Retinal Vein Occlusion
Vena Cava, Inferior
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease
Vein of Galen Malformations
Catheterization, Central Venous
Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Vena Cava, Superior
Blood Flow Velocity
Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Esophageal and Gastric Varices
Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Disease Models, Animal
Venous duplex scanning of the leg: range, variability and reproducibility. (1/2259)Despite the many studies on venous haemodynamics using duplex, only a few evaluated the normal values, variability and reproducibility. Therefore, the range and variability of venous diameter, compressibility, flow and reflux were measured. To obtain normal values, 42 healthy individuals (42 limbs, 714 vein segments) with no history of venous disease were scanned by duplex. To determine the reproducibility the intra-observer variability was measured in 11 healthy individuals (187 vein segments) and the inter-observer variability in 15 healthy individuals (255 vein segments) and 13 patients (169 vein segments) previously diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis. Of the 714 normal vein segments, 708 (99%) were traceable, including the crural veins. Of the traceable vein segments, 675 (95%) were compressible and in 696 (98%) flow was present. Of the 42 common femoral vein segments, in 25 (60%) the reflux duration exceeded 1.0 s, but in the other proximal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 1.0 s (95% confidence interval 3.0-10.0). With the exception of the distal long saphenous vein, in the distal vein segments the reflux duration was less than 0.5 s (95% confidence interval 3.5-8.2). The coefficient of variation of the diameter measurements ranged from 14 to 50% and that of the reflux measurements from 28 to 60%. The kappa-coefficient of the inter-observer variability in the classification of compressibility measurements in the patients was 0. 77 and that of the reflux measurements was 0.86. This study shows that almost all veins were compressible in healthy individuals, except the distal femoral veins. In healthy individuals the duration of reflux of the proximal veins was less than 1.0 s and in the distal veins it was less than 0.5 s. The inter-observer variability of the reflux and compressibility measurements in the patients was good. (+info)
Infrainguinal revascularisation in the era of vein-graft surveillance--do clinical factors influence long-term outcome? (2/2259)OBJECTIVES: To investigate the variables affecting the long-term outcome of infrainguinal vein bypass grafts that have undergone postoperative surveillance. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Details of 299 consecutive infrainguinal vein grafts performed in 275 patients from a single university hospital were collected and analysed. All grafts underwent postoperative duplex surveillance. Factors affecting patency, limb salvage and survival rates were examined. These factors were gender, diabetes, hypertension, aspirin, warfarin, ischaemic heart disease, run-off, graft type, early thrombectomy, level of anastomoses and indication for surgery. RESULTS: The 6-year primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates were 23, 47, and 57%, respectively. Six-year limb salvage and patient survival were 68 and 45%, respectively. Primary patency was adversely influenced by the use of composite vein grafts. Early thrombectomy was the only factor that significantly influenced secondary patency. Limb salvage was worse in diabetic limbs, limbs with poor run-off and in grafts that required early thrombectomy. Postoperative survival was better in males, claudicants and in patients who took aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Although co-morbid factors did not influence graft patency rates, diabetes did adversely effect limb salvage. This study, like others before it, confirms that aspirin significantly reduces long-term mortality in patients undergoing infrainguinal revascularisation. (+info)
Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (3/2259)The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation. (+info)
Prevalence of true vein graft aneurysms: implications for aneurysm pathogenesis. (4/2259)BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that arterial aneurysms have a different cause than atherosclerosis and may form part of a generalized dilating diathesis. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of spontaneous aneurysm formation in vein grafts performed either for popliteal aneurysms or for occlusive disease. The hypothesis was that if arterial aneurysms form a part of a systemic process, then the rates of vein graft aneurysms should be higher for patients with popliteal aneurysms than for patients with lower limb ischemia caused by atherosclerosis. METHODS: Infrainguinal vein grafting procedures performed from 1990 to 1995 were entered into a prospective audit and graft surveillance program. Aneurysmal change was defined as a focal increase in the graft diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, excluding false aneurysms and dilatations after graft angioplasty. RESULTS: During the study period, 221 grafting procedures were performed in 200 patients with occlusive disease and 24 grafting procedures were performed in 21 patients with popliteal aneurysms. Graft surveillance revealed spontaneous aneurysm formation in 10 of the 24 bypass grafts (42%) for popliteal aneurysms but in only 4 of the 221 grafting procedures (2%) that were performed for chronic lower limb ischemia. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that aneurysmal disease is a systemic process, and this finding has clinical implications for the treatment of popliteal aneurysms. (+info)
Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. (5/2259)OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb. (+info)
Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy. (6/2259)PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups. (+info)
Evaluation of the microdialysis technique in the dog fat pad. (7/2259)In the present study the microdialysis technique was evaluated in an isolated autoperfused dog fat pad. Concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol were measured in interstitial fluid by microdialysis and simultaneously in arterial and adipose venous plasma. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by both 133Xe washout and timed weighing of venous blood. Metabolite concentrations in adipose venous plasma calculated from interstitial and arterial metabolite concentrations and 133Xe washout were positively correlated with measured venous concentrations (glucose: r = 0.95, lactate: r = 0.92, glycerol: r = 0.81). Calculated and measured venous plasma concentrations did not differ for either glucose or lactate, but for glycerol, calculated concentration was on average 76% of measured concentration. Metabolite exchanges (Fick's principle) calculated from interstitial metabolite concentrations were positively correlated with measured exchanges only for lactate (r = 0.69). In conclusion, metabolite concentrations in adipose venous plasma can be calculated from microdialysis measurements with greater accuracy for glucose and lactate than for glycerol. The precision, however, is too low to allow calculation of metabolite exchange when arteriovenous metabolite differences are low. (+info)
A method for collecting right coronary venous blood samples from conscious dogs. (8/2259)This report describes for the first time a technique to collect right coronary venous blood samples from conscious dogs. Catheters, prepared from Micro-Renathane tubing, were surgically implanted in right ventricular superficial veins of three anesthetized dogs. Also implanted were an arterial catheter, a right coronary flow transducer, and a right coronary artery constrictor. The coronary catheter was introduced at a venous bifurcation so that its side holes were positioned above the bifurcation; both ends of the catheter were exteriorized. Heparinized saline was continuously infused through the venous catheter by a battery-powered pump. The dogs were maintained for 10-13 days after surgery, and all catheters remained patent. Multiple right coronary venous samples were collected from each dog. These samples were analyzed for venous oxygen tension (PvO2) under baseline conditions, with right coronary pressure reduced to 50 mmHg, and during the reactive hyperemia after release of the right coronary artery constriction. PvO2 was 27.7 +/- 1.0 mmHg at baseline, 23.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg during coronary artery constriction, and 34.3 +/- 1.5 mmHg during reactive hyperemia. These data and the position of the catheter at autopsy demonstrated that coronary venous blood had been sampled. (+info)
Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that typically occur in the legs. They are caused by a weakening of the valves in the veins, which allows blood to flow backward and pool in the veins, causing them to become enlarged and twisted. Varicose veins are a common condition, particularly in older adults and women, and can cause discomfort, swelling, and aching in the legs. Treatment options for varicose veins include lifestyle changes, compression stockings, and minimally invasive procedures such as endovenous laser therapy or sclerotherapy. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected veins.
Cerebral veins are blood vessels that drain blood from the brain back to the heart. They are responsible for removing waste products and excess fluid from the brain, and for maintaining the proper balance of fluids and electrolytes in the brain. There are several different types of cerebral veins, including the straight sinus, the cavernous sinus, and the sigmoid sinus. These veins are connected to each other by a network of smaller veins called the venous sinuses. Cerebral veins are an important part of the circulatory system in the brain, and any problems with these veins can have serious consequences. For example, a condition called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which is the formation of a blood clot in one of the cerebral veins, can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage or even death.
The azygos vein is a large vein in the human body that plays a crucial role in the circulatory system. It is a continuation of the superior vena cava, which carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body back to the heart. The azygos vein runs along the right side of the vertebral column, from the base of the neck to the lower chest, where it joins with the hemiazygos vein to form the hemiazygos-hemiazygos anastomosis. The azygos vein collects blood from several smaller veins in the upper and middle chest, including the ascending lumbar veins, the intercostal veins, and the esophageal veins. It also receives blood from the bronchial veins, which drain the lungs. The azygos vein then carries this blood to the superior vena cava, where it is eventually sent to the right atrium of the heart. The azygos vein is an important pathway for the return of blood from the upper half of the body, particularly the head and neck, to the heart. It also plays a role in the transport of lymphatic fluid from the upper chest and abdomen to the thoracic duct, which carries the lymph fluid to the left subclavian vein and eventually to the heart.
The brachiocephalic veins are a pair of veins that collect blood from the upper half of the body and drain it into the superior vena cava, which is the main vein that carries blood from the upper body to the heart. The brachiocephalic veins are located in the neck and chest, and they are formed by the union of the subclavian veins and the external jugular veins. They are also known as the right and left brachiocephalic veins.
The axillary vein is a large vein located in the axilla (armpit) region of the body. It is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood from the upper limb back to the heart. The axillary vein is formed by the fusion of the subscapular vein and the cephalic vein, and it runs along the lateral aspect of the arm, beneath the deltoid muscle, and enters the axillary region through the axillary canal. The axillary vein is an important landmark for many medical procedures, including venipuncture and central venous catheterization.
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a medical condition that occurs when a vein in the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, becomes blocked or narrowed. This blockage can cause blood to build up and damage the retina, leading to vision loss or even blindness. There are two main types of RVO: central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). CRVO occurs when the main vein that carries blood out of the retina becomes blocked, while BRVO occurs when a smaller vein branch becomes blocked. Symptoms of RVO may include sudden vision loss, floaters (spots or specks that appear in your field of vision), and vision distortion. Treatment options for RVO may include medications, laser therapy, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the blockage. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent further vision loss.
Venous thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein, usually in the legs, but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or brain. The clot can block blood flow and cause swelling, pain, and redness in the affected area. If the clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream, it can cause serious complications such as pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening. Venous thrombosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults and people who are bedridden or have a sedentary lifestyle. It can be treated with anticoagulant medications, compression stockings, and other therapies.
Venous insufficiency is a medical condition in which the veins in the legs are unable to effectively pump blood back to the heart. This can cause blood to pool in the veins, leading to swelling, pain, and other symptoms. Venous insufficiency is often caused by damage to the valves in the veins, which can occur due to aging, obesity, pregnancy, or injury. It can also be a complication of other medical conditions, such as varicose veins or deep vein thrombosis. Treatment for venous insufficiency may include lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, as well as medications and procedures to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms.
Graft occlusion, vascular, refers to the blockage or narrowing of a blood vessel or graft that has been surgically implanted to bypass a blocked or narrowed artery or vein. This can occur due to various factors, including the formation of scar tissue, the buildup of plaque, or the development of blood clots. Graft occlusion can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tissue damage. Treatment options for graft occlusion may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, angioplasty to open up the blocked vessel, or surgery to replace the occluded graft.
Thrombophlebitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of a vein, often accompanied by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the vein. The inflammation can cause pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area, and the clot can block blood flow and cause further complications if it breaks off and travels to other parts of the body, such as the lungs. Thrombophlebitis can occur in any vein in the body, but it is most common in the legs, especially in the superficial veins. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the vein, prolonged immobility, hormonal changes, pregnancy, and certain medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves pain management, compression therapy to reduce swelling and prevent the clot from spreading, and anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged vein.
Catheter ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation (AFib) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). It involves using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter to deliver energy to specific areas of the heart tissue, causing it to become scarred and no longer able to generate abnormal electrical signals that can cause arrhythmias. During the procedure, the catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or wrist and guided to the heart using X-ray imaging. Once the catheter is in place, it is navigated to the area of the heart that is causing the arrhythmia. Energy is then delivered to the tissue through the catheter, causing it to become scarred and no longer able to generate abnormal electrical signals. Catheter ablation is generally considered a safe and effective treatment for certain types of heart rhythm disorders. It can be performed on an outpatient basis and has a high success rate in eliminating or reducing the frequency of arrhythmias. However, like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to nearby blood vessels or organs.
Pathologic constriction refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel or other tubular structure becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow or obstruction of the flow of other substances through the vessel. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, scarring, abnormal growths, or the presence of a foreign object. Pathologic constriction can have serious consequences, depending on the location and severity of the constriction, and may require medical intervention to treat.
Anastomosis, surgical refers to the surgical repair or creation of an anastomosis, which is a connection or between two blood vessels, ducts, or other tubular structures. This procedure is typically performed to restore blood flow or to bypass a blocked or damaged vessel or duct. The surgical anastomosis may be performed using various techniques, including hand-sewn sutures, stapling devices, or laser welding. The success of the anastomosis depends on several factors, including the quality of the tissue, the size and location of the vessels or ducts being connected, and the skill of the surgeon performing the procedure.
An arteriovenous shunt, surgical, is a surgical procedure that creates an artificial connection between an artery and a vein. This connection, or shunt, allows blood to bypass the normal circulatory system and flow directly from the artery to the vein. This can be done for a variety of reasons, including to improve blood flow to a particular area of the body, to treat certain medical conditions, or to relieve symptoms such as pain or swelling. The procedure is typically performed under local or general anesthesia and may involve the use of small incisions or a larger incision, depending on the specific location and purpose of the shunt. After the procedure, the patient will need to be monitored for any complications and may need to take medications to prevent infection or blood clots.
Hypertension, Portal refers to high blood pressure in the portal vein, which is the main vein that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. This condition is also known as portal hypertension and is typically associated with liver disease, such as cirrhosis or liver fibrosis. Portal hypertension can cause a number of complications, including varices (enlarged veins), ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), and portal vein thrombosis (blood clot in the portal vein). Treatment for portal hypertension may include medications to reduce blood pressure, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
A varicose ulcer is a type of skin ulcer that occurs on the lower legs, typically in areas affected by varicose veins. Varicose veins are enlarged veins that often appear twisted and bulging on the surface of the skin. They can occur when the valves in the veins do not work properly, causing blood to pool and put pressure on the veins. Over time, this pressure can cause the skin around the veins to become damaged and break down, leading to the formation of a varicose ulcer. These ulcers are usually slow to heal and can be painful, itchy, and prone to infection. They may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. Treatment for varicose ulcers typically involves a combination of wound care, compression therapy, and medications to manage pain and prevent infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the damaged veins and improve blood flow to the affected area. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have a varicose ulcer, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve your chances of a full recovery.
Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease (PVOD) is a rare and progressive lung disease characterized by the narrowing or occlusion of small blood vessels in the lungs, leading to high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. This can cause shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and other symptoms. PVOD is often associated with other conditions such as connective tissue disorders, congenital heart defects, and exposure to certain toxins. There is currently no cure for PVOD, and treatment typically involves managing symptoms and improving quality of life.
Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a type of arrhythmia, or abnormal heart rhythm, that occurs when the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) beat irregularly and rapidly, often out of sync with the lower chambers (the ventricles). This can cause the heart to pump inefficiently and can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. AFib is a common condition, affecting an estimated 2.7 to 6.1 million people in the United States. It is more common in older adults and can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for AFib may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures to restore a normal heart rhythm.
Vein of Galen Malformations (VGMs) are a type of congenital brain malformation that affects the development of the brain's venous system. They are named after the Venous sinus of Galen, a major venous structure in the brain that is affected in VGMs. VGMs are characterized by the presence of abnormal blood vessels that drain blood from the brain into the venous sinus of Galen. These abnormal vessels can cause a variety of symptoms, including hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid in the brain), seizures, and developmental delays. VGMs are typically diagnosed using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for VGMs may involve surgical removal of the abnormal blood vessels, shunting to drain excess fluid from the brain, or medications to control seizures or other symptoms.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties. It is a non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant material that is commonly used in medical implants, such as prosthetic joints, heart valves, and blood vessels. PTFE is also used in medical devices, such as catheters, guidewires, and endoscopes, due to its low friction and non-stick properties. It is also used in surgical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps, due to its durability and resistance to wear and tear. In addition to its use in medical devices, PTFE is also used in surgical implants, such as hernia patches and artificial ligaments, due to its biocompatibility and ability to withstand the rigors of the body. Overall, PTFE is a versatile material that has many applications in the medical field due to its unique properties, including its non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant nature.
Catheterization of the central veins is a medical procedure in which a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the chest or neck. This procedure is used to access the bloodstream and deliver medications, nutrients, or other substances directly to the bloodstream. It is also used to remove blood for laboratory testing or to drain excess fluid from the body. Central venous catheterization is typically performed by a trained healthcare professional in a hospital or clinic setting. It is a common procedure that is used in a variety of medical situations, including the treatment of cancer, kidney failure, and heart disease.
Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is a blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the upper arm or upper leg. It is a less common type of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) compared to the more common DVTs that occur in the legs. UEDVT can cause symptoms such as swelling, pain, warmth, redness, and tenderness in the affected arm or leg. If left untreated, UEDVT can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism, which is a blockage of blood flow in the lungs. Diagnosis of UEDVT typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography. Treatment options include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off and causing complications, as well as compression stockings to reduce swelling. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.
An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. This connection can occur naturally or as a result of surgery or injury. In some cases, an AVF may be intentionally created by a medical professional to provide access to the bloodstream for dialysis or other medical treatments. AVFs can be classified as either high flow or low flow, depending on the rate at which blood flows through the fistula. High flow AVFs are those in which blood flows rapidly through the fistula, while low flow AVFs have a slower flow of blood. AVFs can be found in various locations throughout the body, but are most commonly found in the arms or legs. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, an AVF may require treatment to prevent complications or to improve blood flow.
A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used to replace or repair damaged or diseased blood vessels. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, polyurethane, or silicone, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. Blood vessel prostheses are used in a variety of medical procedures, including coronary artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed coronary artery is bypassed with a synthetic vessel, and peripheral artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed artery in the legs is bypassed with a synthetic vessel. Blood vessel prostheses can also be used to treat aneurysms, where a weakened or bulging blood vessel is repaired with a synthetic vessel, and to treat venous insufficiency, where the valves in the veins are damaged and the blood flows backwards, causing swelling and discomfort. Blood vessel prostheses are typically inserted into the body through a small incision and are secured in place with stitches or clips. They are designed to be biocompatible, meaning that they are not rejected by the body's immune system, and are intended to last for many years.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure in which a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the arm, leg, or hand. The catheter is then guided through the vein to a location deeper in the body, such as the heart or a large vein in the chest or abdomen. This procedure is used to deliver medication, fluids, or blood products, or to remove blood for testing. It is a common procedure that is often used in hospitals and clinics, and is typically performed by a trained healthcare professional.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) breaks off from a vein in the leg, arm, or pelvis and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs. The clot can block one or more of the small blood vessels in the lungs, which can lead to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the lungs. The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary depending on the size and location of the clot, but common symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain or discomfort, coughing, and rapid heartbeat. In severe cases, pulmonary embolism can lead to shock, respiratory failure, and even death. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound. Treatment for pulmonary embolism typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the formation of new blood clots and dissolve existing ones, as well as oxygen therapy and supportive care. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the clot.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ. It is a normal response to various stimuli, such as injury, inflammation, or hormonal changes, and can be either physiological or pathological. In a physiological sense, hyperplasia is a normal process that occurs in response to growth factors or hormones, such as estrogen or testosterone, which stimulate the growth of cells in certain tissues. For example, during puberty, the ovaries and testes undergo hyperplasia to produce more hormones. However, in a pathological sense, hyperplasia can be a sign of disease or dysfunction. For example, in the prostate gland, benign hyperplasia (also known as BPH) is a common condition that occurs when the gland becomes enlarged due to an overproduction of cells. This can cause symptoms such as difficulty urinating or frequent urination. In the breast, hyperplasia can be a precursor to breast cancer, as it involves an increase in the number of cells in the breast tissue. Similarly, in the uterus, hyperplasia can be a sign of endometrial cancer. Overall, hyperplasia is a complex process that can have both normal and pathological consequences, depending on the tissue or organ involved and the underlying cause of the increase in cell number.
Blood flow velocity refers to the speed at which blood flows through a blood vessel or artery. It is typically measured in units of meters per second (m/s) or centimeters per second (cm/s). Blood flow velocity is an important parameter in the assessment of cardiovascular health, as it can provide information about the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood circulation. Blood flow velocity can be measured using various techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) angiography. These techniques use sound waves or electromagnetic signals to detect the movement of blood through the blood vessels and calculate the velocity of blood flow. Abnormal blood flow velocities can indicate a variety of cardiovascular conditions, such as stenosis (narrowing) of the blood vessels, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and blood clots. Therefore, measuring blood flow velocity is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of cardiovascular diseases.
In the medical field, arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They are typically thick-walled and muscular, and their walls are lined with smooth muscle and elastic tissue that helps to maintain their shape and elasticity. There are three main types of arteries: 1. Ascending aorta: This is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. 2. Descending aorta: This artery carries oxygenated blood from the ascending aorta to the abdomen and lower extremities. 3. Coronary arteries: These arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Arteries are an essential part of the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to them can lead to serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.
Ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to a particular part of the body. This can happen when the blood vessels that supply blood to the affected area become narrowed or blocked, either due to a physical obstruction or a decrease in blood pressure. Ischemia can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly associated with the heart and brain. In the heart, ischemia can lead to a condition called angina, which is characterized by chest pain or discomfort. If the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked, it can result in a heart attack. In the brain, ischemia can cause a stroke, which can lead to permanent damage or even death if not treated promptly. Ischemia can also occur in other organs, such as the kidneys, limbs, and intestines, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the affected area. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
An aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of a blood vessel, typically a artery. It occurs when the weakened wall of the vessel balloons out and becomes distended, creating a sac-like structure. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the body, but they are most commonly found in the brain, aorta, and legs. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), trauma, and genetic predisposition. They can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any symptoms, or they can cause symptoms such as headache, neck pain, visual changes, or weakness or numbness in the extremities. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a life-threatening bleeding episode. Treatment for aneurysms depends on the size, location, and risk of rupture. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging studies, while larger aneurysms or those at high risk of rupture may require surgical repair or endovascular coiling, a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the aneurysm and a coil is placed to fill the sac and prevent further expansion.
Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into a blood vessel, usually through a small puncture in the skin, and then using an X-ray machine or other imaging device to capture images of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This allows doctors to see any blockages, narrowing, or other abnormalities in the blood vessels, which can help them diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Angiography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide a more complete picture of the patient's condition.
Budd-Chiari Syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition that occurs when there is a blockage in the veins that carry blood from the liver to the heart. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including blood clots, cancer, or scarring of the veins. The condition is named after the two doctors who first described it, Dr. Takeo Budd and Dr. Takeo Chiari. Symptoms of Budd-Chiari Syndrome can include abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen or legs, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), and dark urine. In severe cases, the condition can lead to liver failure and even death. Treatment for Budd-Chiari Syndrome depends on the underlying cause of the blockage. In some cases, medications may be used to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blockage or repair damaged veins. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the liver has been severely damaged by the condition.
Vascular diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. These diseases can affect any part of the circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest blood vessels in the body. Some common examples of vascular diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. 2. Arteriosclerosis: A condition in which the walls of the arteries become thickened and stiff, reducing blood flow and increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. 3. Peripheral artery disease: A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and other symptoms. 4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the legs, and can travel to the lungs and cause a life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism. 5. Varicose veins: Abnormal, enlarged veins that often appear on the legs and are caused by weakened valves in the veins that allow blood to flow backward. 6. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, leading to numbness, tingling, and sometimes pain. Vascular diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise), and underlying medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol). Treatment for vascular diseases may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Vascular malformations are abnormal blood vessels that develop during fetal development or early childhood. They are not tumors, but rather are congenital defects in the blood vessels themselves. Vascular malformations can occur in any part of the body and can range in size from small, harmless spots to large, life-threatening masses. There are several types of vascular malformations, including: 1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins, which can cause blood to flow in the wrong direction and lead to high blood pressure and other complications. 2. Venous malformations: These are abnormal veins that can cause blood to pool and lead to swelling, pain, and other symptoms. 3. Capillary malformations: These are small, flat, red or purple spots that are caused by abnormal blood vessels in the skin. 4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling and other symptoms. Vascular malformations can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, radiation therapy, and medications. The best treatment approach depends on the type and location of the malformation, as well as the individual patient's health and preferences.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Phlebitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of a vein, typically in the legs. It is commonly referred to as "blood clot in the leg" or "thrombophlebitis." Phlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the vein, infection, or blood clots. Symptoms of phlebitis may include redness, swelling, warmth, tenderness, and pain in the affected area. Treatment for phlebitis typically involves the use of pain medication, compression stockings, and in some cases, anticoagulant medication to prevent the formation of blood clots. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.
Anticoagulants are medications that are used to prevent blood clots from forming. They work by interfering with the normal clotting process in the blood, which helps to prevent the formation of blood clots that can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. There are several types of anticoagulants, including: 1. Vitamin K antagonists: These drugs, such as warfarin, work by inhibiting the production of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in the liver. 2. Direct thrombin inhibitors: These drugs, such as dabigatran, directly inhibit the enzyme thrombin, which is a key factor in the clotting process. 3. Direct factor Xa inhibitors: These drugs, such as rivaroxaban, directly inhibit factor Xa, another key enzyme in the clotting process. Anticoagulants are typically prescribed for patients who are at risk of developing blood clots, such as those who have had a previous blood clot, are undergoing surgery, or have a medical condition that increases their risk of blood clots. They are also used to treat certain medical conditions, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, anticoagulants can also increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used carefully and monitored by a healthcare provider.
Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a body cavity or blood vessel to allow access for medical treatment or diagnostic testing. The catheter is typically inserted through a small incision or puncture in the skin and guided to its destination using imaging guidance such as X-rays or ultrasound. There are many different types of catheterizations, including: 1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into the bladder to drain urine. 2. Venous catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into a vein to allow for the administration of medication, blood draws, or other treatments. 3. Arterial catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into an artery to allow for the measurement of blood pressure or the administration of medication. 4. Central venous catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into a large vein near the heart to allow for long-term access to the bloodstream for treatments such as chemotherapy or fluid replacement. Catheterization is a common medical procedure that can be performed in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and ambulatory care centers. It is typically performed by a trained healthcare professional, such as a nurse or physician, and is generally considered safe when performed properly. However, like any medical procedure, catheterization carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues.
Cranial sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the skull that serve to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the brain and surrounding tissues. There are four pairs of cranial sinuses: the frontal sinuses, ethmoid sinuses, sphenoid sinuses, and occipital sinuses. These sinuses are lined with a mucous membrane that produces mucus to help moisten and protect the brain and surrounding tissues. Infections or blockages of the cranial sinuses can cause a variety of symptoms, including headache, facial pain, congestion, and fever. Treatment may involve medications to reduce inflammation and pain, or in severe cases, surgery to remove blockages or drain excess fluid.
Varicocele is a medical condition in which the veins in the scrotum become enlarged and twisted, usually due to a blockage or weakness in the valves that control blood flow. This can lead to a buildup of blood in the veins, causing them to become engorged and twisted. Varicocele is most commonly seen in men, and it is often associated with infertility. It is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound. Treatment options for varicocele may include medication, surgery, or other procedures to improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
Vascular neoplasms are tumors that arise from the blood vessels or lymphatic vessels in the body. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). There are several types of vascular neoplasms, including hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, angiosarcomas, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Hemangiomas are the most common type of vascular neoplasm and are usually benign. They are often found in the skin, liver, and brain. Lymphangiomas are rare and are caused by abnormal development of the lymphatic system. Angiosarcomas are malignant tumors that arise from the lining of blood vessels, and Kaposi's sarcoma is a type of cancer that is caused by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Vascular neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common symptoms include pain, swelling, and redness or discoloration of the skin. In some cases, a vascular neoplasm may cause bleeding or blockage of blood flow to surrounding tissues. Treatment for vascular neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. In some cases, a combination of these treatments may be used. It is important for patients with vascular neoplasms to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to their individual needs.
Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which a synthetic or biologic prosthesis is placed inside a blood vessel to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased section of the vessel. The prosthesis is typically made of materials such as polyester, silicone, or bovine jugular vein, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. The procedure is commonly used to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and blocked or narrowed blood vessels. During the procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the skin and uses specialized instruments to access the blood vessel and implant the prosthesis. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may take several hours to complete. Recovery time and potential complications vary depending on the specific procedure and the individual patient.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Catheters, indwelling are medical devices that are inserted into a patient's body to allow for the passage of fluids or medication. They are typically used for long-term use, such as for the management of chronic conditions or for the administration of medications on a regular basis. Indwelling catheters can be inserted into various parts of the body, including the bladder, the heart, and the veins. They are typically made of flexible materials such as silicone or rubber and are attached to a collection bag or a pump for the delivery of fluids or medication. It is important to note that indwelling catheters can increase the risk of infection and other complications, and proper care and maintenance are necessary to minimize these risks.
Postphlebitic syndrome is a condition that occurs after a person has had a venous thrombosis, or blood clot, in a vein, typically in the leg. The syndrome is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and discoloration of the affected leg, as well as the development of new varicose veins and ulcers. These symptoms can be persistent and may worsen over time. Postphlebitic syndrome is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Treatment options for postphlebitic syndrome may include medications, compression stockings, and in some cases, surgery.
Esophageal and gastric varices are abnormal blood vessels that develop in the lining of the esophagus and stomach. They are typically caused by liver disease, such as cirrhosis, which can lead to high blood pressure in the veins of the liver and the development of varices. These varices can become enlarged and twisted, and if they rupture, they can cause internal bleeding that can be life-threatening. Treatment for esophageal and gastric varices may include medications to reduce blood pressure in the veins, endoscopic procedures to band or remove the varices, or surgery to repair or replace damaged veins.
Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These vessels include the arteries and veins in the arms, legs, pelvis, and abdomen. PVDs can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected areas, as well as skin changes and ulcers. PVDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Treatment for PVDs depends on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.
In the medical field, a cadaver refers to a dead human body that has been donated for the purpose of medical education, research, or training. Cadavers are often used in anatomy classes, surgical training, and other medical education programs to help students and professionals learn about the human body and its structures. The process of donating a body for medical use is known as body donation or anatomical donation. It involves signing a consent form and making arrangements with a medical school or other organization that accepts body donations. The body is then prepared for use through a process called embalming, which involves preserving the body with chemicals to prevent decay and decomposition. Cadavers are an important resource in medical education and research, as they provide a way for students and professionals to study the human body in detail and gain hands-on experience with surgical procedures and other medical techniques.
The coronary sinus is a large, thin-walled vein in the heart that collects blood from the small cardiac veins and returns it to the right atrium of the heart. It is located in the atrioventricular groove, which is the sulcus that separates the left and right atria from the left and right ventricles. The coronary sinus is an important part of the venous system of the heart and plays a role in regulating blood flow and pressure within the heart. It is also a common site for the placement of pacemakers and other cardiac devices.
Blood vessels are the tubes that carry blood throughout the body. There are three main types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to the body's tissues and organs. They are thick-walled and muscular, and their walls are lined with smooth muscle that can contract to help push blood through the vessels. Veins are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heart from the body's tissues and organs. They are thinner-walled than arteries and have valves that prevent blood from flowing backward. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body, and they connect arteries and veins. They are extremely thin and have walls that are only one cell thick, which allows for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the body's tissues. Blood vessels play a critical role in maintaining the body's overall health and function. They help regulate blood pressure, transport oxygen and nutrients to the body's tissues, and remove waste products from the body.
Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome (KTWS) is a rare congenital disorder that affects blood vessels, bones, and soft tissues. It is characterized by the presence of a port-wine stain birthmark, varicose veins, and an enlarged lymphatic vessel or lymphatic malformation in the affected area. The affected area may also be larger than the opposite side of the body, and there may be bone and soft tissue abnormalities in the affected limb. KTWS is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the development of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. The exact cause of the mutation is not known, but it is believed to be inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one parent has it. The symptoms of KTWS can vary widely depending on the severity of the condition and the affected area. Common symptoms include a port-wine stain birthmark, varicose veins, lymphedema (swelling caused by an accumulation of lymphatic fluid), and bone and soft tissue abnormalities. In some cases, the condition may also be associated with other health problems, such as blood clots, skin infections, and bone deformities. Treatment for KTWS depends on the specific symptoms and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include surgery to remove the port-wine stain or varicose veins, physical therapy to manage lymphedema, and medications to prevent blood clots. In some cases, treatment may also involve prosthetic devices or other assistive devices to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a condition that occurs after a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a vein, typically in the legs. The clot can cause damage to the lining of the vein, leading to inflammation and scarring. This can result in a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and skin changes in the affected leg. PTS can develop immediately after the clot forms or it can take weeks or months to develop. The symptoms of PTS can range from mild to severe and can vary from person to person. Some common symptoms of PTS include: - Swelling in the affected leg - Pain or discomfort in the affected leg - Redness or discoloration of the skin in the affected leg - Itching or burning sensations in the affected leg - Hardening or thickening of the skin in the affected leg - Sores or ulcers on the skin in the affected leg PTS can be treated with a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair damaged veins. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of PTS, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve your quality of life.
Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the liver. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign liver neoplasms include hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, and adenomas. These growths are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant liver neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and include primary liver cancer (such as hepatocellular carcinoma) and secondary liver cancer (such as metastatic cancer from other parts of the body). These tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body, leading to serious health complications. Diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.
In the medical field, the term "arm" typically refers to one of the two appendages located on the upper limb of the human body. The arm is composed of three bones: the humerus, radius, and ulna. It is responsible for a variety of movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation. The arm is also home to a number of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to allow for movement and sensation. Injuries or conditions that affect the arm can range from minor sprains and strains to more serious conditions such as fractures, dislocations, and nerve damage. In some medical contexts, the term "arm" may also refer to the upper part of the body, including the shoulders, chest, and upper back. For example, in the context of chemotherapy, the term "arm" may refer to the area of the body where the chemotherapy medication is administered, typically through an IV catheter.
Angioscopy is a medical procedure that involves using a specialized instrument called an angioscope to examine the inside of blood vessels, such as arteries and veins. The angioscope is a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, which is inserted into the blood vessel through a small incision. The camera allows the doctor to view the inside of the blood vessel on a screen, and any abnormalities or blockages can be seen in real-time. Angioscopy is often used to diagnose and treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions, including peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and venous insufficiency. During the procedure, the doctor may use a variety of tools, such as balloons, stents, or clips, to treat any issues that are found. Angioscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that typically requires only local anesthesia and has a shorter recovery time than more invasive procedures.
Cryosurgery is a medical procedure that involves the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissue. It is also known as cryotherapy or cryoablation. The procedure is typically used to treat benign and malignant tumors, warts, and other skin conditions. During cryosurgery, a small instrument called a cryoprobe is used to apply extreme cold to the affected area. The cold causes the tissue to freeze and die, which is then removed by the body's natural healing process. The procedure is usually performed under local anesthesia and can be done on an outpatient basis. Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive procedure that has a relatively low risk of complications. However, like any medical procedure, it does carry some risks, including infection, bleeding, and scarring. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of cryosurgery with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.
The carotid arteries are two major blood vessels in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the brain and other parts of the head and neck. They are located on either side of the neck, just below the Adam's apple, and are responsible for approximately 15% of the total blood flow to the brain. The carotid arteries begin as two small arteries in the chest, called the internal carotid arteries, which then travel up the neck and join together to form the common carotid artery. The common carotid artery then branches off into the internal and external carotid arteries. The internal carotid artery supplies blood to the brain, while the external carotid artery supplies blood to the face, neck, and upper extremities. The carotid arteries are important for maintaining proper blood flow to the brain, which is essential for cognitive function, balance, and coordination. Damage or blockage of the carotid arteries can lead to serious health problems, including stroke.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Polyethylene terephthalates (PET) are a type of plastic commonly used in medical devices and packaging. PET is a thermoplastic polymer that is formed by the condensation of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. It is known for its transparency, durability, and resistance to moisture and chemicals. In the medical field, PET is used to make a variety of products, including medical tubing, catheters, and containers for medical supplies. It is also used to make packaging for medical devices and pharmaceuticals, as it is lightweight, strong, and impermeable to gases and moisture. PET is also used in the production of medical implants, such as orthopedic implants and dental implants. It is a biocompatible material that is well-tolerated by the body and can be easily shaped and molded to fit the specific needs of a patient. Overall, PET is a versatile and widely used material in the medical field due to its many desirable properties, including its strength, durability, and biocompatibility.
Ecchymosis is a medical term used to describe a condition where blood vessels under the skin break and leak blood into the surrounding tissue, causing a bruise. It is also known as a hematoma. Ecchymosis can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, injury, or medical conditions such as blood disorders or certain medications that affect blood clotting. The bruise may appear as a flat, discolored area on the skin that can range in color from blue to greenish-yellow. In most cases, ecchymosis is not a cause for concern and will resolve on its own over time. However, if the bruise is large, painful, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever or difficulty breathing, it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, bandages are medical devices used to cover and protect wounds, injuries, or surgical incisions. They are typically made of absorbent materials such as gauze, cotton, or synthetic fibers, and may be wrapped around the affected area to provide support and compression. Bandages come in various shapes and sizes, and are often used in combination with other medical devices such as adhesive tape, dressings, and compression stockings. They are commonly used in hospitals, clinics, and first aid kits, and are an essential part of wound care. Bandages can be used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Protecting wounds from infection 2. Providing support and compression to injured or swollen areas 3. Holding dressings in place 4. Providing temporary relief from pain or discomfort 5. Covering surgical incisions to promote healing and prevent infection It is important to choose the appropriate type of bandage for the specific wound or injury being treated, and to change the bandage regularly to ensure proper healing and prevent infection.
Deep Vein Thrombosis & Pulmonary Embolism | CDC Yellow Book 2024
Varicose Veins: Evaluating Modern Treatments
Varicose Veins - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus
Varicose veins Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com
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Great or small saphenous veins2
- Traditional treatment for venous reflux or varicose veins is ligation or tying of the great or small saphenous veins and stripping them from the leg. (consultingroom.com)
- Ambulatory phlebectomy permits removal of incompetent veins below the saphenofemoral and saphenopopliteal junctions, not including the proximal great or small saphenous veins. (medscape.com)
- Polidocanol is a sclerosing agent indicated for uncomplicated spider veins (varicose veins ≤1 mm in diameter) and uncomplicated reticular veins (varicose veins 1-3 mm in diameter) in lower extremities. (medscape.com)
- Endovenous ablation using catheter-based techniques achieve vein closure with minimal surgical risk. (medscape.com)
- Mao J, Zhang C, Wang Z, Gan S, Li K. A retrospective study comparing endovenous laser ablation and microwave ablation for great saphenous varicose veins. (medscape.com)
- Radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins: Best practice techniques and evidence. (medscape.com)
- Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA), also referred to as Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT) is a minimally invasive method of treating varicose veins. (consultingroom.com)
- Radiofrequency Ablation or RF Ablation (RFA) is a form of Endovenous Thermal Ablation or Endothermal Ablation (ETA) used to treat varicose veins. (consultingroom.com)
- RF ablation involves a surgeon making a slight incision near the varicose vein, where a catheter (or small tube) is threaded into the vein. (ktar.com)
- Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) catheters or optical laser fibers cannot easily be passed along a tortuous vein. (medscape.com)
- Clinical practice guidelines published by the European Society of Vascular Surgery in 2015 state that phlebectomy can be considered either as an adjunctive treatment in association with stripping or endovenous ablation of the main refluxing truncal vein or as the sole treatment of varicose veins. (medscape.com)
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot develops in the deep veins, usually in the lower extremities. (cdc.gov)
- Computed tomographic venography for varicose veins of the lower extremities: prospective comparison of 80-kVp and conventional 120-kVp protocols. (medscape.com)
- Varicose veins are dilated superficial veins in the lower extremities. (msdmanuals.com)
- Traditionally, varicose veins were removed with multiple stab incisions and hook phlebectomy. (medscape.com)
- The introduction of transilluminated-powered phlebectomy has allowed for removal of large clusters of varicose veins using fewer stab incisions and less procedural time. (medscape.com)
- Ambulatory phlebectomy can help remove varicose veins and manage leg discomfort. (healthline.com)
- An ambulatory phlebectomy is a procedure that can remove varicose veins and ease any symptoms they cause. (healthline.com)
- A phlebectomy is a procedure that removes veins just below the skin's surface. (healthline.com)
- Before you undergo a varicose vein ambulatory phlebectomy, you may need to complete some diagnostic testing. (healthline.com)
- An ambulatory phlebectomy for varicose veins is an outpatient procedure that uses small incisions to remove varicose veins. (healthline.com)
- The principal surgical approach to small-vein disease is by microincisional phlebectomy followed by sclerotherapy. (medscape.com)
- Phlebectomy involves a surgeon making a small incision and removing varicose veins altogether. (ktar.com)
- Veins most readily treated with phlebectomy include branch varicosities of the great and small saphenous veins, pudendal veins in the groin, and reticular varices in the popliteal fold or lateral part of the thigh. (medscape.com)
- Phlebectomy can also be used as an immediate treatment for small segments of superficial phlebitis because the intravascular coagulum is expressed and the involved vein segment can be extracted through the same incision. (medscape.com)
- The physician's assessment of the thickness of the vein wall can be the determining factor in the decision to use ambulatory phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy, with the latter procedure being reserved for thinner-walled veins. (medscape.com)
Associated with varicose veins1
- Although the risk factors associated with varicose veins are well described, the basic pathophysiology leading to venous valvular incompetence, and thus, varicosities are less well known. (medscape.com)
- Telangiectasia is reddish-purple "spider veins" on the top of the skin. (oncolink.org)
- These "spider veins" can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life if they are in an obvious area and the patient is worried about how it looks. (oncolink.org)
- Varicose veins and telangiectasia (spider veins) are the visible surface manifestations of an underlying problem with reverse venous flow, which is also termed venous insufficiency syndrome. (medscape.com)
- Colloquially known as blood clots, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are forms of venous thromboembolism (VTE). (medscape.com)
- Today, we're talking to surgeons Eric Saterbak, MD and Timothy Perkins, MD about the causes of varicose veins, symptoms to watch out for and common treatment options. (healthpartners.com)
- Varicose veins may cause cosmetic distress, but they can also cause symptoms related to underlying venous disease. (healthline.com)
- If you are experiencing symptoms of varicose veins or any vein or artery issues, visit Western Vascular Institute for more expert information and to make an appointment. (ktar.com)
- Treatment aims to relieve symptoms, improve the leg's appearance, and, in some cases, prevent complications of varicose veins. (msdmanuals.com)
- The typical signs and symptoms of venous insufficiency, including ankle edema, stasis dermatitis , and possibly ulceration, may occur when varicose veins are untreated. (medscape.com)
- We've compiled a list of symptoms, causes, and treatment for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms with information from. (medlineplus.gov)
- The treatment of superficial vein reflux has evolved in the past 10 years making open surgical ligation and stripping of the great saphenous vein largely a historic procedure. (medscape.com)
- Five distinct types of microplastic were discovered in samples taken from the saphenous (leg) veins of patients undergoing heart bypass surgery. (rt.com)
- Minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of saphenous varicose veins. (medscape.com)
- There are two sets of veins within the leg, deep or femoral veins near the bones within the muscles and superficial or saphenous veins which are just under the skin. (consultingroom.com)
- The saphenous veins join the femoral veins at various points along the leg. (consultingroom.com)
- Varicose veins that branch off an incompetent saphenous vein are called branch veins or secondary varicosities. (medscape.com)
- Varicose veins are an early manifestation of chronic venous insufficiency. (medscape.com)
- However, cosmetics aside, the leg fatigue and heaviness that is associated with chronic venous insufficiency in the presence of varicose veins can be disabling. (medscape.com)
- people across the world have vein disease or chronic venous insufficiency. (medtronic.com)
- See Superficial Venous Insufficiency: Varicose Veins and Venous Ulcers , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the common risk factors and features of this condition and its management options. (medscape.com)
- When that happens, it causes what's called venous insufficiency and blood pools in the vein. (ktar.com)
- Etiology is usually unknown, but varicose veins may result from primary venous valvular insufficiency with reflux or from primary dilation of the vein wall due to structural weakness. (msdmanuals.com)
- In some people, varicose veins result from chronic venous insufficiency and venous hypertension. (msdmanuals.com)
- Venous insufficiency is caused by a refluxing circuit that results from failure of the primary valves at the saphenofemoral junction and typically leads to superficial varicose veins. (medscape.com)
Sides of a vein2
Dilated and tortuous2
- The LimFlow System for Transcatheter Arterialization of Deep Veins (TADV), as the company calls it, can redirect flow from leg arteries into the venous system serving the distal limb and supply oxygen-rich arterial blood, for example, toa badly ischemic foot. (medscape.com)
- If blood isn't blue, and veins and arteries aren't actually blue, why do our veins look blue through our skin? (mentalfloss.com)
- A similar concept has also been mused for the Apple Watch , using a light field camera to detect patterns of veins, arteries, blood perfusion in the skin and tendons, and hair follicle patterns, among other elements, that could uniquely identify a user. (appleinsider.com)
- Association of Varicose Veins With Incident Venous Thromboembolism and Peripheral Artery Disease. (medscape.com)
- Now, I'm no surgeon, but real doctors will tell you that when you poke around inside a human being and see a vein or artery in its naked glory, it isn't blue. (mentalfloss.com)
- Arteriovenous Fistula An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein. (msdmanuals.com)
- The selection of sclerosing agents and of concentrations and volumes to be used for sclerotherapy must be individualized for each patient and for each type and location of vein. (medscape.com)
- Sclerotherapy was developed for treating varicose veins. (consultingroom.com)
- Sclerotherapy is a liquid chemical that is injected into your body to shut down incompetent veins. (ktar.com)
- Development of endovenous treatment and sclerotherapy technology makes it feasible for clinicians to treat varicose veins (VV) through day surgery (DS). (bvsalud.org)
- In the most aggravated cases surgical operation will cure varicose veins . (dictionary.com)
- Learn about our treatments for varicose veins and venous leg ulcers. (medtronic.com)
- These large, bulging, and gnarled veins can cause pain as well as blood clots, skin ulcers, and other serious problems. (ktar.com)
- Varicose veins rarely lead to stasis dermatitis or stasis ulcers, but ulceration may develop following minor injury to an affected area. (msdmanuals.com)
- As they are also below the skin and occupy 3D space, it is also extremely difficult to create a counterfeit face that takes into account the vein structure without either the extreme cooperation of the subject, or medically invasive maneuvers. (appleinsider.com)
- Patient with large tortuous varicose veins, high-volume venous reflux, and early stasis changes of the medial ankle. (medscape.com)
- Problems with these valves can lead to venous reflux and varicose veins. (consultingroom.com)
- Venous reflux is where the valves in the veins and at the junctions between veins have failed and are not functioning properly, thus allowing blood to fall the wrong way down the leg, i.e. back down towards the feet. (consultingroom.com)
- The incidence of portal vein thrombosis was examined in 885 patients who received orthotopic liver transplantations for various end-stage liver diseases between 1989 and 1990. (nih.gov)
- The total incidence of portal vein thrombosis among the 36 patients with previous portosystemic shunt was 38.9%, which was significantly higher than that (13.8%) of those without shunt. (nih.gov)
- [ 1 ] The incidence of varicose veins is estimated to be 25% of the white population. (medscape.com)
- A related patent granted on May 2018 for "Vein imaging using detection of pulsed radiation" reuses the concept of infrared emission and reception to monitor for blood vessel patterns, but adds time-of-flight calculations of pulses to produce a three-dimensional map. (appleinsider.com)
- Blown veins require medical treatment, but they do not usually result in long-term damage to the vein and generally heal in 10-12 days . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, a blown vein can sometimes complicate medical treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Whether you're not sure if you have varicose veins or if you're unsure about if you need treatment, take a listen. (healthpartners.com)
- Nael R, Rathbun S. Treatment of varicose veins. (medscape.com)
- Double-blind prospective comparative trial between foamed and liquid polidocanol and sodium tetradecyl sulfate in the treatment of varicose and telangiectatic leg veins. (medscape.com)
- Learn why you should connect with a doctor who can help you understand if you have vein disease - and decide on the best treatment. (medtronic.com)
- As well as being painful, this also leads to the veins growing back again in the majority of cases and is not considered the best option for treatment nowadays. (consultingroom.com)
- The A-lite vein locator saves critical treatment time and reduces the pain associated with finding and inserting a cannula in a proper vein. (who.int)
- Medical professionals insert needles into veins to perform various medical procedures, including blood tests and intravenous (IV) line insertion. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The term "blown vein" refers to a vein that has sustained damage from a needle, causing it to leak blood into the surrounding area. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Our veins have the important job of carrying blood throughout our body. (healthpartners.com)
- The veins in our legs work especially hard to carry blood back to our hearts against gravity. (healthpartners.com)
- Because of the strain on the veins in our legs, they wear out over time causing blood to pool inside the veins. (healthpartners.com)
- Underlying health conditions like hypertension can influence varicose veins or may feature complications like blood clots. (healthline.com)
- Most of the blood flowing back towards the heart is carried by the femoral veins with very little blood flowing in the superficial veins. (consultingroom.com)
- As muscles in the legs contract, they squeeze the femoral veins and thus push the blood up the leg. (consultingroom.com)
- As the muscles relax, blood is prevented from flowing back down the leg by the action of valves within the veins. (consultingroom.com)
- People who have cancer now or had cancer in the past have a higher risk of getting a blood clot in a vein, which is a serious health problem. (cdc.gov)
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is when a blood clot forms in a deep vein. (cdc.gov)
- Some things can raise your risk of getting a blood clot in a deep vein. (cdc.gov)
- Part of a blood clot in a vein (DVT) can travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. (cdc.gov)
- DVT (a blood clot in a vein) does not usually cause a heart attack or a stroke, as it occurs in a vein. (cdc.gov)
- If Blood Is Red, Why Do Veins Look Blue? (mentalfloss.com)
- post brought up an age old question: 'Is blood blue when it's inside the veins? (mentalfloss.com)
- One answer you're likely to hear is that veins look blue because the blood inside actually is blue, because it's deoxygenated. (mentalfloss.com)
- Remember, when you get blood drawn at your doctor's office, they use a vacutainer, which is essentially a vacuum in a tube.Â The tube is attached to the needle in your arm, exposing the inside of the vein to the vacuum and drawing the blood out. (mentalfloss.com)
- On its return trip to the heart through the veins, the oxygen-depleted blood is dark red or maroon, because the hemoglobin is no longer bound to oxygen. (mentalfloss.com)
- When you look down at the veins in your arm, light of different wavelengths is hitting the skin, the veins and the blood. (mentalfloss.com)
- With deeper veins, the blood doesn't absorb as much blue or red light. (mentalfloss.com)
- Veins must function properly to maintain good blood flow. (ktar.com)
- Your veins move blood through your body, moving it from your tissues back up to your heart, and then to your lungs. (ktar.com)
- When valves found in veins become weak or damaged, blood flow is disrupted. (ktar.com)
- A vascular surgeon can diagnose you during a physical exam, with the help of an ultrasound that checks your blood flow in both superficial and deep veins. (ktar.com)
- The device illuminates blood veins to enable clinicians to insert cannulas with high accuracy and minimal failed insertion attempts. (who.int)
- Histologic specimens of removed varicose vein typically demonstrate features of veins that have had a dynamic response to venous hypertension. (medscape.com)
- Telangiectasia can be caused by damage to the capillary bed from radiation and is a permanent change, though the appearance of the veins may fade over time. (oncolink.org)
- The A-lite vein locator is a non-invasive device designed for paediatric patients whose veins are tough for clinicians to palpate. (who.int)
- If either of these complications occurs, a medical professional will likely relocate the needle to a different vein and allow the blown vein to heal fully before using it again. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Muller-Buhl U, Leutgeb R, Engeser P, Achankeng EN, Szecsenyi J, Laux G. Varicose veins are a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis in general practice patients. (medscape.com)
- Prevention of edema and flight microangiopathy with Venoruton (HR), (0-[beta-hydroxyethyl]-rutosides) in patients with varicose veins. (medscape.com)
- Among the 849 patients without previous portosystemic shunt, 14 patients (1.6%) had grade 1, 27 patients (3.2%) had grade 2, 27 patients (3.2%) had grade 3 and 49 patients (5.8%) had grade 4 portal vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- The patients with encephalopathy, ascites, variceal bleeding, previous splenectomy and small liver had significantly higher incidences of portal vein thrombosis than the others. (nih.gov)
- Various veins like right marginal vein, small cardiac vein (SCV), posterior vein of the left ventricle, left marginal vein, oblique vein of Marshall drain into coronary sinus. (who.int)
- The length, diameter of SCV, left marginal vein, posterior vein of the left ventricle, right marginal vein, and oblique vein of Marshall were taken. (who.int)
- The length of right marginal vein and posterior vein of the left ventricle is having a significant correlation with age. (who.int)
- A surgeon will outline the veins to be removed, placing local anesthetic into the skin. (healthline.com)
- So, if a vein is close to the surface of the skin, most of the blue light will be absorbed, and even though red light doesn't reflect as much, the red light:blue light ratio is high enough to make the vein appear red. (mentalfloss.com)
- Because so many veins are near the surface of the skin, that pooling creates visibly full veins that push outward - otherwise known as varicose veins. (ktar.com)
- Apple wants to improve the security of Face ID and other visual-based biometric systems to eliminate the so-called "twin problem," by taking advantage of the unique and hard to copy patterns of veins that reside under the skin. (appleinsider.com)
- An example of a vein structure under a person's skin. (appleinsider.com)
- In a patent granted by the US Patent and Trademark Office on Tuesday titled "Vein matching for difficult biometric authentication cases," Apple proposes that the answer is more than skin deep. (appleinsider.com)
- Specifically, a few millimeters below the skin, as it suggests that veins could be used as an identifier. (appleinsider.com)
- Superficial varicose veins may cause thin venous bullae in the skin, which may rupture and bleed after minimal trauma. (msdmanuals.com)
- What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)? (cdc.gov)
- While movement has many benefits, one of the most crucial benefits is that simply moving your body could help you avoid a serious medical condition called deep vein thrombosis. (ktar.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that nearly 900,000 people each year will develop deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or. (medlineplus.gov)
- This can cause the painful, bulging veins known as varicose veins . (healthpartners.com)
- Another potential complication is extravasation, which occurs when a drug that causes irritation seeps into the tissue surrounding a blown vein. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This action can cause a puncture on one or both sides of the vein wall, or it can lead to irritation inside the vein. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Abnormally prominent and swollen veins, especially in the legs. (dictionary.com)
- Varicose veins are typically asymptomatic but may cause a sense of fullness, pressure, and pain or hyperesthesia in the legs. (msdmanuals.com)