Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.

Diesel exhaust particles are taken up by human airway epithelial cells in vitro and alter cytokine production. (1/958)

The involvement of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in respiratory diseases was evaluated by studying their effects on two in vitro models of human airway epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of DEPs, their phagocytosis, and the resulting immune response were investigated in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as in human nasal epithelial cells in primary culture. DEP exposure induced a time- and dose-dependent membrane damage. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEPs underwent endocytosis by epithelial cells and translocated through the epithelial cell sheet. Flow cytometric measurements allowed establishment of the time and dose dependency of this phagocytosis and its nonspecificity with different particles (DEPs, carbon black, and latex particles). DEPs also induced a time-dependent increase in interleukin-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-1beta release. This inflammatory response occurred later than phagocytosis, and its extent seems to depend on the content of adsorbed organic compounds because carbon black had no effect on cytokine release. Furthermore, exhaust gas posttreatments, which diminished the adsorbed organic compounds, reduced the DEP-induced increase in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor release. These results suggest that DEPs could 1) be phagocytosed by airway epithelial cells and 2) induce a specific inflammatory response.  (+info)

Diesel exhaust particles induce NF-kappa B activation in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: importance in cytokine transcription. (2/958)

Fine particles derived from diesel engines (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) have attracted attention, since their density in industrial countries seems related to the increased prevalence of pulmonary diseases. Previous studies have suggested that DEP have a potential to directly activate airway epithelial cells to produce and release inflammatory cytokines and mediators, and thus facilitate inflammatory responses in the lung. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their action, we studied here IL-8 gene expression, one of the important cytokines in inflammatory responses, by Northern blot analysis and run-on transcription assay. Suspended DEP (1-50 microgram/ml) increased the steady state levels of IL-8 mRNA, which was suggested to be largely due to increased transcriptional rates. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that DEP induced increased binding to the specific motif of NF-kappa B, but not of transcription factor AP-1. The luciferase reporter gene assay using wild-type and mutated NF-kappa B-binding sequences showed that DEP-induced NF-kappa B activation was involved in IL-8 transcription. Finally, both N-acetylcysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuated the action of DEP on IL-8 mRNA expression, suggesting that oxidant-mediated pathway might be involved in its processes. These results suggested that DEP activate NF-kappa B, which might be an important mechanism of its potential to increase the expression of inflammatory cytokines in vitro.  (+info)

Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats. (3/958)

We conducted experiments to determine whether diesel engine exhaust affects reproductive endocrine function in growing rats. The rats were assigned to three groups: a group exposed to total diesel engine exhaust containing 5.63 mg/m3 particulate matter, 4.10 ppm nitrogen dioxide, and 8.10 ppm nitrogen oxide; a group exposed to filtered exhaust without particulate matter; and a group exposed to clean air. Dosing experiments were performed for 3 months beginning at birth (6 hr/day for 5 days/week). Serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were significantly higher in animals exposed to total diesel exhaust and filtered exhaust (p < 0.05 for each group) as compared to the controls. Follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly decreased in the two groups exposed to diesel exhaust as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Luteinizing hormone was significantly decreased in the total exhaust-exposed group as compared to the control and filtered groups (p < 0.05). Although testis weight did not show any significant difference among the groups, sperm production and activity of testicular hyaluronidase were significantly reduced in both exhaust-exposed groups as compared to the control group. Histological examination showed decreased numbers of step 18 and 19 spermatids in stage VI, VII, and VIII tubules in the testes of both diesel exhaust-exposed groups. This study suggests that diesel exhaust stimulates hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex, depresses gonadotropin-releasing-hormone, and inhibits spermatogenesis in rats. Because these effects were not inhibited by filtration, the gaseous phase of the exhaust appears to be more responsible than particulate matter for disrupting the endocrine system.  (+info)

Diesel exhaust exposure among adolescents in Harlem: a community-driven study. (4/958)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought individual-level data on diesel exhaust exposure and lung function among adolescents in Harlem as part of a community-driven research agenda. METHODS: High school students administered in-person surveys to seventh grade students to ascertain information on demographics, asthma history, and self-reported and maternal smoking. Urine samples were assayed for 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a marker of diesel exhaust exposure, and cotinine, a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Computer-assisted spirometry was used to measure lung function. RESULTS: Three quarters (76%) of the participating students had detectable levels of 1-HP. Three students (13%) had an FEF25-75 of less than or equal to 80% of their predicted measurements, and 4 students (17%) had results between 80% and 90% of the predicted value, all of which are suggestive of possible lung impairment. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that most adolescents in Harlem are exposed to detectable levels of diesel exhaust, a known exacerbator and possible cause of chronic lung disorders such as asthma. Community-driven research initiatives are important for empowering communities to make needed changes to improve their environments and health.  (+info)

Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis. (5/958)

OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67).  (+info)

Enhancement of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by diesel exhaust particles. (6/958)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is an experimental model of autoimmune disease, in mice. CIA was induced by s.c. injection of type II collagen (CII) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant into the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of DEP were intranasally administered every 2 days from days 0 to 20. The results showed that administration of DEP enhanced both the incidence and the severity of CIA. The enhancement of the disease was associated with pronounced production of anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies. Treatment with DEP also augmented proliferative responses of spleen cells to CII. There was marked secretion of interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-4 from the lymphoid cells in DEP-treated mice. Administration of DEP after onset of CIA was also effective in enhancing the severity of the disease as well as production of anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies and secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4. These results suggest that exposure to DEP may influence autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Changes in levels of 8-hydroxyguanine in DNA, its repair and OGG1 mRNA in rat lungs after intratracheal administration of diesel exhaust particles. (7/958)

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), an environmental pollutant, are known to induce lung cancer in experimental animals. To clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in its carcinogenic mechanism, we examined the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), its total repair and the repair enzyme OGG1 mRNA in female Fischer 344 rat lungs, as markers of the response to ROS, after DEP was intratracheally instilled. The 8-OH-Gua levels in both DEP-treated groups (2 and 4 mg) were increased during the 2-8 h following exposure to DEP. The 8-OH-Gua repair activities in the DEP-treated groups decreased during the period from 2 h to 2 days following DEP exposure and then recovered to the level of the control group at 5 days after exposure. OGG1 mRNA was induced in rats treated with 4 mg DEP for 5-7 days after administration. In conclusion, the 8-OH-Gua level in rat lung DNA increases markedly at an early phase after DEP exposure, by the generation of ROS and the inhibition of 8-OH-Gua repair activity, and induction of OGG1 mRNA is also a good marker of cellular oxidative stress during carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Generation of reactive oxygen species and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation from diesel exhaust particle components in L1210 cells. (8/958)

The generation of the reactive oxygen species during the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase) was investigated by electron spin resonance using the spin-trap 5,5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Addition of DEP extract to an incubation mixture of mouse lung microsomes in the presence of NADPH resulted in a time-dependent NADPH oxidation and acetylated-cytochrome c reduction. Using purified P450 reductase as the enzyme source, superoxide radicals which were detected as the spin adduct (DMPO-OOH) while metabolized by P450 reductase were dependent upon both DEP and enzyme concentrations. The ELISA method using a specific monoclonal antibody revealed that DEP produced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which is formed from deoxyguanosine in DNA by hydroxyl radicals, in the culture medium of L1210 cells. Active oxygen scavengers such as superoxide dismutase and catalase effectively blocked the formation of 8-OHdG in culture medium, and deferoxamine, which inhibits hydroxyl radicals production by chelating iron, was also effective in inhibiting the DEP-produced 8-OHdG formation. These results indicate that DEP components produce 8-OHdG through the hydroxyl radical formation via superoxide by redox cycling of P450 reductase.  (+info)

Many studies have been carried out, using several animal species, to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of exposure to whole exhaust and to components of exhaust from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engines. The studies are considered within six subgroupings: (i) whole diesel engine exhaust; (ii) gas-phase diesel engine exhaust (with particles removed); (iii) diesel engine exhaust particles or extracts of diesel engine exhaust particles; (iv) whole gasoline engine exhaust; (v) condensates/extracts of gasoline engine exhaust; and (vi) engine exhausts in combination with known carcinogens. Whole diesel engine exhaust Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by inhalation to a range of concentrations of whole diesel engine exhaust, with observations in some studies extending to the lifespan of the animals. Five studies conducted using two different strains of rats showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant lung tumours that was ...
A Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened in Lyon, France, June 5-12 to scrutinise the available knowledge base on the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes.1 Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and nitroarenes were previously evaluated by IARC in 1989.2 For gasoline engine exhaust the classification remained Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) as well as for seven of the nitroarenes. The newly evaluated nitroarene 3-nitrobenzanthrone was also added to this group. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene were classified as 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene are important exposure markers for diesel exhaust since metabolites of these substances have been found in workers exposed to diesel exhaust.3-5 The most prominent outcome of the IARC evaluation meeting was the upgrade of the classification of diesel exhaust, now in Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans with sufficient ...
Long-term diesel exhaust particles exposure may increase AHR, inflammation, lung fibrosis, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a mouse model.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is the cancer research and monitoring arm of the World Health Organization (WHO). On June 12 2012, IARC, after a week-long meeting of international experts on carcinogenic health effects of diesel engine exhaust fumes, has made a press release announcing the classification of diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. The classification was announced from Lyon, France, after considering the scientific findings on the health effects and cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust fumes ...
Air pollution plays a role in cancer risk, particularly in lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancerrelated mortality worldwide. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a component of diesel exhaust products, is a complex mixture of particle compounds that include a large number of known and suspected human carcinogens. Historically, lung cancer, which is associated with DEPs, has been the focus of attention as a health risk in human and animal studies. However, the mechanism by which DEPs cause lung cancer remains unclear. The present study reports that DEPs increased miR21 expression and then activated the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, which may serve as an important carcinogenic mechanism. However, the data revealed that shortterm exposure to a high DEP concentration did not cause evident cell carcinogenesis in HBE cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. AU - Lan, Qing. AU - Vermeulen, Roel. AU - Dai, Yufei. AU - Ren, Dianzhi. AU - Hu, Wei. AU - Duan, Huawei. AU - Niu, Yong. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Fu, Wei. AU - Meliefste, Kees. AU - Zhou, Baosen. AU - Yang, Jufang. AU - Ye, Meng. AU - Jia, Xiaowei. AU - Meng, Tao. AU - Bin, Ping. AU - Kim, Christopher. AU - Bassig, Bryan A.. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Silverman, Debra. AU - Zheng, Yuxin. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in a diesel engine truck testing ...
The intake fraction is defined for a specific species and emission source as the ratio of attributable population intake to total emissions. Focusing on Californias South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) as a case study, we combine ambient monitoring data with time-activity patterns to estimate the population intake of carbon monoxide and benzene emitted from motor vehicles during 1996-1999. In addition to exposures to ambient concentrations, three microenvironments are considered in which the exposure concentration of motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Incorporating data on motor vehicle emissions estimated by the EMFAC2000 model, we estimate that the 15 million people in the SoCAB inhale 0.003-0.009% (34-85 per million, with a best estimate of 47 per million) of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. This population intake of primary ...
Studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) suppresses pulmonary host defense against bacterial infection. The present study was carried out to characterize whether DEP exposure exerts a sustained effect in which inhaled DEP increase the susceptibility of the lung to bacterial infection occurring at a later time. Brown Norway rats were exposed to filtered air or DEP by inhal
Background: Urban air pollution can trigger asthma exacerbations, but the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, or onset of airway disease and allergic sensitization in children is less clear. Methods: All 2107 children aged 9-14 from 40 schools in Rome in 2000-2001 were included in a cross-sectional survey. Respiratory symptoms were assessed on 1760 children by parental questionnaires (response rate=83.5%). Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests and lung function was measured by spirometry on 1359 children (77.2%). Three indicators of traffic-related air pollution exposure were assessed, i.e. self-reported traffic outside the childs home, the measured distance between the childs home and busy roads, and the residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels estimated by a land-use regression model (R2=0.69). Results: We found a strong association between estimated NO2 exposure per 10 μg/m3 and lung function, especially expiratory flows, in ...
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are major constituents of ambient air pollution and their adverse health effect is an area of intensive investigations. With respect to the immune system, DEP have attracted significant research attention as a factor that could influence allergic diseases interfering with cytokine production and chemokine expression. With this exception, scant data are available on the impact of DEP on lymphocyte homeostasis. Here, the effects of nanoparticles from Euro 4 (E4) and Euro 5 (E5) light duty diesel engines on the phenotype and function of T lymphocytes from healthy donors were evaluated. T lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood obtained from healthy volunteers and subsequently stimulated with different concentration (from 0.15 to 60 μg/ml) and at different time points (from 24 h to 9 days) of either E4 or E5 particles. Immunological parameters, including apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation levels, mitochondrial function, expression of activation markers and cytokine
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
German researchers report more evidence of another risk factor for developing type II diabetes: traffic related air pollution. After following a group of middle-aged women for 16 years, the authors find that exposure to high levels of air pollution is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes in later years.... The study is one of the first to follow participants over many years in order to look at whether traffic-related air pollution might be linked to the risk of developing diabetes later in life. It agrees with a handful of prior human and animal studies that have suggested a link between the two. As the world becomes increasingly urban and megacities emerge, traffic-related air pollution is an increasingly serious problem. It poses environmental, ecological and human health risks, including well-documented respiratory illnesses such as asthma and lung cancer ...
Get this from a library! Automobile exhaust emission testing : measurement of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components, exhaust emission tests. [Horst Klingenberg]
Pris: 187,-. heftet, 2013. Sendes innen 5‑7 virkedager.. Kjøp boken Evaluation of Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs in Minnesota av U S Environmental Protection Agency (ISBN 9781288693511) hos Fri frakt fra 299 kr.
This paper deals with a research project concerning an effective utilization of exhaust gas heat. Exhaust gas from a exhaust gas-separate type two-stroke cycle engine containing a high concentration of unburned gas was temporarily stored in a floating-bell type tank as an form of heat energy conservation, while in the previous report [1]* exhaust heat was recovered with continuous operation. A Stirling engine with a hot-water supply system was then used to oxidize or burn again the exhaust gas in a catalyzer and an after-burner unit in order to recover the unspent heat energy from the exhaust gas. A three-way catalyzer was employed to remove pollutants both from the combustion gas in this process and the high-concentration burned gas from the two-stroke cycle engine.The results of the research in the present paper are intended as a follow-up of the previous report [1] to clarify a method for the more effective use of exhaust gas heat. Similarly to the results presented in the previous paper the ...
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attent
This paper compares the mass, composition and reactivity toward ozone formation of gasoline and methanol vehicle emissions. Methods used to estimate ozone forming potential include published reactivity scales and the EPA-OZIPM model. Evaluation of the available vehicle emission measurement data do
Human β-defensin (hBD)-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated A549 cells. IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional
Elemental carbon was collected with the possibility of using elemental carbon as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter. The terms elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC) and soot are often used by atmospheric researchers to designate products of incomplete combustion that contain randomly oriented graphitic structures interspersed with other compounds. Elemental carbon has been considered a good surrogate for diesel particulate matter because of the relatively high fraction of elemental carbon in diesel particle matter and the relatively high particulate matter emissions from diesel-powered vehicles, compared to gasoline-powered vehicles. Some studies imply a correspondence between elemental carbon measurements and diesel PM related to large truck traffic. But as diesel technologies improved and the diesel fleet became cleaner, it became more difficult to use elemental carbon alone as the marker for diesel particulate matter. Since other sources of elemental carbon became more significant ...
Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with ...
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) represent a key component of particulate matter pollution and a serious cardiopulmonary health risk, as these particles have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality following exposure. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of DEP on helper T cells by measuring changes in activation, cytokine production, and viability. The expression of CD40L, a key regulatory protein, was increased by DEP in the absence of physiologic stimuli without parallel increases in the expression of CD25 and CD69 activation markers. Additional studies utilizing a variety of T cell stimuli, including T cell receptor signaling and CD28 construction, showed consistent and reproducible increases in the expression of CD40L with negligible effects on other activation markers. Further studies demonstrated that the ability of DEP to augment CD40L production was restricted to the induction of the membrane-bound form of this protein, as soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was
Research Report 196, Developing Multipollutant Exposure Indicators of Traffic Pollution: The Dorm Room Inhalation to Vehicle Emissions (DRIVE) Study, describes a study by Dr. Jeremy A. Sarnat that evaluated single- and multipollutant metrics of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near and farther away from a major highway in Atlanta, as well as biological markers in a
This may not come as a surprise to many people, but the closer you are to a major road, the higher your exposure to air contaminants. In fact, according to a new report from the Metro Vancouver Regional District multiple traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) have been identified with adverse health effects. Living and spending time near a major roadway has been identified as a risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular problems.. Approximately half the population of Metro Vancouver lives near a major roadway.. Major roadways have more than 15,000 vehicles per day using them. In Langley, examples include 200th Street, 208th Street, the Langley Bypass, and Fraser Highway.. ...
The combined effects of turbocharging, high fuel injection pressure, and reduced oil consumption on diesel exhaust emissions were investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. The influence of these exhaust emission control concepts on particulate composition was determined using a new particulate analysis method. In addition, the dependence of particulate composition on engine load and air utilization was examined using the microfumigation technique. Simultaneous application of these emissions control concepts reduced exhaust particulates by 70 percent. High injection pressure reduced the insoluble component of particulates, while reducing oil consumption and turbocharging the engine lowered both soluble and insoluble particulates. Reductions in oil-derived particulates with increasing engine load were partially attributed to increases in volumetric air utilization. Ninety percent of the lube oil found in exhaust particulates was unburned; however, similar concentrations of unburned and ...
Acute exposure to diesel exhaust particles elicits dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory and impairment of lung function in naive BALB/C mice
Protective Effect of Curcumin on Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Effects Induced by Repeated Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This topic contains 6 study abstracts on Diesel Exhaust Particle Toxicity indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Catechin, Rosemary, and Onion
Li, J., Patterson, M., Chew, W. L., Cho, S-H., Gilmour, I., Oliver, T., ... Liedtke, W. (2011). TRPV4-Mediated calcium-influx into human bronchial epithelia upon exposure to diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 784 - 793. ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
The heat from the exhaust gas of diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power using a separate Rankine Cycle (RC) or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Water is the best working fluid for this type of applications in terms of efficiency of the RC system, availability and environmental friendliness. However, for small engines and also at part load operations, the exhaust gas temperature is not sufficient enough to heat the steam to be in superheated zone, which after expansion in the turbine needs to be in superheated zone. Ammonia was found to be an alternate working fluid for these types of applications which can run at low exhaust temperatures. Computer simulation was carried out with an optimized heat exchanger to estimate additional power with water and ammonia as the working fluids. ANSYS 14.0 CFX software was used for the simulation. It was found that at full load 23.7% and 10.9% additional power were achieved by using water and ammonia as the working fluids ...
A new study found strong evidence that inhaling harmful gases of traffic pollution poses more risk for asthma in adults and kids as well.. Study reports found that there is a strong connection between asthma risk and traffic pollutants.. In previous studies, researchers linked childhood asthma with traffic related pollutants, but in the current study they found link between harmful pollutants of traffic and onset of asthma in adults.. Over 11 years of follow up, 41 of the adults developed asthma. The results showed that adults most impacted by traffic-related particles had 50 to 100 percent higher risks of developing asthma, compared to those living at residences with low levels of traffic-related pollutants.. Ultimately, the findings suggest that pollutants emerging from traffic play a key role in developing asthma in adults.. Source: Thorax. ...
Editor: People with tic disorders have complained that riding in a vehicle sometimes increases symptoms. A new study supports the link between exposure to toxins in diesel exhaust and brain changes.. Research now shows that even a short exposure to diesel fumes can affect your brain. In a study published in Particle and Fibre Toxicology, an hour of sniffing exhaust induces a stress response in the brains activity. We already know that small particles from polluted air can be detected in the brain after exposures. But this is the first time that scientists have demonstrated that inhalation actually alters brain activity.. The study was conducted with EEG recordings while exposed to diesel exhaust versus clean air. Changes in brain activity were noticed after 30 minutes or so of exposure. The EEG data revealed that the brain displayed a stress response, indicative of changed information processing in the brain cortex. The effect continued even after the subjects had left the exposure ...
Traffic-Rrelated AAir Pollution and Respiratory Health: The East Bay Childrens Respiratory Health Study. Janice J. Kim1, Svetlana Smorodinsky1, Bart Ostro1, Michael Lipsett1, Brett C. Singer2, and Alfred T. Hogdsgon2. 1Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA. 2Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Traffic-related emissions are a major source of air pollution in most urban areas. Recent studies, primarily in Europe and Japan, have reported an association between an increased risk of respiratory health effectssymptoms associated withand residential proximity to traffic-related air pollutants near busy roadways. School location near a busy road may be an important surrogate of traffic-related exposures as well. To investigate whether these findings might apply in California, which has stringent motor vehicle emissions regulations, we conducted the East Bay Childrens Respiratory Health Study (EBCRHS), a cross-sectional ...
Why Emissions Testing Is EssentialThe quality of the air we breathe is more important than ever. All Arizonans deserve the cleanest possible air today, for our future -- especially those with compromised health. We all can make a positive difference by the choices we make and actions we take everyday. Vehicle emissions contribute to increased levels of air pollution like
A radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehiclesproduce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors. Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths ...
A radical move would be to drop diesel engines On-road diesel vehiclesproduce approximately 20% of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM and ozone precursors. Diesel emission pollutions has been confirmed as a major source of premature mortality. A recent study published in Nature by the Environmental Health Analytics LLC and the International Council on Clean Transportation both based in Washington, USA found that whilst regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. The authors show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80% of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These emissions were associated with about 38,000 premature deaths ...
Combustion-derived pure carbon nanoparticulate, or whats found in diesel fuel exhaust, was found to have adverse effects on the blood vessel system.
An apparatus for reducing exhaust gas contained in exhaust gas as an exemplary embodiment of the present invention may include: a DOC member that primarily oxidizes exhaust materials containing THC and CO in the exhaust gas by using a first DOC; a CPF member mounted downstream of the DOC member for receiving the exhaust gas oxidized primarily by the DOC member which contains the exhaust materials containing the THC and CO by heat generated during the primary oxidation; and further oxidizing an oxidizing agent coated therein, and oxidizing the NO in the exhaust gas into NO 2 using the generated heat and the oxidizing agent coated therein; a nozzle fixed downstream of the CPF component and metering a reducing agent into the exhaust gas; and an SCR component mounted downstream of the nozzle and reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) in the exhaust gas using the NO 2 generated in the CPF component and the reducing agent in N 2.
Children whose parents perceived their lives as unpredictable, uncontrollable, or overwhelming had increased risk of new onset asthma associated with TRP and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Furthermore, susceptibility to TRP attributable to parental education was markedly attenuated after accounting for the susceptibility attributable to parental stress. While parental stress may influence the development of asthma in a child due to biological and behavioral pathways other than psychological stress in children (26), the observed pattern of susceptibility to air pollution based on stress was not explained by potentially relevant history of illness and a range of behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental risk factors for asthma. Although there were relatively few children with a history of in utero tobacco smoke exposure, significantly larger effects were observed both among children with low parental education and with high parental stress. Thus, common biological pathways may underlie the ...
A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the
The study used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the hearts of 3,896 subjects that had no cardiovascular diseases at the beginning of the study. Researchers also determined the levels of nitrous dioxide surrounding each subjects home. Researchers found that there was an association between higher nitrous oxide levels and changes in the right ventricul of the heart.. Dr. Peter Leary, lead author of the study, said in a new release that, Although the link between traffic-related air pollution and left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and cardiovascular death is established, the effects of the traffic-related air pollution on the right ventricle have not been well studied.. The Environmental Protection Agency began investigating pollution resulting from fossil fuels back in the 1970s, and found in 2010 that by decreasing sulfur dioxides, nitrous oxides and other particulate matter, environmental regulations were able to effectively prevent 130,000 heart attacks, 86,000 ...
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San Francisco- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced over $2.2 million in Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) grants to partners along the West Coast and Pacific Island Territories. The 14 grants are administered through the West Coast Collaborative, an EPA Region9 and Region 10 public-private partnership aimed at reducing diesel emissions and leveraging an additional $6 million from public, private and nonprofit partners. The EPA-funded projects will clean up 93 medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines, and reduce over 262 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 16 tons of particulate matter (PM) and 8,317 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the life of the projects. Public-private partnerships like the West Coast Collaborative continue to advance emission reductions, said Jared Blumenfeld, Regional Administrator for EPAs Pacific Southwest Office. By promoting clean diesel technologies, we can save lives locally and play a leadership role on climate change globally. These grants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of oscillatory feeding of CO and O2 on the performance of a monolithic catalytic converter of automobile exhaust gas : a modelling study. AU - Lie, A.B.K.. AU - Hoebink, J.H.B.J.. AU - Marin, G.B.M.M.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - A monolithic catalytic converter of automobile exhaust gas was modeled in order to assess the effects of oscillatory feeding on the performance of the reactor with respect to CO oxidn. by O2. Simulations were performed with an oscillating feed compn. of CO and O2. The influence of frequency, amplitude, phase angle and ratios of reactants in the feed on the time av. CO conversion was investigated. An improvement relative to the steady state conversion of 10% max. is obtained at temps. below the light-off temp., at frequencies below 0.1 Hz and an amplitude of 15%. The reverse effect is obtained from temps. slightly above the light-off temp. upwards. These effects are strongest when CO and O2 oscillate in counterphase. The explanation for this ...
Vehicle emissions are a major public health issue. We already know that the best thing you can do if you want to bring your crime rate down is to switch to unleaded gasoline and then wait for 20 years. Now were learning that if you want to improve the health of babies (and healthy babies become much more productive members of society when they grow up), simply installing an EZ-Pass tollbooth has a large and significant positive effect: the resulting improvements in congestion and emissions more than make up for any excess emissions from cars crawling through the toll plaza itself.. The negative externalities from driving, then, are significantly greater than the ones that the likes of Charles Komanoff calculates - and those are $160 per trip, in Manhattan. If we want to become a happier, healthier, more prosperous nation, then we have to wean ourselves off our car addiction. It wont be fast, and it wont be easy. But its profoundly necessary.. (Via Wessel). Update: The E-Z Pass study can be ...
Disclosed is a system and method which systematically diagnoses emissions test failure by applying the rules of a knowledge base to predict the cause of vehicle emissions failures. Classifiers are used to form predictions. The classifier is the data structure used in the automobile emission testing inspection lane by the lane diagnostic subsystem to provide a diagnosis for a particular vehicle. Its output is the likelihood that a vehicle suffers from a given failure based on the values of characteristics such as its emissions test results and the vehicles description. The classifier predictions are then used to prepare a failure report that is given to the motorist for use by his or her repair technician. In another feature of this invention, the classifiers are continuously updated in a learning process based on new repair records. The learning processes periodically analyzes the data and updates the knowledge base to include new or revised classifiers.
comparison of link-based and smoke processed motor vehicle emissions over the greater toronto area – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 6edad9-ZTFkZ
Liverpool - Helicot Trading Company has begun its distribution of the premium patented, UK-manufactured engine care product, Cataclean in Hong Kong and Macau. With initiatives in place to promote better vehicle maintenance and improve poor air quality, the Hong Kong Government is making real efforts to reduce vehicle emissions, the main source of street-level pollution in the city.. The patented engine and fuel system cleaning technology in Cataclean enables drivers to reduce vehicle emissions and improve fuel efficiency, thereby helping to benefit the environment as well as offering a potential fuel cost saving.. According to research conducted by The University of Hong Kong, the level of pollutants in the city air is substantially higher than levels found in other cities such as London and New York. Diesel vehicles, particularly trucks, buses and light buses, are the main source of street-level pollution in Hong Kong. In Macau, with the strict tightening of emissions regulations, many drivers ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.. METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.. RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimers disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be ...
1.2 Methodology and forecast parameters. 1.3 Data Sources. Chapter 2: Executive Summary 2.1 Business upcoming trends and opportunities. 2.2 Regional outlook. 2.3 Launching new and innovative products trends. 2.4 End-use trends. Chapter 3: Diesel Vehicle Exhaust System Industry: Valuable Growth Prospects and Insights on Future Scenario 3.1 Industry segmentation and development trends. 3.2 Competitive landscape. 3.3 Vendor matrix. 3.4 Technological and innovation landscape. Chapter 4: Diesel Vehicle Exhaust System Market, By Region Chapter 5: Company Profile 5.1 Business standards overview. 5.2 Financial Data. 5.3 Product Landscape. 5.4 Strategic Outlook. 5.5 SWOT Analysis. Continue….. Browse Full Summary of Diesel Vehicle Exhaust System Market Enabled with Respective Tables and Figures at: Team of Industry Researchers have been tracking the impact of COVID-19 on Diesel Vehicle Exhaust System market Growth and wherever ...
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution is hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country-specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS: Fifteen population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were analysed. Residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides was modelled with land use regression using a uniform protocol. Traffic exposure was assessed with traffic indicator variables. We analysed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and non-medicated with BP lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using ...
RIN: 2070-AQ86). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated the costs for the vehicle and fuel programs under this final rule. For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of vehicle exhaust emission control costs ranged from $268 million in 2017 to $664 million in 2030. For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of vehicle evaporative emission control costs ranged from $26 million in 2017 to $121 million in 2022. For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of vehicle operating costs ranged from zero in 2017 to negative $19 million in 2030. EPAs estimates the facilities costs to be $21 million for 2016 and $4 million annually for 2017 to 2025 and 2030. For 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPAs estimate of fuel sulfur control costs ranged from $804 million in 2017 to $696 million in 2030. In total, EPA estimated a cost of $21 million in 2016, costs ranging from $1.101 billion in 2017 to $1.51 billion in 2025, and a cost of $1.457 billion in ...
Particulates and nitrogen oxides comprise the main emission components of the Diesel combustion and therefore are subject to exhaust emission legislation in respective applications. Yet, with ever more stringent emission standards and test-procedures, such as in passenger vehicle applications, resul
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carcinogenic effects of diesel emissions and lung cancer. T2 - The epidemiologic evidence is not causal. AU - Muscat, Joshua E.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by Public Health Service Grant CA-3261 7. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1996/8. Y1 - 1996/8. N2 - The effects of diesel engine exhaust in lung carcinogenesis have been evaluated by several scientific organizations and government agencies. This complex issue has required a multidisciplinary approach including atmospheric measurements, toxicology, chemical carcinogenesis, epidemiology, and risk assessment. One important aspect of the epidemiological studies that deserves further attention is the confounding effects of cigarette smoking. Only some epidemiological studies have statistically adjusted for cigarette smoking, usually by years of smoking, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Some studies obtained smoking information from proxy interviews. However, differences in tar ...
Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another. Many of these pollutants contribute to environmental degradation and have negative effects on human health. To prevent unnecessary damage to human health and the environment, environmental regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have established policies to minimize air pollution from mobile sources. Similar agencies exist at the state level. Due to the large number of mobile sources of air pollution, and their ability to move from one location to another, mobile sources are regulated differently from stationary sources, such as power plants. Instead of monitoring individual emitters, such as an individual vehicle, mobile sources are often regulated more broadly through design and fuel standards. Examples of this include corporate average fuel economy standards and laws that ban ...
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A rotating particulate trap is disclosed, which may find application in diesel engines, air conditioning systems, industrial air-filters and the like. The invention includes a disk or cylinder which is formed from material suitable for filtering particulates which are present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines, gas turbines, industrial air or other particulate laden gases. The disk is mounted transversely in the exhaust duct of a diesel engine and in a fresh air duct which is disposed parallel to the exhaust duct. As the disk rotates within the exhaust duct, it filters particulates from the exhaust gases of the diesel engine. The filtered particulates are expelled from the disk by fresh air blowing in the air duct as the disk rotates within the air duct. The fresh air is blown in the air duct in a direction opposite to the flow of exhaust gases within the exhaust duct by a fan or compressor or compressed air jets. The counterflow arrangement of fresh air and combustion gases enhances the
Air/Fuel Imbalance Monitor Using an Oxygen Sensor - Air/fuel imbalance monitoring systems and methods for monitoring air/fuel ratio imbalance of an internal combustion engine having a plurality of engine cylinders are provided herein. An example of the method may include routing exhaust gas from a first group of cylinders to an exhaust gas oxygen sensor, and during selected operating conditions, indicating that air/fuel of at least one cylinder in the first group is imbalanced based on a response of the exhaust gas oxygen sensor at frequencies at or above firing frequency of the cylinders in the first group. An example of the system may include an exhaust gas oxygen sensor positioned in such a way that exhaust gas from the group of engine cylinders are routed to the exhaust gas oxygen sensor, and a controller configured to during selected operating conditions, indicate that air/fuel of at least one cylinder in the group is imbalanced based on a response of the exhaust gas oxygen sensor at ...
Utah has traditionally focused on reducing emissions from gasoline engines as a key strategy to improve the states air quality. However, diesel vehicles are believed to account for nearly half of the on-road mobile source nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate exhaust (PM2.5) and NH3 emissions in Utah non-attainment areas. National and international studies are revealing that diesel and gasoline vehicles may be contributing more ammonia emissions than previously accepted. As an example, Sun et al. (2016) estimated vehicular NH3 emissions in the US are likely more than twice those given in the US National Emissions Inventory. Very little information, however, exists on the true emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles under Utah-specific conditions. Evaluating emissions, including ammonia emissions, from vehicles under Utah-specific conditions and examining how ammonia emissions are distributed in Utah valleys will help in understanding the true emissions impact from diesel and gasoline ...
0057]In yet another specific embodiment, the invention relates to a method of recycling anode exhaust gas in a fuel cell system that includes a fuel cell stack including at least one fuel cell, the fuel cell including an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte between the anode and cathode, comprising the steps of directing anode exhaust gas containing CO2 and H2 gases from the anode of the fuel cell to a separator that includes, a housing defining an anode exhaust inlet, a recycled gas outlet and an exhaust gas outlet, wherein the anode exhaust inlet and the recycled gas outlet are, independently, in fluid communication with the anode, and a CO2-gas permeable membrane, the housing and the membrane defining at least in part a first chamber and a second chamber, the first chamber being in fluid communication with the anode exhaust inlet and the recycled gas outlet, the second chamber being in fluid communication with the exhaust gas outlet, whereby the anode exhaust gas is transported into the first ...
In large cities across the country, ozone and nitrous oxides from vehicle emissions rise to the top of air quality concerns and take their place with the general particulate matter category. Vehicle exhaust is full of extremely tiny toxic particles. During poor venting days, especially in the summer, you can see this pollution as a dense brown haze. Forty percent of the PM in that haze is from vehicles. In Port Alberni, as in many communities, emissions from trucks and cars are the largest contributor, by far, to toxic nitrous oxide pollution. They are also significant contributors to hazardous air pollutants and carcinogens such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 1,3 butadiene, and diesel particulate matter.. Exhaust is a complex cocktail of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides, nitrous oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To make matter worse, when its warm and sunny, the NOx and VOCs react chemically making ground level ozone, yet another damaging ...
DAY , # OF LIVING , MORPHOLOGICAL , BEHAVIORAL , OTHER , , HYDRA , CHANGES , CHANGES , CHANGES 1 , , , , , 2 , , , , , 3 , , , , , 4 , , , , , Care of the Hydra 1) Feed the hydra artemia (washed to remove salt) during the observation periods. Observe any changes in feeding habits and record them on the data chart. Fresh water crustaceans need not be washed, but the food must be free of dead organisms. 2) Replace the water in the petri dishes with fresh pond water daily. 3) Place the petri dishes containing hydra back into their correct environmental chamber. 4) Refill chamber A with automobile exhaust. Repeat the above experimental strategy Reduce the trial periods to 12 hours over a four day period. This will result in eight readings, one for each 12 hour period. Modify the existing chart to accommodate the additional readings. Record and Summarize Your Observations References ...
The present invention involves an exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same. The invention provides for a cost-effective material which lowers the cold-start emissions from the exhaust of vehicles. The invention is a passive system which accelerates the light-off temperature of catalyst in a cost-effective fashion. The invention includes a method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions including the steps of providing an oxide mixture having praseodymium and cerium, doping about 0-10% weight zirconium and about 0-10% weight yttrium to the oxide mixture, adding about 0-2% weight metal including palladium, platinum, or rhodium to the oxide mixture, mixing gamma aluminum to the oxide mixture for washcoating and washcoating the oxide mixture onto a monolithic substrate.
There are consistent temporal associations between exposure to air pollutants and HF hospitalizations and mortality (10,11). To our knowledge, this trial is the first randomized study to show that a simple filter intervention could reduce endothelial dysfunction and BNP increases associated with short-term exposure to DE in patients with HF. Our findings suggest that PM2.5 is the most important cause of endothelial dysfunction associated with air pollution exposure. Surprisingly, we also found a reduction in arterial stiffness during DE, which was unaffected by the filter.. Our findings on endothelial dysfunction during DE are consistent with experimental HF mouse models (26) and similar to reports in healthy volunteers (27,28) and patients with diabetes (29). Two pathways have been proposed to explain these effects: first, a pulmonary acute phase response could release inflammatory mediators into the circulation and be a causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease (30); ...
Diesel vehicles made in Germany in 2006 achieved high mpg, and competed with gasoline engines with regard to emissions. The much lower emissions of hybrids make them more desirable than diesel vehicles. Also, better driving performance can be engineered into hybrid vehicles than for a comparable-emissions conventional gasoline or diesel vehicle.. There is another form of diesel made from plants: biodiesel ( It is a mixture of long-chain esters. Biodiesel can be used as fuel for diesel vehicles without any engine alteration or it can be mixed with petroleum-diesel. (The usual mixture is B20: 20% biodiesel.) It is slightly less efficient than diesel, but more efficient than gasoline. It produces much less vehicle emissions than diesel. Most biodiesel is made from plants that are planted and harvested by burning gasoline or diesel in farm tractors and with fertilizer, all made from petroleum; this needs to be changed drastically so that biodiesel production ...
New vehicles that do not meet Washingtons vehicle emission standards cannot be registered, licensed, rented, or sold here - even if they meet federal standards. It is your responsibility to make sure your car meets the state standards.. If you buy a new car in Washington, then you can register it in Washington. Washington car dealers must sell vehicles that meet Californias vehicle emission standards. If you buy a car with less than 7,500 miles that doesnt meet the California standards, then you cant register it in Washington. If you a buy a car with more than 7,500 miles, then you can register it in Washington.. Other states, including Oregon and California, have the same vehicle emission standards. If you buy a 2009 or newer model car in one of those states, it will meet state standards.. ...
In the present invention, slurry is formed by mixing noble metal-supported powder particles (3) and a binder (4) with each other in a liquid (Step S1), and the noble metal-supported powder particles (3) are dispersed by applying vibrations to the slurry (Step S2), and thereafter, the slurry is spray dried while keeping a state where the noble metal-supported powder particles (3) are dispersed (Step S3), whereby noble metal-supported powder (1) is produced. In the noble metal-supported powder (1) produced by such a method, pores through which exhaust gas flows are formed appropriately, and accordingly, exhaust gas purification performance can be enhanced.
In this study, the performance and exhaust emission values of engine have been investigated according to the results obtained from the experimental study using gasoline and methanol fuels in spark ignition engines. In these experiments a regular automobile engine with 4 cylinders, 4 strokes and 1,3 liter volume was used. Without making any modifications on the engine, the engine performance has been determined for both fuels between the ranges of 1100-4000 rpm, 5-40 Nm torque values. In the experimental study, the rotation number, torque, strength, mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, fuel flow rate, exhaust temperature and exhaust emission values of the engine have been measured. According to the experiment results, if the engine works on gasoline, its minimum brake specific fuel consumption becomes 400 g/kWh, whereas if it works on methanol this value becomes 900 g/kW. The values of CO emission of the engine vary between 2 and 6% for gasoline, whereas the range for ...
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One of the leading risk factors for death in the world is air pollution, which is responsible for roughly seven million deaths every year.. 9 out of every 10 people in the world regularly breathe air that is considered to contain high levels of pollutants.. What are the causes of air pollution, though, and what can we do about it?. Lets take a look.. 1. Vehicle Exhaust Fumes. In city environments, the leading source of air pollution is vehicle exhaust fumes. This is because they release very high amounts of carbon monoxide. The largest pollutant in the U.S. is carbon monoxide.. In the US alone, there are millions of vehicles being operated every day.. While it might not seem like much, you can help by choosing to take other means of transportation when possible. Walking or biking are both great forms of exercise and dont contribute to air pollution. Taking public transportation is making is so much less exhaust fumes are being released into the atmosphere.. It can feel silly to sacrifice your ...
The African Development Bank is focusing more strongly on air pollution. As part of the banks 10-year strategy to facilitate Africas gradual transition to green growth, the bank has awarded Ramboll a contract for transport emission mapping and monitoring as well as capacity building in five cities.. Although indoor air pollution is the greatest problem, vehicle emissions are also steadily climbing, driven by urban sprawl, rapid motorisation and low levels of institutional capacity to manage traffic and its impacts. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that vehicle emissions account for 90% of urban air pollution in developing countries.. The main objective of the African Development Bank project is to advise city authorities and policy-makers on efficient and accurate methods for collecting, storing and analysing data as well as mapping air pollution levels in cities and, to identify options for financing low-emission transport technologies. The project will cover the ...
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Background Exposure to ambient particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Particle characteristics such as size, surface area and chemistry seem to influence the negative effects of particles. In this study, combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke, currently used in biological experiments, were analysed with respect to microstructure and chemistry. Methods Vehicle exhaust particles were collected in a road tunnel during two seasons, with and without use of studded tires, whereas wood smoke was collected from a stove with single-stage combustion. Additionally, a reference diesel sample (SRM 2975) was analysed. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM/HRTEM, EELS and SAED). Furthermore, the elemental and organic carbon fractions were quantified using thermal optical transmission analysis and the content of selected PAHs was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Carbon ...
One of the components of diesel exhaust (DE) is DPM which includes soot particles made up primarily of carbon and other solid particles made up of ash, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates and silicates. Diesel soot particles have a solid core consisting of elemental carbon, and are usually less than 1 micron in size, they have other substances attached to the surface, including organic carbon compounds.. Nearly all DPM is respirable in size and can be deposited deep in the lungs. The adverse health effects from DPM exposure include eye and respiratory irritation up to lung cancer if exposure is to high concentrations over a prolonged period of time.. High DPM concentrations can occur in confined areas or underground mines and may depend on the age of the equipment, the type of diesel engine and/or engine maintenance. The only way to determine the level of exposure experienced by workers is to measure personal exposure.. There is no current Worksafe Australia Occupational exposure standard for ...
Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds and benzene are emitted into the environment by motor vehicles. Air pollutants can contribute to urban air quality problems, such as photochemical smog and adversely affect human health. Further information on the impacts and sources of air pollutants is available from the Department of the Environment and Energy. National Pollutant Inventory data indicates that in Australia motor vehicles remain a major cause of air pollution in urban areas. However, not all vehicles contribute the same amount of air pollution to the atmosphere.. On the GVG, vehicles that meet a higher air pollution standard produce lower levels of harmful pollutants than vehicles of the same fuel type that meet a lower standard. The air pollution standard column reports on the standard to which the particular vehicle has been successfully certified in Australia.. Under Australias emission standards, vehicles fuelled by ...
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The next generation of London taxis will be gas powered plug-in hybrids. Heres why. After the Arab Oil Embargoes in the 70s, all of Europe and the UK went crazy for diesel powered cars, because diesel engines are more fuel efficient than their gas powered cousins. Diesel fuel in that part of the world is taxed at a lower rate than gasoline to encourage motorists to buy diesel powered cars. As a result, almost half of all new cars sold there every year are diesels.. But theres a catch. (Isnt there always?) The one thing European and UK regulators didnt realize 40 years ago is that diesel emissions are considerably higher than those from gas powered engines, especially when it comes to nitrous oxides and particulates. Manufacturers were supposed to be designing systems to deal with those issues, but as we now know from the Volkswagen diesel emissions cheating scandal, diesel emissions in the real world are much higher than they appear to be in testing.. Today in London, every one of its ...
Although traffic flow has attracted a great amount of attention in past decades, few of the studies focused on heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of different types of drivers or vehicles. This paper attempts to investigate the model and stability analysis of the heterogeneous traffic flow, including drivers with different characteristics. The two critical characteristics of drivers, sensitivity and cautiousness, are taken into account, which produce four types of drivers: the sensitive and cautious driver (S-C), the sensitive and incautious driver (S-IC), the insensitive and cautious driver (IS-C), and the insensitive and incautious driver (IS-IC). The homogeneous optimal velocity car-following model is developed into a heterogeneous form to describe the heterogeneous traffic flow, including the four types of drivers. The stability criterion of the heterogeneous traffic flow is derived, which shows that the proportions of the four types of drivers and their stability functions only relating ...
The environment climate change (n) U exhaust fume (n) pl fossil fuel (n) C global warming (n) C greenhouse gas(n) C organic food (n) U solar panel (n) pl wind farm (n) C \
The projects principal investigator is Luis Velarde, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry. Co-principal investigators are Gang Wu, PhD, assistant professor in Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, and Michel Dupuis, PhD, research professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.. Traffic air pollution, genetic variation and autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been increasing in the last few decades. In 2010, 1 out of 68 children in the United States was diagnosed with ASD. Improved diagnosis may partially explain the recent increase, while the complete understanding of ASD development and the reason for the rapid growing prevalence remains unclear.. Air pollution has been associated with various health effects including child development. In urban areas, traffic-related air pollutants (TRP) are the most important contributor to local air pollution and the principal source of intra-urban variation in air pollution ...
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All US regulated emission standards, including Tier 4 for off-road diesel engines, are extensions of the Clean Air Act (1963) which was enacted to reduce air pollution in the United States. The tiered mandates were put in place to progressively reduce the level of harmful emissions such as Particulate Matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) that enter the air via diesel engine exhaust. The most stringent emission reduction mandate to date, is called Tier 4. The Tier 4 emission standard will reduce emissions of PM by 90% from current levels. ...
In other news, Sri Lanka Environment and Natural Resources Minister A.H.M. Fowzie has announced a plan that that would completely ban the use of vehicles that do not comply with new emissions standards. The New Vehicle Emissions standards are currently set to take effect on January 1, 2006. The Ministers plan to ban noncompliant vehicles will need to be approved by the full Cabinet before taking effect. The UN has background[PDF] on Sri Lanka vehicle emission policies. The Sri Lanka Daily News has more.... The Maine Board of Environmental Protection (BEP) on Thursday approved a plan that would adopt the California Zero Emission Vehicle program. If passed by the Maine legislature this winter, the program would require, starting in 2009, 6 percent of all vehicles sold in Maine to have the newest available emissions control technology (ie. clean-burning gasoline) and an additional 4 percent to have essentially zero emissions, as found in gas-electric hybid vehicles. Critics of the plan point out ...
Unlike gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas engines, diesel engines do not use high-voltage spark ignition (spark plugs). An engine running on diesel compresses the air inside the cylinder to high pressures and temperatures (compression ratios from 14:1 to 18:1 are common in current diesel engines); the engine generally injects the diesel fuel directly into the cylinder, starting a few degrees before top dead center (TDC) and continuing during the combustion event. The high temperatures inside the cylinder cause the diesel fuel to react with the oxygen in the mix (burn or oxidize), heating and expanding the burning mixture to convert the thermal/pressure difference into mechanical work, i.e., to move the piston. Engines have glow plugs and grid heaters to help start the engine by preheating the cylinders to a minimum operating temperature. Diesel engines are lean burn engines,[30] burning the fuel in more air than is needed for the chemical reaction. They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ...
The researchers supplemented the measurements made in the traffic environments with experiments carried out in the engine laboratory. The findings supported the outcome of the measurements carried out in a traffic environment: nanoclusters form an essential part of particle emissions from engines, but their quantity is also dependent on, for example, the driving situation. According to the researchers, it is also probable that the techniques used in a car, such as the fuel type and the exhaust gas cleaning system, all have an effect in nanocluster emissions. This is also supported by observations made in the roadside: nanoclusters were not present in the exhaust gas of every car that drove past the measuring station.. It is likely that, for example, the high content of sulphuric acid in the exhaust gas advances the formation of nanoclusters, and therefore increases the vehicles nanocluster emission level. According to earlier research, the sulphuric acid content of the exhaust gas depends at ...
Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been employed to examine the factors that increase the risk of such dysfunction. We used aconitine to test whether a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of arrhythmia being triggered in hypertensive rats. We hypothesised that DE exposure increases the risk of arrhythmia due to sensory irritation during and after inhalation. Spontaneously hypertensive rats surgically implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed to 150 μg/m3 of DE or filtered air for 4 h. Arrhythmogenesis was assessed 24 h later in urethane-anaesthetised animals by continuous intravenous infusion of aconitine while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored. Rats exposed to DE had lower HR when compared to air-exposed animals. Exposure to DE resulted in significantly shorter PR intervals, and significantly prolonged corrected QT ...
In the context of travel demand uncertainty, this paper investigates how to determine the robust road speed limits for improving mobility and lowering vehicular emissions in bimodal transportation systems that involve private cars and subway. More specifically, the total demand vector is supposed to vary within a given set. Our target is to find the optimal road speed limits against the worst feasible demand scenario so as to minimize the sum social cost of system travel time and vehicular emissions. In order to estimate traffic emissions more reliably, motor vehicle emission simulator (MOVES) is utilized to simulate the emission factor function with respect to average speed. On these bases, we formulate the robust speed limits design problem as a “min-max” nonlinear model with complementarity constraints and solve it iteratively by a cutting-plane scheme that contains two sub-MPCCs. A numerical example is illustrated at the end.
Optimisation of combustion engines combined with modern catalytic converters has contributed to a significant reduction of pollutant emissions [1,2]. Recently, new catalysts for diesel cars have been introduced to decrease NOx-emissions. Cu-based zeolites are the active component for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx using NH3, which is obtained by decomposition of urea (AdBlue®). There is a debate in the literature on the structure and position of active Cu-sites within the zeolite. A profound understanding of the catalyst operation will support rational catalyst design and the development of control algorithms for exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Characterisation of the material before and after the reaction can provide initial ideas on the catalysts behaviour. However, for comprehensive characterisation, it is essential to study the catalyst under working conditions since many intermediate steps are only observable while the reaction is occurring because the structure of ...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed

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  • What are the tailpipe emissions from a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) or an electric vehicle (EV)? (
  • A vehicle that operates exclusively on electricity (an EV) will not emit any tailpipe emissions. (
  • Calculating tailpipe emissions for PHEVs is more complicated. (
  • A PHEV operating on electricity only (like an EV) does not generate any tailpipe emissions. (
  • When a PHEV is operating on gasoline only, it creates tailpipe emissions based on the PHEV's gasoline fuel economy. (
  • Tailpipe emissions for a PHEV operating on both electricity and gasoline cannot be calculated without detailed information about how the PHEV operates. (
  • The overall tailpipe emissions for a PHEV can vary significantly based on the PHEV's battery capacity, how it is driven, and how often it is charged. (
  • Visit the Beyond Tailpipe Emissions calculator to estimate GHG emissions for an EV in your region of the country. (
  • While your fuel economy when using an ethanol blend in your vehicle will be slightly lower than when using gasoline without ethanol, the CO 2 tailpipe emissions per mile will be similar. (
  • The Green Vehicle Guide (GVG) emissions data used to rank vehicles is based on tailpipe emissions measurements from specific vehicle models, and do not incorporate the other environmental impacts that may occur in the production of a vehicle, or the production of the fuel used in the vehicle. (
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , further including generating a fourth value representative of a cumulative number of miles that the vehicle has traveled during the first period, and determining a fifth value representing average tailpipe emissions of the exhaust gas constituent, in grams per mile, using the third value and the fifth value. (
  • A group of researchers and scientists in the US has found that breathing vehicle tailpipe emissions can turn 'good' cholesterol into 'bad' cholesterol, contributing to clogged and hardened arteries and other related health problems. (
  • The gHEV trucks produced substantially reduced tailpipe emissions during all drive cycles tested in the laboratory when compared to conventional diesel vehicles. (
  • Tailpipe emissions were similar. (
  • When vehicle emissions assessments are focused solely on what comes out of the tailpipe, this encourages use of low-density, greenhouse gas-intensive materials that may provide lighter weight components to improve tailpipe emissions," ten Broek said. (
  • A new system is needed to take into account tailpipe emissions and indirect emissions from power generation for battery vehicles, while electric vehicle infrastructure needs to be "smart" and able to control charging, to minimise the impact it could have on the power system, the report recommends. (
  • Tailpipe emissions of oxygenated sompounds from a three-year-old Nissan Murano fitted with a catalytic converter. (
  • A new study cautions that reductions in PM exhaust emissions will not necessarily be matched an equal reduction in the toxic effects of emissions on health and the environment. (
  • Current legislation, knowledge of adverse health effects, and available and proposed solutions for emission reductions are also treated. (
  • There are strong indications that older vehicles are generally used less than newer ones, which means that the emissions reductions achieved are higher than the above indicator may suggest. (
  • The United States has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions 26 percent to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025 and to achieving greater emissions reductions in the future. (
  • And because lower sulfur reduces emissions from all vehicles, the proposed sulfur reductions would achieve Day One benefits, immediately reducing emissions from every gasoline-powered vehicle on our roads, no matter how old. (
  • Together, today's announcements would put us on track to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from new passenger vehicle sales by more than 60% in 2030 compared to vehicles sold last year, and facilitate achieving the president's goal of 50-52% net economy-wide greenhouse gas emission reductions below 2005 levels in 2030," said the White House. (
  • Because steel manufacturing has one-fifth to one-twentieth the emissions of alternate materials, these designs are truly a breakthrough, enabling reductions through the entire life cycle from manufacturing to tailpipe to recyclability," ten Broek said. (
  • For many businesses operating fleet vehicles, emissions reductions are hugely important right now, but the solution still has to be cost effective, which propane autogas is. (
  • Fiscal Year 2018: All pre-2007 diesel vehicles and equipment not previously retrofit would be required to have retrofits achieving at least 85% (such as DPF) or best available pollution reductions. (
  • We found that increasing the use of EDVs is not an effective way to produce large emissions reductions. (
  • From a policy standpoint, this study tells us that it makes more sense to set emissions reductions goals, rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies with the idea that they'll solve the problem on their own. (
  • This study analyzes how BEV promotion can contribute to reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions in Korea and investigates effective long-term policy options. (
  • This finding is significant because investment in BEV promotion in Korea specifies PM emissions reductions as their core objective and legal basis. (
  • A rotation schedule similar to San Yisidro's may be useful in lessening exposure to CO emissions from car engine exhaust. (
  • A vehicle free buffer zone is created in front of the border inspection stations to make space between vehicles giving off exhaust and the border inspection workers. (
  • 2. What are vehicle exhaust emissions? (
  • 35. Will vehicles that have passed border inspection under the new exhaust emissions standards be tested to ensure they are continuing to meet the emissions standards at subsequent Warrant of Fitness/Certificate of Fitness inspections? (
  • Since ZEVs have no internal combustion engine, these vehicles do not release tailpipe exhaust or evaporated emissions. (
  • A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV, is a vehicle that never emits exhaust gas from the onboard source of power. (
  • It also does not include vehicles running on 100% biofuel as these also emit exhaust gases, despite being carbon neutral overall. (
  • We used gas and particle concentration measurements with high temporal resolution (10 Hz) to quantify both the emission ratios of nitrogen oxides per carbon dioxide (NOx/CO2) for over 70,000 individual exhaust plumes as well as the emission ratios for size-resolved particle numbers per carbon dioxide (d(PN CO2−1)/dlogD) for about 10,000 plumes. (
  • No comments were found for Analysis of Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions . (
  • Levels of exhaust gases and particles emitted from vehicles are strongly influenced by driving patterns and the performance of catalytic converters and particle filters, according to recent research. (
  • An advanced FTIR analyser installed at Intertek's engine test facility in Milton Keynes is enabling engineers to improve the quality of their tests on the gaseous components of engine exhaust emissions. (
  • A method and system for operating a lean-burn internal combustion engine in cooperation with an exhaust gas purification system having an emission control device, wherein the system includes a controller which calculates current levels of a selected exhaust gas constituent, such as NOx, during lean engine. (
  • A method and system for operating a lean-burn internal combustion engine in cooperation with an exhaust gas purification system having an emission control device, wherein the system includes a controller which calculates current levels of a selected exhaust gas constituent, such as NO x , during lean engine operating conditions based upon the difference between a determined instantaneous feedgas NO x concentration and a determined instantaneous device efficiency. (
  • Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are characterized by size, morphology, composition, and size distribution. (
  • There has been much focus on exhaust emissions, but only a few limited studies have investigated non-exhaust particle emissions, which contain a significant amount of metallic materials. (
  • A new method for measuring the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER) is proposed as a first step to guide new legislations and to focus further research on non-exhaust airborne emission, i.e., research on the generation mechanisms for particle emissions and their adverse health effects. (
  • Secondary particles formed from the exhaust of vehicles using ethanol-gasoline blends increase the production of pulmonary and cardiac reactive oxygen species and induce pulmonary inflammation. (
  • Sulfur inhibits the catalytic converter's ability to reduce vehicle emissions, so lower sulfur at the pump means fewer exhaust emissions in the air. (
  • First, the high amount of diesel exhaust spewing from these vehicles is creating a public health hazard, as the World Health Organization has categorized both diesel exhaust and outdoor air pollution as carcinogens. (
  • Two dangerous constituents of vehicle exhaust fumes are carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). (
  • Lack of regulation enforcement in low-income countries is partly due to the absence of expensive, non portable instruments required to detect vehicle exhaust emissions. (
  • The group envisioned a bacterial biosensor that could detect CO and NO x levels in vehicle exhaust and provide colorimetric readouts through chromoprotein expression. (
  • For the years 2017 to 2025 and 2030, EPA's estimate of vehicle exhaust emission control costs ranged from $268 million in 2017 to $664 million in 2030. (
  • However, few studies have investigated the transient trend of automotive exhaust emissions through on-road measurements. (
  • The key objective of the present paper was to examine the transient characteristics of exhaust emissions from different vehicle types on the roads of Tianjin. (
  • Peden, who is currently on an interagency personnel assignment with DOE Basic Energy Sciences' catalysis science program, has written or contributed to more than 160 peer-reviewed publications on the kinetics and mechanisms of automobile exhaust emission control catalysis. (
  • Said device uses a source (11) of collimated radiation to infrared and ultraviolet (15) and comprises a mechanism (16) placed on the opposite side of the road and serves to receive and measure the infrared and ultraviolet radiation from the source (11) and transmitted by the vehicle exhaust. (
  • Particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust, pneumatic tire wear, road pavement, and brake pads are taken into account. (
  • For example, emission tests in accordance with Federal Test Procedures (FTP) ("Instrumentation and Techniques for Exhaust Gas Emission Measurements", Society of Automotive Engineers, documents J254 and J1094, August 1994) require that a vehicle be placed on a dynamometer and exercised over various operating modes (e.g., acceleration, cruising and deceleration) for ˜1 hour while the tailpipe concentrations are measured. (
  • These emissions leave the car through its tailpipe and contain pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and the greenhouse gas known as carbon dioxide. (
  • Emissions of many air pollutants have been shown to have variety of negative effects on public health and the natural environment. (
  • Emissions that are principal pollutants of concern include: Hydrocarbons (HC) - A class of burned or partially burned fuel, hydrocarbons are toxins. (
  • Although not considered emission pollutants by the original California Air Resources Board (CARB) or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definitions, the most recent common use of the term also includes volatile organic compounds, several air toxics (most notably 1,3-Butadiene), and global pollutants such as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. (
  • Zero emissions vehicles are referred to as carbon negative vehicles or that emit less pollutants than other vehicles can be referred to as carbon neutral or semi zero-emissions vehicles. (
  • Therefore, CARB's definition is accounting only for pollutants emitted at the point of the vehicle operation, and the clean air benefits are usually local because depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the electricity generation plants. (
  • The rules also reduce the emission of smog-forming pollutants 75 percent. (
  • Emissions of toxic air pollutants such as benzene, acetaldehyde and acrolein are also greatly lowered. (
  • A new study by NOAA scientists and colleagues shows a stunning reduction in vehicle-related air pollutants in the Los Angeles basin over the past several decades. (
  • Vehicles are an important source of particulate matter (PM) pollutants. (
  • With the goal of developing a biological device that could cheaply measure vehicle pollutants, 12 undergraduates from across Pakistan gathered in Peshawar during the summer of 2016 to form Pakistan's first iGEM team, Team Peshawar. (
  • The amount of fuel a vehicle burns directly relates to the pollutants it produces. (
  • Peden is internationally recognized for his leadership in developing mechanisms of catalytic reactions that allow today's internal combustion engines to operate more efficiently and meet near-zero emissions levels for key pollutants. (
  • They found that, even if EDVs made up 42 percent of passenger vehicles in the U.S., there would be little or no reduction in the emission of key air pollutants. (
  • Researchers from the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands claim to have invented a new type of paving material that actually removes some pollutants from the air as vehicles travel over the surface. (
  • The reduced mass emissions of pollutants are defined in a common coordinate system, from both traditional internal combustion engines and electric vehicles. (
  • The methodology for calculation of reduced mass operational emissions includes 64 types of major pollutants, grouped into eight specific groups. (
  • The average operational mass emissions of pollutants were determined using the methodology of the European Environment Agency. (
  • GM, the nation's largest automaker, will spell out the request Friday in written comments on a Trump administration proposal to roll back Obama-era fuel economy and emissions standards, freezing them at 2020 levels instead of gradually making them tougher. (
  • Natural Resources Canada's Zero-Emission Vehicle Awareness Initiative is now accepting applications for funding until September 15, 2020 at 23:59 (Eastern Daylight Time) for projects to be completed no later than March 31, 2021. (
  • The 2020 Request for Proposals of the Zero-Emission Vehicle Awareness Initiative is now closed. (
  • The research is part of a larger effort by the California Air Resources Board to expand the use of hybrid technology to help meet the goals of AB 32, a 2006 state law that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. (
  • The Low-Emission Vehicle market in the U.S. is estimated at US$16.4 Billion in the year 2020. (
  • Toyota will support Tokyo 2020 with a large number of zero-emission FCEV such as the Mirai sedan for official use. (
  • the current regulatory framework for vehicle emissions, carbon intensity of fuels and use of renewable fuels covers only up to 2020/2021. (
  • Optimized internal combustion engines are the major contributor to the reduction of passenger car GHG emissions with significant improvements until 2020 and the subsequent penetration of more effective alternative technologies into the fleet. (
  • The latest zero emission regulations apply to new cars and light-duty trucks and will significantly increase the number of emission-free vehicles delivered to Oregon beginning with the 2018 model year. (
  • However, a likely scenario suggests that electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles could make up 5 percent of new vehicle sales in 2018, growing to 13 percent of sales in 2025. (
  • This updated NOM-044 would require EPA 2010 or Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles and engines to be sold in Mexico as of January 1, 2018. (
  • The state has proposed adopting the Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) and Zero-Emission Vehicle standards to avoid the ramifications of any changes to federal standards resulting from the 2018 rollback of federal fuel economy and GHG emissions standards for passenger vehicles. (
  • Using a choice model, this study simulates consumers' vehicle replacement behavior under various policy scenarios from 2018 to 2025. (
  • Average light-duty gasoline PM 10 emission rates increased from 6.5 mg/mi for 1993-97 vehicles to 53.8 mg/mi for the pre-1985 vehicles. (
  • The recruited fleet average, hot-stabilized IM240 PM 10 emission rate for gasoline vehicles was 19.0 mg/mi. (
  • This assumes the average gasoline vehicle on the road today has a fuel economy of about 22.0 miles per gallon and drives around 11,500 miles per year. (
  • The exact formulation of the gasoline in your vehicle will vary depending on season, region in the U.S., and other factors. (
  • Vehicle emissions are generated from internal combustion engines, primarily those that rely on both gasoline and diesel fuel. (
  • In addition, there is also the release of volatile organic compounds that are known as evaporative emissions, which comes from evaporating gasoline. (
  • The EPA's newly proposed rules to reduce sulfur in gasoline may have the perverse effect of making alternative vehicles, that is, those that don't run on gasoline, less competitive with conventional vehicles and ensure that we remain addicted to oil. (
  • After 15 months of 'regulatory limbo,' a proposal to require lower-pollution vehicles and cleaner gasoline nationwide (matching a standard already in place in California) is being advanced by the Obama administration. (
  • ADEQ will pay up to $550 for repair of gasoline vehicles and up to $1,000 for repair of heavy duty diesel vehicles. (
  • Canadian and U.S. federal emission standards for various classes of on-road and off-road vehicles and engines, including passenger cars, trucks, motorcycles, gasoline-fuelled engines found in lawn and garden and light-duty industrial machines and diesel-fueled engines found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines are closely aligned. (
  • Volkswagen also did say the 800,000 were 'predominantly vehicles with diesel engines,' raising the possibility for the first time that some Volkswagens with gasoline-powered motors may also have emissions problems. (
  • Since its inception nearly 30 years ago, the original goal of the program was to reduce local air pollution caused by gasoline vehicles, but it evolved to also target reduction of GHG emissions. (
  • The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently completed a year-long technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric trucks compared with conventional diesel vehicles. (
  • We conducted this study to show how a gasoline hybrid might perform compared to a conventional diesel truck given that gasoline engines are less efficient than diesel engines and generally not used in heavier vehicles," said Lee Slezak, program manager for DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. (
  • The administration says the EPA and USDOT are advancing smart fuel efficiency and emissions standards that would deliver around $140 billion in net benefits over the life of the program, save about 200 billion gallons of gasoline, and reduce around two billion metric tons of carbon pollution. (
  • In August 2007, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. (
  • Five additional popular model vehicles were selected from a set of vehicles identified as particularly likely to be sensitive to increased ethanol content in gasoline. (
  • All of the vehicles were tested on federal certification gasoline (E0), E10, E15, and E20. (
  • The adoption rate for electric passenger vehicles in B.C. has been among the highest in Canada, but the commercial sector, which accounts for the bulk of transportation emissions, has been slow to make the switch from diesel and gasoline to battery electric or hydrogen. (
  • As carbon taxes continue to rise, electric vehicles at some point will simply start to make more economic sense than diesel and gasoline powered trucks. (
  • i) For the purposes of vehicle testing, the "baseline" level of the parameter shall refer to the level of the parameter in Clean Air Act baseline gasoline . (
  • ii) If the fuel parameter for which the fuel supplier is petitioning EPA to augment the complex emission model (hereinafter defined as the "candidate parameter") is not specified for Clean Air Act summer baseline fuel, then the baseline level for the candidate parameter shall be set at the levels found in typical gasoline . (
  • The gasoline sulfur standard is intended to make emission control systems more effective for both existing and new vehicles and to enable more stringent vehicle emissions standards. (
  • Among the results found as part of a recent study - commissioned by PERC and conducted by the Gas Technology Institute - propane autogas light-duty trucks produced 12% fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than gasoline. (
  • Whether you're talking diesel, gasoline, or even natural gas, these emissions figures reinforce that no other fuel can compare to propane autogas when you consider the dollars invested per ton of emissions reduced," says Michael Taylor, PERC Director of Autogas Business Development. (
  • This study aims to provide a historical perspective on emissions from a gasoline pre-emissions control vehicle using both leaded and unleaded fuel to augment avail- able data. (
  • Another important factor arising from the use of ethanol is the formation of tropospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to measure the amount of unburned alcohol and legislated emissions as well as the ozone formation potential of a passenger (light-duty) vehicle fueled with gasoline containing different concentrations of ethanol.The main conclusion is that unburned alcohol emissions increase in direct proportion to the ethanol content in the fuel. (
  • Emissions of gas-phase ammonia in the Caldecott Tunnel were measured to be 194 and 267 mg/L of gasoline-equivalent fuel burned in the tunnel. (
  • Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NO x and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. (
  • We estimate NO x emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. (
  • The results show that BEV promotion alone has limited effectiveness at reducing PM emissions because BEV purchases were predominantly made by gasoline vehicle owners while diesel vehicles are the key source of emissions. (
  • When announced the goal was that, where practicable, the government's fleet should be emissions free by 2025/26. (
  • That is why, the Government of Canada has set ambitious federal targets for zero-emission vehicles (ZEV) reaching 10% of new light-duty vehicles (LDV) sales per year by 2025, 30% by 2030 and 100% by 2040. (
  • In California , regulations regarding the number of zero and low emissions vehicles state that by 2025 at least 15 percent of new cars must be zero or low emissions. (
  • Both state and federal rules require the greenhouse gas emissions of new light-duty vehicles to average an equivalent of 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. (
  • California is pushing even more for green cars and some of the state's agencies are collaborating on a range of initiatives to support the goal of 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2025. (
  • Sources who had been briefed on the matter told Reuters that the administration has already decided to review the viability of the 2022 through 2025 corporate vehicle emissions rules. (
  • The European Automobile Manufacturers' Association, an industry body, criticized the 2025 target, saying "it does not leave enough time to make the necessary technical and design changes to vehicles, in particular to light commercial vehicles given their longer development and production cycles. (
  • Minnesota is pursuing clean car standards for the state to help meet its goal of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 percent by 2025 and 80 percent by 2050. (
  • The order notes that in April, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced plans to roll back vehicle emission standards for model years 2022-2025. (
  • LEV standards will help the state meet its goal of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions 26% by 2025, the order adds. (
  • The Euro level listed for each vehicle indicates the air pollution standard that the vehicle meets in Australia. (
  • To help Oregon's continuing effort to reduce air pollution from vehicles statewide, Oregon has adopted California's program for Zero Emission Vehicles. (
  • With evidence on the harmful health impacts of vehicle emissions increasing, the EPA will begin monitoring pollution levels adjacent to freeways in Los Angeles and more than 100 of America's biggest cities. (
  • The agreement brings together Hydrogenics, a designer, developer and manufacturer of hydrogen fuel cell systems for zero-emission urban transportation, with a Chinese-based electric bus integrator and powertrain maker that is supplying China's electric zero-pollution urban transit market. (
  • Vehicle emissions contribute to increased levels of air pollution like man-made ozone and particulate matter (smoke and dust). (
  • For example, a company that operates within the Birmingham area performing external maintenance tasks at customers' properties can spend a considerable part of their day criss-crossing the city's road network, thus contributing to high levels of air pollution through their vehicle emissions and adding to congestion. (
  • But our current system of middle class people paying half a years income for a newer, less polluting car but allowing others to drive vehicles that spew unlimited pollution is not rational. (
  • A major component of that effort is the pending standard to regulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles-a standard that will bring economic and health benefits to Mexicans as well as mitigate climate-inducing air pollution. (
  • Even when electric cars are wholly powered by renewable energy sources, these vehicles would still contribute to pollution. (
  • This refill replenishes all the consumable materials in the Carolina Investigations® for AP® Environmental Science: Air Pollution and Vehicle Emissions 8-Station Kit (item #181083). (
  • Digital teacher's manual, included FREE with refill purchase, is a 12-month eBook license to the Air Pollution and Vehicle Emissions Teacher's Manual and Student Guide. (
  • The Biden administration says the order will also kick off the development of long-term fuel efficiency and emissions standards to save consumers money, cut pollution, boost public health, advance environmental justice, and tackle the climate crisis. (
  • Research profile: Learn how the first ever Pakistani iGEM team developed a portable, inexpensive vehicle emissions test to address air pollution. (
  • GAO reviewed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) new rule on the control of air pollution from motor vehicles: tier 3 motor vehicle emission and fuel standards. (
  • Pursuant to section 801(a)(2)(A) of title 5, United States Code, this is our report on a major rule promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entitled "Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards" (RIN: 2060-AQ86). (
  • A new report has pressed for urgent action from the UK government on curbing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution from road transport, but warned that such action could leave a multi billion-pound hole in annual tax receipts. (
  • While other areas of the economy have managed to reduce carbon dioxide output, road transport emissions have increased by one per cent since 1990, while London and 74 other cities and areas have illegal levels of harmful nitrogen dioxide pollution. (
  • Ministers need to develop a new cross-departmental strategy on road transport to deliver emissions cuts required by UK climate laws, and to address air pollution, much of which comes from diesel, the report from think tank Policy Exchange said. (
  • Richard Howard, Policy Exchange's head of energy and environment and lead author of the report, said: "The new government needs to take more assertive action to address the twin problems of carbon emissions and air pollution from road use. (
  • Despite improvements in fuel quality (including changes to additives), internal combustion engines, and catalytic converters, emissions of VOCs and inorganic gases from motor vehicles remain a significant source of pollution in urban areas due to their numbers. (
  • Emission-free vehicles will play a critical role in meeting Oregon's greenhouse gas reduction targets. (
  • The two-year project, which is being funded by the California Air Resources Board, will allow researchers to evaluate the emission reduction benefits of two commercially available hybrid construction vehicles: a Caterpillar bulldozer and a Kamatsu hydraulic excavator. (
  • ten Broek and EDAG presented the FSV results, which demonstrated that body structure weights for battery and fuel cell vehicles are on par with aluminum designs and a 70 percent reduction in life cycle emissions over similarly sized vehicles using internal combustion engines. (
  • BloombergNEF's new report shows cleanly produced hydrogen can help with emissions reduction targets. (
  • Maintaining the existing vehicle efficiency and fuels regulations to 2030 will lower tank-to-wheel GHG emissions from road transport to 647 Mt representing a 29% reduction compared to 2005 levels, achieving almost aspired level for 2030. (
  • The well-to wheel-emission savings represent a 23% reduction in tank-to-wheel emissions and a 22% reduction in well-to-tank emissions. (
  • Once low-carbon fuels and vehicles can be deployed affordably en masse, then the MBM can be the primary GHG reduction policy and other policies (vehicle efficiency, fuels etc.) can be removed. (
  • Most of diesel school buses in Boston are already later model years, or MY 2006 and earlier retrofit with emission controls of the highest feasible level of emission reduction. (
  • Fiscal Year 2016: Half of the pre-2007 diesel vehicles and equipment used for the contract would be required to have retrofits achieving at least 20% reduction of PM emissions. (
  • Fiscal Year 2017: All pre-2007 diesel vehicles and equipment would be required to have retrofits achieving at least 20% PM emission reduction. (
  • As it stands, there is no overarching government strategy to deliver the required reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the latest plan to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions is inadequate. (
  • The law requires a Vehicle Emission Control Label under the hood stating "this vehicle conforms to U.S. EPA and state of California regulations" or "this vehicle conforms to U.S. EPA regulations and is certified for sale in California. (
  • At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed in the U.S. were promulgated at the municipal or, occasionally, the state level. (
  • Both agencies, as well as other state agencies, now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles in the United States. (
  • Those regulations required 10 percent of new passenger cars sold in California to be battery-electric vehicles by 2003. (
  • At the same time Oregon's Environmental Quality Commission adopted the Zero Emission Vehicle rules, the commission also adopted California's Low Emission Vehicle III regulations. (
  • Oregon's adoption of the Low Emission Vehicle III regulations is important because it ensures the greenhouse gas emission limits will remain in force even if efforts to weaken or repeal the federal rules succeed. (
  • However, these patterns are not yet taken into account in setting levels for overall vehicle emissions under European regulations. (
  • be the subject of a statement from the manufacturer or its duly authorized representative that the vehicle or engine conformed to the standards set out in the Canadian emission regulations, or to the standards referred to in paragraph (b) or (c) above, at the time of its manufacture. (
  • A person that sells or offers for sale any vehicle or engine in Canada that has been purchased at the retail level in the United States is responsible for ensuring that the product complies with the Canadian emission legislation and regulations, and is required to maintain evidence of such conformity. (
  • Please refer to the Environment Canada web site for additional information concerning the Canadian emission legislation and regulations. (
  • Below is a list of the Canadian emission legislation and regulations along with internet links. (
  • The Regulations establish air pollutant emission standards for various classes of on-road vehicles and engines, including passenger vehicles, sport utility vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, etc. (
  • The Regulations apply to vehicles and engines manufactured after January 1, 2004. (
  • The Regulations establish air pollutant emission standards for small spark-ignition engines rated up to 19 kW (25 hp). (
  • The Regulations establish air pollutant emission standards for diesel engines used in off-road applications such as those typically found in construction, mining, farming and forestry machines. (
  • The Regulations establish air pollutant emission standards for marine spark-ignition outboard engines, personal watercraft, inboard engines, vessels, off-road motorcycles, snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles and utility vehicles of the 2012 and later model years. (
  • Raph, don't forget that engines often have to be "detuned" to meet emissions regulations. (
  • Same engine, different tunes to meet different emissions regulations. (
  • Tier 3] standards will create jobs and are estimated to prevent thousands of deaths each year, in turn providing billions of dollars in public healthcare savings …We call for an immediate finalization of the proposed Tier 3 rules and the use of similar widely-beneficial regulations to ensure our commitment to creating the next generation of clean and efficient vehicles. (
  • The Mexican government has been promising to improve its regulations of transportation emissions for years. (
  • However, for Pakistan and many other developing countries, vehicle emission regulations are either not present, or not properly implemented or enforced. (
  • It is a imed at achieving improvements in air quality by reducing the levels of harmful emissions from motor vehicles. (
  • The concept of zero-emission vehicles is typically attributed to the transportation options that do not result in any harmful emissions during vehicle operation. (
  • Harmful emissions are defined as those known to have a negative impact on the environment or human health. (
  • A Defra spokeswoman said: "We are firmly committed to improving the UK's air quality and cutting harmful emissions. (
  • Click on the questions below to learn more about this estimate and see answers to common questions about greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles. (
  • Are there other sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a vehicle? (
  • Are there any greenhouse gas emissions associated with the use of my vehicle other than what comes out of the tailpipe? (
  • Driving most vehicles creates tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Each of these steps can produce additional greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Greenhouse gas emissions , such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which can trap additional heat from the sun in the earth's atmosphere, causing the 'greenhouse effect' and climate change. (
  • CO 2 is the main greenhouse gas produced by motor vehicles. (
  • The Low Emission Vehicle program was one of the first significant actions taken toward Oregon's goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions 75 percent by 2050. (
  • The transportation sector accounts for about 40 percent of the state's greenhouse gas emissions," said Commissioner Janea A. Scott, the Energy Commission's lead commissioner on transportation. (
  • 1 To meet that goal, the United States will need to cut emissions from the transportation sector, which accounted for 26 percent of the country's greenhouse gas emissions in 2014. (
  • Autonomous vehicles-particularly those that are passenger cars-could significantly affect the country's ability to cut greenhouse gas emissions and move toward a carbon-free economy. (
  • Electric vehicles (EVs) are widely promoted as clean alternatives to conventional vehicles for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ground transportation. (
  • California's Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program is one of the key state-level policies for reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. (
  • Carbon emission is by far the leader of all greenhouse gas emissions, and transportation is among the highest contributors to carbon emissions. (
  • However, their greenhouse gas intensity may have the unintended consequence of increasing greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis. (
  • The vehicle standards will be implemented over the same timeframe as the greenhouse gas/fuel efficiency standards for light-duty vehicles, as part of a comprehensive approach toward regulating emissions from motor vehicles. (
  • A new report from BloombergNEF says clean hydrogen could be deployed in the coming years to cut up to 34% of global greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • The top climate change scientist for NOAA said he has received $4 million from Congress and permission from his agency to study two emergency - and controversial - methods to cool the Earth if the U.S. and other nations fail to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Most new vehicles with 7,500 or fewer miles on their odometers need to be equipped with factory-installed California-certified advanced emission control systems in order to be sold and registered in Massachusetts. (
  • In October 2013, Massachusetts Governor Charles Baker and his counterparts from California, Connecticut, Maryland, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Vermont signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) committing to coordinated action to ensure the successful implementation of their respective states' zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs. (
  • The Massachusetts Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program requires most new vehicles with 7,500 or fewer miles on their odometers to be equipped with factory-installed California-certified advanced emission control systems. (
  • Under those rules, GM must sell a minimum of around 2,200 fully electric vehicles in California this year, or about 1.1 per cent of the roughly 200,000 cars, trucks and SUVs that it normally sells in the state each year. (
  • California sets the requirements based on a complex formula that considers the total number of vehicles sold by an automaker and gives credits for fully electric vehicle sales and partial credits for plug-in gas-electric hybrid vehicles. (
  • GM's proposal would set lower zero-emissions vehicle requirements than California, but spread them to the entire nation. (
  • This will increase the production of zero emissions cars so that there will be approximately 1.4 million of them available in California. (
  • the manufacturing emissions may decrease by the development of technology, industry, shifting toward mass production and the ever-increasing use of renewable energy throughout the supply-chains The term zero-emissions or ZEV, as originally coined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), refers only to motor vehicle emissions from the onboard source of power. (
  • Under the federal Clean Air Act, California is the only state allowed to adopt rules affecting emissions from new vehicles. (
  • The program sets ambitious goals, so California will conduct a full review of its Zero Emission Vehicle program in 2017. (
  • California adopted the nation's first Zero Emission Vehicle rules in 1990. (
  • That requirement was found infeasible and California overhauled its program to focus instead on an incremental approach to developing emission-free vehicles. (
  • Normally having the California Air Resources Board and the auto industry in agreement on emissions standards would be enough, but the Trump administration wants to ensure that California plays no role in setting standards. (
  • Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt suggested that as administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency he might not allow California to set its own stricter motor vehicle emissions standards. (
  • Scientists at the University of California, Riverside's Center for Environmental Research and Technology have received a $2 million contract for a first-of-its-kind study of hybrid construction vehicles. (
  • The other half will fund testing in six vehicles, which will be scattered throughout California. (
  • The project may provide data that could contribute to a hybrid incentive program under AB 118, a 2007 law that established voluntary incentive program administered by the California Air Resources Board to fund clean vehicle and equipment projects, research on biofuels production and the air quality impacts of alternative fuels, and workforce training. (
  • These private-public partnerships to build dozens of hydrogen fueling stations set the stage for hydrogen fuel cell electric cars to become commonplace on our streets and provide a new generation of long-range zero-emission vehicles for California consumers. (
  • The state's effort to bring more fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) to the road and the infrastructure to fuel them features support from Toyota, station developers, the Fuel Cell Partnership, the Air Resources Board, the California Energy Commission and GO-Biz, said CARB in a statement issues yesterday. (
  • We use a microlevel data set on households in California that contains information on make, model, model year, and annual mileage for each vehicle in each of 978 households. (
  • We use both annual household income and a measure of lifetime income and compare the incidence of the current California registration fee system to our three alternative emissions-related fees. (
  • Experimenting on mice, the team from the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA), and other institutions, found that just two weeks of exposure to emission particles was enough to cause blood and liver damage that was not reversed by a week of receiving filtered air. (
  • Southern California continues to experience the worst air quality in the nation, and transitioning heavy-duty vehicle fleets to cleaner-burning vehicle technology is an important element of our overall clean air goals," said Barry R. Wallerstein, executive officer of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. (
  • DENVER - This week, the Colorado Air Quality Control Commission will consider adopting California standards that require auto manufacturers to sell a certain percentage of zero-emission and low-emission vehicles. (
  • Funding for the development of the truck comes through the Department of Energy's office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, under the funding plan for zero-emissions cargo transport initiative, as well as the South Coast Air Quality Management District and the California Air Commission. (
  • In California, the categories are low-emission vehicle (LEV), ultra-low-emission vehicle (ULEV), super-ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV), and zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) standards. (
  • For a more complete listing of vehicles, see the California Air Resources Board's Drive Clean Buying Guide . (
  • Particulate matter emissions from the California in-use vehicle fleet were measured as 37 500 vehicles traveled through two bores of the Caldecott Tunnel located in the San Francisco Bay area. (
  • In 2017, the average combined CO 2 emissions for a new light vehicle sold in Australia was 182 grams per kilometre (g/km). (
  • If we stick to the current (2017) emissions requirements and fuel economy requirements we will have much cleaner air and lower fuel consumption as older vehicles age out of service. (
  • Since the WLTC driving cycle is scheduled to replace the NEDC in Europe from September 2017 with regard to the certification of passenger cars and light-duty trucks, a comparative analysis between the two test schedules is also performed for the engine/vehicle under study. (
  • This means either using fuels containing less (or no) carbon (see the section on Alternative Fuels), or making vehicles and their engines more efficient - or both. (
  • Johnson will be assisted by two co-principal investigators: Tom Durbin, a research engineer, and Wayne Miller, who lead the emissions and fuels research group at the Center for Environmental Research and Technology. (
  • Fuels to be used in augmenting the complex emission model through vehicle testing. (
  • a) Seven fuels (hereinafter called the "addition fuels") shall be tested for the purpose of augmenting the complex emission model with a parameter not currently included in the complex emission model. (
  • The addition fuels shall be specified with at least the same level of detail and precision as in paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section, and this information must be included in the petition submitted to the Administrator requesting augmentation of the complex emission model. (
  • ACEA is part of a coalition of vehicle manufacturers calling on the European Commission to take a technology-neutral approach in its upcoming review of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive. (
  • Very low emissions, but still utilizes some fossil fuels. (
  • Market-based mechanisms (MBMs) are an option as complementary policy to vehicle CO 2 standards, fuels and infrastructure policies generating funds for member states to support new ultra-low-carbon vehicle and fuel technologies. (
  • Initially, the MBM should be designed to recycle the revenues from the sale of allowances for fuels to provide the funding needed to bring new low carbon fuels and vehicles to market. (
  • However, since both fuels had relatively high aromatics, the authors do not believe that significant dif- ferences in the PM emissions resulted from this small dif- ference in aromatic content. (
  • For example, bi-fuel vehicles that can use up to 20% DME to displace diesel (these are called dual fuel vehicles in Europe) may be one of the easiest ways for a fleet to begin using locally produced DME, since inexpensive aftermarket add-ons allow existing diesels to adapt to using both fuels. (
  • In the long term, the government should consider moving from the current system of taxing fossil fuels and carbon emissions to a system of road user charging such as toll roads or city congestion charges, Policy Exchange said. (
  • Emission rates of three HC species were also determined: methane, benzene, and toluene. (
  • and benzene and 1,3-butadiene were expected to decrease due to dilution, but measurements were only conducted on a subset of the vehicles and have not been thoroughly analyzed to date. (
  • Contributes to benzene emissions, which are considered carcinogenic. (
  • Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. (
  • Some emissions are highly toxic (including the carcinogens benzene and formaldehyde), some have nuisance value (e.g. causing sensitization), but most are contributors to smog. (
  • The Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change (PCF) is Canada's plan to work with the provinces and territories to reduce GHG emissions by 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. (
  • The report states specific targets for the electrification of transport, that by 2030, 30% of new vehicle sales are EVs and a national charging network is in place. (
  • That is why Mexico's Paris climate commitment includes a goal to reduce black carbon emissions by 51% below business-as-usual projections by 2030, and by 70% if international assistance is provided. (
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. - President Joe Biden signed an executive order Thursday that sets a new goal of having half of all new automobiles sold be zero-emission vehicles by 2030, including battery-electric, plug-in hybrid electric, or fuel cell electric vehicles. (
  • Specifically, the order lays out a schedule for the development of fuel efficiency and multi-pollutant emissions standards through at least the model year 2030 for light-duty vehicles and for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles starting as early as the model year 2027. (
  • Transport will also deliver tank-to-wheel emissions savings of 191 Mt CO 2 e between 2015 and 2030 to reduce the total well-to-wheel GHG emission in 2030 to 862 Mt CO 2 e. (
  • Even until 2030 many alternative powertrain technologies such as PHEV, BEV and FCV lack relative cost competitiveness-but are important cornerstones in vehicle manufacturers' CO 2 emission compliance strategies. (
  • To further abate GHG emissions in road transport by 2030, more biofuels and hybrid powertrains for passenger cars as well as more biofuels and new truck concepts for commercial vehicles are a cost effective way of delivering more GHG savings from transport and with supportive polices they can deliver an extra 34 Mt CO 2 e by 2030. (
  • BERLIN (AP) - The European Commission said Wednesday it wants to cut emissions of carbon dioxide from cars by 30 percent by 2030 and boost the use of electric vehicles by making them cheaper and easier to charge. (
  • Automakers that manage to equip at least 30 percent of their new cars with electric or other low-emission engines by 2030 will be given credits toward their carbon tally. (
  • The president signed an executive order with a target to get half of all new vehicles sold in 2030 to be zero-emission cars and trucks. (
  • This aligns with the government's priority to transition to a net zero emissions economy by 2050. (
  • Thus, the Government of Canada remains steadfast in its conviction that the electrification of transportation is key to decarbonizing the sector, transitioning to a low-carbon future and achieving our target of net zero emissions by 2050. (
  • As part of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, Toyota aims to cut its global average carbon dioxide emissions from new vehicles by 90 percent compared to 2010 levels. (
  • The researchers ran 108 different scenarios in a powerful energy systems model to determine the impact of EDV use on emissions between now and 2050. (
  • To characterize EDV deployment through 2050, varying assumptions related to crude oil and natural gas prices, a CO2 policy, a federal renewable portfolio standard, and vehicle battery cost were combined to form 108 different scenarios. (
  • however, emissions are created during both the production and distribution of the electricity used to fuel the vehicle. (
  • Mark Reuss, GM's executive vice president of product development, said the company will propose that a certain percentage of nationwide sales be made up of vehicles that run on electricity or hydrogen fuel cells. (
  • In a broader perspective, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for ZEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions. (
  • In other words, if ZEVs are recharged from electricity generated by fossil fuel plants, they cannot be considered as zero emissions. (
  • However, the spread of electrical-powered vehicles can help the development of systems for charging the EV batteries from excess electricity which cannot be used otherwise. (
  • For over 10 years, a Canadian aircraft manufacturer has saved over $500,000 annually in fuel and electricity consumption by using Munters rotor concentrators to control solvent emissions from its facility's paint booths. (
  • Current EVs are predominantly powered by lithium ion batteries which undergo a complex degradation process during actual EV operation, dictating the energy storage and generating indirect GHG emissions from the consumed electricity. (
  • The electricity consumption and associated GHG emissions from EV operations are determined by EV operating conditions and battery charging/discharging processes. (
  • But in actual EV operation, battery degradation is gradually happening along time under specific driving conditions, and the battery degradation affects the EV electricity consumption and GHG emissions in three ways: decreasing driving range due to reduced capacity, decreasing charging/discharging efficiency due to increasing resistance, requiring battery replacement when the capacity is dropped to the battery degradation limit 16 . (
  • The battery technology for electric vehicles is based on charge/discharge cycles, meaning that the battery is charged beforehand using an electricity source and is discharged during vehicle operation. (
  • Because electricity production may involve some emissions, there is also a concept of well-to-wheel emissions, which includes not only operating emissions, but also those associated with the fuel source and other stages of the vehicle operating cycle. (
  • The hydrogen-fueled vehicles are typically based on fuel cell technology, which imply electrochemical conversion of the fuel energy into electricity (as opposed to combustion). (
  • However, there is a possibility to design a sustainable zero-emission lifecycle for electric and hydrogen vehicles, if electricity for recharging the batteries is supplied from renewable sources such as wind, solar, hydro-power converters, and the hydrogen to power fuel cells is produced via electrolysis or other emission-free technologies. (
  • Most can go from 50 to 100 miles on a single charge, and have no emissions except those created by the power plants producing the electricity (much fewer emissions than cars. (
  • Germany is predicted to fall short of its own climate goals, in large part due to continued high emissions from coal-fired electricity plants and vehicle traffic. (
  • The technology, pioneered over the past 12 years in the UK, is now being deployed in electric vehicle chargers, off-grid decentralised power systems and industrial gas plants as part of a portfolio approach to the decarbonisation of local electricity needs. (
  • From experiments conducted in both bores, estimates are made of the size distribution and chemical composition of particulate matter emissions extrapolated to the 100% light-duty and 100% heavy-duty vehicle fleets. (
  • Particulate matter emissions include both elemental carbon and individually adsorbed and absorbed carcinogens in their composition. (
  • What about hydrogen fuel cell vehicles? (
  • ZEVs include pure battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. (
  • Through the agreement, Hydrogenics' technology will be integrated in 1,000 zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell motors on Chinese city buses and the Canadian company will provide professional support services. (
  • A fleet of Toyota Mirai zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell cars was delivered to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) today in Lausanne (Switzerland) as a key part of the organisation's mobility plan . (
  • The heavy-duty truck is a hydrogen fuel cell powered battery-electric vehicle, capable at this point of about 100 miles of travel fully loaded. (
  • The truck produces no emissions other than a small column of steam when the hydrogen fuel cell stack is charging the batteries. (
  • In a world-first Extreme E will utilise hydrogen fuel cell generators to revolutionise how teams power their E-SUVs in a world-first collaboration with AFC Energy, with its pioneering hydrogen fuel cell technology which will enable its race fleet to be charged using zero emission energy. (
  • The vehicle standards are intended to reduce both tailpipe and evaporative emissions from passenger cars, light-duty trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty vehicles. (
  • To achieve the goal, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was employed to monitor emissions from selected test vehicles-private cars, passenger vehicles, and cargo vehicles. (
  • Another factor is that passenger vehicles make up a relatively small share of total emissions, limiting the potential impact of EDVs in the first place. (
  • For example, passenger vehicles make up only 20 percent of carbon dioxide emissions. (
  • However, many vehicles sold in Australia meet tougher Euro 6 standards adopted in the European Union and other markets. (
  • Reuss said GM's proposal is a starting point for discussions on one set of national fuel efficiency and zero-emissions vehicle standards. (
  • 9. Will introduction of the new standards increase costs for new vehicle dealers? (
  • 10. Will introduction of the new standards increase the price of a new vehicle? (
  • 11. What are the new standards for used petrol vehicles? (
  • 12. What are the new standards for used diesel vehicles? (
  • 29. Can other vehicles that do not meet the standards continue to be imported? (
  • 30. Do these standards apply only to petrol and diesel vehicles? (
  • 31. What penalties would apply to vehicles that do not adhere to these minimum emissions standards? (
  • Rules setting standards for reduced emissions will increase the average cost of new cars and trucks. (
  • And, for the millions of Arizonans who choose to own and operate motor vehicles, each plays an important role in maintaining and improving Arizona's air quality by simply testing vehicle emissions to ensure they meet health-based standards. (
  • DISCLAIMER - The RIV inspection process does not confirm that a U.S. specification vehicle is compliant to Canadian emission standards prior to provincial/territorial licensing and registration in Canada. (
  • Regulation of emissions from motor vehicles has relied for the most part on traditional "command-and-control" approaches, with new car emissions standards and inspection and maintenance (I&M) programs being the dominant strategies. (
  • Recent research suggests that such an approach could yield net welfare benefits several times those from an I&M program in which all vehicles must be maintained to the same standards (Harrington, McConnell, and Alberini, 1998). (
  • The proportion of trucks, buses and coaches that comply with the latest and most stringent emission standards is lower than for cars, because of their longer lifetimes. (
  • Using data extracted from the TREMOVE model, the share of vehicles complying with the various Euro standards has been determined for the period 1990 to 2007 for the EEA. (
  • Passenger cars, and especially diesel cars, have the highest penetration of the latest emission standards as shown in Figure 1. (
  • Thus the share of trucks complying with the most stringent emission standards and the corresponding rate of penetration of new technologies is relatively low. (
  • While in 1995 about 95 % of all LDV and HDV were of conventional technology, the share of vehicles complying with the Euro IV standards by 2007 was 3.4 %, 4.6 % and 5.4 % for petrol LDV, diesel LDV and HDV respectively, while a significant percentage (20.9 %, 27.2 % and 30.6 % respectively) are Euro III vehicles. (
  • President Trump is prepared to make a formal announcement on the review of vehicle fuel efficiency standards that were locked in at the tail end of the Obama administration. (
  • If we REALLY want cleaner air and better fuel economy we will require ALL cars to meet the emissions standards for the year they were built, no exceptions. (
  • There is no point in raising standards if people can't afford to buy the improved vehicles. (
  • I wonder what it would cost to design and build a new vehicle to 1967 standards using newer technology only where it is cheaper or much improved for little or no increase in cost. (
  • The Tier 3 Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Standards: B. (
  • The comment period for the Tier 3 vehicle and fuel emission standards has now closed and hundreds of thousands of Americans have weighed in to support these important, lifesaving clean air standards . (
  • Their comments demonstrate the ability of the industry to meet strong vehicle and fuel emission standards. (
  • The current standard regulating trucks and other heavy-duty vehicles, called NOM-044-SEMARNAT-2006 , was put in place in 2006 and required Mexican diesel engines to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 2004 emission standards or its European counterpart, called Euro IV. (
  • They have instead advocated for a slower ULSD timetable to give Mexico time to adopt the more stringent emissions standards that require ULSD to be successful, such as the latest of U.S. and European standards, EPA 2010 / Euro VI. (
  • In effect, Mexico adopted its ULSD requirement without concurrently adopting the appropriate emissions standards, creating a regulatory disconnect that has continued ever since. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) are announced Thursday how they are addressing the Trump administration's rollbacks of near-term fuel efficiency and emissions standards. (
  • EPA is also proposing to approve the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) included in Delaware's maintenance plans for the Delaware portion of the Area for both the 1997 annual and 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 standards. (
  • STARS VETS ensures vehicle emission tests run smoothly and efficiently with preloaded cycles, configuration data and results calculations for a wide range of regulatory standards. (
  • These vehicle standards are also intended to harmonize with California's Low Emission Vehicle program, thus creating a federal vehicle emissions program that will allow automakers to sell the same vehicles in all 50 states. (
  • All model year (MY) 2007 and later heavy-duty diesel engines are equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF) to comply with the US EPA emission standards . (
  • MARTINEZ: His plan also includes stricter fuel economy and emission standards. (
  • Over the past eight years, we have partnered with Volvo Trucks, Mack Trucks, Ford, and a host of other manufacturers to build DME engines, test demonstration vehicles, get standards approved, and design infrastructure that can make DME a crucial component of global transport networks. (
  • Gov. John Hickenlooper, D-Colo., has signed an executive order that commits Colorado to adopting low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards. (
  • However, under the Clean Air Act, states can adopt California's alternative vehicle standards through a waiver from the EPA, rather than adhere to federal standards. (
  • Increased regulation of emissions in motor vehicle passenger cabins has led to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) imposing emission standards on raw material and component suppliers to prevent inclusion of sub-standard products in finished vehicles. (
  • These sensed transmittances are converted to emission concentrations by a data processor (50) and compared to a set of emission-concentration standards. (
  • The vehicle is determined to be in violation only if its emission concentrations at both the first and second monitor stations exceeds the standards. (
  • Federally-mandated emission standards have been set for emission concentrations from motor vehicle tailpipes. (
  • The compliance of motor vehicles to these standards is typically measured in mandatory periodic inspections which are performed at fixed facilities in accordance with officially-approved test procedures. (
  • New Delhi/Jammu [India] Apr 27 (ANI): The Centre on Thursday urged the National Green Tribunal (NGT) that ban on diesel vehicles should be based on their emissions and not age. (
  • The NGT reserved its order on banning 10-year-old diesel vehicles in Delhi-National Capital Territory Region (NCR). (
  • To provide customers with an alternate choice for non-diesel vehicles, ADEQ can provide a No-Contact Limited Emissions Test, which is valid for one year, as opposed to two years with the OBD test. (
  • South Korea said Tuesday it will investigate emission levels of Volkswagen diesel vehicles after the world's top-selling automaker admitted cheating U.S. tests. (
  • Boston Mayor Martin J. Walsh announced his support for the "Diesel and Vehicular Emissions Ordinance," filed by City Councilor Stephen Murphy to reduce emissions from in-use diesel vehicles and idling. (
  • The Strategy aims to accelerate the uptake of ULEVs across the area in anticipation of a nationwide 2035 ban on the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles. (
  • The report also recommends that motorists who bought diesel vehicles in good faith - when they were being promoted as a more efficient, cleaner alternative to petrol to tackle carbon - should not be penalised. (
  • Air pollutant emissions , such as hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter can lead to smog and adverse health impacts such as respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease and cancer. (
  • The latter powertrain technologies also offer the advantage of zero pollutant emissions. (
  • This enabled the maintenance company to make equivalent savings in their fuel costs, boost profit margins, whilst cutting vehicle emissions in half. (
  • The new strategy established targets for super low-emission vehicles, hybrids, plug-in hybrids and modest numbers of battery-electric and fuel cell vehicles. (
  • The report, which updates the preliminary data published earlier this year, tracks progress towards CO2 emission targets for new passenger cars and vans. (
  • Fleets of commercial vehicles that operate in large towns and cities could halve their emissions and better meet clean air targets using a new technology developed by Aston University researchers, which imitates how ants share knowledge, scaling them up to real world problems - such as optimising routes around busy cities. (
  • The ability to optimise routes of fleets of commercial vehicles is significant because it will enable cities and towns to move towards addressing their clean air targets and offer an alternative measure to establishing Clean Air Zones. (
  • Current targets require automakers to achieve the average permitted emission for new models in the European Union of 95 grams of CO2 per kilometer for cars, or 147 grams for light commercial vehicles by 2021. (
  • The market should decide how road transport is cleaned up, with the Government scrapping or avoiding targets for particular technologies and signalling a phase-out for grants for electric vehicles by the 2020s when they should be cost-competitive. (
  • Emission of airborne particles is a side effect from rail transport. (
  • Test vehicles mainly emitted nucleation-mode and Aitken-mode particles, and the increase of the PN concentration emission rate in low-speed and high-speed regions was higher than that in the medium-speed region. (
  • BERLIN - Germany's Volkswagen, already reeling from the fallout of cheating on U.S. emissions tests for nitrogen oxide, said Tuesday that an internal investigation has revealed 'unexplained inconsistencies' in the carbon dioxide emissions from 800,000 of its vehicles - a development it said could cost the company another 2 billion euros ($2.2 billion). (
  • The investigation was undertaken by the company after the revelations that many of its vehicles had software that allowed them to deceive U.S. nitrogen oxide tests. (
  • In September, the company admitted it had installed software designed to defeat tests for nitrogen oxide emissions for four-cylinder diesel engines on 11 million cars worldwide, including almost 500,000 in the U.S. It has already set aside 6.7 billion euros ($7.4 billion) to cover the costs of recalling those vehicles - and analysts expect the emissions scandal to cost the company much more than that. (
  • For medium-duty commercial trucks, recent engine technology advancements have dramatically reduced nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. (
  • Prominent among these issues is the perception that emissions benefits and other impacts of I/M programs have not been evaluated adequately. (
  • and a fee based on annual vehicle mileage--and we compare the impacts of fees to existing vehicle registration fees. (
  • However, when we construct a lifetime income variable for our households, we find that the differential impacts of the three emissions-related fees over existing fees are quite small. (
  • To that end, the Center for American Progress reviewed the existing literature on the environmental impacts of automation in the light-duty vehicle sector. (
  • 24. Why should removal of, or tampering with, a vehicle's emissions control equipment be prohibited? (
  • EVALUATION PROCEDURE - In order to determine the differences in the vehicle's emissions characteristics when operating on leaded and unleaded fuel, the vehicle was subjected to repetitive FTP tests. (
  • The large difference between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde variability is probably a consequence of their different concentrations--formaldehyde's emission rate was approximately 40 times that of acetaldehyde. (
  • A standard Hiden HPR-20 was used for the detection of various gaseous emissions from a motor vehicle. (
  • Although the gaseous emissions from vehi- cles of this era are well-documented, newer technologies for the characterization of particulate emissions make it worthwhile to revisit the particulate emissions of vehicles of the pre-control era. (
  • In addition to regulated gaseous emissions, the particu- late (PM) emissions of the vehicle during each of the tests was measured. (
  • The results showed a large effect of lead in the fuel on PM emissions, but not on gaseous emissions. (
  • SIFT-MS represents a breakthrough in the detection, quantification, and tracing of gaseous emissions for the automotive industry. (
  • Longitudinal trend analysis using computerized death data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Census Bureau population data, and annual CO emissions estimates for light-duty vehicles provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • For a previously registered vehicle with less than 7,500 miles, you'll need to schedule an appointment with an RMV inspector, who will check under the hood for the Vehicle Emission Control Label. (
  • 23. What is emissions control equipment? (
  • Emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs subject vehicles to periodic inspections of their emission control systems. (
  • Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines. (
  • NOx production is increased when an engine runs at its most efficient (i.e. hottest) operating point, so there tends to be a natural tradeoff between efficiency and control of NOx emissions. (
  • An LDS 6 analyzer monitors HF emissions during the production of hydrofluoric acid in accordance with the German Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA Luft)The customerFine chemicals and inorganic basic chemicals have been developed and produced at the Seelze chemical site in northern Germany for more than 100 years.Such a basic chemical is hydrofluoric acid (HF), an extremely corrosive, colorless, and pungent smelling liquid. (
  • This includes the removal of or modification to the emission control system. (
  • The importer or his duly authorized agent is required to make a signed declaration that the vehicle bears the national emissions mark, the vehicle emission control information label applied by the vehicle manufacturer, or that evidence of conformity can be produced. (
  • In the study described in the report, an initial group of 11 vehicles was selected primarily to span evolution in emission control system technology and focused on two model years, 2003 and 2007. (
  • This combination offers several advantages: optimized performance and emissions control through interaction of the powerplants, and retrieved energy through regenerative braking. (
  • The proposed ordinance requires all pre-2007 vehicles owned or leased by the City or used by its contractors to have been retrofit with emission control equipment. (
  • It was not immediately clear whether the 800,000 vehicles announced Tuesday with the newly discovered carbon dioxide emission problems were among those already affected. (
  • DME burns cleanly and quietly and can reduce carbon dioxide emission by 68-101%, depending on which renewable feedstock is used. (
  • Every vehicle that is newly registered in Massachusetts is required to undergo a state safety inspection and emissions test within seven days of registration. (
  • Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs assesses the effectiveness of these programs for reducing mobile source emissions. (
  • The Voluntary Vehicle Repair Program (VVRP) is designed to help those who have failed an emissions inspection offset the cost of repairing their vehicle. (
  • In 2015, there were approximately 51,165 On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) vehicles that were unready when presented for emissions inspection and another 145,351 vehicles that failed the emissions inspection test. (
  • The classifier is the data structure used in the automobile emission testing inspection. (
  • The classifier is the data structure used in the automobile emission testing inspection lane by the lane diagnostic subsystem to provide a diagnosis for a particular vehicle. (
  • 2. A low-emission vehicle is a motor vehicle that emits relatively low levels of motor vehicle emissions. (
  • No tailpipe Co2 emissions and other pollutations HV ICE + electric motor. (
  • During 1975-1996, an annual decrease of 10 g/mile of estimated CO emissions from automobiles was associated with a 21.3% decrease (95% CI, -24.2% to -18.4%) in the annual unintentional motor vehicle-related CO death rate and a 5.9% decrease (95%CI, -10.0% to -1.8%) in the annual rate of motor vehicle-related CO suicides. (
  • If rates of unintentional CO-related deaths had remained at pre-1975 levels, an estimated additional 11 700 motor vehicle-related CO poisoning deaths might have occurred by 1998. (
  • This now means when agencies come to purchase replacement vehicles from the All-of-Government motor vehicles contract, they must target the purchase of vehicles with carbon dioxide (CO2) emission profiles 20% below their agency's current fleet average. (
  • This rule applies to motor vehicles that are required to be certified for entry into, or operation in, service. (
  • In this report, the committee evaluates the differences in the characteristics of motor vehicle emissions in areas with and without I/M programs, identifies criteria and methodologies for their evaluation, and recommends improvements to the programs. (
  • Sulfur oxide (SOx) - A general term for oxides of sulfur, which are emitted from motor vehicles burning fuel containing sulfur. (
  • This is especially the case for motor vehicle emissions policies. (
  • Infiniti officially confirmed the rumors for a zero emissions vehicle at the Tokyo Motor show 2009. (
  • Mr. Carlos Ghosn, President and CEO, Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., announced that Infiniti will showcase an electric vehicle, which will be true to the brand's motto - 'Inspired Performance. (
  • Criteria and procedures: Interim emissions in areas without motor vehicle emissions budgets. (
  • This criterion applies to the net effect of the action (transportation plan, TIP , or project not from a conforming plan and TIP) on motor vehicle emissions from the entire transportation system . (
  • DETROIT, September 14, 2011 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) is critical to fully understanding and reducing vehicle emissions, Cees ten Broek, WorldAutoSteel director, said today at the Frankfurt Motor Show in a joint press conference with engineering firm, EDAG International. (
  • We compared the breast cancer incidence trends obtained from SEER data with the trend of nitrogen dioxides (NOx) emission and monitoring data as well as motor vehicle density data. (
  • Motor vehicles are the major source of NOx emissions. (
  • The geographic distribution of motor vehicles density in 1970 in the observed US counties is positively correlated with breast cancer incidence rates (R(2) 0.8418, the correlation coefficient = 0.9175) in 1980-1995. (
  • We are honoured to have been selected by Extreme E in such a world class motor racing championship, designed to highlight not only the true potential of electric vehicle SUVs in some of the harshest environments on Earth, but also the need to raise public awareness of the debilitating impact climate change is having on our ecosystems," said Adam Bond, chief executive officer at AFC Energy. (
  • The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas. (
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inorganic gases are emitted from diverse automotive components, assembled motor vehicle cabins, and as combustion by-products from motor vehicles. (
  • Today, much of the work is done with portable emission measurement systems (PEMS), which have been used on everything from on-road and off-road vehicles, stationary sources, locomotives, port vehicles, air craft, harbor craft, and ocean-going vessels. (
  • Behavior of those vehicles will be characterized on a second-by-second basis during in-use operations at construction sites using portable emission measurement systems. (
  • It also discusses measures of vehicle fuel economy and consumption, and their measurement, as well as the importance and diversity of vehicle duty cycles for different vehicle applications. (
  • Measurement of Legislated Emissions, Unburned Alcohol and Potential Formation of Ozone from a Light Flex-Fuel Vehicle," SAE Technical Paper 2014-36-0260, 2014, . (
  • Researchers are in the process of developing additional environmentally friendly methods of charging zero emissions vehicles. (
  • The 2004 Challenge Bibendum, one of the premier global events for advanced technology vehicles, will test the best available technologies for environmentally friendly vehicles. (
  • When calculating for fleet emissions and determining environmentally-friendly solutions, legislators from the EU suggest that electric vehicles produce 'zero' CO2 emissions. (
  • Hydrogen fuel cells could be cheaper than batteries and diesel engines as a power source for commercial vehicles by 2027, according to a new analysis, but some experts say the technology may not be as environmentally friendly as electric trucks. (
  • It provides opportunities for the introduction of fiscal and other mechanisms to encourage the use of more environmentally friendly vehicles in line with the practice of EU Member States, using the 'polluter pays ' principle. (
  • Three LEV technologies have emerged as potential alternatives for the internal combustion engine (ICE) : hybrid vehicle (HV), electric vehicle (EV) and fuel-cell vehicle (FCV). (
  • We are pleased to be part of this state collaboration and will continue to work diligently on standing up hydrogen fuel cells and other electric vehicle technologies. (
  • The administration hopes these actions position America to outcompete China in the electric vehicle market and help tackle the climate crisis. (
  • Officials say the U.S. is behind in the race to manufacture these vehicles and the batteries that go in them, with the U.S. market share of electric vehicle sales being only a third of the Chinese electric vehicle market. (
  • Supporters hope the change would also provide more electric vehicle options in Colorado. (
  • Kenworth's Class 8 battery electric vehicle features Meritor's Blue Horizon 14Xe tandem electric powertrain with smooth shifting and operation. (
  • In the latest IFO report, German scientists spoke out about the big electric vehicle lie. (
  • MARTINEZ: Now, China is the leader in the electric vehicle market. (
  • Also, about 70% of the world's electric vehicle batteries are made in China. (
  • Making the transition to cleaner, lower polluting near-zero and zero-emission vehicles is a critical component to addressing California's clean air and climate challenges. (
  • California's Zero Emission Vehicle program was created to bring electric vehicles to the market. (
  • Administration officials say waiving the tougher fuel efficiency requirements would make vehicles more affordable, which would get safer cars into consumer hands more quickly. (
  • Different tiers have been developed to categorize fuel efficiency in vehicles. (
  • Given that the transportation sector accounts for approximately 25% of Canada's GHG emissions, making it the second largest emitting sector in Canada, the PCF includes a dedicated transportation strategy that commits the Government of Canada to work with all levels of governments and industry stakeholders to lay the foundation for coordinated to put more zero-emission vehicles on the road. (
  • According to the recent study titled "Preparing for a Life Cycle CO2 Measure," conducted by global engineering firm Ricardo for the United Kingdom's Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, vehicle production, including materials manufacturing, accounts for approximately 25 percent of the life cycle emissions in today's vehicles. (

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