The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An agent that blocks the release of adrenergic transmitters and may have other actions. It was formerly used as an antihypertensive agent, but is now proposed as an anti-arrhythmic.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A class of cell surface receptors that prefer ADENOSINE to other endogenous PURINES. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra).
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Adrenergic beta-2 agonist used as bronchodilator for emphysema, bronchitis and asthma.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
A histamine H1 antagonist with low sedative action but frequent gastrointestinal irritation. It is used to treat ASTHMA; HAY FEVER; URTICARIA; and RHINITIS; and also in veterinary applications. Tripelennamine is administered by various routes, including topically.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.

Phospholamban is present in endothelial cells and modulates endothelium-dependent relaxation. Evidence from phospholamban gene-ablated mice. (1/8444)

Vascular endothelial cells regulate vascular smooth muscle tone through Ca2+-dependent production and release of vasoactive molecules. Phospholamban (PLB) is a 24- to 27-kDa phosphoprotein that modulates activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). Expression of PLB is reportedly limited to cardiac, slow-twitch skeletal and smooth muscle in which PLB is an important regulator of [Ca2+]i and contractility in these muscles. In the present study, we report the existence of PLB in the vascular endothelium, a nonmuscle tissue, and provide functional data on PLB regulation of vascular contractility through its actions in the endothelium. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in aorta of PLB-deficient (PLB-KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. This effect was not due to actions of nitric oxide on the smooth muscle, because sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation in either denuded or endothelium-intact aortas was unaffected by PLB ablation. Relative to denuded vessels, relaxation to forskolin was enhanced in WT endothelium-intact aortas. The endothelium-dependent component of this relaxation was attenuated in PLB-KO aortas. To investigate whether these changes were due to PLB, WT mouse aorta endothelial cells were isolated. Both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed the presence of PLB in endothelial cells, which were shown to be >98% pure by diI-acetylated LDL uptake and nuclear counterstaining. These data indicate that PLB is present and modulates vascular function as a result of its actions in endothelial cells. The presence of PLB in endothelial cells opens new fields for investigation of Ca2+ regulatory pathways in nonmuscle cells and for modulation of endothelial-vascular interactions.  (+info)

Loss of endothelium and receptor-mediated dilation in pial arterioles of rats fed a short-term high salt diet. (2/8444)

A high salt diet often is regarded as an accessory risk factor in hypertension, coincidental to the deleterious effect of high blood pressure on vasodilator function. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term ingestion of a high salt diet per se impairs vasodilator function in the cerebral circulation independent of blood pressure changes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal salt (0.8%) or high salt (4%) diet for 3 days. Mean arterial pressures were similar in the normal and high salt groups (123+/-2 and 125+/-2 mm Hg, respectively). Subsequently, the responses of the in situ pial arterioles to acetylcholine, iloprost, and sodium nitroprusside were determined in cranial windows using intravital videomicroscopy. Pial arterioles of rats fed normal and high salt diets showed similar resting diameters of 69+/-2 and 72+/-3 microm, respectively, but their reactivity patterns to vasodilator stimuli were markedly different. Arterioles of rats fed a normal salt diet dilated progressively up to 17+/-3% in response to the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-6) mol/L) and dilated by 22+/-2% in response to the prostaglandin I2 receptor agonist iloprost (3x10(-11) mol/L). In contrast, pial arterioles of rats fed a high salt diet constricted by 4+/-3% and 8+/-2% in response to acetylcholine and iloprost, respectively. Sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) mol/L), a nitric oxide donor, dilated pial arterioles of rats fed low and high salt diets by a similar amount (19+/-3% and 16+/-2%, respectively), suggesting that signaling mechanisms for dilation distal to the vascular smooth muscle membrane were intact after high salt intake. These results provide the first evidence that the short-term ingestion of a high salt diet may severely impair the vasodilator function of the in situ cerebral microcirculation independent of blood pressure elevation.  (+info)

Role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in adrenomedullin-induced vasodilation in the rat. (3/8444)

We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasodilator peptide discovered in pheochromocytoma cells, stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in the rat kidney. To further investigate whether the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanisms of AM-induced vasodilation, we examined the effects of E-4021, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on AM-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings and perfused kidneys isolated from Wistar rats. We also measured NO release from the kidneys using a chemiluminescence assay. AM (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L) relaxed the aorta precontracted with phenylephrine in a dose-dependent manner. Denudation of endothelium (E) attenuated the vasodilatory action of AM (10(-7) mol/L AM: intact (E+) -25.7+/-5.2% versus denuded (E-) -7. 8+/-0.6%, P<0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with 10(-8) mol/L E-4021 augmented AM-induced vasorelaxation in the intact aorta (-49. 0+/-7.9%, P<0.05) but not in the denuded one. E-4021 also enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in the rat intact aorta (10(-7) mol/L ACh -36.6+/-8.4% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-7) mol/L ACh -62.7+/-3.1%, P<0.05). In perfused kidneys, AM-induced vasorelaxation was also augmented by preincubation with E-4021 (10(-9) mol/L AM -15.4+/-0.6% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L AM -23.6+/-1.2%, P<0.01). AM significantly increased NO release from rat kidneys (DeltaNO: +11.3+/-0.8 fmol. min-1. g-1 kidney at 10(-9) mol/L AM), which was not affected by E-4021. E-4021 enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation (10(-9) mol/L ACh -9.7+/-1.7% versus 10(-8) mol/L E-4021+10(-9) mol/L ACh -18.8+/-2.9%, P<0.01) but did not affect ACh-induced NO release from the kidneys. In the aorta and the kidney, 10(-4) mol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor, and 10(-5) mol/L of methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the vasodilatory effect of AM. These results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway is involved in the mechanism of AM-induced vasorelaxation, at least in the rat aorta and kidney.  (+info)

Role of endothelin in the increased vascular tone of patients with essential hypertension. (4/8444)

We investigated the possible role of endothelin in the increased vasoconstrictor tone of hypertensive patients using antagonists of endothelin receptors. Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses (strain-gauge plethysmography) to intraarterial infusion of blockers of endothelin-A (ETA) (BQ-123) and endothelin-B (ETB) (BQ-788) receptors, separately and in combination, were measured in hypertensive patients and normotensive control subjects. In healthy subjects, BQ-123 alone or in combination with BQ-788 did not significantly modify FBF (P=0.78 and P=0.63, respectively). In hypertensive patients, in contrast, BQ-123 increased FBF by 33+/-7% (P<0.001 versus baseline), and the combination of BQ-123 and BQ-788 resulted in a greater vasodilator response (63+/-12%; P=0.006 versus BQ-123 alone in the same subjects). BQ-788 produced a divergent vasoactive effect in the two groups, with a decrease of FBF (17+/-5%; P=0.004 versus baseline) in control subjects and transient vasodilation (15+/-7% after 20 minutes) in hypertensive patients (P<0.001, hypertensives versus controls). The vasoconstrictor response to endothelin-1 was slightly higher (P=0.04) in hypertensive patients (46+/-4%) than in control subjects (32+/-4%). Our data indicate that patients with essential hypertension have increased vascular endothelin activity, which may be of pathophysiological relevance to their increased vascular tone. In these patients, nonselective ETA and ETB blockade seems to produce a greater vasodilator effect than selective ETA blockade.  (+info)

Microvascular function relates to insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normal subjects. (5/8444)

BACKGROUND: A strong but presently unexplained inverse association between blood pressure and insulin sensitivity has been reported. Microvascular vasodilator capacity may be a common antecedent linking insulin sensitivity to blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, we studied 18 normotensive and glucose-tolerant subjects showing a wide range in insulin sensitivity as assessed with the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure was measured by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Videomicroscopy was used to measure skin capillary density and capillary recruitment after arterial occlusion. Skin blood flow responses after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. Insulin sensitivity correlated with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP; r=-0.50, P<0.05). Capillary recruitment and acetylcholine-mediated vasodilatation were strongly and positively related to insulin sensitivity (r=0.84, P<0.001; r=0.78, P<0.001, respectively), and capillary recruitment was inversely related to 24-hour SBP (r=-0.53, P<0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio showed strong associations with insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and the measures of microvascular function but did not confound the associations between these variables. Subsequent regression analysis showed that the association between insulin sensitivity and blood pressure was not independent of the estimates of microvascular function, and part of the variation in both blood pressure (R2=38%) and insulin sensitivity (R2=71%) could be explained by microvascular function. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin sensitivity and blood pressure are associated well within the physiological range. Microvascular function strongly relates to both, consistent with a central role in linking these variables.  (+info)

Endothelial function in Marfan syndrome: selective impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation. (6/8444)

BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome arise due to alterations in the structural and functional properties of fibrillin, a constituent of vascular connective tissues. Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are closely associated with arterial endothelial cells, indicating a possible functional role for fibrillin in the endothelium. Plasma concentrations of endothelial cell products are elevated in Marfan subjects, which indirectly indicates endothelial dysfunction. This study directly assessed flow- and agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent brachial artery reactivity in Marfan subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 Marfan and 20 control subjects, brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and blood pressure were measured by ultrasonic wall tracking, Doppler ultrasound, and photoplethysmography, respectively. Measurements were taken during hand hyperemia (a stimulus for endothelium-derived nitric oxide [NO] release in the upstream brachial artery) and after sublingual administration of the endothelium-independent vasodilator nitroglycerin. In 9 Marfan and 6 control subjects, the above parameters were also assessed during intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin (agonists that stimulate NO production) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NO production). Flow-mediated responses differed markedly between Marfan and control subjects (-1.6+/-3.5% versus 6. 50+/-4.1%, respectively; P<0.0001), whereas nitroglycerin produced similar vasodilation (14.2+/-5.7% versus 15.2+/-7.8%; P=NS). Agonist-induced vasodilation to incremental intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin were not significantly different between Marfan and control subjects, and intra-arterial L-NMMA produced similar reductions in brachial artery diameter in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate impaired flow-mediated but preserved agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Marfan subjects and suggest preservation of basal NO release. Selective loss of flow-mediated dilation suggests a role for fibrillin in endothelial cell mechanotransduction.  (+info)

Neurogenic vasodilatation of canine isolated small labial arteries. (7/8444)

Mechanisms underlying vasodilatation to nerve stimulation by electrical pulses and nicotine were analyzed in isolated canine small labial arteries. Transmural electrical stimulation (5 and 20 Hz) produced a contraction followed by a relaxation in labial arterial strips denuded of the endothelium, partially contracted with prostaglandin F2alpha. The contraction was abolished by prazosin or combined treatment with alpha, beta-methylene ATP. In the treated strips, neurogenic relaxation was abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, and restored by L-arginine. The D-enantiomers were without effect. Nicotine (10(-4) M) also relaxed the arteries, in which the contractile response was abolished by prazosin and alpha, beta-methylene ATP. The relaxant response was attenuated but not abolished by L-NA; the inhibition was reversed by L-arginine. The remaining relaxation by nicotine was abolished by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-[8 to 37], a CGRP1 receptor antagonist. Relaxations elicited by a lower concentration of nicotine (2 x 10(-5) M) sufficient to produce similar magnitudes of response to those induced by 5-Hz electrical nerve stimulation were also inhibited partially by L-NA. Histochemical study with the NADPH-diaphorase method demonstrated positively stained nerve fibers and bundles in the arterial wall, suggesting the presence of neuronal NO synthase. It is concluded that the relaxation induced by electrical nerve stimulation of small labial arteries is mediated exclusively by NO synthesized from L-arginine in nerve terminals, whereas nicotine in the concentrations used evokes relaxations by a mediation of nerve-derived NO and also CGRP, possibly from sensory nerves. The reason why nicotine but not electrical pulses stimulates sensory nerves and elicits vasorelaxation remains unsolved.  (+info)

Relaxation of endothelin-1-induced pulmonary arterial constriction by niflumic acid and NPPB: mechanism(s) independent of chloride channel block. (8/8444)

We investigated the effects of the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced constriction of rat small pulmonary arteries (diameter 100-400 microm) in vitro, following endothelium removal. ET-1 (30 nM) induced a sustained constriction of rat pulmonary arteries in physiological salt solution. Arteries preconstricted with ET-1 were relaxed by niflumic acid (IC50: 35.8 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 21.1 microM) in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, at concentrations known to block Ca++-activated Cl- channels, DIDS (+info)

OBJECTIVES: A progressive decline in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in the human forearm with age has previously been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interplay between age, gender and metabolic factors on EDV in healthy subjects in a population-based study. SETTING: Tertiary university hospital. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Thirty-six healthy men and 30 women, aged 20-69 years, underwent measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF) at rest and during local infusions of 2 and 4 microg min-1 of metacholine (evaluating EDV) and 5 and 10 microg min-1 of sodium nitroprusside (evaluating endothelium-independent vasodilation, EIDV) and during reactive hyperaemia by venous occlusion plethysmography. RESULTS: Age was inversely related to EDV (r = - 0.41, P , 0.05 in men; r = - 0.61, P , 0.01 in women) and maximal FBF during reactive hyperaemia in both men and women. EIDV was significantly related to age in an inverse way in women only. EDV was more pronounced in females than in males ...
The present study demonstrates that long-term cigarette smoking is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation regardless of the presence or absence of atherosclerotic wall thickening. These findings extend previous observations obtained in the brachial artery to coronary arteries, suggesting that smoking is associated with a generalized endothelial vasodilator dysfunction. Most importantly, even in the presence of atherosclerotic wall thickening, smokers exhibited further impairment in flow-dependent coronary arterial dilation indicative of an additive adverse effect on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilator function. Vasodilation in response to increased blood flow in conductance vessels was shown to be strictly dependent on an intact, normally functioning endothelium18 19 and is mediated by the signal of shear stress on the endothelial cell layer20 to release vasoactive factors like endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), believed to be nitric oxide or a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and alpha-adrenergic responses in resistance vessels during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. AU - Chan, N. Norman. AU - MacAllister, Raymond J.. AU - Colhoun, Helen M.. AU - Vallance, Patrick. AU - Hingorani, Aroon D.. N1 - 10.1210/jc.86.6.2499 Article 0021-972X. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - During the menstrual cycle, changes in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation have been demonstrated in conduit vessels in vivo, but responses in resistance vessels have not been studied. The aim of this study was to examine endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, the effects of local nitric oxide synthesis, and alpha-adrenergic constriction in resistance vessels during the menstrual cycle in 15 healthy female volunteers (mean age, 28.07 ± 2.1 yr). Forearm blood flow in response to intrabrachial infusion of bradykinin (10, 30, and 100 pmol/min; endothelium-dependent vasodilator), glyceryl trinitrate (4, 8, and 16 nmol/min; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilation in the peripheral vasculature of patients with congestive heart failure. AU - Katz, Stuart D.. AU - Biasucci, Luigi. AU - Sabba, Carlo. AU - Strom, Joel A.. AU - Jondeau, Guillaume. AU - Galvao, Marie. AU - Solomon, Steven. AU - Nikolic, Srdjan D.. AU - Forman, Robert. AU - LeJemtel, Thierry H.. PY - 1992/4. Y1 - 1992/4. N2 - Impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilation has been demonstrated in two animal models of congestive heart failure and in the coronary circulation of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. To determine whether this impairment contributes to the abnormal peripheral vasomotor tone in patients with congestive heart failure, the local vascular response to intraarterial infusions of graded concentrations (10-8 M to 10-5 M) of acetylcholine (an endothelial-dependent vasodilator) and nitroglycerin (a direct-acting vasodilator) was studied in the superficial femoral artery of 19 patients with congestive heart ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium removal augments endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric vascular bed. AU - Iwatani, Y.. AU - Kosugi, K.. AU - Isobe-Oku, S.. AU - Atagi, S.. AU - Kitamura, Yoshihisa. AU - Kawasaki, H.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Background and purpose: The vascular endothelium regulates vascular tone by releasing various endothelium-derived vasoactive substances to counteract excess vascular response. We investigated whether the vascular endothelium regulates vasodilatation via released endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCFs), by examining the effect of endothelium removal on responses to periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) and various vasodilator agents. Experimental approach: The rat mesenteric vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution. Vasodilator responses to PNS and 5 min perfusion of vasodilator agents in preparations with endothelium were compared with those in the same preparations without endothelium. The endothelium was removed by 30 s ...
In acute ischaemia, glucose-insulin-potassium administration reduces mortality and β-adrenoceptor antagonists have favourable effects on the outcome of ischaemic heart disease. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin (1.4×10−7 M) and the β-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (10−5 M), increase hypoxic vasodilation in correspondence with changes in glycolysis. Porcine coronary arteries, precontracted with 10−5 M prostaglandin F2α, were mounted in a pressure myograph and a microdialysis catheter was inserted in the tunica media. Hypoxic vasodilation, interstitial lactate/pyruvate ratio and interstitial glucose were measured at low (2 mM) and high (20 mM) glucose concentrations. Hypoxia (60 min) caused vasodilation and doubled the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Treatment with insulin quadrupled the lactate/pyruvate ratio during hypoxia, but did not change hypoxic vasodilation. Propranolol blocked isoprenaline-evoked vasodilation, but hypoxic increases in lactate/pyruvate ...
ET (endothelin)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide released by the endothelium, plays an important role in vasomotor regulation and has been linked to diminished endothelial vasodilator capacity in several pathologies associated with human aging, including hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, it is currently unknown whether the decline in endothelial vasodilatation with advancing age is due to elevated ET-1 vasconstrictor activity. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the age-related impairment in ACh (acetylcholine)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is due, at least in part, to increased ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. FBF (forearm blood flow) responses to ACh, SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and BQ-123 (ETA receptor blocker) were determined in 14 young (age, 25±1 years) and 14 older (age, 61±2 years) healthy non-obese men. Additionally, FBF responses to ACh were determined in the presence of ETA blockade. Vasodilatation to ACh was lower ...
Background: Several studies have shown that both early and late effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protect against myocardial injury following ischemic reperfusion. Recently, we have shown that repetition of IPC stimulus augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in forearm circulation of healthy subjects through increases in nitric oxide (NO) production and number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) under a local condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the late effects of IPC on endothelial function in smokers.. Methods and Results: Late phase of IPC was induced by upper limb ischemia (cuff inflation of over 200 mmHg for 5 minutes) six times a day for one month. We evaluated forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before and after IPC stimulus in 15 male smokers (27±7 yr) and 15 male non-smokers (26±5 yr). FBF was measured using a strain-gauge plethysmography. The IPC stimulus significantly increased plasma ...
Endothelial cells line the inner walls of all the arteries, where they release substances that can cause vasodilation and lower the blood pressure. The loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation increases vascular resistance and blood pressure in cardiovascular disorders. Thus, strategies to target the loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation may have therapeutic benefit in cardiovascular disorders.. Under normal conditions, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is driven by increases in intracellular calcium. My laboratory studies the activity of individual calcium entry events in endothelial cells and their signaling targets under normal and disease conditions. We focus on two life-threatening disorders that are commonly associated with the loss of endothelial function- obesity and pulmonary hypertension. New findings reveal that calcium influx through TRPV4 ion channels, a key calcium entry pathway in endothelial cells, is drastically reduced in rodent models of obesity or pulmonary ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of race and subclinical elevations in blood pressure (i.e., prehypertension) on cutaneous sensory nerve-mediated and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation. We recruited participants who self-identified as either non-Hispanic black (n = 16) or non-Hispanic white (n = 16). Within each group, participants were subdivided as either normotensive (n = 8 per group) or prehypertensive (n = 8 per group). Each participant was instrumented with four intradermal microdialysis fibers: 1) control (lactated Ringers), 2) 5% lidocaine (sensory nerve inhibition), 3) 20 mM Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (NO synthase inhibition), and 4) lidocaine + l-NAME. Skin blood flow was assessed via laser-Doppler flowmetry, and each site underwent local heating from 33°C to 39°C. At the plateau, 20 mM l-NAME were infused at control and lidocaine sites to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Maximal vasodilation was induced via 54 mM sodium nitroprusside ...
Synonyms for vasodilation in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for vasodilation. 2 words related to vasodilation: dilatation, dilation. What are synonyms for vasodilation?
In rat cremasteric microcirculation, mechanical occlusion of one branch of an arteriolar bifurcation causes an increase in flow and vasodilation of the unoccluded daughter branch. This dilation has been attributed to the operation of a shear stress-dependent mechanism in the microcirculation. Instead of or in addition to this, we hypothesized that the dilation observed during occlusion is the result of a conducted signal originating distal to the occlusion. To test this hypothesis, we blocked the ascending spread of conducted vasomotor responses by damaging the smooth muscle and endothelial cells in a 200-microm segment of second- or third-order arterioles. We found that a conduction blockade eliminated or diminished the occlusion-associated increase in flow through the unoccluded branch and abolished or strongly attenuated the vasodilatory response in both vessels at the branch. We also noted that vasodilations induced by ACh (10(-4) M, 0.6 s) spread to, but not beyond, the area of damage. Taken
Percent change in coronary blood flow, coronary vascular resistance and coronary epicardial diameter in response to (A) endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine and (B) endothelium-independent vasodilation with sodium nitroprusside. (C) Percent change in coronary blood flow and coronary vascular resistance in response to adenosine. Overweight and obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in dark columns and normal weight subjects (BMI , 25kg/m2) in open columns. Results expressed as mean ± SEM. Probability values by students t-test ...
This study aimed to examine the effects of aerobic training on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and the expression of enzymes controlling NO bioavailability in the aorta of hypertensive rats.. We confirmed findings from previous reports showing that compared with the WKYsd group, the SHRsd group exhibits higher BP and impaired maximal vasorelaxation 24,25. Moreover, the relative endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by 10-4 M ACh was lower in the SHRsd group than in WKY and showed paradoxical vasoconstriction in SHR. These results clearly reveal endothelial dysfunction in the aorta of SHR 24,32. Acetylcholine activates smooth muscle muscarinic receptors and evokes endothelium-dependent contractions in the aortas of SHR, but not WKY 33.. When aorta samples were incubated with L-NAME, differences in maximal vasorelaxation were not observed, but the relative endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by ACh (10-4 M) remained different between the SHRsd and ...
To test the hypothesis that activation of protein kinase C impairs vascular reactivity in patients with diabetes.. A major cause of death and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus is atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is an important, if not primary, factor in atherogenesis. Nitric oxide is an important substance made and released by the endothelium. Many prior studies in animals and humans have shown that the ability of the blood vessel to dilate is impaired in diabetes. This process of vasodilation is mediated by a substance, nitric oxide, which is thought to be highly susceptible to destruction by oxidant molecules. In previous studies, we found that acute administration of the antioxidant, vitamin C, improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This suggests that by scavenging oxidants, such as superoxide, vitamin C may reduce the destruction of nitric oxide and thereby preserve endothelial function. Additional ...
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model (Ercc1Δ/− mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ercc1Δ/− mice showed increased blood pressure and decreased aortic relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) in organ bath experiments. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling and phospho-Ser1177-eNOS were compromised in Ercc1Δ/−. DR improved relaxations by increasing prostaglandin-mediated responses. Increase of cyclo-oxygenase 2 and decrease of phosphodiesterase 4B were identified as potential ...
Cardiovascular dysfunction is usually a primary indie predictor of age-related morbidity and mortality. Strategies To be able to evaluate the function of IL-10 in maintenance of vascular function, power stress myography was useful to gain access to ex-vivo endothelium reliant vasorelaxation in vessels isolated from IL-10 knockout IL-10(tm/tm) and control mice. Pulse influx speed ((PWV), index of rigidity) of vasculature was assessed using ultrasound and blood circulation pressure was assessed using the tail cuff technique. Echocardiography was utilized to elucidated framework and functional adjustments in the center. Outcomes Mean arterial stresses were considerably higher in IL-10(tm/tm) mice when compared with C57BL6/outrageous type (WT) handles. PWV was elevated in IL-10(tm/tm) indicating stiffer vasculature. GMCSF Endothelial unchanged aortic bands isolated from IL-10(tm/tm) mice confirmed impaired vasodilation at low acetylcholine dosages and vasoconstriction at higher dosages whereas ...
1 l-arginine supplement - l-arginine exposed!, #1 l-arginine supplement - l arginine exposed! find out how l-arginine will help you. free shipping for limited time. stocks are running out fast!. L-arginine as a nutritional prophylaxis against vascular, Reduced substrate may be rate limiting and reduce no formation and subsequently endothelial-dependent vasodilation. l-arginine (2-amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid) is a ...
This medical exhibit provides an overview of the venous circulatory system. It also illustrates the process of vasodilation and subsquent shock.
MOA: AT1-receptor antagonists. Block the activation of angiotensin II AT1 receptor on vessels which directly causes vasodilatation, reduces secretion of vasopressin, reduces production and secretion of ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Wicked is a new and exciting formula which contains high amounts of stimulants, compounds to enhance focus and boost vasodilation and muscular pumps in one! Predator Nutrition
The principal finding of this study is that IC inhibits NO-mediated endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle. IC inhibited both receptor- and non-receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by ACh, histamine, and A23187 and endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by SNP. Agents like ACh, histamine, and A23187 produce vasodilation through the endothelial synthesis and release of NO, which activates vascular smooth muscle soluble guanylyl cyclase to produce an increase of cGMP concentration.15 16 19 SNP produces vasodilation by activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase after its breakdown to NO.24 Thus, the site of action for NO is soluble guanylyl cyclase, whether it is released endogenously from endothelial cell activation by receptor-mediated (ACh, histamine) or non-receptor-mediated (A23187) agents or is produced intracellularly in the smooth muscle cells from metabolism of the nitrovasodilator SNP.24 Our findings that IC had ...
In the present article we report that deletion polymorphism in the ACE gene is associated with an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a group of newly discovered, never-treated hypertensive patients. Our patients who were homozygous for deletion (DD) are characterized by significantly less endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared with subjects who were homozygous for insertion (II) and heterozygous (ID). Furthermore, the present data demonstrate that normotensive controls with a DD genotype had similar endothelium-dependent vascular responses when compared with these normotensive individuals with the non-DD genotype. Similarly, although the DD genotype among hypertensive patients was associated with further impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, it must be noted that hypertensive patients with the non-DD genotype also had significantly impaired endothelium responses compared with normotensive controls. Thus, it is clear that it is hypertension and not the ACE ...
HIV-infected subjects on a stable protease inhibitor (PI) containing antiretroviral regimen with plasma HIV RNA ,500 copies/mL, who have LDL cholesterol levels ,130 mg/dL or fasting triglycerides levels ,200 mg/dL, will be randomized (1:1) to continue their current antiretroviral regimen or to switch the PI to atazanavir (ATV). Brachial artery reactivity will be measured before (at entry) and 12 and 24 weeks after subjects are randomized.. ARM A: Switch current PI to atazanavir 400 mg once daily plus current , 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 24 weeks.. Subjects currently on ritonavir (RTV) (400 mg BID or greater) or RTV-boosted PI (,400 mg/day) , or tenofovir (TDF) as backbone NRTI therapy, will switch to ATV 300 mg boosted with RTV 100mg once daily.. ARM B: Continue current antiretroviral regimen (single or RTV-boosted PI plus , 2 NRTIs) for 24 weeks. Brachial artery reactivity in response to two vasoactive stimuli (increased forearm blood flow and ...
BACKGROUND: Some studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of L-arginine as a substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, and diclofenac as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived vasoconstrictive agents on vascular responses in humans during several pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of L-arginine and diclofenac on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) and endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF).. METHODS: Effects of L-arginine and diclofenac on EDV and EIDV were measured in 15 patients with CRF and in 15 healthy controls by means of forearm blood flow measurements with venous occlusion plethysmography during local intra-arterial infusions of methacholine (2 and 4 micro g/min evaluating EDV) and sodium nitroprusside (5 and 10 micro g/min evaluating EIDV).. RESULTS: L-Arginine infusion increased methacholine-induced vasodilatation both in patients with CRF and healthy controls. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating oxidized LDL: determinants and association with brachial flow-mediated dilation. AU - van der Zwan, L.P.. AU - Teerlink, T.. AU - Dekker, J.M.. AU - Henry, R.M.A.. AU - Jakobs, C.A.J.. AU - Heine, R.J.. AU - Scheffer, P.G.. AU - Stehouwer, C.D.A.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1194/jlr.P800030-JLR200. DO - 10.1194/jlr.P800030-JLR200. M3 - Article. C2 - 18802196. VL - 50. SP - 342. EP - 349. JO - Journal of Lipid Research. JF - Journal of Lipid Research. SN - 0022-2275. IS - 2. ER - ...
The findings of the present study show that endothelium-dependent vasodilation was preserved in young untreated subjects with BH, in whom their BP elevation had persisted over a period of 4 to 5 years. However, BH subjects had a nonspecific attenuation of the vasodilatory response to the NO donor SNP. The observation that the relative vascular response to MCh over SNP was even greater in BH subjects supports the interpretation that the reduced FBF response was not due to a dysfunction of the endothelium per se. Rather, it appears that the functional impairment of the vasorelaxant response may be related to some as-yet-undefined ineffective action of NO on the vascular smooth muscle cells or to structural changes in the vasculature. To test this hypothesis, we also investigated the postischemic vasodilatory capacity, which may reflect structural vascular changes and/or reduced production or action of endogenous vasodilator release during tissue ischemia. However, BH subjects had no evidence of ...
BACKGROUND: While recent reports suggest that both flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery (BA), endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid artery correlate with the extent of coronary artery
BACKGROUND Impaired arterial dilatation response to nitroglycerin has been observed in adults with risk factors for atherosclerosis and in patients with established atherosclerotic disease. This defect parallels changes in vascular endothelial function and may be attributed to increased oxidative stress. Because atherosclerosis begins in childhood, we examined the correlates of nitrate-mediated dilatation (NMD) in children, including brachial artery endothelial function, oxidized LDL, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). METHODS AND RESULTS Brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilatation (FMD) and nitrate-mediated smooth muscle function, IMT of the carotid bulb, and brachial artery and oxidized LDL were measured in 142 children (mean age, 11 years; range, 8 to 17 years), including 87 healthy children, 41 diabetic children, and 14 children with familial hypercholesterolemia. NMD correlated directly with FMD (r=0.46, P|0.001) and inversely with brachial artery baseline
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Flow-mediated Dilation Response to Acute Exercise in Overweight Active and Inactive Men. AU - Harris, Ryan. AU - Padilla, Jaume. AU - Hanlon, Kevin P. AU - Rink, Lawrence D. AU - Wallace, Janet P. N1 - Reference text: 1. Eckel RH, Krauss RM. American Heart Association call to action: obesity as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Circulation 1998;97:2099-2100. 2. Lusis AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature 2000;407:233-241. 3. Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-an update. N Engl J Med 1986;314:488-500. 4. Munro JM, Cotran RS. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: atherogenesis and inflammation. Lab Invest 1988;58:249-261. 5. Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, Harris TB. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. JAMA 1999;282:2131-2135. 6. Blair SN, Kohl HW 3rd, Paffenbarger RS Jr et al. Physical fitness and all cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA 1989;262:2395-2401. 7. Lee CD, Blair SN, Jackson AS. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s). T2 - Species and tissue heterogeneity. AU - Triggle, C. R.. AU - Dong, H.. AU - Waldron, G. J.. AU - Cole, W. C.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - 1. Endothelium-derivcd relaxing factor is almost universally considered to be synonymous with nitric oxide (NO); however, it is now well established that at least two other chemically distinct species (prostacyclin (PGI2) and a hyperpolarizing factor) may also contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxation. 2. Only relatively few studies have provided definitive evidence that an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), which is neither NO nor PGI2, exists as a chemical mediator. 3. There is a lack of agreement as to the likely chemical identity of this putative factor. Some evidence suggests that EDHF may be a cytochrome P450-derived arachidonic acid product, possibly an epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET); conflict-ing evidence supports an endogenous cannabinoid as the mediator and ...
Markus Juonala;Costan G. Magnussen;Alison Venn;Seana Gall;Mika Kähönen;Tomi Laitinen;Leena Taittonen;Terho Lehtimäki;Eero Jokinen;Cong Sun;Jorma S.A. Viikari;Terence Dwyer;Olli T. Raitakari ...
Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to transient arterial occlusion was determined with ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery with an 11 MHz linear array ultrasound transducer connected to an ATL Apogee 800 plus duplex ultrasound machine (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Bothell, Washington) adapted from previously published methods (15,16). The axial resolution of the 11 MHz transducer is capable of detection of changes in brachial artery diameter of ,0.1 mm. Arterial diameter (cm) was determined as the internal dimension of the vessel wall, from trailing edge to leading edge of the anterior and posterior intimal markings, respectively (to confirm full alignment of the ultrasound beam with the maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the brachial artery in its long axis). Brachial artery blood flow velocity was determined with a 1.2 mm pulsed Doppler ultrasound sampling volume placed in the center of the image of the vessel lumen with internal software ...
The proposed mechanistic link between the age-related attenuation in vascular function and free radicals is an attractive hypothesis; however, direct evidence of free radical attenuation and a concomitant improvement in vascular function in the elderly is lacking. Therefore, this study sought to test the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA), administered intra-arterially during progressive handgrip exercise, improves brachial artery (BA) vasodilation in a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent manner, by mitigating free radical production. BA vasodilation (Doppler ultrasound) and free radical outflow [electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy] were measured in seven healthy older adults (69 ± 2 yr) during handgrip exercise at 3, 6, 9, and 12 kg (∼13-52% of maximal voluntary contraction) during the control condition and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition via N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), AA, and coinfusion of l-NMMA + AA. Baseline BA diameter was not altered by any of the treatments, while L
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cigar smoking on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy young adults. AU - Santo-Tomas, Minerva. AU - Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco. AU - Machado, Humberto. AU - Aldrich, Harry R.. AU - Lamas, Gervasio A.. AU - Lieberman, Eric H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Cigar smoking has become a quickly growing trend among teenagers, women, and young adults. The objective was to explore whether cigar smoking affects flow-mediated vasodilation in healthy, non-smoking young adults. Methods: This was a prospective randomized trial with open design. It was performed in a cardiology teaching program in a private community hospital that serves as a major referral center within the greater Miami area. Apparently healthy, non-smoking young adult cardiology trainees and staff between the ages of 20 and 45 years were randomly assigned to a cigar smoking group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 14). The main outcome measures were the difference in percent diameter ...
Looking for cold-induced vasodilation? Find out information about cold-induced vasodilation. A sequence of vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation that acts as a protective mechanism to prevent cold weather injury to the extremities Explanation of cold-induced vasodilation
Vascular ultrasound is a specialist form of diagnostic imaging involving the study of the peripheral vascular system and its diseases including peripheral arterial disease, chronic venous disease (varicose veins), and acute venous disease (deep vein thrombosis). Performing vascular ultrasound scans requires expertise in B-mode, colour Doppler, and pulse wave Doppler modalities coupled with a sound knowledge of vascular anotomy, haemodynamics, vascular disease, and both endovascular and surgical vascular procedures.. South East Vascular Ultrasound has been providing a dedicated specialist vascular imaging service to the south eastern suburbs for over 14 years with locations in Richmond (The Epworth Centre), Blackburn, Waverley, and Bentleigh. The senior sonographer is Stephen Wood who has over 20 years experience as a dedicated vascular sonographer.. South East Vascular Ultrasound is fully accredited under the Australian Government Department of Healths Diagnostic Imaging Accreditation Scheme. ...
This study demonstrated that treatment with a single dose of commonly used antihypertensive and antianginal medication lowers blood pressure and heart rate, but has no effect on resting brachial artery size, FMD, NMD, and the reproducibility of FMD. These results were obtained when healthy patients received single doses of specific agents for the first time and when patients on chronic therapy for CAD are studied before and after receiving their clinically prescribed medications. These findings suggest that acute alterations in systemic hemodynamics and/or local resting arterial tone induced by these medications do not alter the capacity of the brachial artery to respond to endothelium-derived and exogenous vasodilators.. No previous study examined the specific question addressed in the current study. In most prior studies of endothelial function in human subjects, all vasoactive medications were withheld for at least 24 h, and a recent paper recommended withholding medications for four ...
We fed 10 healthy, normolipidemic subjects five meals containing 900 kcal and 50 g fat. Three meals contained different fat sources: olive oil, canola oil, and salmon. Two olive oil meals also contained antioxidant vitamins (C and E) or foods (balsamic vinegar and salad). We measured serum lipoproteins and glucose and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), an index of endothelial function, before and 3 h after each meal ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between vascular diameters and amount of magnification and to assess the influence of the magnification media on the microanastomosis quality and permeability. Sixty arterial microanostomoses
Vasodilation is where blood vessels widen.[1] It results from relaxation of muscle cells within blood vessel walls. The process is essentially the opposite of vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.. When vessels widen, blood flow is increased. This in turn decreases blood pressure. Drugs that cause vasodilation are called vasodilators.. ...
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an age-related decline in vascular responsiveness to bradykinin, whose vasodilatory action is mediated chiefly through endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Dose-response curves for bradykinin were constructed using the dorsal hand vein compliance technique in veins preconstricted with phenylephrine in 27 volunteers (16 male, 11 female) aged 18 to 81 years. At the end of the bradykinin study, 12 subjects had a single infusion of a high dose of isoproterenol. There was no correlation between age and the EMAX or the log ED50 for bradykinin, although the same subjects showed a correlation between age and EMAX for isoproterenol, as previously found. There was no significant difference in either the EMAX or the log ED50 between male and female subjects. The results suggest that bradykinin-induced vasodilation is independent of age or gender.
Nicotinic acid, known as vitamin B3, is an effective lipid lowering drug and intense cutaneous vasodilator. This study reports the effect of 2-(1-adamantylthio)nicotinic acid (6) and its amide 7 and nitrile analog 8 on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as antioxidative activity. It was found that the tested thionicotinic acid analogs 6-8 exerted maximal vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects were less than acetylcholine (ACh)-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. The vasorelaxations were reduced, apparently, in both NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). Synergistic effects were observed in the presence of L-NAME plus INDO, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both the ACh and the tested nicotinic acids. Complete loss of the vasorelaxation was noted under removal of endothelial cells. This infers that the vasorelaxations are mediated partially by endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin. The thionicotinic acid analogs all
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Inhibition of renin-angiotensin system reverses endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in estrogen deficient rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The impact of caffeine on vasodilator stress perfusion studies. AU - Lapeyre, Andre C.. AU - Goraya, Tauqir Y.. AU - Johnston, Donald L.. AU - Gibbons, Raymond J.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.nuclcard.2004.04.003. DO - 10.1016/j.nuclcard.2004.04.003. M3 - Article. C2 - 15295419. AN - SCOPUS:4243134949. VL - 11. SP - 506. EP - 511. JO - Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. JF - Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. SN - 1071-3581. IS - 4. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of angiotensin II and α-adrenergic receptors during estrogen-induced vasodilation in ewes. AU - Davis, L. E.. AU - Magness, R. R.. AU - Rosenfeld, C. R.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Estradiol-17β (E2β) produces uterine and systemic vasodilation in nonpregnant ewes without altering mean arterial pressure (MAP). Mechanisms responsible for maintaining MAP and thus uterine blood flow (UBF) may include activation of the renin-angiotensin and/or adrenergic systems. We therefore investigated the effects of systemic blockade of angiotensin II (ANG II) and/or α-adrenergic receptors in nonpregnant, castrated ewes, using saralasin (Sar) and/or phentolamine (Phen) in the presence or absence of intravenous E2β (1.0 μg/kg). In nonestrogenized ewes neither antagonist alone had substantial cardiovascular effects; however, Sar + Phen decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) 20 ± 7.4% (SE) and increased heart rate (HR) 50 ± 19% (P , 0.01); MAP and UBF were unaffected. ...
Although we found that the vasoconstrictor response to l-NMMA was lower in blacks, we did not examine effects of other nonspecific vasoconstrictors to investigate whether this is a reflection of reduced sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictors. However, the fact that the constrictor response to TEA was similar to whites suggests that the response to l-NMMA is specific for reduced NO bioavailability. The reduced sensitivity to exogenous NO (sodium nitroprusside) complicates the interpretation of the reduced dilator responses observed with acetylcholine and bradykinin in blacks. However, because basal NO and the contribution of NO during exercise is lower in blacks, it is likely that in addition to reduced sensitivity, there is also an endothelial defect in NO release in blacks.. l-NMMA and TEA are competitive inhibitors, and thus our results may underestimate the physiological contribution of both NO and K+Ca channels to vasodilation. Our investigation was conducted on a ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate if myogenic responses of isolated coronary arterioles were dependent on an intact, functional endothelium. Arterioles were located in situ by intracoronary perfusion with india ink-gelatin solution and then dissected and cannulated at both ends with glass micropipettes. Intraluminal pressure was initially set at 60 cm H2O; then the pressure was altered in steps of 20 cm H2O over a range of 20-140 cm H2O. Arterioles developed spontaneous tone and exhibited a significant myogenic response in physiological saline solution (36 degrees -37 degrees C). Arteriolar dilation and constriction were observed at lower (20-60 cm H2O) and higher (60-140 cm H2O) pressures, respectively. The presence of a functional and automatically intact endothelium was confirmed by relaxation to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator bradykinin and by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. After mechanical denudation of the endothelium with a specially designed abrasive ...
Forty-seven papers on the mechanisms whereby natural regulatory phenomena and synthetic vasodilator agents effect vasodilation. Outlines the complexity of the physiologic regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone and provides different points of view on debated issues. From a symposium, Mechanisms of Vasodilation, held July 1980 in Belgium. Five sections: neurohumoral regulation, local regulation, cellular mechanisms, the blood-vessel wall in hypertension, and vasodilator agents. ...
Background Premenopausal women have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, which may partly be due to a protective effect of estrogen on endothelial function. Animal studies suggest that estrogen may also improve the relationship between shear rate ( SR ) and endothelial function. We aimed to explore the relationship between endothelial function (ie, flow-mediated dilation [ FMD ]) and SR (ie, SR area under the curve [ SRAUC ]) in women versus men, and between pre- versus postmenopausal women. Methods and Results Brachial artery FMD and SRAUC were measured in accordance with expert-consensus guidelines in 932 healthy participants who were stratified into young adults (18-40 years, 389 men, 144 women) and older adults (,40 years, 260 men, 139 women). Second, we compared premenopausal (n=173) and postmenopausal women (n=110). There was evidence of a weak correlation between SRAUC and FMD in all groups but older men, although there was variation in strength of outcomes. Further exploration ...
We found that Nrf2 KO mice show an impaired left ventricular diastolic function as assessed by high resolution ultrasound. Accordingly, isolated perfused Nrf2 KO hearts showed an impaired response to β adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol, while systolic left ventricular function was preserved. Surprisingly, blood pressure in Nrf2 KO mice was significantly decreased, and endothelial function of arterial conductance and coronary resistive vessels was preserved. This is consistent with an increased maximal dilation after vascular occlusion of the arteria iliaca externa, which indicates a fully preserved vascular and endothelial function in these mice. Mice lacking the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS KO) showed no dilatatory response to shear stress, confirming that flow-mediated-dilation response mainly depends on eNOS-dependent vasodilatory pathways. The circulating NO pool analysed by HPLC and chemiluminescence showed no differences between Nrf2 KO mice and WT littermates. However, ...
In the current study, we found that type 2 diabetes impaired the ability of mesenteric arteries to remodel and improve NO-dependent dilation in response to a chronic increase in blood flow. Indeed, AGEs and RAGEs were overexpressed, whereas eNOS level and MMP activity were reduced in arteries from ZDF rats. Ongoing treatment with the AGE-breaker ALT-711 restored the ability of mesenteric arteries from ZDF rats to increase their diameter and improved endothelium-dependent dilation in response to a chronic rise in blood flow.. Physiologically, a chronic rise in blood flow in resistance arteries enlarges vascular diameter and improves endothelium-dependent dilation (9,19,34). This remodeling is essential to adjust organ perfusion during physiological processes, such as development (35), pregnancy (36), or exercise training (37), as well as during pathological processes (mainly ischemic diseases). A similar remodeling also occurs in response to vasodilator treatments (38,39). This remodeling plays a ...
Munching on walnuts may cut the risk of developing diabetes and heart diseasein obese and overweight adults, researchers have ...
Introduction to Peripheral Vascular Ultrasound Online Course is designed to provide a comprehensive introduction to peripheral vascular sonography and has been designed to provide a strong foundation to perform and/or interpret vascular ultrasound examinations.
Endothelium plays a critical role in maintaining healthy homeostatic properties of the vasculature. Endothelial dysfunction promotes atherosclerosis by creating a vasospastic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory milieu. Therefore, the assessment of endothelial function as a surrogate marker of arterial health has gained significant interest for clinical risk assessment beyond the risk conveyed by a structural impediment to flow (1). Furthermore, the observation that cardiovascular events may occur remotely from the site in which the endothelial dysfunction is detected prompted clinical studies in search for peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular events.. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by a paradoxical vasoconstriction or attenuated dilation due to reduced endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO) release. In earlier studies, the response of the epicardial arteries to infused acetylcholine was measured invasively to assess endothelial function in the ...
The higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the morning is accompanied by an increased vascular tone. However, there are few published studies designed to evaluate the diurnal variation of vascular and endothelial parameters in healthy subjects. In the present investigation, we evaluated the diurnal variation in brachial artery diameter (BAD), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent dilation (NFMD) in a homogeneous sample of healthy non-smoker young men. Fifty subjects aged 20.8 ± 0.3 years (range: 18 to 25 years) were investigated by brachial artery ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were female gender and evidence of clinically significant health problems, including obesity. Volunteers were asked to rest and avoid fat meals as well as alcoholic beverages 48 h before and until completion of the evaluations. BAD, FMD and NFMD were measured at 7 am, 5 pm, and 10 pm and tested by repeated measures ANOVA. BAD was smaller at 7 am (mean ± SEM, 3.8 ± 0.1 mm) in comparison with 5 ...
With the worlds elderly population expected to double by 2050, understanding how aging affects the body is an important focus for researchers globally. Cardiovascular disease, the No. 1 cause of death worldwide, often is associated with aging arteries that restrict blood flow. Now, University of Missouri researchers have identified an age-related cause of arterial dysfunction, a finding that could lead to future treatments for some forms of vascular disease., With the worlds elderly population expected to double by 2050, understanding how aging affects the body is an important focus for researchers globally. Cardiovascular disease, the No. 1 cause of death worldwide, often is associated with aging arteries that restrict blood flow. Now, University of Missouri researchers have identified an age-related cause of arterial dysfunction, a finding that could lead to future treatments for some forms of vascular disease.
The spinal cord has both vasodilation and vasoconstriction nerves. The neurons that control vascular vasodilation originate in ... These approaches to the mechanism of vasodilation are not mutually exclusive. Vasodilation directly affects the relationship ... Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels. It results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in ... Vasodilation works to decrease TPR and blood pressure through relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media layer of ...
Ramanlal R, Gupta V (January 2022). "Physiology, Vasodilation". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Felker ... which has numerous functions in the body including vasodilation - i.e. widening of the vessels. Nitric oxide reacts with other ... Nitroglycerin and other nitrogen oxide use have been a strong influence on vasodilation, cell permeability, inflammation, and ...
Arteriolar vasodilation occurs. The smooth muscle walls of the arterioles relax allowing increased blood flow through the ...
"Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction: Real Story." Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction. 2011. Web. 21 May 2012. University of ... In vasodilation the blood vessels dilate to allow more blood flow. The smooth muscle cells are relaxed to increase the diameter ... Like vasoconstriction, vasodilation can be caused by internal and external factors. For example, nitric oxide, found in food, ... Vasodilation is also triggered for thermoregulation to provide heat dissipation. The Starling equation describes the flow of a ...
The mechanisms of vasodilation are predominantly local metabolites and myogenic effects. Increased metabolic activity of the ... These changes cause significant vasodilation. The reverse occurs when metabolic activity is slowed and these substances wash ... These vasodilators released from the tissue act on local arterioles causing vasodilation, this causes a decrease in vascular ... this then elicits arteriolar vasodilation consequently, creating a pathway of least resistance so blood flow can be precisely ...
Both of these factors affect pH and, in turn, the balance between vasodilation versus vasoconstriction in the brain. So, the ... In response to the blood flow interruption, a temporary compensatory vasodilation occurs as soon as blood flow has resumed, ... Vasodilation Vasoconstriction Vascular resistance "CV Physiology , Local Regulation of Blood Flow". ... While nitric oxide causes vasodilation, endothelin-1 causes vasoconstriction. Below are several examples of differing types of ...
This causes vasodilation and improves hemodynamics. DATS is a promising treatment for cardiac arrhythmias through its ability ...
Vasodilation and vasoconstriction are complex phenomena; they are functions not merely of the fluid mechanics of pressure and ...
vasodilation The widening of blood vessels. vector vegetative reproduction Any type of asexual reproduction performed by an ...
This cold-induced vasodilation increases blood flow and subsequently the temperature of the fingers. A new phase of ... The hunting reaction or hunting response is a process of alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation in extremities exposed ... Hypothermia Thermoregulation Axon reflex Raynaud's syndrome Daanen, H.A.M. (2003). "Finger cold-induced vasodilation: a review ... reduced mean temperature of the digits and a prolonged time of cold exposure prior to initial vasodilation), thus putting the ...
The smooth muscle relaxation leads to vasodilation. Inhibition of neutrophil activation and chemotaxis H2-receptor antagonist ... T-cell proliferation and cytokine production Vasodilation - PKA activity causes phosphorylation of MLCK, decreasing its ...
Jacobs B, Dussor G (December 2016). "Neurovascular contributions to migraine: Moving beyond vasodilation". Neuroscience. 338: ...
AT2R agonists cause vasodilation, exerting hypotensive effects. In animal models of ischemia, activation of AT2R is protective ... In models of Ang II-dependent hypertension, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is reduced. Dysfunction of ion channels is also ... which impairs vasodilation. During sodium intake, an increased production of NO in the kidneys and peripheral vasculature is ...
Vasoconstriction Vasodilation Vasospasm Haddock RE, Hill CE. Rhythmicity in arterial smooth muscle. J Physiol (Lond ). 2005; ...
Increased heart rate and heart muscle contraction are associated with the β1 receptors; however, β2 cause vasodilation in the ...
Cause Vasodilation in the systemic arterial circulation. Cause Vasoconstriction of the Liver sinusoidal and pulmonary venous ... These studies find that selective (but not entirely specific) CYP epoxygenase-inhibiting drugs reduce human vasodilation ... contribute in small or large part to vasodilation responses and by this action promote blood flow to tissues and function in ... express hyperactive sEH and show reduced vasodilation responses to bradykinin. Other studies find that women with pregnancy- ...
Most notably, this enzyme is involved in vasodilation. In humans, it is encoded by the genes GUCY1A2, GUCY1A3, GUCY1B2 and ...
The triple response consists of three aspects: Red spot, caused by capillary vasodilation. Flare, a redness in the surrounding ... but some time at caused by capillary vasodilation. The triple response of Lewis is particularly sensitive in people with ... As extremities cool, the 'hunting response of Lewis' (alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation) occurs, ending with ...
They have anti-inflammatory, sedative and vasodilation effects.[citation needed] The fruit of Prunus mahaleb is inedible. ...
Murad F (July 1986). "Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate as a Mediator of Vasodilation". J. Clin. Investig. 78 (1): 1-5. doi: ... In physiology research, sodium nitroprusside is frequently used to test endothelium-independent vasodilation. Iontophoresis, ... preventing the systemic effects listed above but still inducing local microvascular vasodilation. Sodium nitroprusside is also ...
In fact, recent studies indicate that vasodilation, the expansion of the blood capillaries (vessels) to allow more blood flow, ... Heat therapy is contraindicated in case of acute injury and bleeding disorders (because of vasodilation), tissues with a severe ... Heat creates higher tissue temperatures, which produces vasodilation that increases the supply of oxygen and nutrients and the ... All devices primarily provide heat to promote vasodilation. Infrared radiation Infrared radiation is a convenient system to ...
Increased endothelin and decreased vasodilation have been documented. Jimenez and Derk describe three theories about the ...
Nitric oxide results in vasodilation of blood vessels. Chemical stimulation of angiogenesis is performed by various angiogenic ...
The expansion of blood vessels is called vasodilation. Food also plays a role. In winter, one tends to consume more calories, ...
... possibly through direct vasodilation. There are also reports that it may cause green discolouration of the urine. Although ... Additional side effects include low blood pressure related to vasodilation, transient apnea following induction doses, and ... "Mechanisms whereby propofol mediates peripheral vasodilation in humans. Sympathoinhibition or direct vascular relaxation?". ...
Conjunctival vessels also show proliferation, increased permeability and vasodilation. Based on severity, authors have ...
This area of the skin will become warmer because of vasodilation (loss of vasoconstriction). Depression of the vasomotor center ... Vasoconstriction Vasodilation "Vasomotor" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary WebMD (2009). "vasomotor". Webster's New World ... resulting in vasodilation. Normally, α-adrenergic receptors predominates in smooth muscle of resistance vessels. Endothelin, ...
MMPs and NO induce vasodilation in the cerebral vasculature. Cytokines induce capillary wall changes in the blood brain barrier ...
This increases biosynthesis of cyclic GMP, resulting in vasodilation. Riociguat, another drug stimulating sGC, but with a ...
Its primary action is vasodilation due to α1 blockade. Non-selective α-blockers can cause a much more pronounced reflex ...
In this article, learn about what causes vasodilation and how it can affect a persons health. ... Vasodilation refers to a widening of the bodys blood vessels. ... Vasodilation may occur when a person exercises.. Vasodilation ... Vasodilation assists inflammation by enabling the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to damaged tissues. Vasodilation is what ... In other cases, vasodilation may be what requires treatment.. Medications that induce vasodilation. Vasodilators are ...
Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is an acute increase in peripheral blood flow observed during cold exposures. It is ... Effect of body temperature on cold induced vasodilation Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 Oct;104(3):491-9. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0798 ... Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is an acute increase in peripheral blood flow observed during cold exposures. It is ...
Reactive Vasodilation Predicts Mortality in Primary Systemic Light Chain (AL) Amyloidosis. Tuesday, August 13, 2019 ... The translational value for cardiac transplantation of this prospective multi-centre clinical study of vasodilation in ...
Thallium-201 Myocardial Imaging during Coronary Vasodilation Induced by Oral Dipyridamole. K. Lance Gould, Sherman G. Sorenson ... Thallium-201 Myocardial Imaging during Coronary Vasodilation Induced by Oral Dipyridamole. K. Lance Gould, Sherman G. Sorenson ... Thallium-201 Myocardial Imaging during Coronary Vasodilation Induced by Oral Dipyridamole Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Thallium-201 Myocardial Imaging during Coronary Vasodilation Induced by Oral Dipyridamole. K. Lance Gould, Sherman G. Sorenson ...
Pulmonary vasodilation by sildenafil in acute intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism: a randomized explorative trial. ... BACKGROUND: To investigate if acute pulmonary vasodilation by sildenafil improves right ventricular function in patients with ...
Selective Pulmonary Vasodilation Induced by Aerosolized Zaprinast Fumito Ichinose, MD; Fumito Ichinose, MD ... causes selective pulmonary vasodilation. The duration of vasodilation with zaprinast inhalation is dose dependent and ... The duration of the vasodilation caused by breathing an aerosol of zaprinast is markedly longer than that of inhaled NO alone. ... Welte M, Zwissler B, Habazettl H, Messmer K: PGI sub 2 aerosol versus nitric oxide for selective pulmonary vasodilation in ...
Further, impaired cerebral vasodilation has been linked to reduced cognitive activity in older adults with depression. However ... PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that greater hypercapnia-induced cerebral vasodilation would be related to greater fluid ... Further, impaired cerebral vasodilation has been linked to reduced cognitive activity in older adults with depression. However ... PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that greater hypercapnia-induced cerebral vasodilation would be related to greater fluid ...
Endothelial-dependent vasodilation is impaired in patients with systemic sclerosis, as assessed by low dose iontophoresis. ... Endothelial-dependent vasodilation is impaired in patients with systemic sclerosis, as assessed by low dose iontophoresis. ...
Dive into the research topics of Reduced endothelium-dependent peripheral vasodilation in the aged. Together they form a ...
Effects of chronic and acute consumption of fruit- and vegetable-puree-based drinks on vasodilation, risk factors for CVD and ... There was a trend towards increased vasodilation following both chronic and acute FVPD consumption. All volunteers were ... Overall, there was a non-significant trend towards increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation following both acute and ... and vegetable-puree-based drinks on vasodilation, risk factors for CVD and the response as a result of the eNOS G298T ...
Moskowitz, M. A., & Cutrer, F. M. (1994). Nitric oxide in cerebral vasodilation and headache. Cephalalgia, 14(6), 394-395. ... Moskowitz, M. A. ; Cutrer, F. M. / Nitric oxide in cerebral vasodilation and headache. In: Cephalalgia. 1994 ; Vol. 14, No. 6. ... Moskowitz, MA & Cutrer, FM 1994, Nitric oxide in cerebral vasodilation and headache, Cephalalgia, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 394-395 ... Nitric oxide in cerebral vasodilation and headache. Cephalalgia. 1994;14(6):394-395. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-2982.1994.1406391-6.x ...
... : Anticoagulation, Immunosuppression, or Vasodilation? * ... Managing Diffuse Peripheral Ischemia in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Anticoagulation, Immunosuppression, or Vasodilation?. ...
Vasodilation. Widening of the interior diameter of blood vessels.. Vasopressor. Of, relating to, or causing constriction of ...
In patients with circulatory shock, use of oxycodone hydrochloride tablets may cause vasodilation that can further reduce ... Nervous system disorders: hypertonia, hypoesthesia, migraine, neuralgia, tremor, vasodilation Psychiatric disorders: agitation ...
The effect of l-arginine on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation difers between the coronary and forearm vasculatures in humans. ... The effect of l-arginine on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation difers between the coronary and forearm vasculatures in humans. ... The effect of l-arginine on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation difers between the coronary and forearm vasculatures in humans. ... The effect of l-arginine on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation difers between the coronary and forearm vasculatures in humans. ...
In isolated mouse hearts, both Empa and Cana induced vasodilation. In ischemia-reperfusion studies of the isolated heart, Empa ... In isolated mouse hearts, Empa and Cana, but not Dapa, induced vasodilation. In ischemia-reperfusion studies of the isolated ... Vasodilation. Several studies have addressed the effects of SGLT2i in the isolated perfused heart. Acute coronary vasodilation ... Vasodilation. The effects of Dapa on endothelial cell- and SMC- dependent vascular tone in various models have been studied. ...
Endothelin-1 produces pulmonary vasodilation in the intact newborn lamb. J. Wong, P. A. Vanderford, J. R. Fineman, R. Chang, S ... Endothelin-1 produces pulmonary vasodilation in the intact newborn lamb. / Wong, J.; Vanderford, P. A.; Fineman, J. R. et al. ... Wong, J., Vanderford, P. A., Fineman, J. R., Chang, R., & Soifer, S. J. (1993). Endothelin-1 produces pulmonary vasodilation in ... Wong, J, Vanderford, PA, Fineman, JR, Chang, R & Soifer, SJ 1993, Endothelin-1 produces pulmonary vasodilation in the intact ...
Attenuation of hindlimb vasodilation in heat-stressed baboons during dehydration. / Thornton, R. M.; Proppe, D. W. ... Attenuation of hindlimb vasodilation in heat-stressed baboons during dehydration. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory ... Thornton, R. M. ; Proppe, D. W. / Attenuation of hindlimb vasodilation in heat-stressed baboons during dehydration. In: ... Thornton, R. M., & Proppe, D. W. (1986). Attenuation of hindlimb vasodilation in heat-stressed baboons during dehydration. ...
Vasodilation. Vasodilation ± balloon angioplasty. Severe. Vasodilation ± balloon angioplasty (rare). Vasodilation + balloon ...
vasodilation.. *Arsenic ingestion from contaminated beer has been reported to cause outbreaks of cardiomyopathy [Reynolds 1901 ...
Maximum Vasodilation. Increased Uptake of Amino Acids and Additional Nutrients. Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate (ATP) is a unique ... ATP increases vasodilation. ATP increases oxygen flow & L-Arginine uptake. ATP increases bioavailability of key nutrients ... ATP works to increase vasodilation by stimulating endogenous NO synthesis in striated muscle, and enhances the delivery of ...
Plexigenic lesion going to vasodilation. Posted on November 4, 2019 at 11:12 am by Admin / ...
Core Champs L-Citrulline 2000mg supports vasodilation through nitric oxide production, helping to improve blood flow and muscle ... CORE CHAMPS L-CITRULLINE supports vasodilation through nitric oxide production, helping to improve blood flow and muscle pumps ... CORE CHAMPS L-CITRULLINE supports vasodilation through nitric oxide production, helping to improve blood flow and muscle pumps ...
Mehta, S., Stewart, D. J., Langleben, D., and Levy, R. D. Short-term pulmonary vasodilation with L-arginine in pulmonary ... L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1998;46: ... Effects of oral L-arginine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and markers of inflammation in healthy postmenopausal women. J ... Interaction of L-arginine and phosphodiesterase inhibitors in vasodilation of the porcine internal mammary artery. Anesth Analg ...
Either increases toxicity of the other by additive vasodilation. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Marked orthostatic hypotension ... Either increases toxicity of the other by additive vasodilation. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Marked orthostatic hypotension ...
I and the isolated compounds did not improve the impaired vasodilation associated with AGEs exposure. PPT, Fr. I and the ... Vasodilation Is the Subject Area "Vasodilation" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to ... neuronal activation caused the anticipated increase in astrocytic endfoot Ca2+ and vasodilation. This vasodilation was greatly ... J. A. Filosa, A. D. Bonev, S. V. Straub et al., "Local potassium signaling couples neuronal activity to vasodilation in the ... For example, ischemia has been shown to impair cerebral artery function that may limit vasodilation [99, 100]. Further, global ...
Increased capillary permeability (third-spacing and vasodilation) can result in hypovolemic shock. Sinus tachycardia can be an ...
Dive into the research topics of Role of primary afferents in spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilation: Characterization ... Role of primary afferents in spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilation: Characterization of fiber types. ...
  • Vasoconstriction is the opposite of vasodilation. (
  • Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. (
  • Regardless of vessel size, vasomotor responses (i.e., vasodilation and vasoconstriction) of retinal arterioles were sensitive to the alpha2-AR antagonist rauwolscine. (
  • Ethanol abuse, which is strongly associated with hypothermia, results in vasodilation and interferes with peripheral vasoconstriction, an important physiologic mechanism of defense against the cold. (
  • The papillary dermis, closer to the epidermis and in contact with the basal lamina, forms the dermal papillae and it is connective tissue with abundant blood vessels for feeding the epidermis, but also for body temperature regulation by vasodilation and vasoconstriction. (
  • CORE CHAMPS L-CITRULLINE supports vasodilation through nitric oxide production, helping to improve blood flow and muscle pumps during a workout. (
  • Golanov, EV & Reis, DJ 1994, ' Nitric oxide and prostanoids participate in cerebral vasodilation elicited by electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla ', Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 492-502. (
  • Brimonidine evokes heterogeneous vasomotor response of retinal arterioles: diminished nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation when size goes small. (
  • Arginine is converted to nitric oxide in the body and causes vasodilation, or relaxation of the blood vessels, which increases blood flow. (
  • Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider (vasodilation) and enable greater blood flow to the muscles. (
  • This happens when the vasodilation of your penis veins occurs because of the setting off the activity of nitric oxide. (
  • Methylene blue is a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor that has been found to increase SVR and decrease vasopressor requirements in vasoplegic syndrome by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thus limiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) as well as inhibiting the enzyme guanylyl cyclase and preventing vasodilation 5 . (
  • The impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation was prevented by long-term vitamin C administration. (
  • The widening of blood vessels during vasodilation promotes blood flow. (
  • Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, particularly in the large arteries, smaller arterioles and large veins. (
  • Las personas usan L-arginina para el dolor de pecho y varios problemas de flujo de golpes, disfunción eréctil, presión arterial alta durante el embarazo y una enfermedad grave en bebés prematuros llamada enterocolitis necrotizante (NEC). (
  • La ingesta de L-arginina puede reducir la presión arterial en personas sanas, personas con presión arterial alta y personas con presión arterial ligeramente alta con o sin diabetes. (
  • Tomar L-arginina por vía intravenosa puede reducir la presión arterial en personas embarazadas con preeclampsia. (
  • Arterial smooth muscle cell (myocyte) contraction reduces luminal diameter, leading to an increase in systemic blood pressure, whereas relaxation results in vasodilation that decreases blood pressure. (
  • It further overcomes arterial blockages by managing the contraction and vasodilation in the penile shaft. (
  • Adenosine receptor agonists also induce arterial vasodilation and hypotension. (
  • However, when NNA and IND were superfused together, the inhibition of the evoked vasodilation was comparable to that elicited by NNA alone. (
  • Acetylcholine causes cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, gastrointestinal peristalsis and other parasympathetic effects. (
  • Pulmonary vasodilation by sildenafil in acute intermediat. (
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate if acute pulmonary vasodilation by sildenafil improves right ventricular function in patients with acute intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism (PE). (
  • They contains a vasodilation of time and the penis at home with gradually. (
  • With the rising vasodilation impact, your penis affectability ascends because of higher blood in the tissues of the penis. (
  • Predictable blood stream to the penis because of vasodilation will bring about an expansion in size and length of the penis. (
  • The presence of the cGMP substance starts the essential time of the erection correspondence and that is to draw in you with vasodilation that maintains the penis vessels and the corridors to stream more blood into the penis tissues. (
  • Cognitive Function and Cerebral Vasodilation in Adults with Depression" by Salwa Shoaib, Rauchelle E. Richey et al. (
  • Further, impaired cerebral vasodilation has been linked to reduced cognitive activity in older adults with depression. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that greater hypercapnia-induced cerebral vasodilation would be related to greater fluid cognitive ability (i.e., the capacity to process and integrate new information) in young adults with MDD. (
  • Objective: To investigate long-term effects of oral vitamin C administration on the cerebral microvascular vasodilation in diabetes, using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. (
  • Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is an acute increase in peripheral blood flow observed during cold exposures. (
  • There was a trend towards increased vasodilation following both chronic and acute FVPD consumption. (
  • For example, doctors sometimes induce vasodilation as a treatment for high blood pressure and related cardiovascular conditions. (
  • A doctor may sometimes induce vasodilation as a treatment for high blood pressure , also known as hypertension , and its related conditions. (
  • A doctor may also induce vasodilation to improve the effects of a drug or radiation therapy . (
  • In order to prevent damage of the blood vessel into which the catheter is inserted, the present apparatus makes use of high frequency waves, e.g. harmless hydraulic or acoustic waves for producing and propagating a wave front through the fluid in the catheter and then in the blood vessel so as to induce vasodilation (cf. page 2, lines 23 to 29). (
  • It is suggested that impaired acetylcholine-induced coronary and forearm vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension may not be related to a limited availability of l-arginine. (
  • Halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane cause coronary vasodilation and cardiac depression. (
  • The KATP channels play an important role in coronary vasodilation but apparently are not involved in cardiac depression caused by halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane in canine hearts in situ. (
  • CitraNOX provides a blend of targeted nutrients designed to help dampen this stress by maintaining normal inflammatory balance, balancing NO levels, maintaining smooth muscle integrity, and optimizing vasodilation of key coronary arteries. (
  • Among 23 vaccinees with reported other nonserious adverse events during January 24--February 24, the most common signs and symptoms were fever (n = six), pruritus (n = five), rash (n = four), vasodilation (n = four), asthenia (n = three), headache/migraine (n = three), malaise (n = three), paresthesia (n = three), and redness at injection site (n = three). (
  • Bioderma Sensibio AR BB cream: SPF 30 Anti-Redness sensitive skin-perfecting-soothing cream Sensibio AR BB Cream is the 1st skin-perfecting treatment that reduces redness by regulating vasodilation, protects from UV rays, evens out the complexion, moisturises and enhances radiance for flawless skin. (
  • Blood vessels dilate when they become warm, a process known as vasodilation. (
  • As soon as you permit the ice bathtub and your muscle tissues begin to heat up once more, the blood vessels dilate, or "vasodilation" happens. (
  • La ingesta de L-arginina por vía oral o intravenosa no mejora la función renal en la mayoría de las personas con ERC. (
  • Twenty minutes later, stress imaging was performed at peak vasodilation, i.e. 70 seconds after regadenoson, 4 minutes after dipyridamole infusion and between 3-4 minutes of the adenosine infusion. (
  • In contrast, dipyridamole induces vasodilation indirectly, by blocking adenosine reuptake and increasing endogenous adenosine. (
  • Administration of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abolished the brimonidine-induced vasodilation in first- and second-order arterioles. (
  • Vasodilation assists inflammation by enabling the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to damaged tissues. (
  • Vasodilation also plays an important role in inflammation. (
  • Vasodilation assists inflammation by increasing blood flow to damaged cells and body tissues. (
  • Vasodilation occurs naturally in response to low oxygen levels or increases in body temperature. (
  • Vasodilation seems to be beneficial for this purpose because it increases the delivery of drugs or oxygen to the tissues that these treatments are designed to target. (
  • Vasodilation enables the delivery of extra oxygen and nutrients to the muscles during exercise. (
  • ATP works to increase vasodilation by stimulating endogenous NO synthesis in striated muscle, and enhances the delivery of oxygen, glucose and vital nutrients to skeletal muscles to immediately increase anabolism. (
  • Heat syncope-sudden fainting caused by vasodilation-occurs in unacclimatized people standing in the heat or after 15-20 minutes of exercise. (
  • Vasodilation is responsible for increased blood flow to tissues such as muscle fibers, which supports enhanced athletic performance and cardiovascular health. (
  • The translational value for cardiac transplantation of this prospective multi-centre clinical study of vasodilation in amyloidosis remains to be evaluated. (
  • Collectively, our data demonstrate that brimonidine at clinical doses evokes a consistent NO-dependent vasodilation in first-order retinal arterioles but a heterogeneous response in second-order arterioles. (
  • The term "vasodilation" refers to a widening of the blood vessels within the body. (
  • Vasodilation refers to the widening of the arteries and large blood vessels. (
  • Equidren - scientific name Boldenodrol - is a highly specialized combination of natural compounds designed to increase anabolic effects through enhanced vasodilation or 'blood pumping effect' in blood vessels. (
  • However, vasodilation can also contribute to certain health conditions, such as low blood pressure and several chronic inflammatory conditions. (
  • Vasodilation therefore creates a natural drop in blood pressure. (
  • A secondary deficiency of 6R-BH4 disrupts NO production, resulting in loss of vasodilation control and increased blood pressure. (
  • Endothelial-dependent vasodilation is impaired in patients with systemic sclerosis, as assessed by low dose iontophoresis. (
  • La ingesta de L-arginina por vía oral o intravenosa durante un máximo de 8 semanas aumenta el flujo sanguíneo en personas con esta afección. (
  • This way, it is responsible for improving exercise efficiency and tolerance, along with improvement in vasodilation. (
  • abstract = "The influence of dehydration on hindlimb vasodilation during environmental heating (EH) was examined in eight unanesthetized chronically instrumented baboons. (
  • There are several factors that can affect vasodilation. (
  • vasodilation produced by the NO horns in the rear of theprotective factorsthis job you separately for subjects with type 1 and typeare risk factors for the DE. (
  • Keep reading for more information on the effects of vasodilation on the body. (
  • The skin's ability to blanch can be helpful in diagnosing rashes and other inflammatory conditions like sunburns, which are caused by vasodilation (dilation) in capillaries throughout the body. (
  • Neuroleptic drugs also predispose a person to hypothermia by inducing vasodilation and suppressing the shivering response. (
  • The duration of the vasodilation induced by zaprinast inhalation was greater than that induced by NO inhalation. (