins which open into posterior cardinals, opening into the cuvierian sinus. (com.pk)
- 13. The blood collected by the two precavals and one post caval veins directly enters into the sinus venosus. (com.pk)
- In the absence of congenital heart disease, a left SVC or left component of a duplicated SVC almost always drains into the coronary sinus, descending lateral to the aortic arch and anterior to the hilum, and entering the pericardium in the posterior atrioventricular groove. (netkey.at)
- Posteriorlaterally the visceral layer of TV passes to the medial aspect of the epididymis and lines the epididymal sinus, and then passes laterally to its posterior border where it is reflected forwards to become continuous with the parietal layer. (humangrossanatomy.com)
- behind the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the vein turns laterally and empties into the external jugular vein (or, sometimes, into the subclavian vein). (thefreedictionary.com)
- it accompanies the axillary artery and becomes the subclavian vein at the lateral border of the first rib. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The venous plexuses of the upper limb fuse to form the subclavian vein, which end up to open into the anterior cardinal veins . (netkey.at)
- There are axillary lymphatic sacs that develop around the right subclavian vein. (kenhub.com)
- The pulmonary veins possess oxygenated blood. (com.pk)
- 4.The blood from the lungs is collected by a pair of pulmonary veins. (com.pk)
- 6. The pulmonary veins open into the left auricle. (com.pk)
- In the systemic circulation, which serves the body except for the lungs, oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart from two pairs of pulmonary veins, a pair from each lung. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A vein that drains blood from the lower leg and foot and that merges with the posterior tibial vein to form the popliteal vein in the popliteal fossa. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Most veins originate in capillaries and drain into increasingly larger veins until their blood is delivered to the right atrium of the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Portal veins also originate in capillaries, but their branches decrease in size to pass through another set of capillaries before joining more typical veins on their way toward the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The portal veins are having capillaries at their both ends. (com.pk)
- Capillaries , which join the arteries and veins, and the lymphatic vessels are not shown. (rug.nl)
- While humans, as well as other vertebrates , have a closed cardiovascular system (meaning that the blood never leaves the network of arteries , veins and capillaries ), some invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system. (rug.nl)
- Capillaries form a network of tiny tubes throughout the body, connecting arterioles (smallest arteries) and venules (smallest veins). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Blood leaving the tissue capillaries enters converging vessels, the veins vein, blood vessel that returns blood to the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The oxygen-depleted blood passes from the capillaries to the venules (small veins). (thefreedictionary.com)
- After their passage through body tissues, capillaries merge once again into venules , which continue to merge into veins . (infogalactic.com)
- With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), detailed anatomic information regarding the number, origin, course, and drainage of all thoracic veins and their relationships to cardiac and extracardiac structures can be easily obtained. (radiologykey.com)
- On the left side, the thoracic duct forms on either side of the left brachiocephalic vein. (kenhub.com)
- Carried to converging vessels of increasing size, the lymph enters the thoracic duct and is emptied into a large vein near the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This historic 1927 paper by Butler describes embryonic vein development. (edu.au)
- cardinal v's embryonic vessels that include the pre- and postcardinal veins and the ducts of Cuvier (common cardinal veins). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Absence of the entire IVC would result from failure of all three embryonic veins to develop properly. (radiopaedia.org)
- Which embryonic artery gives rise to the common and internal iliac arteries? (greek.doctor)
- A defect at any point in the complex development stages of the evolution and involution of multiple paired embryonic veins can result in various conditions of defective venous trunkTherefore, truncular lesions in general are associated with more serious hemodynamic consequences than extratruncular lesions due to their direct involvement with the truncal venous system. (phlebolymphology.org)
- Such venous anomalies are a result of the defective development of embryonic veins during the vascular trunk formation period in the later stage of embryonic development. (phlebolymphology.org)
- A defect at any point in the complex development stages of evolution and involution of multiple paired embryonic veins can result in congenital vascular malformations (CVM). (phlebolymphology.org)
- Acute superficial thrombophlebitis was found in the left great saphenous vein at the proximal calf and in a branch at the left proximal calf. (shmabstracts.com)
- 7. From the posterior part of the body the blood is collected by i) a pair of posterior cardinal sinuses ii) a pair of lateral abdominal veins iii) a pair of brachial veins. (com.pk)
- 11. The brachial veins join the lateral abdominals to form sub clavian veins which open into the ductus cuvieri. (com.pk)
- 12. Three pairs cutaneous veins collect blood from the muscles of skin and open into the cardinal sinuses, lateral abdominals and brachial veins. (com.pk)
- The cardinal ligament is attached to the lateral cervical side. (statpearls.com)
- It's flattened anteroposteriorly and presents anterior and posterior surfaces, and left and right lateral edges. (earthslab.com)
- After each common iliac artery gives rise to a small axial artery to the lower limb bud, it continues into the umbilical cord as an umbilical artery carrying blood to the chorionic villi. (ehd.org)
- However, more recent research has shown that the formation of the lymphatic system begins when a subset of endothelial cells from the previously formed jugular vein sprout off to form the lymphatic sacs. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies have shown that the development of lymph sacs occurs through swelling and outgrowth of pre-lymphatic clusters from the cardinal vein, in a process termed ballooning. (wikipedia.org)
- When the development of the lymphatic system begins from the cardinal vein, all of the endothelial cells appear to have the potential to become lymphatic. (wikipedia.org)
- Another school of thought proposes that the lymphatic system, like the rest of the vascular network, originates from cells arising from the mesenchymal layer and develops separately from the veins. (kenhub.com)
- Jugular lymphatic sacs form around the superior cardinal veins (precursors to the jugular veins). (kenhub.com)
- The retroperitoneal, lumbo-iliac and inguinal nodes are derived from the lumbo-iliac lymphatic sacs. (kenhub.com)
- On the opposing side, there is a concavity that is penetrated by the supplying artery, vein and nerve and also allows exit of efferent lymphatic vessels . (kenhub.com)
- It blends with the broad ligament fold and contains the ovarian artery, ovarian vein, ovarian nerve plexus, and lymphatic vessels. (statpearls.com)
- An auxiliary system, the lymphatic system lymphatic system , network of vessels carrying lymph, or tissue-cleansing fluid, from the tissues into the veins of the circulatory system. (thefreedictionary.com)
Right posterior cardinal1
- In the right posterior cardinal veins, which drain the urine. (iahf.com)
- In the setting of the anomalous vascular connection, the umbilical vein courses inferiorly to the iliac vein in parallel configuration with the umbilical artery. (hindawi.com)
- The right umbilical vein and cranial part of the left umbilical vein degenerate during seventh week of gestation, leaving only the caudal part of the left umbilical vein . (kenhub.com)
- The caudal part of the left umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood to the embryo from the placenta. (kenhub.com)
- the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left. (bionity.com)
- Umbilical vein labeled at bottom right. (bionity.com)
- The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus . (bionity.com)
- The singular umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus, while two umbilical arteries return deoxygenated blood to the placenta. (bionity.com)
- Within a week of birth, the infant's umbilical vein is completely obliterated and is replaced by a fibrous cord called the round ligament of the liver (also called the ligamentum teres hepatis , from the Latin meaning the same). (bionity.com)
- Closure of the umbilical vein usually occurs after the umbilical arteries have closed. (bionity.com)
- A newborn baby has a patent umbilical vein for at least a few months. (bionity.com)
- This umbilical vein may be catheterised for ready intravenous access. (bionity.com)
- In contrast, the superficial or subcutaneous veins typically travel alone. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Many veins, especially superficial ones, have valves formed of reduplication of their lining membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
- During physical exertion these collaterals inadequately drain the lower limbs, thus causing venous stasis, superficial ulcerations and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (shmabstracts.com)
- In "full IVC agenesis" thrombosis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity (paresthesias of lower legs and lower back pain on exertion, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, hypertension, ureteric obstruction, and emotional distress due to dilated superficial abdominal wall veins). (acliatas.net)
- As the testes descend superficial to the peritoneum on the posterior abdominal wall and into the the scrotal sac, the testes become enveloped anteriorly by the processus vaginalis. (humangrossanatomy.com)
- Veins are subject to inflammation, dilatation or enlargement (as in a varicose vein varicose vein, superficial vessel that is abnormally lengthened, twisted, or dilated, seen most often on the legs and thighs. (thefreedictionary.com)
Artery and vein4
- The deep veins typically accompany arteries, and artery and vein have the same name, e.g., radial artery and radial vein. (thefreedictionary.com)
- When young frank netter evolved into a large number of men who have undergone a nonnerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, they should be taken to exclude adrenal hyperplasia or the whole of the artery and vein are carefully dissected to reveal a discrete lump, no further abnormality was found. (iahf.com)
- At which point does blood run in the same direction in an adjacent artery and vein? (studystack.com)
- The body of uterus is related to the broad ligament and uterine artery and vein. (earthslab.com)
- The MRI showed multiple patent abdominal wall veins (Figure 2 ) and enlarged ascending lumbar veins were shown as collaterals. (biomedcentral.com)
- One of the small veins running up along the surface of the right ventricle of the heart and draining directly into the right atrium. (thefreedictionary.com)
- anterior veins of right ventricle small veins that drain blood from the ventral aspect of the right ventricle and empty into the right atrium. (thefreedictionary.com)
- to the venules (small veins). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Among the investigations which have contributed to our present knowledge of the embryology of this vein, those of Rathke ('32, '38), Hochstetter ('93), F. T. Lewis ('02), and Huntington and McClure ('07, '20) are preeminent. (edu.au)
- Circumaortic left renal vein embryology schematic. (netkey.at)
- A basic knowledge of vascular embryology and in particular, the evolutional and involutional development of the venous system involved in the maturation of the truncal vein, is essential for the recognition and interpretation of a number of venous anomalies. (phlebolymphology.org)
- These ducts drain into the venous junctions of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. (wikipedia.org)
- The lymph sacs identified at the early stage of development are paired (jugular and posterior lymph sacs) and unpaired lymph sacs (retroperitoneal and cisterna chyli). (kenhub.com)
- The lumbo-iliac, jugular and axillary sacs are bilateral structures. (kenhub.com)
- 3. The anterior cardinal system and the interior jugular sinuses collect blood from the head region through a number of sinuses. (com.pk)
- Each precaval vein is formed by External jugular, innominate and subclavian veins. (com.pk)
- 6. The nutrient sinuses empty into anterior cardinal and interior jugular sinuses which inturn open into the ductus cuvieri. (com.pk)
- 3,4 A benign narrowing (stenosis) of the jugular-azygos vein system is a good example of how defective development can cause a unique condition, in this case chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). (phlebolymphology.org)
- At the transverse fissure, the vein divides into two vessels, one larger than the other. (bionity.com)
- The iliolumbar ligament is composed of thick and strong fibrous bands of connective tissue originating from the tip of the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra and stretching out to the posterior part of the inner lip of the iliac crest. (statpearls.com)
- subcardinal v's paired vessels in the embryo, replacing the postcardinal veins and persisting to some degree as definitive vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Ovarian VV: on right drain directly into the IVC and on the left drain to the renal vein then into the IVC. (humangrossanatomy.com)
Anterior cardinal veins2
- By week 8, a large anterior cardinal veins anastomosis (derived from the thymic and thyroid veins) channels the blood from the left anterior cardinal vein toward the right, giving rise to the future left brachiocephalic venous trunk. (netkey.at)
- By the eighth week, the anterior cardinal veins are connected by a vessel running obliquely between them. (kenhub.com)
- Tributaries of the axillary vein include the brachial, the cephalic, and the subscapular veins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- antebrachial vein, median a vein that arises from a palmar venous plexus and passes up the forearm between the cephalic and the basilic veins to the elbow, where it either joins one of these, bifurcates to join both, or joins the median cubital vein. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cartilage, Whits Cauda Equina Caudate Lobe Cavernous Plexus & Cavity of the Cervix lA Cell Cephalic Vein Cerebellar Fossa Cerebellar Peduncle Cerebellum , sSb ' Cerebtal Gyi sfc Cerebro.spinal Cavity Cerebrum Cervical Vertebrae CORACO. (archive.org)
- however, in veins these are less thick and collapse when the vessel is cut. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This oblique vessel allows for the shunting blood from the left anterior cardinal vein to the right. (kenhub.com)
- Once the caudal part of the left anterior cardinal vein degenerates, this oblique anastomotic vessel becomes the left brachiocephalic vein . (kenhub.com)
- 10. The blood from kidneys is collected by four pairs of renal veins which open into the post caval vein. (com.pk)
- During routine dissection of 60-year-old female cadaver, we found double renal arteries with double renal veins for the right kidney and in the left kidney, there were double renal arteries and two renal veins coming out from the hilum and they joined to form the main left renal vein, which passed in front of the aorta. (ijars.net)
- On the right side, there was double renal arteries and double renal veins and on the left side, there was double renal arteries and two renal veins coming out from the hilum and they joined to form the main left renal vein, which passed in front of the aorta. (ijars.net)