Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Vascular Grafting: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Sclerotherapy: Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Vein of Galen Malformations: Congenital arteriovenous malformation involving the VEIN OF GALEN, a large deep vein at the base of the brain. The rush of arterial blood directly into the vein of Galen, without passing through the CAPILLARIES, can overwhelm the heart and lead to CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.WingNorepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Postphlebitic Syndrome: A condition characterized by a chronically swollen limb, often a leg with stasis dermatitis and ulcerations. This syndrome can appear soon after phlebitis or years later. Postphlebitic syndrome is the result of damaged or incompetent venous valves in the limbs. Distended, tortuous VARICOSE VEINS are usually present. Leg pain may occur after long period of standing.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Postthrombotic Syndrome: A condition caused by one or more episodes of DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, usually the blood clots are lodged in the legs. Clinical features include EDEMA; PAIN; aching; heaviness; and MUSCLE CRAMP in the leg. When severe leg swelling leads to skin breakdown, it is called venous STASIS ULCER.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Venous Cutdown: Creation of a small incised opening in a vein to permit the passage of a needle or cannula for withdrawal of blood, administration of medication, or in diagnostic or therapeutic catheterization. (Dorland, 28th ed.; Stedman, 26th ed.)Inguinal Canal: The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Angioscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.Cryosurgery: The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Ecchymosis: Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Fascia: Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Deep vein thrombosis[edit]. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has an incidence of 0.5 to 7 per 1,000 pregnancies, and is the second ... with low molecular weight heparin may be indicated when there are additional risk factors for deep vein thrombosis.[16] ...
Analyses of vein patterns often fall into consideration of the vein orders, primary vein type, secondary vein type (major veins ... The vein or veins entering the leaf from the petiole are called primary or first order veins. The veins branching from these ... The number of vein endings is very variable, as is whether second order veins end at the margin, or link back to other veins.[ ... Veins arranged like the rungs of a ladder, particularly higher order veins. Submarginal. Veins running close to leaf margin. ...
The latter are connecting veins that transport blood from the superficial veins to the deep veins. Branch varicose veins are ... Radiofrequency ablation is used to treat the great saphenous vein, the small saphenous vein, and the perforator veins. ... Varicose veins[edit]. Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive procedure used in the treatment of varicose veins. It is ... Endovenous ablation of perforator veins *^ Avery J, Kumar K, Thakur V, Thakur A (2014). "Radiofrequency ablation as first-line ...
Vein. Inferior rectal vein. Nerve. Inferior rectal nerves. Lymph. Superficial inguinal lymph nodes. ...
Vein. Inferior thyroid veins. Supplies. Thyroid gland. Identifiers. Latin. Arteria thyreoidea inferior. ...
Vein. Inferior vesical vein. Middle rectal vein. Internal pudendal vein. Nerve. Pudendal nerve. Pelvic splanchnic nerves. ...
The veins are darker in appearance than the arteries. (Central retinal artery visible but not labeled.) ...
... which is a branch of the portal vein. Because of the extensive venous plexus that exists between this vein and other veins, if ... All these veins drain into the superior vena cava, with the exception of the left gastric vein, which is a branch of the portal ... The esophagus also lies in front of parts of the hemiazygos veins and the intercostal veins on the right side. The vagus nerve ... These blood vessels anastomose (join up) with those of the portal vein when portal hypertension develops.[26] These blood ...
Veins of the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve has been displaced downward in this preparation (lingual artery labeled at center ...
The fascia and middle thyroid veins. (Superior thyroid artery labelled at upper left.) ...
... the interlobular provide blood to the arcuate veins then back to the interlobar veins, which come to form the renal vein ... A recessed area on the concave border is the renal hilum, where the renal artery enters the kidney and the renal vein and ... They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter ... 1. Renal pyramid • 2. Interlobular artery • 3. Renal artery • 4. Renal vein 5. Renal hilum • 6. Renal pelvis • 7. Ureter • 8. ...
Operating through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), the anterior pituitary gland has a large role in the neuroendocrine system's stress response. Stress induces a release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin from the hypothalamus, which activates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland. Then, this acts on the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids such as cortisol. These glucocorticoids act back on the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus with negative feedback to slow the production of CRH and ACTH.[13][14] Increased cortisol under stress conditions can cause the following: metabolic effects (mobilization of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids), bone re-absorption (calcium mobilization), activation of the sympathetic nervous system response (fight or flight), anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibition of reproduction/growth.[12] When the anterior pituitary gland is removed (hypophysectomy) in rats, their ...
... it is crossed by the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and one or two veins, and is accompanied by the ...
... lie between the renal vein and ureter, the vein being in front, the ureter behind, but one or more branches (posterior branches ... the body of the pancreas and the splenic vein, and is crossed by the inferior mesenteric vein. ... The right passes behind the inferior vena cava, the right renal vein, the head of the pancreas, and the descending part of the ... It is located above the renal vein. Supernumerary renal arteries (two or more arteries to a single kidney) are the most common ...
Vein. middle cerebral vein. Supplies. cerebrum. Identifiers. Latin. arteria cerebri media. MeSH. D020768. ...
Arteries, veins, lymph vessels and nerves travel within the mesentery.[13] Blood supply[edit]. The small intestine receives a ... Embolus or thrombus of the superior mesenteric artery or the superior mesenteric vein ...
Vein. pericardiacophrenic veins. Supplies. pericardium, thoracic diaphragm. Identifiers. Latin. arteria pericardiacophrenica. ...
Spermatozoa formed in the testis enter the caput epididymis, progress to the corpus, and finally reach the cauda region, where they are stored. Sperm entering the caput epididymis are incomplete-they lack the ability to swim forward (motility) and to fertilize an egg. Epididymal transit takes about 2.5 months in humans (longer in other species), but the sperm can be stored in the cauda for 2-3 days. During their transit in the epididymis, sperm undergo maturation processes necessary for them to acquire motility and fertility.[7] Final maturation (capacitation) is completed in the female reproductive tract. The epididymis secretes an intraluminal environment that suppresses sperm motility until ejaculation. During ejaculation, sperm flow from the cauda epididymis (which functions as a storage reservoir) into the vas deferens where they are propelled by the peristaltic action of muscle layers in the wall of the vas deferens, and are mixed with the diluting fluids of the prostate, seminal vesicles, ...
The contents of the axilla include the axillary vein and artery, as well as the brachial plexus, lymph nodes and fat. The ...
Vein. ovarian vein. Nerve. ovarian plexus. Lymph. Paraaortic lymph node. Identifiers. Latin. ovarium. ...
Vein. Appendicular vein. Identifiers. Latin. Appendix vermiformis. MeSH. D001065. TA. A05.7.02.007. ...
Vein. Interlobar veins. Identifiers. Latin. arteriae interlobares renis. TA. A08.1.03.002. FMA. 70496. ...
Vein. Superior sagittal sinus. Identifiers. Latin. Cortex cingularis, gyrus cinguli. Acronym(s). Cg. ...
Vessels: 8. Renal artery and vein, 9. Inferior vena cava, 10. Abdominal aorta, 11. Common iliac artery and vein. With ... The bladder is supplied by the vesical arteries and drained by the vesical veins.[15] The superior vesical artery supplies ... which coalesce and pass backwards along the lateral ligaments of the bladder into the internal iliac veins.[15] ... appear in connection with associated structures such as vesical veins. The modern Latin word for "bladder" - cystis - appears ...
Vein. Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava,[d] right and left pulmonary veins,[e] great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, ... It receives blood from the great cardiac vein (receiving the left atrium and both ventricles), the posterior cardiac vein ( ... and small cardiac veins.[31] The anterior cardiac veins drain the front of the right ventricle and drain directly into the ... pulmonary veins) → left atrium (atrial appendage) → mitral valve → left ventricle → aortic valve (aortic sinus) → (aorta and ...
... one of a system of veins that drain the thoracic and abdominal walls; arises as a continuation of the right ascending lumbar ... vein and terminates in the superior vena cava ... n. one of a system of veins that drain the thoracic and ... abdominal walls; arises as a continuation of the right ascending lumbar vein and terminates in the superior vena cava ...
The varicose vein treatment market in North America and Europe is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.9% from 2016 to 2021. ... New Product Launches and Acquisitions are the Key Growth Strategies Pursued by Players in the Varicose Vein Treatment Market In ... U.S.); Fotona d.o.o. (Slovenia); BTG plc (U.K.); and Merz Aesthetics (U.S.). Currently, the varicose vein treatment market is ... Varicose Vein Treatment Market in North America and Europe by Treatment Mode (Endovenous Ablation, Sclerotherapy, Stripping), ...
Thirty five eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and 15 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) were treated ... combined with grid photocoagulation in the management of recurrent macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). ... The Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group, "Argon Laser Photocoagulation for Macular Edema in Branch Vein Occlusion," American ... Thirty five eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and 15 eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) were treated ...
AMAYA ZUNIGA, William F et al. Internal jugular vein cannulation: How much safety can we offer?. Rev. colomb. anestesiol. [ ... The posterior jugular vein wall was punctured in two patients (5.2%), with no associated arterial vascular injury or pneumoth- ... Objective: To measure the clinical application of the algorithm "Successful ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation ...
This same vein specialist stated that by the time people actually noticed the varicose veins on their legs, the underlying ... The truth is that varicose veins are easier to see on fair semi-translucent skin than on darker skin, unless the varicose veins ... Frankly, this is why visual appearance of varicose veins should not be the primary way you tell if you have varicose veins, ... Varicose Vein Treatment: Are Varicose Veins Harder To Diagnose In African Americans?. February 1, 2018 ...
The precise mechanisms by which central vein stenosis occurs are not well known. Current concepts in central vein stenosis ... METHODS: There were 64 patients without superficial veins who were eligible for two-stage brachial vein transposition (BrVT); ... central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) (n = 1), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) (n = 1), anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ... and 55 patients who underwent 55 stent deployments within native central vein stenosis refractory to angioplasty (native vein ...
The azygos vein is a blood vessel thats located along the right side of the thoracic vertebral column. It carries deoxygenated ... Some of these tributaries on the left side are the hemiazygos vein and the posterior intercostal veins. Blood in azygos vein ... Unlike most veins and arteries, it does not have a corresponding vein on the left side of the body, thus explaining its name, ... Although many veins and arteries in the body have a similar structure and function in all individuals, the azygos vein system ...
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot develops in the deep veins, most commonly in the lower ... Deep Vein Thrombosis & Pulmonary Embolism. Nimia L. Reyes, Michele G. Beckman, Karon Abe ...
... and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in people aged 16 and over ... Varicose vein surgery. 1.15.8 Be aware that VTE prophylaxis is ... Venous thromboembolism in over 16s: reducing the risk of hospital-acquired deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism NICE ... 1.15.11 If using anti-embolism stockings for people undergoing varicose vein surgery, continue until the person no longer has ... 1.15.10 Consider mechanical VTE prophylaxis with anti-embolism stockings, on admission, for people undergoing varicose vein ...
... is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body, often in the leg. Learn about the causes, symptoms, and treatments. ... Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein clots occur in the lower ... If the vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious ... Deep vein thrombosis - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Deep venous thrombosis (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
A deep vein is a vein that is deep in the body. This contrasts with superficial veins that are close to the bodys surface. ... Deep veins are almost always beside an artery with the same name (e.g. the femoral vein is beside the femoral artery). ... Occlusion of a deep vein can be life-threatening and is most often caused by thrombosis. Occlusion of a deep vein by thrombosis ... Posterior tibial vein. References[edit]. *^ Princeton Review (2003). Anatomy Coloring Workbook, Second Edition. The Princeton ...
Subclavian vein. The thyroid gland and its relations. (Right subclavian vein visible at bottom left, left subclavian vein ... From here it joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein (also known as "innominate vein"). The angle ... Each subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial ... The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body. Their diameter is approximately that of the ...
... veins carry deoxygenated blood. The oxygen-depleted blood passes from the capillaries to the venules (small veins). ... Except for the pulmonary vein, which carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, ... vein. vein, blood vessel that returns blood to the heart . Except for the pulmonary vein, which carries oxygenated blood from ... Valves are most numerous in the veins of the extremities, and are absent in the smallest veins. Veins are subject to ...
Those veins can become blocked from overuse. Bluegrasss product can clear a path in the blocked vein, allowing the treatment ... particularly when a physician connects a catheter to the veins near the neck. ... clinical trial for its catheter system for regaining access to obstructed veins. ...
... 在 CODE VEIN 組隊合作並前往地 ... 在 CODE VEIN 組隊合作並前往地獄的盡頭,以揭開你的過往並從活生生的夢魘逃出。死亡或許讓人感到永久,但你的付出不必如此 ... 在不遠的未來,神祕的災難瓦解了我們所熟知的世界。曾
Source for information on vein-clearing: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences dictionary. ... vein-clearing A symptom of some virus diseases of plants in which the veins become unnaturally clear or translucent. ... vein-clearing A symptom of some virus diseases of plants in which the veins become unnaturally clear or translucent.. ... vein-clearing A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by Oxford University ...
... the shoulder to produce the axillary vein. At the outer border of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the subclavian vein ... Other articles where Axillary vein is discussed: human cardiovascular system: Superior vena cava and its tributaries: … ... the shoulder to produce the axillary vein. At the outer border of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the subclavian vein ...
... and the ulnar veins, both veins following the course of the associated artery. The radial and ulnar veins converge at the elbow ... of the forearm include the radial veins, continuations of deep anastomosing veins of the hand and wrist, ... Other articles where Radial vein is discussed: human cardiovascular system: Superior vena cava and its tributaries: … ... to form the brachial vein; this, in turn, unites with the… ... and the ulnar veins, both veins following the course of the ...
Return to Roman Deep-Vein Mining. Special problems of deep-vein mining. Ventilation. The deep mine workings created problems ... Return to Roman Deep-Vein Mining. Conclusion. Deep-vein miners had to deal with a number of difficult problems, including ... Roman Deep-vein Mining. by Lynne Cohen Duncan. Table of Contents. * Introduction * Types of Roman Mining * Mining Tools * ... Special Problems of Deep-vein Mining *Ventilation *Lighting *Drainage *Conclusion *Bibliography Introduction. The Romans mined ...
Any vein that collects blood from one network of capillaries and transports it directly to a second capillary network in ... portal vein (portal circulation; portal system) Any vein that collects blood from one network of capillaries and transports it ... portal vein n. a vein that conveys blood from the stomach, intestines, spleen, and pancreas to the liver.. ... portal vein A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
Read about deep vein thrombosis (DVT), including information about symptoms, causes and complications, plus how its diagnosed ... Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that develops within a deep vein in the body, usually in the leg. ... DVT usually occurs in a deep leg vein, a larger vein that runs through the muscles of the calf and the thigh. ... During a venogram, a liquid called a contrast dye is injected into a vein in your foot. The dye travels up the leg and can be ...
The axillary vein is formed where the basilic and brachial veins come together, in the deep tissue of the upper arm. ...
... A grafted vein refers to the finished product after healthy venous tissue has been transplanted from one part of ...
... and learn more about Vein Consults. Download Vein Consults and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Vein problems like spider veins and varicose veins are not merely aesthetic issues. These two vein malfunctions, as well as ... On top of the free consultation, Vein Consults also provides you with a wealth of information about vein health and vein ... Introducing, Vein Consults. This app provides a quick and easy way to get your veins examined by a medical doctor… for free! ...
Re: Deep vein thrombosis. Figure 1 which shows deep vein thrombosis in the right leg of a patient with leg swelling and ... Re: Deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) usually starts in the calf but by the time symptoms develop most patients ... By 1969, there was evidence that vein complaints, including painful distended veins, leg cramps, thrombophlebitis and ... Re: Deep vein thrombosis. With regards to the clinical update article Deep Venous Thrombosis by Stubbs et al BMJ 24/02/2018, ...
  • J. B. Jonas, I. Kreissig and R. F. Degenring, "Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide as Treatment of Macular Edema in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion," Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Vol. 240, No. 9, 2002, pp. 782-783. (scirp.org)
  • A. E. Hoeh, M. Ruppenstein, T. Ach and S. Dithmar, "OCT Patterns of Macular Edema and Response to Bevacizumab Therapy in Retinal Vein Occlusion," Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Vol. 248, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1567-1572. (scirp.org)
  • In this report, the varicose vein treatment market is broadly segmented into mode of treatment, products, and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Shift towards less-invasive treatment procedures, availability of advanced varicose vein treatment devices, huge burden of varicose vein cases in North America and Europe, improving patient compliance & reliability, growing healthcare expenditure, and rapid growth in aging population are the major drivers of the varicose vein treatment market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • and Merz Aesthetics (U.S.). Currently, the varicose vein treatment market is dominated by Medtronic plc followed by AngioDynamics, Inc. and biolitec AG. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Moreover, Medtronic is expected to maintain its leadership position in the varicose vein treatment market during the forecast period due to recently launched innovative products and strategic acquisitions to strengthen its geographic reach and enhance its product portfolio. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The varicose vein treatment market in North America and Europe is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.9% from 2016 to 2021. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Comparison of Two Doses of Intravitreal Bevacizumab as Primary Treatment for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Results of the Pan American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 24 Months," Retina, Vol. 30, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1002-1011. (scirp.org)
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