Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.United StatesOregonSuicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.SingaporeArizonaEnvironmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.

Diesel exhaust particles are taken up by human airway epithelial cells in vitro and alter cytokine production. (1/958)

The involvement of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in respiratory diseases was evaluated by studying their effects on two in vitro models of human airway epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of DEPs, their phagocytosis, and the resulting immune response were investigated in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as in human nasal epithelial cells in primary culture. DEP exposure induced a time- and dose-dependent membrane damage. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEPs underwent endocytosis by epithelial cells and translocated through the epithelial cell sheet. Flow cytometric measurements allowed establishment of the time and dose dependency of this phagocytosis and its nonspecificity with different particles (DEPs, carbon black, and latex particles). DEPs also induced a time-dependent increase in interleukin-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-1beta release. This inflammatory response occurred later than phagocytosis, and its extent seems to depend on the content of adsorbed organic compounds because carbon black had no effect on cytokine release. Furthermore, exhaust gas posttreatments, which diminished the adsorbed organic compounds, reduced the DEP-induced increase in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor release. These results suggest that DEPs could 1) be phagocytosed by airway epithelial cells and 2) induce a specific inflammatory response.  (+info)

Diesel exhaust particles induce NF-kappa B activation in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: importance in cytokine transcription. (2/958)

Fine particles derived from diesel engines (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) have attracted attention, since their density in industrial countries seems related to the increased prevalence of pulmonary diseases. Previous studies have suggested that DEP have a potential to directly activate airway epithelial cells to produce and release inflammatory cytokines and mediators, and thus facilitate inflammatory responses in the lung. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their action, we studied here IL-8 gene expression, one of the important cytokines in inflammatory responses, by Northern blot analysis and run-on transcription assay. Suspended DEP (1-50 microgram/ml) increased the steady state levels of IL-8 mRNA, which was suggested to be largely due to increased transcriptional rates. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that DEP induced increased binding to the specific motif of NF-kappa B, but not of transcription factor AP-1. The luciferase reporter gene assay using wild-type and mutated NF-kappa B-binding sequences showed that DEP-induced NF-kappa B activation was involved in IL-8 transcription. Finally, both N-acetylcysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuated the action of DEP on IL-8 mRNA expression, suggesting that oxidant-mediated pathway might be involved in its processes. These results suggested that DEP activate NF-kappa B, which might be an important mechanism of its potential to increase the expression of inflammatory cytokines in vitro.  (+info)

Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats. (3/958)

We conducted experiments to determine whether diesel engine exhaust affects reproductive endocrine function in growing rats. The rats were assigned to three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m3 particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. Dosing experiments were performed for 3 months beginning at birth (6 hr/day for 5 days/week). Serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were significantly higher in animals exposed to total diesel exhaust and filtered exhaust (p < 0.05 for each group) as compared to the controls. Follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly decreased in the two groups exposed to diesel exhaust as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Luteinizing hormone was significantly decreased in the total exhaust-exposed group as compared to the control and filtered groups (p < 0.05). Although testis weight did not show any significant difference among the groups, sperm production and activity of testicular hyaluronidase were significantly reduced in both exhaust-exposed groups as compared to the control group. Histological examination showed decreased numbers of step 18 and 19 spermatids in stage VI, VII, and VIII tubules in the testes of both diesel exhaust-exposed groups. This study suggests that diesel exhaust stimulates hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex, depresses gonadotropin-releasing-hormone, and inhibits spermatogenesis in rats. Because these effects were not inhibited by filtration, the gaseous phase of the exhaust appears to be more responsible than particulate matter for disrupting the endocrine system.  (+info)

Diesel exhaust exposure among adolescents in Harlem: a community-driven study. (4/958)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought individual-level data on diesel exhaust exposure and lung function among adolescents in Harlem as part of a community-driven research agenda. METHODS: High school students administered in-person surveys to seventh grade students to ascertain information on demographics, asthma history, and self-reported and maternal smoking. Urine samples were assayed for 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a marker of diesel exhaust exposure, and cotinine, a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Computer-assisted spirometry was used to measure lung function. RESULTS: Three quarters (76%) of the participating students had detectable levels of 1-HP. Three students (13%) had an FEF25-75 of less than or equal to 80% of their predicted measurements, and 4 students (17%) had results between 80% and 90% of the predicted value, all of which are suggestive of possible lung impairment. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that most adolescents in Harlem are exposed to detectable levels of diesel exhaust, a known exacerbator and possible cause of chronic lung disorders such as asthma. Community-driven research initiatives are important for empowering communities to make needed changes to improve their environments and health.  (+info)

Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. (5/958)

OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67).  (+info)

Enhancement of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by diesel exhaust particles. (6/958)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is an experimental model of autoimmune disease, in mice. CIA was induced by s.c. injection of type II collagen (CII) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant into the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of DEP were intranasally administered every 2 days from days 0 to 20. The results showed that administration of DEP enhanced both the incidence and the severity of CIA. The enhancement of the disease was associated with pronounced production of anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies. Treatment with DEP also augmented proliferative responses of spleen cells to CII. There was marked secretion of interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-4 from the lymphoid cells in DEP-treated mice. Administration of DEP after onset of CIA was also effective in enhancing the severity of the disease as well as production of anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies and secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4. These results suggest that exposure to DEP may influence autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Changes in levels of 8-hydroxyguanine in DNA, its repair and OGG1 mRNA in rat lungs after intratracheal administration of diesel exhaust particles. (7/958)

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), an environmental pollutant, are known to induce lung cancer in experimental animals. To clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in its carcinogenic mechanism, we examined the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), its total repair and the repair enzyme OGG1 mRNA in female Fischer 344 rat lungs, as markers of the response to ROS, after DEP was intratracheally instilled. The 8-OH-Gua levels in both DEP-treated groups (2 and 4 mg) were increased during the 2-8 h following exposure to DEP. The 8-OH-Gua repair activities in the DEP-treated groups decreased during the period from 2 h to 2 days following DEP exposure and then recovered to the level of the control group at 5 days after exposure. OGG1 mRNA was induced in rats treated with 4 mg DEP for 5-7 days after administration. In conclusion, the 8-OH-Gua level in rat lung DNA increases markedly at an early phase after DEP exposure, by the generation of ROS and the inhibition of 8-OH-Gua repair activity, and induction of OGG1 mRNA is also a good marker of cellular oxidative stress during carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Generation of reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation from diesel exhaust particle components in L1210 cells. (8/958)

The generation of the reactive oxygen species during the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase) was investigated by electron spin resonance using the spin-trap 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Addition of DEP extract to an incubation mixture of mouse lung microsomes in the presence of NADPH resulted in a time-dependent NADPH oxidation and acetylated-cytochrome c reduction. Using purified P450 reductase as the enzyme source, superoxide radicals which were detected as the spin adduct (DMPO-OOH) while metabolized by P450 reductase were dependent upon both DEP and enzyme concentrations. The ELISA method using a specific monoclonal antibody revealed that DEP produced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which is formed from deoxyguanosine in DNA by hydroxyl radicals, in the culture medium of L1210 cells. Active oxygen scavengers such as superoxide dismutase and catalase effectively blocked the formation of 8-OHdG in culture medium, and deferoxamine, which inhibits hydroxyl radicals production by chelating iron, was also effective in inhibiting the DEP-produced 8-OHdG formation. These results indicate that DEP components produce 8-OHdG through the hydroxyl radical formation via superoxide by redox cycling of P450 reductase.  (+info)

  • An advanced FTIR analyser installed at Intertek's engine test facility in Milton Keynes is enabling engineers to improve the quality of their tests on the gaseous components of engine exhaust emissions. (
  • SIFT-MS represents a breakthrough in the detection, quantification, and tracing of gaseous emissions for the automotive industry. (
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inorganic gases are emitted from diverse automotive components, assembled motor vehicle cabins, and as combustion by-products from motor vehicles. (
  • Recognizing the public health and environmental issues, regulatory bodies and industry increasingly seek to reduce public and environmental exposure to these emissions. (
  • To provide customers with an alternate choice for non-diesel vehicles, ADEQ can provide a No-Contact Limited Emissions Test, which is valid for one year, as opposed to two years with the OBD test. (
  • Some emissions are highly toxic (including the carcinogens benzene and formaldehyde), some have nuisance value (e.g. causing sensitization), but most are contributors to smog. (
  • Analyze individual VOCs and most inorganic gases (such as NOx and SOx) in real-time, even at high humidity, providing a more comprehensive picture of emissions. (
  • The highest motor traffic emissions were determined in the eastern inner city. (
  • This page outlines several SIFT-MS-based vehicles and component testing solutions provided by Syft Technologies. (
  • Some of these areas have emissions at levels similar to total motor traffic evaporation resulting from tank respiration and switched-off warm and hot engines. (
  • The most significant amount of refueling emissions, about 96 %, results from fuel stations which do not have fuel vapor recovery systems. (
  • Monitor transient effects such as a sudden burst in emissions on acceleration, which conventional techniques completely miss. (
  • And, for the millions of Arizonans who choose to own and operate motor vehicles, each plays an important role in maintaining and improving Arizona's air quality by simply testing vehicle emissions to ensure they meet health-based standards. (
  • The program sets ambitious goals, so California will conduct a full review of its Zero Emission Vehicle program in 2017. (
  • If we stick to the current (2017) emissions requirements and fuel economy requirements we will have much cleaner air and lower fuel consumption as older vehicles age out of service. (
  • Since the WLTC driving cycle is scheduled to replace the NEDC in Europe from September 2017 with regard to the certification of passenger cars and light-duty trucks, a comparative analysis between the two test schedules is also performed for the engine/vehicle under study. (
  • Fiscal Year 2017: All pre-2007 diesel vehicles and equipment would be required to have retrofits achieving at least 20% PM emission reduction. (
  • As a first step, roadside observations of diesel vehicles were recorded between February and April 2017 at six locations: two on the ring road (RR), two inside the RR, and two on major arterial highways outside the RR. (
  • The latest zero emission regulations apply to new cars and light-duty trucks and will significantly increase the number of emission-free vehicles delivered to Oregon beginning with the 2018 model year. (
  • This updated NOM-044 would require EPA 2010 or Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles and engines to be sold in Mexico as of January 1, 2018. (
  • Prominent among these issues is the perception that emissions benefits and other impacts of I/M programs have not been evaluated adequately. (
  • and a fee based on annual vehicle mileage--and we compare the impacts of fees to existing vehicle registration fees. (
  • However, when we construct a lifetime income variable for our households, we find that the differential impacts of the three emissions-related fees over existing fees are quite small. (
  • To that end, the Center for American Progress reviewed the existing literature on the environmental impacts of automation in the light-duty vehicle sector. (
  • In August 2007, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. (
  • This study explored the tradeoffs between the increased environmental impacts from adding autonomous vehicle equipment with the expected gains in driving efficiency," said Gregory Keoleian, co-author of the study and director of the Center for Sustainable Systems at U-M's School for Environment and Sustainability. (
  • We've shown in this paper that a battery-electric vehicle is a better platform for CAV components compared to the internal-combustion engine vehicle in terms of minimizing environmental impacts," said study lead author Jim Gawron. (
  • Our new EV-REDI (Electric Vehicle Regional Emissions and Demand Impacts) tool models multiple impacts of transportation electrification for specific states. (
  • More and more, states, cities, utilities, and regional authorities are seriously considering the impacts of futures in which electric vehicles play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector. (
  • As the deployment of electric vehicles increases, policymakers will need to contend with the hourly impacts of EVs on the grid, including considerations relating to peak demand and rate design. (
  • R. Akcelik and M. Besley, "Operating cost, fuel consumption and emission models in aaSIDRA and aaMOTION," in Proceedings of the 25th Conference of Australian Institutes of Transport Research (CAITR '03) , University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, December 2003. (
  • Lower emissions, lower fuel consumption and greater safety all cost money. (
  • A typical example is the field of vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in Europe. (
  • To overcome this complexity, the latest version of STARS VETS includes a complete application package to address testing for full electric and hybrid electric vehicles, providing all necessary features to assess emissions, fuel consumption, electric energy consumption and range. (
  • Comparing the energy or fuel consumption of CAV's with traditional vehicles, the additional CAV subsystem causes an additional consumption due to its production, use, weight, and aerodynamic drag. (
  • It is believed that removal of contaminants prior to injection may improve the fuel injection efficiency, thereby promoting efficient combustion, and thus resulting in reduced emissions and fuel consumption. (
  • This aligns with the government's priority to transition to a net zero emissions economy by 2050. (
  • Thus, the Government of Canada remains steadfast in its conviction that the electrification of transportation is key to decarbonizing the sector, transitioning to a low-carbon future and achieving our target of net zero emissions by 2050. (
  • As part of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, Toyota aims to cut its global average carbon dioxide emissions from new vehicles by 90 percent compared to 2010 levels. (
  • The researchers ran 108 different scenarios in a powerful energy systems model to determine the impact of EDV use on emissions between now and 2050. (
  • To characterize EDV deployment through 2050, varying assumptions related to crude oil and natural gas prices, a CO2 policy, a federal renewable portfolio standard, and vehicle battery cost were combined to form 108 different scenarios. (
  • The report notes that while the different fuel characteristics were not expected to have significant impact on the temperature measurements, the emissions results may have been influenced slightly due to unintended changes in the vehicle cold start and warm up. (
  • Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NO x and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. (
  • These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. (
  • The university's Bourns College of Engineering - Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) established the SELEV program in partnership with industry and government agencies in June 2000 with the purpose of understanding, via direct measurements and modeling, the impact that new-generation vehicles with extremely low emissions have on overall air quality. (
  • CE-CERT measurements (in bold), which include cold-start, indicate the sample average for three different vehicles emissions categories. (
  • The current research investigates the gap between estimated emissions and actual measurements using an Australian emissions dataset and the widely used micro-simulation model AIMSUN. (
  • High time resolution measurements of ammonia made in summer 2001 at the same location indicate a minimum in ammonia emissions correlated with slower-speed driving conditions. (
  • Measurements from the WVU study are helping to further our understanding of the climate impact of natural gas vehicles. (
  • In a broader perspective, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for ZEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions. (
  • In other words, if ZEVs are recharged from electricity generated by fossil fuel plants, they cannot be considered as zero emissions. (
  • However, the spread of electrical-powered vehicles can help the development of systems for charging the EV batteries from excess electricity which cannot be used otherwise. (
  • however, emissions are created during both the production and distribution of the electricity used to fuel the vehicle. (
  • For over 10 years, a Canadian aircraft manufacturer has saved over $500,000 annually in fuel and electricity consumption by using Munters rotor concentrators to control solvent emissions from its facility's paint booths. (
  • Current EVs are predominantly powered by lithium ion batteries which undergo a complex degradation process during actual EV operation, dictating the energy storage and generating indirect GHG emissions from the consumed electricity. (
  • The electricity consumption and associated GHG emissions from EV operations are determined by EV operating conditions and battery charging/discharging processes. (
  • But in actual EV operation, battery degradation is gradually happening along time under specific driving conditions, and the battery degradation affects the EV electricity consumption and GHG emissions in three ways: decreasing driving range due to reduced capacity, decreasing charging/discharging efficiency due to increasing resistance, requiring battery replacement when the capacity is dropped to the battery degradation limit 16 . (
  • The battery technology for electric vehicles is based on charge/discharge cycles, meaning that the battery is charged beforehand using an electricity source and is discharged during vehicle operation. (
  • Because electricity production may involve some emissions, there is also a concept of well-to-wheel emissions, which includes not only operating emissions, but also those associated with the fuel source and other stages of the vehicle operating cycle. (
  • The hydrogen-fueled vehicles are typically based on fuel cell technology, which imply electrochemical conversion of the fuel energy into electricity (as opposed to combustion). (
  • However, there is a possibility to design a sustainable zero-emission lifecycle for electric and hydrogen vehicles, if electricity for recharging the batteries is supplied from renewable sources such as wind, solar, hydro-power converters, and the hydrogen to power fuel cells is produced via electrolysis or other emission-free technologies. (
  • Most can go from 50 to 100 miles on a single charge, and have no emissions except those created by the power plants producing the electricity (much fewer emissions than cars. (
  • In general, the study found that the greatest GHG emissions benefit is derived from battery electric vehicles charged with electricity solely from advanced combined cycle natural gas powered generating facilities. (
  • This term here means that the vehicle is a hybrid using compressed air and electricity to power itself. (
  • This enabled the maintenance company to make equivalent savings in their fuel costs, boost profit margins, whilst cutting vehicle emissions in half. (
  • Longitudinal trend analysis using computerized death data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Census Bureau population data, and annual CO emissions estimates for light-duty vehicles provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • In addition to average fuel economy, Sivak and Schoettle issued a monthly update of their national Eco-Driving Index, which estimates the average monthly emissions generated by an individual U.S. driver. (
  • The same study estimates that embedded emissions will grow to 57 percent of the total life cycle emissions in large part due to the introduction of battery powered vehicles. (
  • From experiments conducted in both bores, estimates are made of the size distribution and chemical composition of particulate matter emissions extrapolated to the 100% light-duty and 100% heavy-duty vehicle fleets. (
  • Emission ratios for NO x , NO y , NH 3 , H 2 CO, CH 3 CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. (
  • However, when average traffic speeds approach congested conditions, there are significant errors associated with emissions estimates. (
  • WVU researchers based the fueling station emission estimates on the assumption that liquefied natural gas (LNG) stations have sufficient sales volume to effectively manage boil off gases, or the fuel lost as vapors when the LNG heats above its boiling point. (
  • Three LEV technologies have emerged as potential alternatives for the internal combustion engine (ICE) : hybrid vehicle (HV), electric vehicle (EV) and fuel-cell vehicle (FCV). (
  • We are pleased to be part of this state collaboration and will continue to work diligently on standing up hydrogen fuel cells and other electric vehicle technologies. (
  • Supporters hope the change would also provide more electric vehicle options in Colorado. (
  • In the latest IFO report, German scientists spoke out about the big electric vehicle lie. (
  • The name seems quite complicated and it should not be confused with the other 'Phev' which is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle. (
  • Alternatively, EV-REDI can be used to analyze specified future levels of electric vehicle sales in absolute terms or in percentage terms, or set the total number of EVs (stock) in absolute terms or percentage terms. (
  • There are growing numbers of electric vehicle models and several auto companies are set to release full electric SUVs in the next several years. (
  • 2. A low-emission vehicle is a motor vehicle that emits relatively low levels of motor vehicle emissions. (
  • Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the motor vehicle emissions-emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines. (
  • During 1975-1996, an annual decrease of 10 g/mile of estimated CO emissions from automobiles was associated with a 21.3% decrease (95% CI, -24.2% to -18.4%) in the annual unintentional motor vehicle-related CO death rate and a 5.9% decrease (95%CI, -10.0% to -1.8%) in the annual rate of motor vehicle-related CO suicides. (
  • If rates of unintentional CO-related deaths had remained at pre-1975 levels, an estimated additional 11 700 motor vehicle-related CO poisoning deaths might have occurred by 1998. (
  • In this report, the committee evaluates the differences in the characteristics of motor vehicle emissions in areas with and without I/M programs, identifies criteria and methodologies for their evaluation, and recommends improvements to the programs. (
  • A standard Hiden HPR-20 was used for the detection of various gaseous emissions from a motor vehicle. (
  • This is especially the case for motor vehicle emissions policies. (
  • Criteria and procedures: Interim emissions in areas without motor vehicle emissions budgets. (
  • This criterion applies to the net effect of the action (transportation plan, TIP , or project not from a conforming plan and TIP) on motor vehicle emissions from the entire transportation system . (
  • We compared the breast cancer incidence trends obtained from SEER data with the trend of nitrogen dioxides (NOx) emission and monitoring data as well as motor vehicle density data. (
  • The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas. (
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inorganic gases are emitted from diverse automotive components, assembled motor vehicle cabins, and as combustion by-products from motor vehicles. (
  • AGENCY: SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to exempt the three U.S. Pacific Island Territories-American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (C.N.M.I.)-from the gasoline sulfur requirements that EPA promulgated in the Tier 2 motor vehicle rule. (
  • Researchers are in the process of developing additional environmentally friendly methods of charging zero emissions vehicles. (
  • Add cancer to the growing list of ailments being linked to childhood exposure to vehicle emissions, say researchers from UCLA, USC and UC Irvine. (
  • Gas mileage of new vehicles sold in the U.S. slipped last month, according to researchers at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. (
  • Fleets of commercial vehicles that operate in large towns and cities could halve their emissions and better meet clean air targets using a new technology developed by Aston University researchers, which imitates how ants share knowledge, scaling them up to real world problems - such as optimising routes around busy cities. (
  • The researchers based their computer modelling algorithm on the way ants forage for food to schedule tasks to vehicles in a fleet and optimise their routes. (
  • Researchers at Aston University in the UK have developed new algorithms that imitate how ants share knowledge in nature, which can, for the first time, be scaled up to address traffic and emissions problems on a city-wide scale. (
  • The researchers, who are operating as part of the Think Beyond Data initiative, part-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), are now looking to roll out the technology further by testing the system with different types of vehicle fleets such as larger vans or HGVs, as well as larger fleets of vehicles. (
  • In addition, the researchers evaluated the global warming potential of natural gas-powered light duty vehicles over a period of both 20-years and 100-years. (
  • But the researchers acknowledged that the uncertainty and variability in life cycle GHG emissions of natural gas pathways must be taken into consideration when contemplating the implications of such studies and, in particular, when policymakers are setting emissions-based policy goals. (
  • Researchers at the University of Tennessee analyzed 34 years of consumer spending data and found that not only did households from all income levels save money because of improved vehicle efficiency, but low- to middle-income households saved a greater percentage of household income compared to higher earners. (
  • BERLIN - Germany's Volkswagen, already reeling from the fallout of cheating on U.S. emissions tests for nitrogen oxide, said Tuesday that an internal investigation has revealed 'unexplained inconsistencies' in the carbon dioxide emissions from 800,000 of its vehicles - a development it said could cost the company another 2 billion euros ($2.2 billion). (
  • The investigation was undertaken by the company after the revelations that many of its vehicles had software that allowed them to deceive U.S. nitrogen oxide tests. (
  • In September, the company admitted it had installed software designed to defeat tests for nitrogen oxide emissions for four-cylinder diesel engines on 11 million cars worldwide, including almost 500,000 in the U.S. It has already set aside 6.7 billion euros ($7.4 billion) to cover the costs of recalling those vehicles - and analysts expect the emissions scandal to cost the company much more than that. (
  • For medium-duty commercial trucks, recent engine technology advancements have dramatically reduced nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. (
  • Regulated emissions, PM 10 , carbonaceous PM, aldehydes and ketones were measured for every test. (
  • Every vehicle that is newly registered in Massachusetts is required to undergo a state safety inspection and emissions test within seven days of registration. (
  • The new website provides a fact-based overview on everything related to the test of car emissions in Europe. (
  • 18. How many vehicles can be expected not to pass the test and what would it cost to repair them? (
  • In 2015, there were approximately 51,165 On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) vehicles that were unready when presented for emissions inspection and another 145,351 vehicles that failed the emissions inspection test. (
  • The US federal and many state governments are providing a variety of financial and operating incentives including tax credit, fast lane access, emission test exemption, etc., to promote EV adoption 3 , 4 . (
  • A vehicle emissions round robin test program was conducted using a methanol-fueled vehicle operating on M85. (
  • Each of 16 participants conducted two to six Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions tests. (
  • Disclosed is a system and method which systematically diagnoses emissions test failure by applying the rules of a knowledge base to predict the cause of vehicle emissions failures. (
  • Its output is the likelihood that a vehicle suffers from a given failure based on the values of characteristics such as its emissions test results and the vehicle's description. (
  • comparing said emission test signals and said vehicle characteristics signals to said classifier table's set of rules in a manner in which forms said diagnoses of said vehicle's cause of failure and generating a prediction report thereof. (
  • a) The transportation plan , TIP , and project not from a conforming transportation plan and TIP must satisfy the interim emissions test(s) as described in § 93.109(c) through (g). (
  • In this context Europe has recently upgraded the emission test procedure for the type-approval of light duty vehicles by adopting the new WLTP (Worldwide Harmonised Light duty vehicle Test Procedure). (
  • A preliminary report released by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the use of intermediate E15 and E20 ethanol blends (15% and 20% ethanol respectively) in 13 vehicles and 28 small non-road engines found that most of the regulated vehicle emissions from E15 and E20 use were within the normal test variation. (
  • The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20 on emissions, catalyst and engine durability, drivability or operability, and materials associated with these vehicles and engines. (
  • The 2004 Challenge Bibendum, one of the premier global events for advanced technology vehicles, will test the best available technologies for environmentally friendly vehicles. (
  • HORIBA today announced the availability of STARS VETS, its vehicle emission test automation software for Windows 10 64 bit Operating System. (
  • Test vehicles mainly emitted nucleation-mode and Aitken-mode particles, and the increase of the PN concentration emission rate in low-speed and high-speed regions was higher than that in the medium-speed region. (
  • SELECTION OF TEST VEHICLE - In order to best repre- sent the emissions from a new vehicle in the 1960s, a near-pristine vehicle from this era was required. (
  • Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests were performed to prepare the vehicle for reportable tests. (
  • ATLs emissions- grade test cell utilizes a Horiba AC electric dynamometer and Horiba analytical emissions sampling bench. (
  • In addition, she plays a key role in marketing and business development in China by working closely with standard methods writers, committees, manufactures, test labs and research institutes to equip and advise on material emissions and environmental air monitoring. (
  • The chamber emission test is intended to provide characteristic emission of unit component to car interior of assembly level emission. (
  • It also specifies the emission test chamber, preparation of the test specimen, connection of the vapour sampling devices and test conditions. (
  • Microscopic simulation models such as AIMSUN, VISSIM and/or PARAMICS have the ability to output emissions based on default values for emission factors derived mainly from European test data. (