Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Potexvirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Tombusviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.Potyviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Flexiviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses that infect a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant species. There are at least eight genera including POTEXVIRUS and CARLAVIRUS, both of which are highly immunogenic.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Tospovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Luteoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.Nepovirus: A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Tobamovirus: A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Ilarvirus: A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.Carmovirus: A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Plum Pox Virus: A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Alfalfa mosaic virus: The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Crinivirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.Nanovirus: A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE containing multiple circular single-stranded DNA molecules. The type species is Subterranean clover stunt virus.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Tymovirus: A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
... attacking much larger plants; they serve as vectors of bacteria, fungi and viruses which cause plant diseases. As female scale ... Viruses. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... plants and fungi, it is unclear whether they can themselves be described as living. Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses ...
Some are pests or vectors of plant viruses and phytoplasmas. The family is distributed all over the world, and constitutes the ... Leafhoppers can transmit plant pathogens, such as viruses, phytoplasmas and bacteria. Cicadellidae species that are significant ... These minute insects, colloquially known as hoppers, are plant feeders that suck plant sap from grass, shrubs, or trees. Their ... and is a serious vector of the disease in chili pepper in the Southwestern United States. In some cases, the plant pathogens ...
If the viruses were introduced to the UK with imported plant material, thrips species already present there may become vectors ... It is a primary vector of plant viruses. The melon thrips can cause damage to a wide range of glasshouse ornamental and ... Thrips palmi has the potential to introduce and spread several non-indigenous plant viruses of the genus Tospovirus, which ... Nault, L. R. (1997). Arthropod transmission of plant viruses: a new synthesis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America ...
Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (insect aphid, leafhopper, planthopper, and insect). ... Cytorhabdovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Plants serve as natural hosts. Table ... Negative stranded rna virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ... Transmission routes are vector. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved ...
They are economically important plant parasites and virus vectors. The females are didelphic (two genital tracts), and are ... Kumari, S.; Subbotin, S. A. (December 2012). "Molecular characterization and diagnostics of stubby root and virus vector ... Decraemer, W. (1995). The family Trichodoridae: stubby root and virus vector nematodes. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ... 2013). Plant nematology (2 ed.). Boston, MA: CABI. ISBN 1780641516. Retrieved 16 December 2014. Duarte, Isabel; Neilson, Roy; ...
They are economically important plant parasites and virus vectors. As originally described by Cobb in 1913, Trichodorus was the ... Decraemer, W. (1995). The family Trichodoridae : stubby root and virus vector nematodes. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers ... 1971). Plant Parasitic Nematodes: Volume I. Morphology, Anatomy, Taxonomy, and Ecology. Oxford: Elsevier Science. ISBN ... 2013). Plant nematology (2 ed.). Boston, MA: CABI. ISBN 1780641516. Retrieved 16 December 2014. ...
They are economically important plant parasites and virus vectors. The first trichodorid was described in 1880 (De Man) as ... In 1961 it was discovered that they were also virus vectors, though this seems to be mainly the didelphic genera. Thorne, G ( ... Kumari, S.; Subbotin, S. A. (December 2012). "Molecular characterization and diagnostics of stubby root and virus vector ... Decraemer, W. (1995). The family Trichodoridae: stubby root and virus vector nematodes. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ...
... infect plants. Most of the plant-infecting reoviruses are transmitted between plants by insect vectors. The viruses replicate ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus ... Umatilla virus Wad Medani virus Wallal virus Warrego virus Wongorr virus Yunnan orbivirus Genus: Phytoreovirus Rice dwarf virus ...
The citrus mealybug is also a vector for plant viruses. In agriculture, the insect can be managed with cultural, biological, ... It infests ornamental plants, including indoor plants, and it is common in greenhouses. It is found on Amaryllis, Begonia, ... It is associated with citrus, but it attacks a wide range of crop plants, ornamental plants, and wild flora. Mealybugs are ... This leads to plant damage in the form of wilting and chlorosis of the foliage, leaf drop, stunted growth, and sometimes the ...
It may be a vector of the bean pod mottle virus, a plant pathogen. Worse than its damage to plants is its toxicity. Like other ... Its preferred host plants are amaranths (genus Amaranthus). It also feeds on a variety of crop plants, including beans, beet, ... It feeds voraciously, prefers crop plants, damages fruits, and forms swarms that travel en masse. ... when it feeds on plants. During the heat of mid-day it seeks shelter, and in hot, dry climates it may only be active in the ...
This mite is a vector for Cilevirus, a plant virus that causes the disease citrus leprosis. Manifestations of the disease on a ... Furthermore, several of these mites are vectors for a variety of serious plant viruses. Familiar species include: Brevipalpus ... The mite is also a vector of passion fruit green spot virus and coffee ringspot virus, and ringspots of Cestrum and Solanum ... 2011). An overview of Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and the plant viruses they transmit. Zoosymposia 6, 180-92. ...
Aphids as Virus Vector, 1977. Insect and Plant Viruses-An Atlas, 1977. Viruses and Environment, 1978. Invertebrate Tissue ... Leafhopper Vectors of Plant Disease Agents, 1979. Vectors of Plant Pathogens, 1980. Invertebrate Systems in Vitro, 1980. ... Insect Viruses, 1968. Viruses, Vectors, and Vegetation, 1969. Comparative Virology, 1971. Mycoplasma Diseases, 1973. Viruses, ... Pathogens, Vectors and Plant Diseases- Approaches to Control, 1982. Subviral Pathogens of Plants and Animals, 1985. Viral ...
... so the viroplasms of animal viruses are generally localized near the MTOC. MTOCs are not found in plant cells. Plant viruses ... In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), viroplasms improve the virus transmission by the aphid vector. Viroplasms ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... viroplasms from plant viruses have not been as studied as viroplasms from animal viruses. ...
List of pests and diseases of roses
... from attacking plants, acting as vectors spreading plant viruses to endoparasites. (And graft-transmissible pathogens [GTP]) ... Plants are infected by this virus at propagation using infected plant material. Rose wilt - Rose wilt is a complex of viruses ... The pathogenic bacteria enter the plant via a wound. If the disease affects the plant whilst it is young the plant may be ... There is no treatment for the disease, and control is limited to controlling the vector and destroying infected plants. It is ...
Black bean aphid
This aphid also acts as a vector for viruses that cause plant disease and the honeydew it secretes may encourage the growth of ... These aphids are also the vectors of about thirty plant viruses, mostly of the nonpersistent variety. The aphids may not be the ... The plants are stunted by the removal of sap, the stems are distorted, harmful viruses are transmitted, and aphid residues may ... It adheres to plants where it promotes growth of sooty molds. These are unsightly, reduce the surface area of the plant ...
Some thrips serve as vectors for plant diseases, such as tospoviruses. Over 20 plant-infecting viruses are known to be ... A few species serve as vectors for over 20 viruses that cause plant disease, especially the Tospoviruses. Some species of ... Virus members include the tomato spotted wilt virus and the impatiens necrotic spot viruses. The western flower thrips, ... These enveloped viruses are considered among some of the most damaging of emerging plant pathogens around the world, with those ...
Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insects vectors to inferior hosts. PNAS Vol. 107. No 8. 3603. ... This study showed that the aphids preferred the healthy plants but are still attracted by the infected plants, because of the ... where they evaluated the effects of a plant pathogen named cucumber mosaic virus or CMV. ... manipulation of volatile compounds used by plants to attract them. In 2001, Holen et al., analyzed the evolutionary stability ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Genome type and transmission vector are two of the most important traits used for classification. Ampeloviruses and ... virus Beet yellows virus Burdock yellows virus Carnation necrotic fleck virus Carrot yellow leaf virus Citrus tristeza virus ... associated virus 2 Mint virus 1 Raspberry leaf mottle virus Strawberry chlorotic fleck-associated virus Wheat yellow leaf virus ...
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, is a vector for more than 110 plant viruses. Cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) often infect ... aphids often transmit plant viruses to the plants, such as to potatoes, cereals, sugarbeets, and citrus plants. These viruses ... and aphid saliva is toxic to plants. Aphids frequently transmit disease-causing organisms like plant viruses to their hosts. ... The coating of plants with honeydew can contribute to the spread of fungi which can damage plants. Honeydew produced by aphids ...
It damages plants by feeding on the roots and it is a vector of plant viruses. It is a pest of some agricultural crops. Like ... An affected crop field may have patches of withered plants. The nematode also introduces viruses to plants, including tobacco ... Damage to plants is evident when it stops the roots from growing, leaving the root system "stubby"-looking. A plant cannot ... It has an onchiostyle, a curved, solid stylet which it uses to puncture plant roots. It stabs the plant tissue rapidly, up to ...
Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects (aphids). Transmission routes are vector and ... Carrot necrotic dieback virus Dandelion yellow mosaic virus Parsnip yellow fleck virus Viruses in Sequivirus are non-enveloped ... Sequivirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral ...
The effect of plant density on incidence of the maize streak virus and its vectors Cicadulina spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). ... Alo is noted for his research work on the transmission patterns of the HIV virus in the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Alo's ... 2006; 2: 23-26 Mosquito species and their micro-habitats; Disease and vector management, 4:254-261 Ogidi, J.A., Muazu, A.D. and ... "BARNES & NOBLE , Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 53 by Elsevier Science , Hardcover". Search.barnesandnoble.com. Retrieved ...
The progeny of the infected plants is virus-free and also free of the inserted gene. Some vector-less methods include: Gene gun ... Package the desired genetic material into a suitable plant virus and allow this modified virus to infect the plant. If the ... Some vector-mediated methods are: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the easiest and most simple plant transformation. ... However, genomes of most plant viruses consist of single stranded RNA which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cell. For ...
Mostly monocotyledonous plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (leafhopper). Transmission ... Reunion virus Sugarcane streak virus Tobacco yellow dwarf virus Urochloa streak virus Wheat dwarf India virus Wheat dwarf virus ... streak virus Eragrostis streak virus Maize streak Reunion virus Maize streak virus Miscanthus streak virus Oat dwarf virus ... dwarf virus Chickpea redleaf virus Chickpea yellows virus Chloris striate mosaic virus Digitaria ciliaris striate mosaic virus ...
Common blossom thrips
Secondary damage is caused by the viruses that can be transmitted between plants. The insect can be a vector of tomato spotted ... Besides feeding on plant tissues, the common blossom thrips feeds on pollen grains and on the eggs of mites. The second instar ... The adult female thrips lays her eggs in the flower tissue of a host plant. At around 25 °C (77 °F), the life cycle takes about ... It is a polyphagous species with a wide host range that includes 83 species of plant in 35 different families. In different ...
Western flower thrips
The western flower thrip is also the major vector of tomato spotted wilt virus, a serious plant disease. Western flower thrips ... Damage can be reduced by growing barriers of nonhost plants around crops and by eliminating reservoir plants, plants to which ... The plant is also injured by feeding, which leaves holes and areas of silvery discoloration when the plant reacts to the ... The newly hatched nymph feeds on the plant for two of its instars, then falls off the plant to complete its other two instar ...
Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and ... with the virus primarily infecting plants via transmission by aphid vectors. The virus only replicates within the host cell and ... virus-kerIII Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAS Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV Bean leafroll virus Rose ... There are currently eight species in this genus including the type species Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV. Plants serve as ...
Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and ... Plants serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Pea enation mosaic virus 1. ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Luteoviridae Genus: Enamovirus Pea enation mosaic virus 1 Viruses in Enamovirus are ...
Bioinformática, a enciclopedia libre
"Cloning of Large Segments of Exogenous DNA into Yeast by Means of Artificial Chromosome Vectors" (PDF). Science 236 (4803). ... "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815. ... "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ...
Invasive plant pathogens and insect vectors for plant diseases can also suppress agricultural yields and nursery stock. Citrus ... spread via these vectors. A recent example of an introduced disease is the spread of the West Nile virus, which killed ... VectorsEdit. Non-native species have many vectors, including biogenic vectors, but most invasions are associated with human ... This includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant ...
Soybean vein necrosis virus
... (SVNV, previously: Soybean vein necrosis associated virus SVNaV) is a plant pathogenic virus of ... This pathogen is an arbovirus, and therefore must be transmitted by a vector. A known vector of the virus is Sericothrips ... which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is ... Adult thrips are then able via feeding to transmit the virus to the plant host. It is important to keep in mind with this ...
... the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus ... "Plant Scientist.. *^ Helgi Öpik; Stephen A. Rolfe; Arthur John Willis; Herbert Edward Street (2005). The physiology of ... Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World. 2. pp. 199-214. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9276-9_10. ISBN 978-94-017-9275-2. .. ... Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, pomelos, and limes. ...
Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Retroviral vector particles with tropism for various target cells have been designed. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
This made him realise that the vector of the disease were lice that were discarded with the patient's own clothes. Nicolle ... This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... Bernard's posthumous essay regarding the nature of the agents implicated in some transformations that happen inside plants, ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... ingesting contaminated plants Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases) Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, ... referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting sick. When humans infect other animals, it is called ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ...
Plants, Pollinators, and the Price of Almonds. "Flowers set more seeds when visited by wild insects, and the more plants that ... including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus. ... Both G. mellonella adults and larvae are possible vectors for pathogens that can infect bees, ... As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, especially non-native crops, but most native plants have some native ...
In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... Bocobza SE, Aharoni A (2008). "Switching the light on plant riboswitches". Trends Plant Sci. 13 (10): 526-33. doi:10.1016/j. ... Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Patrick Forterre has been working on a novel hypothesis, called "three viruses, three domains": that viruses were ...
Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are surrounded ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... www.plantcell.org/cgi/reprint/6/6/777 Plant Viruses Online, a full list of plant viruses DPVweb, on-line plant virus database ... Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. Although plant viruses are not nearly as well understood as the animal ...
Disease hosts and vectorsEdit. The tsetse-vectored trypanosomiases affect various vertebrate species including humans, ... D. T. Cole (1995). Setswana - Animals and Plants (Setswana - Ditshedi le ditlhare). Gaborone: The Botswana Society. pp. 11 & ... In 1887, the rinderpest virus was accidentally imported in livestock brought by an Italian expeditionary force to Eritrea. It ... Glossina vectors. Sleeping sickness - chronic form. humans. T. brucei gambiense. Western Africa. G. palpalis. G. tachinoides. G ...
During nest construction, some species seek out plant matter from plants with parasite-reducing toxins to improve chick ... Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian ... "Birds, Migration and Emerging Zoonoses: West Nile Virus, Lyme Disease, Influenza A and Enteropathogens". Clinical medicine & ... For example, in New Zealand the moas were important browsers, as are the kereru and kokako today. Today the plants of New ...
Long known as vectors for rabies, bats may be the origin of some of the most deadly emerging viruses, including SARS, Ebola, ... Around 500 species of flowering plant rely on bat pollination and thus tend to open their flowers at night. Many ... Scientists do not know where Ebola virus comes from.. *^ Rewar, Suresh; Mirdha, Dashrath (2015). "Transmission of Ebola Virus ... Brüssow, H. (2012). "On Viruses, Bats and Men: A Natural History of Food-Borne Viral Infections". Viruses: Essential Agents of ...
... of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Host-Specific Symptom Determinants by Expression of Individual Genes from a Potato Virus X Vector ... Plant hormones act as a signal to the various tissues of plants inducing one or more responses, the class of plant hormone ... Plants dwarfed due to environmental stress are said to be "stunted." The majority of dwarfing in plants occurs not from the ... a b Zhang, Y.; Turner, J. G. (2008), "Wound-Induced Endogenous Jasmonates Stunt Plant Growth by Inhibiting Mitosis", PLoS ONE 3 ...
Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like particle ... The plant extract QS21 is a liposome made up of plant saponins. It is a part of the Shingrix vaccine approved in 2017. ... Squalene is an oil, made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms, produced by plants and is present in many foods. Squalene is also ...
... the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus ... Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops like oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pomelo and limes. ... International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) (1999): Descriptors for Citrus (Citrus spp.). PDF fulltext[permanent ... Citrus plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly and scale insects (e.g. California red scale). Also rather ...
"Relative attraction of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi to local flowering plants in the Dead Sea region". Journal of Vector ... "Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patient" ... Alternatively, these plants may serve to capture and control sand flies by using their odor compounds or the plants themselves ... Studies conducted in recent years show that the plant Bougainvillea glabra may protect against the sand fly . The plant was ...
Plants and fungi. Main articles: Mating systems § In plants, Mating in fungi, and Mating of yeast ... The term mating is also applied to related processes in bacteria, archaea and viruses. Mating in these cases involves the ... "Demonstration of genetic exchange during cyclical development of Leishmania in the sand fly vector". Science. 324 (5924): 265- ... Like in animals, mating in other Eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi, denotes sexual conjugation[clarify]. However, in ...
A protist (/ˈproʊtɪst/) is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant, or ... For example, the word "protist pathogen" may be used to denote any disease-causing microbe that is not bacteria, virus, viroid ... This turns the flies into a vector that can spread the pathogenic protist between red fire ant colonies. ... a b The first eukaryotes were "neither plants, animals, nor fungi", hence as defined, the Protista would include the earliest ...
In vitro virus high-throughput sequencing. A method has been developed to analyze full sets of protein interactions using ... The fragmented DNA may then be cloned into a DNA vector and amplified in a bacterial host such as Escherichia coli. Short DNA ... plant, and microbial species. ... In some viruses (specifically, bacteriophage), cytosine may be ... "The Next Frontier: Human Viruses" , whatisbiotechnology.org, Retrieved May 3, 2017. *^ Beck S, Pohl FM (1984). "DNA sequencing ...
History of yellow fever
The virus as well as the vector Aedes aegypti, a mosquito species, were probably brought to the western hemisphere and the ... The French hospitals contained many pools of stagnant water, such as basins underneath potted plants, in which mosquitoes could ... Advances in Virus Research. Advances in Virus Research. 59: 277-314. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(03)59008-X. ISBN 978-0-12-039859-1 ... The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely lie in Africa. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the virus ...
Contaminants typically alter plant metabolism, often causing a reduction in crop yields. This has a secondary effect upon soil ... A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device ... spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, there are also ... Phytoremediation, or using plants (such as willow) to extract heavy metals.. *Mycoremediation, or using fungus to metabolize ...
Biological weapon - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Filoviridae and Arenaviridae viruses. Many. Cause viral hemorrhagic fevers, like Ebola virus and Lassa fever. Can be spread by ... Castor oil plant. Ricin poisoning. Can be made at home; very toxic by any route of exposure. ... "Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 14, 2015. Retrieved ... A biological weapon is a weapon that delivers toxins or pathogens (like bacteria or viruses), with the goal of making people ...
... is a vector-borne illness usually transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. B. microti uses the same tick vector as ... Imizol is a drug used for treatment of babesiosis in dogs. Extracts of the poisonous, bulbous plant Boophone disticha are ... The agent was B. microti, and the vector was the tick I. scapularis.Equine babesiosis is also known as ... The plant is rich in alkaloids, some of which display an action similar to that of scopolamine. ...
Horisontaalne geeniülekanne - Vikipeedia
Pearson H (August 2008). "'Virophage' suggests viruses are alive". Nature 454 (7205): 677. Bibcode:2008Natur.454..677P. PMID ... Izsvak Z., Ivics Z., Plasterk R.H. (2000). "Sleeping Beauty, a wide host-range transposon vector for genetic transformation in ... "Horizontal Gene Transfer in Plants" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Botany 58 (1): 1-9. PMID 17030541. doi:10.1093/jxb/erl148 ... "Interaction among Virus, Cell, and Organism". Nobel Lecture for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ...
Programmed cell death
Plant cells undergo particular processes of PCD similar to autophagic cell death. However, some common features of PCD are ... Vectors. 4: 44. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-44. de Duve C (1996). "The birth of complex cells". Scientific American. 274 (4): 50-7 ... as a cell-death backup to apoptosis when the apoptosis signaling is blocked by endogenous or exogenous factors such as viruses ... See also related articles in The Plant Cell Online Ito J, Fukuda H (2002). "ZEN1 Is a Key Enzyme in the Degradation of Nuclear ...
The linear P1 vector becomes circularized by recombination between two loxP sites in the vector. P1 vectors generally contain a ... Phage λ is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects E. coli. The λ chromosome is 48.5kb long and can carry inserts up to 25kb. ... November 2012). "Application of large-scale sequencing to marker discovery in plants". J. Biosci. 37 (5): 829-41. doi:10.1007/ ... P1 vectors also contain a P1 plasmid replicon, which ensures only one copy of the vector is present in a cell. However, there ...
The genes to be introduced into the plant are cloned into a plant transformation vector that contains the T-DNA region of the ... Protoplasts or alternatively leaf-discs can be incubated with the Agrobacterium and whole plants regenerated using plant tissue ... Agrobacterium does not infect all plant species, but there are several other effective techniques for plant transformation ... A Natural Vector for the Introduction of NIF Genes in Plants?". In Hollaender A, Burris RH, Day PR, Hardy RW, Helinski DR, ...
Viruses are the only exception to this rule-sometimes viruses use the very similar molecule RNA instead of DNA as their genetic ... When a plant has two copies of this white allele, its flowers are white-regardless of whether the first gene has blue or ... DNA Cloning with Plasmid Vectors Archived 27 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine ... Widely used model organisms include the gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, baker's yeast ( ...
green peach aphid - Myzus persicae (Sulzer)
Indeed, this aphid is considered by many to be the most important vector of plant viruses throughout the world. Nymphs and ... A Conspectus of Aphids as Vectors of Plant Viruses. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London. 114 pp. ... Host Plants (Back to Top). Green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of host plants in over 40 plant families. However, it is only ... This highly dispersive nature contributes significantly to their effectiveness as vectors of plant viruses. ...
Unveiling and blocking the interaction between tomato spotted wilt virus and its insect vector, Frankliniella occidentalis
The transgenic plants and the new knowledge of the virus vector interaction are promising tools to control TSWV and a model ... Keywords: Plant virus-vector interaction; Bunyaviridae; Transmission-blocking technology; Transgenic tomato; Salivary glands; ... Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an economically important plant virus dependent on insects (thrips) for transmission to ... plant hosts. Like many animal-infecting viruses, TSWV replicates in the cells of its insect vector. The virus is an emergent ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | RNA Interference in Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses
Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that ... The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, ... This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant ... including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the ...
Biomedicines | Free Full-Text | Plant Virus Expression Vectors: A Powerhouse for Global Health
Plant virus expression vectors produce high levels of pharmaceutical proteins within a very short time period. Recently, plant ... This review provides a glimpse into the development of plant virus expression systems both for pharmaceutical production as ... Plant-made biopharmaceuticals have long been considered a promising technology for providing inexpensive and efficacious ... viruses have been employed as nanoparticles for novel forms of cancer treatment. ...
Do Secondary Bacterial Endosymbionts of Aphids Affect the Vector Specificity or Transmission Efficiency of Plant Viruses?
When an insect vectors a persistently transmitted plant virus, this virus should pass through the insect gut into the ... Do Secondary Bacterial Endosymbionts of Aphids Affect the Vector Specificity or Transmission Efficiency of Plant Viruses?. ... thereby influencing the vectoring efficacy or specificity of the insect in respect to these plant viruses. This issue, however ... "Do Secondary Bacterial Endosymbionts of Aphids Affect the Vector Specificity or Transmission Efficiency of Plant Viruses?," ...
Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb (9780120059355)
Buy Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb (9780120059355) from Boomerang Books, Australias Online Independent ... Description - Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb. Most viruses that infect plants need an intermediary (vector) for ... Plant Virus Vector Interactions. Volume 36. R.T. Plumb. Format: Hardback. Availability: ! Available to Backorder, No Due Date ... placing it 8th in the highly competitive category of Plant Sciences. Buy Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb from ...
Foxtail mosaic virus: A Viral Vector for Protein Expression in Cereals | Plant Physiology
2000) A plant virus vector for systemic expression of foreign genes in cereals. Plant J 23: 547-555. ... Plant (+)-ssRNA viruses also have been modified as vectors and used extensively for transient RNAi in virus-induced gene ... 2016) A Foxtail mosaic virus vector for virus-induced gene silencing in maize. Plant Physiol 171: 760-772. ... 1992) Potato virus X as a vector for gene expression in plants. Plant J 2: 549-557. ...
Alberti / Kitajima | Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) - Economically Important Plant-Virus...
Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors, 2014, Buch, 978-3-510-55047-0. Bücher schnell und portofrei ... Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) - Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors ... Anatomy and Fine Structure of Brevipalpus Mites (Tenuipalpidae) - Economically Important Plant-Virus Vectors ... This volume is of relevance to researchers working in the fields of plant parasitology, plant pest control or plant virology. ...
Use of virus vectors for the expression in plants of active full-length and single chain anti-coronavirus antibodies | John...
A High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene-Silencing Vector for Screening Transcription Factors in Virus-Induced Plant Defense...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25:738-746...Hsiang-Chia Lu,1 Ming-Hsien Hsieh,2,3,4 Cheng-En Chen,1 Hong-Hwa Chen,2,3,5 ... A High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene-Silencing Vector for Screening Transcription Factors in Virus-Induced Plant Defense ... The viral vector initially triggered the expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defense responses and later ... This report describes our improvement of our previously reported orchid virus-induced gene silencing vector, pCymMV-pro60, with ...
The Molecular Biology of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus and Its Application as Plant Gene Vector | Springer for Research & Development
Hull, R., Davies, J. W., 1983: Genetic engineering with plant viruses, and their potential as vectors. Adv. Virus Res. 28, 1-33 ... Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Brome Mosaic Virus Wheat Dwarf Virus These keywords were added by machine ... Howell, S. H., 1982: Plant Molecular Vehicles: Potential vectors for introducing foreign DNA into plants. Ann. Rev. Plant ... The Molecular Biology of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus and Its Application as Plant Gene Vector. In: Hohn T., Schell J. (eds) Plant ...
"A plant virus vector for systemic expression of foreign genes in cerea" by Il-Ryong Choi, Drake C. Stenger et al.
These results clearly demonstrate the utility of WSMV as a transient gene expression vector for grass species, including two ... Histochemical assays indicated the presence of functional GUS protein in systemically infected wheat and barley plants ... domains of the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) polyprotein ORF. The WSMV Nlb-CP junction containing the nuclear inclusion a ( ... species and the nature of inserted sequences affect the stability and expression of foreign genes delivered by engineered virus ...
biosafety quiz - BIOSAFETY 1 Viruses viral vectors bacteria transgenic plants/animals chlamydia rickettsiae recombinant DNA...
BIOSAFETY: 1.) Viruses, viral vectors, bacteria, transgenic plants/animals, chlamydia, rickettsiae, recombinant DNA, fungi, ... BIOSAFETY: 1.)Viruses, viral vectors, bacteria, transgenic plants/animals, chlamydia, rickettsiae, recombinant DNA, fungi, ... 40 chapter Plant Defense Responses PLANTS ARE CONSTANTLY UNDER ATTACK by viruses, b ... Plants, Bacteria, DNA, Fungi, Viruses, Radioactive Decay, Radioactive contamination, Biosafety level, Biological hazard ...
Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of some plants from asteraceae family against zika virus, dengue and chikungunya vector, |i...
Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of some plants from asteraceae family against zika virus, dengue and chikungunya vector, ... The leaf extract of these plants therefore could be a potential source of herbal larvicide for vector control and could be used ... Keywords: Leaf, Aqueous Extracts, Nigerian Asteraceae Plants, Larvicidal Activities, Ovicidal Activities, Aedes aegypti, Plant ... Keywords: Leaf; Aqueous Extracts; Nigerian Asteraceae Plants; Larvicidal Activities; Ovicidal Activities; Aedes aegypti; Plant ...
"Discovery of Novel Viruses From Animals, Plants, and Insect Vectors Us" by Terry Fei Fan Ng
Both animal and plant viruses were represented in the mosquito viromes, which likely originate from animal blood and plant ... Mosquito viromes contained a diverse range of viruses, including vertebrate, insect, plant, and bacterial viruses, and almost ... enabling the sequencing of novel viruses from animals, plants, and insect vectors. Viral metagenomics performed directly on ... to examine viruses present in insect vectors. VEM combines the power of metagenomics to sequence novel viruses with the ability ...
Transcriptome response comparison between vector and non-vector aphids after feeding on virus-infected wheat plants | Research...
We compared the transcriptome-level responses in vector and non-vec... ... Background Plant viruses maintain intricate interactions with their vector and non-vector insects and can impact the fitness of ... Immune-related DEGs of vector and non-vector aphids feeding on virus-infected wheat. Feeding on virus-infected plants resulted ... Immune-related DEGs of vector and non-vector aphids feeding on virus-infected wheat. Feeding on virus-infected plants resulted ...
Development of expression vectors based on pepino mosaic virus | Plant Methods | Full Text
... a widespread plant virus, is a promising candidate expression vector for plants because of its high level of accumulation in ... The possible use of PepMV as a virus-induced gene silencing vector to study gene function was also demonstrated. Protocols for ... We have generated a novel tool for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants and for the functional analysis of virus ... We report here the construction of a stable and efficient expression vector for plants based on PepMV. Agroinfectious clones ...
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POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS ON INSECT VECTORS OF PLANT VIRUSES : IGTRCN
In support of a large multi-investigator DARPA-funded initiative to develop vectored plant viruses that could edit plant ... For the postdoctoral positions on the plant virus, a Ph.D. in Entomology or Plant Pathology with an emphasis in Plant Virology/ ... POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS ON INSECT VECTORS OF PLANT VIRUSES July 17, 2017. By Max Scott ... 4) Insect-Virus Interactions (2). The fellow will initially focus on the basic biology of aphid borne virus-plant interactions ...
THE INTERACTION OF THE DIFFERENT VIRUSES CAUSING MLND AND THE THRIPS VECTORS | Department of Plant Science & Crop Protection
High-efficiency protein expression in plants from agroinfection-compatible Tobacco mosaic virus expression vectors | BMC...
Recombinant protein expression levels in plants from Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vectors are much higher than those ... We have constructed a Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-driven TMV expression vector that can be delivered as a T- ... These modifications to the TMV-based expression vector system have made TMV vectors an easier, more reliable and more cost- ... from Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) resulted in essentially complete infection of the infiltrated plant tissue with the TMV ...
High-level expression and enrichment of norovirus virus-like particles in plants using modified geminiviral vectors<...
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Plant virus control | Sustainable Gardening Australia
Plant viruses, symptoms, leaf spots, distortion, wilt, variegated leaf or fruit colours. How they spread and methods for ... Removing infected dying plants and destroying them so that vectors such as aphids do not spread the virus to healthy plants. ... Once inside the plant, the plant is harnessed into producing more virus. The plant cannot grow properly because its energy and ... trees and Australian native plants have few virus disease problems and, interestingly, viruses in wild-growing plants dont ...
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Research | University of St Andrews
Turnip Mosaic Virus as a vector for plant gene expression - Espace INRS
Agharbaoui, Zahra; Beauchemin, Chantal; Bougie, Véronique; Laliberté, Jean-François . Turnip Mosaic Virus as a vector for plant ... In this study, we have used Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) for the development of such a vector. TuMV is a positive sense RNA virus ... Transgenic plants do not always synthesise enough protein of interest. The use of viral vector has attracted interest because ... In conclusion, our vector offers the possibility of easily producing proteins of medical interest such as antibodies in high ...
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RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we ... RGSV is a member of the genus Tenuivirus, and it induces leaf yellowing, stunting, and excess tillering on rice plants. Here we ... Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. ... Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a serious threat to rice production in Southeast Asia. ...
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Crop-dominated landscapes have higher vector-borne plant virus prevalence Its been clear for some time that landscape ... The map matters: crop-dominated landscapes have higher vector-borne plant virus prevalence. In this post Suzi Claflin discusses ... Crop-dominated landscapes have higher vector-borne plant virus prevalence. Its been clear for some time that landscape ... how landscape composition impacts the spread of an aphid-borne plant virus (specifically, potato virus Y or PVY). And what we ...
John Hammond : USDA ARS
Plant virus-derived vectors () Abrahamian, P., Hammond, R., Hammond, J. 2020. Plant virus-derived vectors. Annual Review of ... Progress in development of a Universal Plant Virus Micrarray for the detection and identification of plant viruses - (Peer ... Progress in development of a Universal Plant Virus Micrarray for the detection and identification of plant viruses. Acta ... 2014 nationwide survey revealed Turnip mosaic virus, Radish mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus as the major viruses in ...
Analysis of leaky viral translation termination codons in vivo by transient expression of improved beta-glucuronidase vectors
Plant RNA viruses commonly exploit leaky translation termination signals in order to express internal protein coding regions. ... Plant RNA viruses commonly exploit leaky translation termination signals in order to express internal protein coding regions. ... GUS vectors that contain the stop codons and surrounding nucleotides from the readthrough regions of several different RNA ... Analysis of leaky viral translation termination codons in vivo by transient expression of improved beta-glucuronidase vectors ...
AphidsVirologyAphidSpeciesLeafThripsParticlesGeneticMosquitoesAphisReplicationDisease2002VirologyViral vectorsOrganismsHostsPathogenicCommon vectorsTransgenic plantsNicotianaBacteriaImmunityTobacco mosaiTransmitSystemicMechanismsWhiteflyGene expressionNematode VectorsTransientBiologyBarleyAphid vectorsNematodesMosaic virusCucumberNucleic acidWeedsSpread by vectorsBeetlesTranscriptomeTomatoSequencesHostAnimal VirusesCerealsEpidemiologyExpressionSpecificityAgrobacteriumPersistent
- Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. (ugent.be)
- Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. (ugent.be)
- C otton blue disease is caused by the Cotton leaf-roll dwarf virus and transmitted by aphids. (cottonfarming.com)
- Other options included eliminating cotton regrowth, cultivar selection and chemical control of aphids when 5 to 10 percent of the plants were infected. (cottonfarming.com)
- EN] The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open-field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). (upv.es)
- Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. (upv.es)
- After harvest, ratoon cotton and regrowth in leftover stalks in the field could act as overwintering host for the virus and vector (aphid)," says UGA's Dr. Sudeep Bag. (cottonfarming.com)
- During 2017, an aphid-transmitted polerovirus, was identified for the first time infecting cotton plants in Alabama. (cottonfarming.com)
- Studies by electron microscopy revealed the budding of some virus particles from the basal membrane of midgut epithelial cells of F. occidentalis larvae into the extracellular space of the basal labyrinth. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Enveloped virus particles were also seen in midgut muscle cells of F. occidentalis larvae. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions, or a particularly rapid diversification. (upv.es)
- During the Cotton Disease Council session at the 2019 Beltwide Cotton Conferences, Auburn University plant pathologist Dr. Kathy Lawrence provided the Alabama backstory about cotton blue disease. (cottonfarming.com)
- On March 18, 2018, I received an email from her saying we had Cotton leafroll dwarf virus, commonly known as cotton blue disease. (cottonfarming.com)
- Four planting dates, ranging from mid-March to mid-June, and two soybean Glycine max (L.) cultivars were examined for their effect on the relative damage caused by the virus in central Iowa for the years 2000-2002. (iastate.edu)
- In 2001 and 2002, however, planting date had minimal impact. (iastate.edu)
- This volume is of relevance to researchers working in the fields of plant parasitology, plant pest control or plant virology. (beck-shop.de)
- Molecular Plant Virology (Vol. 2 ), pp. 121-159. (springer.com)
- The seminal text Plant Virology is now in its fifth edition. (scribd.com)
- The fifth edition of Plant Virology updates and revises many details of the previous edition while retaining the important earlier results that constitute the field's conceptual foundation. (scribd.com)
- Publications] Tamada, T.: 'Vascular movement of beet necrotic yellow vein viruses in Beta macrocarpa is probably dependent on an RNA 3 sequence domain rather than a gene product'Journal of General Virology. (nii.ac.jp)
- It has been ten years since the publication of the third edition of this seminal text on plant virology, during which there has been an explosion of conceptual and factual advances. (indigo.ca)
- Generation of an infectious virus from a cDNA copy of the viral genome, an approach referred to as reverse genetics, is the most powerful genetic tool in modern virology. (prolekare.cz)
- Professor Gary Foster and his team from the University of Bristol's School of Biological Sciences have long been recognised as world-leading in the area of plant virology and vector-transmitted diseases, with particular interest in food security. (bris.ac.uk)
- biosafety quiz - BIOSAFETY 1 Viruses viral vectors bacteria. (coursehero.com)
- Expression of recombinant vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies using plant viral vectors has developed extensively during the past several years. (elsevier.com)
- The approach benefits from high yields of recombinant protein obtained within days after transient delivery of viral vectors to leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, a tobacco relative. (elsevier.com)
- Use of viral vectors for vaccine production in plants. (nchu.edu.tw)
- Viral vectors have been used to express foreign proteins in plants or to silence endogenous genes. (apsnet.org)
- We developed viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) by duplicating a minimum promoter (92 bp) either at the 3′ untranslated region ( clbv3 ′ pr vector) or at the intergenic region between the movement and coat protein (CP) genes ( clbvINpr vector). (apsnet.org)
- A rapid increase in the use of next-generation genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of long lists of candidate genes underlying traits of specific interest in plants and plant-associated organisms. (plantphysiol.org)
- By enabling the discovery of virus in diseased organisms and in insect vectors, viral metagenomics is a powerful technique that will significantly enhance our fundamental scientific understanding of the diversity, transmission, biogeography, and emergence of viruses. (usf.edu)
- Some are carried by single celled organisms such as Polymyxa betae which transmits Beet necrotic yellow vein virus by infecting plant roots. (sgaonline.org.au)
- The Plasmodiophorida , or plasmodiophorids are a group of microscopic organisms that live as parasites within the cells of higher plants, algae or oomycetes. (tolweb.org)
- Viruses differ from cellular organisms in many ways. (angelfire.com)
- Organisms and physical objects that carry or transmit viruses are called vectors . (angelfire.com)
- Beijerinck first surmised that the virus under study was a new kind of infectious agent, which he designated contagium vivum fluidum , meaning that it was a live, reproducing organism that differed from other organisms. (britannica.com)
- There is not a lot known about plant virus and host cell interaction due to the difficulty of studying organisms with cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
- Under the authority of the Plant Protection Act of 2000 , a Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) 526 permit is required for the importation, interstate movement and environmental release of biological control organisms of plant pests and weeds. (usda.gov)
- Biopesticides that are biological controls, according to APHIS, would be any registered pesticide used to control a plant pest, weed or plant disease for which the active ingredient is a live microbial organism, including the metabolites of that organisms. (usda.gov)
- most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes , but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles. (wikipedia.org)
- The OP is talking about horizontal gene transfer between eukaryotic organisms like fish and plants. (thenakedscientists.com)
- They identify hosts haphazardly from the air based on colour contrast (if it's green, it's good), then descend and probe the plant to test for tastiness, often only to find they have made a terrible mistake. (appliedecologistsblog.com)
- Canto T, Aranda MA and Fereres A (2009) Climate change effects on physiology and population processes of hosts and vectors that influence the spread of hemipteran‐borne plant viruses. (els.net)
- The majority of plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors between hosts, and transovarial transmission of viruses from vector parents to offspring has great significance to their epidemiology. (pnas.org)
- There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration , directly transmitted parasitism (by contact), trophically transmitted parasitism (by being eaten), vector -transmitted parasitism, parasitoidism , and micropredation. (wikipedia.org)
- Citation: 'Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts. (wired.com)
- and viruses that provide a clear benefit to their plant hosts (mutualists). (wikisource.org)
- However, the study of viruses in non-crop hosts is only now being done, and the results are showing that contrary to the learned opinion of some scientists, we know very little about the viruses in plants . (wikisource.org)
- A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. (wikibooks.org)
- The role that viruses have played in the evolution of their hosts has seldom been addressed in the context of either plant or insect evolution. (asmscience.org)
- The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. (asm.org)
- Potato virus Y (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses affecting potato production. (wikipedia.org)
- Two new high containment level laboratories have been built and equipped, allowing research on pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- Cacao necrosis virus (CNV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the genus nepovirus that infects Theobroma cacao en natura causing cacao necrosis disease. (wikipedia.org)
- viruses pathogenic to higher plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Lily virus X (LVX) is a pathogenic ssRNA(+) plant virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae and the order Tymovirales. (wikipedia.org)
- Purification and immunogenicity of hemagglutinin from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera , resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. (asm.org)
- Hence, the aim of this primary study is to investigate the effect of secondary bacterial endosymbionts of Sitobion avenae clones in respect of the vector specificity and transmission efficiency of barley yellow dwarf virus, as well as to highlight in general the role of secondary bacteria in virus transmission. (bioone.org)
- The Colorado potato beetle secretes symbiotic bacteria to wounds to manipulate plant defenses. (pnas.org)
- The bacteria elicit salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defenses, and because SA signaling often negatively cross-talks with jasmonate signaling, plants are unable to fully activate their jasmonate-mediated resistance against the herbivore. (pnas.org)
- Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas , Pseudomonas , and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. (pnas.org)
- Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. (pnas.org)
- Viruses have generally been studied either as disease-causing infectious agents that have a negative impact on the host (most eukaryote-infecting viruses), or as tools for molecular biology (especially bacteria-infecting viruses, or phage). (wikisource.org)
- Viruses and bacteria are too small to be seen without the aid of microscopes. (angelfire.com)
- Viruses are about 100 times smaller than bacteria, and it would take 30,000 to 750,000 of them, side by side, to stretch to 1 centimeter (0.39 in). (wikibooks.org)
- The origins of viruses is unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikibooks.org)
- The bacteria rickettsia and chlamydia are living cells that, like viruses, can reproduce only inside host cells. (wikibooks.org)
- At the same time several other scientists proved that, although these agents (later called viruses ) were different from bacteria, they could still cause disease, and they were about a hundred times smaller than bacteria. (wikibooks.org)
- Virus , an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals , plants , or bacteria . (britannica.com)
- Both of these investigators found that a disease of tobacco plants could be transmitted by an agent, later called tobacco mosaic virus , passing through a minute filter that would not allow the passage of bacteria. (britannica.com)
- Scientists were soon able to detect the number of bacterial viruses in a culture vessel by measuring their ability to break apart (lyse) adjoining bacteria in an area of bacteria (lawn) overlaid with an inert gelatinous substance called agar -viral action that resulted in a clearing, or " plaque . (britannica.com)
- RNA interference (RNAi), for example, is an innate antiviral immunity mechanism that has been successfully used to combat various plant viruses [ 7 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plant-made chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles expressing very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus antigen. (nchu.edu.tw)
- this resistance was classified as immunity when extracts failed to transmit from inoculated leaves to test plants. (wiley.com)
- viruses and innate immunity. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- Viral infections often cause disease in humans and animals, however they are usually eliminated by the immune system, conferring lifetime immunity to the host for that virus. (wikibooks.org)
- Tobacco mosaic virus can even survive in dead infected tobacco leaves in cigarettes. (sgaonline.org.au)
- Gooding GV Jr (1975) Inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus on tomato seed with trisodium orthophosphate and sodium hypochlorite. (els.net)
- de Assis Filho F, Sherwood J. Evaluation of seed transmission of turnip yellow mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana . (springer.com)
- The first virus ever studied, Tobacco mosaic virus , was found in a search for the causal agent of a mosaic disease in tobacco . (wikisource.org)
- Russian biologist Dimitri Ivanovski used this filter to study what is now known to be the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikibooks.org)
- This latter view is supported by earlier studies on tobacco N gene-mediated resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (plantcell.org)
- We found that all tested clones were able to transmit the tested virus strain. (bioone.org)
- Even pollen and seeds may transmit viruses. (angelfire.com)
- In 1933 the British investigators Wilson Smith, Christopher H. Andrewes, and Patrick P. Laidlaw were able to transmit influenza to ferrets, and the influenza virus was subsequently adapted to mice. (britannica.com)
- One minute of feeding is more than enough to acquire and transmit the virus. (osu.edu)
- Uredospores of corn rust ( Puccinia sorghi ) originated from infected plants can also transmit the disease. (osu.edu)
- The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is found throughout the world, including all areas of North America, where it is viewed as a pest principally due to its ability to transmit plant viruses. (ufl.edu)
- Genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus vary in different host plants. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, we showed that TRSV was also found in ectoparasitic Varroa mites that feed on bee hemolymph, but in those instances the virus was restricted to the gastric cecum of Varroa mites, suggesting that Varroa mites may facilitate the spread of TRSV in bees but do not experience systemic invasion. (asm.org)
- Nevertheless, the availability of such antiviral strategies is still limited to specific virus groups, and many viruses, through evolution, mutate readily and have developed various counter-defense mechanisms, leading to rapid emergence of new viruses and nullifying the available antiviral approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pest resistance mechanisms that require the pest to feed I order to ingest a toxin or induce the control mechanism are unlikely to reduce the transmission of rapidly acquired and/or transmitted viruses. (usda.gov)
- In potyviruses, the molecular mechanisms of the virus-vector interaction have been studied extensively, and some level of specificity has been reported ( 36 ). (asm.org)
- This has broadened current knowledge on the mechanisms that generate genetic diversity and on the evolutionary forces and ecological factors that shape the genetic structure and dynamics of plant virus populations. (springer.com)
- Although there has been much research on the mechanisms of virus cell-to-cell movement, there is much less knowledge of the molecular details of how viruses access the vasculature and the phloem mass transport pathway for long-distance movement. (plantphysiol.org)
- Other mechanisms include a role of invasive plants in the ecology of plant virus vectors. (wikisource.org)
- The type of nucleic acid, the structure of the outer covering and dispersal mechanisms are features used to classify viruses. (angelfire.com)
- Viruses and Other Gene Transfer Mechanisms has a What'sNEW section listing over a hundred examples of genetic programs acquired by gene transfer. (panspermia.org)
- In contrast, only plant viruses were observed in the whitefly viromes because whiteflies feed solely on plants. (usf.edu)
- Distinct viromes were found amongst the three mosquito samples as well as between the two whitefly samples, demonstrating the diverse and dynamic nature of the viruses in plant and animal reservoirs. (usf.edu)
- Begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative manner and are maintained through a plant-insect-plant cycle. (pnas.org)
- Turnip Mosaic Virus as a vector for plant gene expression In: 3e édition, Congrès INRS-Institut Armand Frappier 2003, 6-8 novembre 2003, Stoneham. (inrs.ca)
- In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profile in rice plants infected with RGSV to gain insight into RGSV-induced gene responses associated with the symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
- 7. Gene Expression in Transformed Plants. (garlandscience.com)
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- Nematode vectors are responsible for transmission. (wikipedia.org)
- Knockdown of PhaTF15 by virus-induced gene silencing and by transient delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) reduced expression of the orchid homolog of the conserved positive defense regulator NPR1, PhaNPR1 . (apsnet.org)
- Cymbidium mosaic virus also accumulated to high levels with knockdown of PhaTF15 by transient delivery of dsRNA. (apsnet.org)
- GUS vectors that contain the stop codons and surrounding nucleotides from the readthrough regions of several different RNA viruses were constructed and the plasmids were tested for the ability to direct transient GUS expression. (nih.gov)
- Our data show that LwaCas13a, PspCas13b, and CasRx variants mediate high interference activities against RNA viruses in transient assays. (biomedcentral.com)
- It should also be of great interest to biologists studying arthropod structure, host-plant parasite interaction, or reproductive biology. (beck-shop.de)
- Our data establish CasRx as the most robust Cas13 variant for RNA virus interference applications in planta and demonstrate its suitability for studying key questions relating to virus biology. (biomedcentral.com)
- P19-dependent and P19-independent reversion of F1-V gene silencing in tomato.Plant Molecular Biology 68:61-79. (nchu.edu.tw)
- Plant Molecular Biology 63:393-404. (nchu.edu.tw)
- positive strand RNA virus biology. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- The Plant Biology minor has an 18-unit minimum requirement. (ucdavis.edu)
- For more than one century, studies of plant viruses have broken paths in many fields of biology. (springer.com)
- Advancements that have been made in chemistry, physics, and molecular biology since the 1960s have revolutionized the study of viruses. (britannica.com)
- Reverse genetics is a powerful tool for fundamental studies of virus biology, pathology and biotechnology applications. (prolekare.cz)
- Of particular concern is the impact of viruses and their vectors on cereals, wheat, maize (corn in the USA), rice, barley, sorghum, oats, millet and rye, which provide much of the world's food and drink. (els.net)
- Winter‐sown barley infected with Barley yellow mosaic virus in the United Kingdom. (els.net)
- Burnett PA and Plumb RT (1998) Present status of controlling barley yellow dwarf virus. (els.net)
- Carroll TW (1980) Barley stripe mosaic virus: its economic importance and control in Montana. (els.net)
- Hewings AD (1995) Purification and virion characterization of barley yellow dwarf viruses. (els.net)
- Therefore, we conclude that L. erysimi is more mutualistic with TuMV than M. persicae, and differences in TuMV phylogenetic groups do not affect the growth of aphid vectors on turnip plants. (paperity.org)
- PVY is transmissible by aphid vectors but may also remain dormant in seed potatoes. (wikipedia.org)
- plant-parasitic nematodes. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
- The virus is assigned to the genus Nepovirus and is most likely transmitted by needle nematodes (Longidorus spp. (wikipedia.org)
- Conditions that favor nematodes will also favor the spread of cacao necrosis virus including moistened soil and mild temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, we report the development of a VOX vector based on a monopartite single-stranded positive sense RNA virus, Foxtail mosaic virus (genus Potexvirus ). (plantphysiol.org)
- Covey, S. N., 1985: Organization and expression of cauliflower mosaic virus. (springer.com)
- We have constructed a Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter-driven TMV expression vector that can be delivered as a T-DNA to plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, apple mosaic virus is the common name of the apple mosaic ilarvirus, and tulip breaking virus is the common name of the tulip breaking potyvirus. (sgaonline.org.au)
- Shown here is rose mosaic virus. (sgaonline.org.au)
- This has been observed with cucumber mosaic virus. (sgaonline.org.au)
- In this study, we have used Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) for the development of such a vector. (inrs.ca)
- Bean common mosaic virus and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (Potyviridae). (usda.gov)
- Five newly collected turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates from Jeju Island, Korea are closely related to previously reported Korean TuMV isolates but show distinctive symptom development. (usda.gov)
- Fauquet C and Fargette D (1990) African cassava mosaic virus: etiology, epidemiology and control. (els.net)
- Brakke MK (1971) Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus. (els.net)
- 2013) Occurrence and distribution of Triticum mosaic virus in the central Great Plains. (els.net)
- 2014) Quantification of yield loss caused by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus in winter wheat under field conditions. (els.net)
- Byamukama E, Wegulo S, Yabwalo D and Langham MAC (2016) Impact of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus on Wheat Production in the Northern Great Plains Region of the United States: A Review. (els.net)
- Coutts BA, Hammond NEB, Kehoe MA and Jones RAC (2008) Finding Wheat streak mosaic virus in southwest Australia. (els.net)
- Dwyer GI, Gibbs MJ, Gibbs AJ and Jones RAC (2007) Wheat streak mosaic virus in Australia: relationship to isolates from the pacific northwest of the USA and its dispersion via seed transmission. (els.net)
- The cucumber mosaic virus uses a clever subterfuge to spread - it changes the way host plants smell. (wired.com)
- Mescher, who describes the transmission of the cucumber mosaic virus in a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , specializes in the chemical cues plants use to communicate. (wired.com)
- Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is a persistent threat to wheat production, necessitating novel approaches for protection. (wiley.com)
- It is serologically, distantly related to Tomato black ring virus and very distantly related to Hungarian Chrome Mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Similar to its "brother" virus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), CCMV is produced in high yield in plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Other members of this genus include the brome mosaic virus (BMV) and the broad bean mottle virus (BBMV). (wikipedia.org)
- Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), or Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). (osu.edu)
- University of Illinois, Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus. (osu.edu)
Spread by vectors1
- and wilting, also caused by tomato spotted wilt virus. (sgaonline.org.au)
- Try these 2 easy steps to calculate the best time to start your seeds where The last frost date in upstate South Carolina: April 15 Ideal miracle gro feeder argos pulverized eggshells tomato seed starting date: March 1 When to plant How to germinate seeds to get best results when growing tomatoes How to label and grow tomatoes Forsythia Bush Pruning. (upcaring.eu)
- It discusses the efforts aimed at breeding tomato plants resistant to the virus (using classical breeding, marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering). (springer.com)
- However, current protocols are not effective on tissue samples (e.g., lungs, livers and tumors), where they are hindered by the high amount of host nucleic acids which limits the percentage of sequences that originate from viruses. (usf.edu)
- Mosquito viromes contained a diverse range of viruses, including vertebrate, insect, plant, and bacterial viruses, and almost all the viral sequences were novel, suggesting the pan-animal virome is largely uncharacterized. (usf.edu)
- Early vectors suffered from limitations such as instability and low yields, but this has been addressed by the genetic modification of vector sequences and by delivering virus vectors into plant cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens [ 39 , 40 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Many viral studies have used a metagenomic approach for studying biodiversity, where environmental samples are analyzed for virus sequences after some enrichment for viruses, but plant virologists have used a different approach, where individual plants have been sampled . (wikisource.org)
- Many viruses have a wide host range, not just the plant it is first studied on, and the symptoms can vary. (sgaonline.org.au)
- Although they are often fairly specific in their taste in host plants, they are lousy at host selection. (appliedecologistsblog.com)
- Viruses frequently use insect vectors to effect rapid spread through host populations. (asm.org)
- Most plant viruses require the assistance of another organism-the vector-to spread from one host to the next ( 34 ). (asm.org)
- Wheat is a natural host for many viruses. (fao.org)
- The entire plant or animal virus enters the host cell. (angelfire.com)
- The host cell begins to fill with new viruses. (angelfire.com)
- The host cell begins to break apart or lyse, and the viruses are released. (angelfire.com)
- When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce many thousands of identical copies of the original virus, at an extraordinary rate. (wikibooks.org)
- new viruses are assembled in the infected host cell. (wikibooks.org)
- The study of viruses confined exclusively or largely to humans , however, posed the formidable problem of finding a susceptible animal host . (britannica.com)
- Recent advances in research and development have brought about the generation of superior virus expression systems which can be readily delivered to the host plant in a manner that is both efficient and cost effective. (omicsonline.org)
- A second study observed that the same virus can switch its dependence from a host-provided enzyme to one of its own, which would help explain its extreme virulence. (panspermia.org)
- Once the fungus invades the plant roots it transmits the virus to the host plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Where suitable host plants cannot persist, the aphid overwinters in the egg stage on Prunus spp. (ufl.edu)
- This study represents a unique example of viruses with host ranges spanning both the plant and animal kingdoms. (asm.org)
- About 5% of known plant viruses are pollen transmitted, and these are potential sources of future host-jumping viruses. (asm.org)
- Host plant resistance varies widely among hybrids. (pioneer.com)
- This review provides a glimpse into the development of plant virus expression systems both for pharmaceutical production as well as for immunotherapy. (mdpi.com)
- By monitoring the expression of the SA-related plant defense marker PhaPR1 (homolog of PR1 ), we identified a gene, PhaTF15 , involved in the expression of PhaPR1 . (apsnet.org)
- We report here the construction of a stable and efficient expression vector for plants based on PepMV. (biomedcentral.com)
- However the common TMV expression vectors are costly, and at times technically challenging, to work with. (biomedcentral.com)
- We describe improved GUS expression vectors and optimized transfection conditions which made it possible to assay low-level translational events. (nih.gov)
- Ys CP cDNA was inserted into the cloning sites between CaMV 35S promoter and nos terminator of the middle plasmid pRok Ⅱ to produce the plant expression vector pRPCY. (virosin.org)
- We found that knockdown of NbHIPP26 expression inhibited virus long-distance movement but did not affect cell-to-cell movement. (plantphysiol.org)
- We have also engineered a recombinant SYNV vector for stable expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. (prolekare.cz)
- 3. An expression vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 1 . (google.com)
- 4. An isolated cell comprising the expression vector of claim 3 . (google.com)
- 5. A composition comprising the expression vector of claim 3 and a carrier. (google.com)
- 8. An expression vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 6 . (google.com)
- 9. A method of producing a hGH polypeptide with an improved biological half life in an isolated cell, comprising the step of transfecting said cell with an expression vector of claim 3 or claim 8 , thereby producing a hGH polypeptide with an improved biological half life in an isolated cell. (google.com)
- 10. An isolated cell comprising the expression vector of claim 8 . (google.com)
- The following presentation describes recent innovations in plant virus expression systems and their uses for producing biologics from plants . (omicsonline.org)
- For higher plants, nature itself has evolved an elegant and sophisticated gene transfer system in the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (springer.com)
- In agroinfection a plant-functional promoter and RNA virus cDNA are transferred as T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plant cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gene Transfer to Plants attempts to address this problem by describing the principles of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, direct transformation and gene transfer using plant viruses. (garlandscience.com)
- Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) (Geminiviridae: Mastrevirus) is another serious virus of wheat in China that causes significant losses and is mainly transmitted by the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom) in a persistent and non-proliferative manner [8, (researchsquare.com)
- In persistent viruses, vectors retain viruses inside their bodies for a relatively long time and continue the infective state through molting. (paperity.org)
- Persistent plant viruses, which have been poorly studied and have very few known phenotypes (see point 5), make up about half of all viruses found in wild plants. (wikisource.org)