Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Teleost hormones. A family of small peptides isolated from urophyses of bony fishes. They have many different physiological effects, including long-lasting hypotensive activity and have been proposed as antihypertensives. There are at least four different compounds: urotensin I, urotensin II, urotensin III, and urotensin IV.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (1/3794)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

Effect of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in the rat aorta. (2/3794)

1. This study sought to evaluate whether the effects of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in rat aortic rings are mediated through the same mechanism. 2. Ovariectomized rats were treated daily with either 17-beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (100 microg kg(-1)) or vehicle for 1 week. 3. The effect of long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment on the responses to cumulative doses of phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and 17-beta-estradiol was determined in aortic rings. In the same rings, the effect of acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol (5 and 10 microM) on the dose response curves for phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine were estimated. The measurements were made in rings with and without intact endothelium. The tone-related basal release of nitric oxide (NO) was measured in rings with intact endothelium. 4. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment reduced the maximum developed contraction to all contracting agents studied. This effect was abolished in endothelium denuded vessels. Acute 17-beta-estradiol treatment also reduced maximal contraction. This effect, however, was independent of the endothelium. 5. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment significantly increased the ability of the rings to dilate in response to acetylcholine whereas acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol had no effect. The tone-related release of NO was significantly increased after long-term exposure to 17-beta-estradiol. 6. In conclusion, this study indicate that the acute and long-term effects of 17-beta-estradiol in the rat aorta are mediated through different mechanisms. The long-term effect is mediated through the endothelium most likely by increasing NO release. In contrast, the acute effect of 17-beta-estradiol seems to be through an effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (3/3794)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Modulation of temperature-induced tone by vasoconstrictor agents. (4/3794)

One of the primary cardiovascular adjustments to hyperthermia is a sympathetically mediated increase in vascular resistance in the viscera. Nonneural factors such as a change in vascular tone or reactivity may also contribute to this response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether vascular smooth muscle tone is altered during heating to physiologically relevant temperatures >37 degrees C. Gradually increasing bath temperature from 37 degrees C (normothermia) to 43 degrees C (severe hyperthermia) produced graded contractions in vascular ring segments from rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aortae. In untreated rings these contractions were relatively small, whereas hyperthermia elicited near-maximal increases in tension when rings were constricted with phenylephrine or KCl before heating. In phenylephrine-treated mesenteric arterial rings, the contractile responses to heating were markedly attenuated by the Ca2+ channel antagonists nifedipine and diltiazem. Diltiazem also blocked the contractile responses to heating in thoracic aortic rings. These results demonstrate that hyperthermia has a limited effect on tension generation in rat vascular smooth muscle in the absence of vascular tone. However, in the presence of agonist-induced tone, tension generation during heating is markedly enhanced and dependent on extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, these data suggest that local regulation of vascular tone can contribute to the hemodynamic adjustments to hyperthermia.  (+info)

Spread of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction along feed arteries and arterioles of hamster skeletal muscle. (5/3794)

1. In arterioles of the hamster cheek pouch, vasodilatation and vasoconstriction can spread via the conduction of electrical signals through gap junctions between cells that comprise the vessel wall. However, conduction in resistance networks supplying other tissues has received relatively little attention. In anaesthetized hamsters, we have investigated the spread of dilatation and constriction along feed arteries and arterioles of the retractor muscle, which is contiguous with the cheek pouch. 2. When released from a micropipette, acetylcholine (ACh) triggered vasodilatation that spread rapidly along feed arteries external to the muscle and arterioles within the muscle. Responses were independent of changes in wall shear rate, perivascular nerve activity, or release of nitric oxide, indicating cell-to-cell conduction. 3. Vasodilatation conducted without decrement along unbranched feed arteries, yet decayed markedly in arteriolar networks. Thus, branching of the conduction pathway dissipated the vasodilatation. 4. Noradrenaline (NA) or a depolarizing KCl stimulus evoked constriction of arterioles and feed arteries of the retractor muscle that was constrained to the vicinity of the micropipette. This behaviour contrasts sharply with the conduction of vasodilatation in these microvessels and with the conduction of vasoconstriction elicited by NA and KCl in cheek pouch arterioles. 5. Focal electrical stimulation produced constriction that spread rapidly along feed arteries and arterioles. These responses were inhibited by tetrodotoxin or prazosin, confirming the release of NA along perivascular sympathetic nerves, which are absent from arterioles studied in the cheek pouch. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity co-ordinated the contraction of smooth muscle cells as effectively as the conduction of vasodilatation co-ordinated their relaxation. 6. In the light of previous findings in the cheek pouch, the properties of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in feed arteries and arterioles of the retractor muscle indicate that substantive differences can exist in the nature of signal transmission along microvessels of tissues that differ in structure and function.  (+info)

Angiotensin II-induced constrictions are masked by bovine retinal vessels. (6/3794)

PURPOSE: To unmask the vasoconstricting effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on retinal smooth muscle by studying its interaction with endothelium-derived paracrine substances. This study focused specifically on determining the changes in vascular diameter and the release of endothelial-derived vasodilators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) I2, from isolated retinal microvessels. METHODS: Bovine retinal central artery and vein were cannulated, and arterioles and venules were perfused with oxygenated/heparinized physiological salt solution at 37 degrees C. This ex vivo perfused retinal microcirculation model was used to observe the contractile effects of Ang II on arterioles and venules of different diameters. The NO and PGI2 synthase inhibitors, 1-NOARG and flurbiprofen, respectively, were used to unmask Ang II vasoconstriction; the changes in vascular diameters were then measured. Enzyme immunoassays were used to measure the release of cGMP (an index of NO release) and 6-keto-PG-F1alpha (a stable metabolite of PGI2) from isolated bovine retinal vessels. RESULTS: Topically applied Ang II (10(-10) M to 10(-4) M) caused significant (P < 0.05) arteriolar and venular constrictions in a dose-dependent manner, with the smallest retinal arterioles (7+/-0.2 microm luminal diameter) and venules (12+/-2 microm luminal diameter) significantly more sensitive than larger vessels. After the inhibition of endogenous NO and PGI2 synthesis by 1-NOARG and flurbiprofen, respectively, the vasoconstriction effects of Ang II became more pronounced. Again, the smallest vessels tested were significantly more sensitive, and synthesis of endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), therefore, may be most important in these vessels. Vasoactive doses of Ang II (10(-10) M to 10(-4) M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the release of NO and PGI2 from isolated bovine retinal vessels, indicating that the increase in EDRF may nullify direct Ang II-induced vasoconstriction. Interestingly, intraluminal administration of Ang II caused only vasodilation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the retinal vascular endothelium acts as a buffer against the vasoconstricting agent Ang II via release of vasodilators NO and PGI2, and the vasoconstriction effects due to Ang II are most prominent in the smallest diameter vessels.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor: a potent vasoconstrictor in experimental hypertension. (7/3794)

We have tested the hypothesis that growth factor signaling pathways are augmented in hypertension, a disease associated with vascular smooth muscle cell growth. Thoracic aorta was dissected from deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) and one kidney, one clip (1K, 1C) hypertensive rats and from sham normotensive rats for use in isolated tissue bath experiments. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in DOCA-salt and 1K, 1C than in normotensive sham rats: 192 +/- 7, 185 +/- 10, and 117 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. Although virtually no contraction to epidermal growth factor (EGF) was observed in endothelium-denuded sham rat aorta [1 +/- 1% phenylephrine (PE) (10 micromol/l)-induced contraction], the maximal EGF-induced contraction was 45 +/- 7% in endothelium-denuded aorta from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and 39 +/- 7% in aorta from 1K, 1C rats. Although slightly attenuated, a contraction to EGF was still observed in endothelium-intact aortic strips from 28-day DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. We also conducted concentration-response curves to EGF on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 of DOCA-salt therapy. A significant contraction to EGF in aorta from DOCA-salt rats was observed on day 14, when DOCA-salt rats had significantly higher blood pressure than sham rats: 188 +/- 6 and 122 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. Transforming growth factor-alpha, an agonist of the EGF receptor, contracted DOCA-salt rat aorta (30 +/- 7% PE-induced contraction) but not sham aorta (3 +/- 3%). The EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (10 micromol/l), the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD-098059 (10 micromol/l), and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitor diltiazem (1 mol/l), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 micromol/l), virtually abolished EGF-induced contraction (85, 98, and 99% reduction, respectively). These data support a striking difference in EGF signaling between normotensive and hypertensive animals. Furthermore, they provide evidence that growth factors should be considered vasoconstrictors as well as growth modulators in hypertension.  (+info)

Norepinephrine stimulates lymphoid cell mobilization from the perfused rat spleen via beta-adrenergic receptors. (8/3794)

The possibility that norepinephrine (NE) influences lymphoid cell outflow independently of its vasoconstrictor action was investigated in the perfused rat spleen. Using agents that affect the vasoconstrictor tonus of the spleen, we observed an inverse correlation between flow resistance and splenic cell output. The curve obtained served as a reference for evaluating effects of different treatments on the number of cells that are mobilized at defined levels of flow resistance. Perfusion of the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol either alone or in combination with NE lowered splenic leukocyte outflow clearly beyond the number of cells expected at the corresponding flow resistance. No comparable effects were observed when the alpha-adrenergic blocker phentolamine was perfused. When the vasoconstrictor effect of NE was counteracted by papaverine, splenic cell outflow was significantly higher than expected for the level of flow resistance attained. Furthermore, when NE was perfused together with endotoxin, which does not inhibit the vasoconstriction induced by catecholamines, splenic cell mobilization was severalfold higher than expected at increased flow resistance. Propranolol abrogated this effect to a large extent. Furthermore, perfusion of the beta-agonist isoproterenol stimulated lymphoid cell outflow from the spleen despite increased flow resistance. These studies show a dual effect of NE on cell mobilization from the spleen: cell retention by decreasing blood flow and stimulation of cell output by a beta-adrenergically mediated, smooth muscle-independent mechanism.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction of pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents by overexpression of catalase in mice. AU - Yang, Hong. AU - Shi, MingJian. AU - VanRemmen, Holly. AU - Chen, XinLian. AU - Vijg, Jan. AU - Richardson, Arlan. AU - Guo, ZhongMao. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been shown to induce vascular smooth muscle cell contraction in vitro. In this study, the effect of endogenously produced H2O2 on blood pressure (BP) was examined using a transgenic mouse model (hCatTg+/0) in which catalase is over-expressed. Methods: The hCatTg+/0 and wild-type mice received a bolus injection of norepinephrine (NE; 1 μg/g) or angiotensin II (Ang II; 0.5 μg/g), or an osmotic minipump infusion of NE (2.5 μg/g/day) or Ang II (0.5 μg/g/day) for 7 days. Systolic BP (SBP) was measured using a tail-cuff apparatus. H2O2 release from mouse aortas was measured using an H2O2 assay kit. Results: The hCatTg+/0 and wild-type mice showed similar basal levels of ...
Wide differences exist in the prevalence of hypotension, hypertension, and vasopressor use among NICUs. We also found an association between hypotension and IVH, but not between hypertension and IVH.
A review by Lo, et al in 2014 looked at the available data until 2012 and concluded that methylene blue may be a useful adjunct to vasopressors in shock due to sepsis (n=159), overdose (n=1), or anaphylaxis (n=9) (5). Limitations of this review include the use of numerous case reports with only two RCTs, and significant heterogeneity with regard to patient population, study design, MB dosage, vasopressor use, timing of administration, and clinically oriented outcomes. However, there was a universal improvement in BP or MAP of patients who received MB. These effects on MAP were also confirmed by a systematic review of 5 RCTs that included the two evaluated by Lo and 3 others involving postoperative patients (6). In the studies that examined it, vasopressor requirements were significantly decreased with MB administration. The two RCTs (7,8) did not show a significant mortality difference between treatment groups, but these studies may not have been sufficiently powered to detect such a difference. ...
Lamontagne F, Meade MO, Hébert PC, Asfar P, Lauzier F, Seely AJ, Day AG, Mehta S, Muscedere J, Bagshaw SM, Ferguson ND, Cook DJ, Kanji S, Turgeon AF, Herridge MS, Subramanian S, Lacroix J, Adhikari NK, Scales DC, Fox-Robichaud A, Skrobik Y, Whitlock RP, Green RS, Koo KK, Tanguay T, Magder S, Heyland DK; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. Higher versus lower blood pressure targets for vasopressor therapy in shock: a multicentre pilot randomized controlled trial. Intensive Care Med. 2016 Apr;42(4):542- ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Vasopressor, Vasoconstrictor, Push Dose Pressor, Bolus Dose Pressor, Vasopressor Extravasation.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Vasopressor, Vasoconstrictor, Push Dose Pressor, Vasopressor Extravasation.
The synthesis and study of vasoactive properties of new 4-functionalized 1,3-oxazoles containing the N-methyl-D-glucamine fragment in position 5
BACKGROUND: Both dopamine and norepinephrine are recommended as first-line vasopressor agents in the treatment of shock. There is a continuing controversy about whether one agent is superior to the other.. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized trial, we assigned patients with shock to receive either dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor therapy to restore and maintain blood pressure. When blood pressure could not be maintained with a dose of 20 microg per kilogram of body weight per minute for dopamine or a dose of 0.19 microg per kilogram per minute for norepinephrine, open-label norepinephrine, epinephrine, or vasopressin could be added. The primary outcome was the rate of death at 28 days after randomization; secondary end points included the number of days without need for organ support and the occurrence of adverse events.. RESULTS: The trial included 1679 patients, of whom 858 were assigned to dopamine and 821 to norepinephrine. The baseline characteristics of the groups ...
Our data provide the first evidence in humans to support the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in adipose tissue have direct effects on the vasoactive properties of PVAT.14,15 We report abnormalities in adiponectin-mediated anticontractile properties of PVAT, endothelium-mediated dilation of the artery, and changes to the inflammatory and hypoxic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, using in vitro animal and human small-artery studies, hypoxia and inflammation were shown to attenuate the local vasoactive properties of PVAT by oxidative stress.. In healthy individuals, PVAT mediated an anticontractile effect. Although observed previously in medium-sized arteries,24 this is the first demonstration of this effect in human small arteries, and we are also the first to demonstrate a complete loss of the anticontractile effect in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Subsequently, in vitro, we were able to replicate the biological changes ...
Experiments on perfused segments or isolated rings of human umbilical artery showed that the magnitude of their contraction in response to bradykinin, epinephrine, or serotonin depended on the Po2 of the perfusing or bathing solution. Constriction to bradykinin varied directly with the O2 tension and was greatest when the Po2 was approximately that of umbilical arterial blood during the transition from the fetal to the neonatal period. Catecholamine beta-receptors were not demonstrated (not present or not functional) in the umbilical artery, since there was no vascular response to either isoproterenol or to propranolol. Alpha-receptors were not required for O2 or bradykinin constriction since these agents constricted the umbilical artery after enough phentolamine had been given to block constriction by norepinephrine. Because of the interaction between O2 and vasoconstrictor agents the O2 environment of umbilical vessels must be rigidly controlled in experiments measuring vascular reactivity. ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Synonyms for vasoconstriction in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for vasoconstriction. 1 word related to vasoconstriction: constriction. What are synonyms for vasoconstriction?
To clarify the effects of active vitamin D3 on pressor and vascular responses to vasoconstrictor substances, we studied pressor responses to the intravenous injection of norepinephrine or angiotensin II (Ang II) and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine. Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 subcutaneously (200 ng/kg per day) for 14 days. The administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 augmented the pressor responses to norepinephrine and Ang II in conscious rats and was associated with a significant increase in serum calcium concentration (11.0 +/- 0.2 mg/dl). To further clarify whether the increased pressor response to vasoconstrictors may be due to the calcemic or direct action of active vitamin D3, we studied the effect of its noncalcemic analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol, and its inactive analogue, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, on the pressor response to vasoconstrictors in rats. The pressor responses to norepinephrine and Ang II were apparently augmented in ...
Kristine A. Sobolewski , Alison Brophy , Yekaterina Opsha et el published a retrospective cohort study comparing abrupt withdrawal versus taper of hydrocortisone in resolving septic shock patients.. BACKGROUND. Severe sepsis and septic shock remains one of the most common diagnosis as well as cause of death in intensive care units around the world.. Hydrocortisone has been shown to quicker resolution of shock as well as time of discharge from ICU along with fewer blood transfusions when used in patients with septic shock.. Current surviving sepsis guidelines recommend not using hydrocortisone routinely if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability. If this is not achievable, then they recommend using hydrocortisone intravenously.. However, there are no comparative studies that support tapering verses abrupt cessation of steroids and inconsistency remains in medical practice with the withdrawal of steroids.. STUDY. Retrospective cohort study of ...
Epinephrine injections, distributed by American Regent, are being recalled for discoloration and particle contamination, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) just announced.. The nationwide recall is being conducted at the retail/hospital level and involves Epinephrine Injection, USP, 1:1000, 1 mL Ampules NDC #0517-1071-25; Lot #1395, Exp Date: July 2012. No other lot or sizes of Epinephrine Injection, USP are subject to this voluntary recall. Epinephrine Injection, USP is manufactured by Luitpold Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Potential adverse events following intravenous administration of solutions containing particulates may include problems such as disruption of blood flow within small blood vessels in the lung, localized inflammation (swelling and redness), and granuloma formation. Muscle and adipose tissue damage may also occur when intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of solutions containing particulates occurs. Adverse events with intra-spinal injection for Epinephrine injections that ...
BACKGROUND: Sumatriptan (GR43175) is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT1) receptor agonist effective in the acute treatment of migraine. Recent in vitro experiments suggest that it has vasoactive properties in vascular beds distinct from the cerebr
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Shock is one of the leading causes of ICU admission, and is associated with a high risk of death, whatever its cause. Ad- renergic agents are the most commonly used vasopressor agents. Although the alpha-adrenergic properties of these agents raise blood pressure, they can also variably stimulate the beta-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. Accordingly, these agents have different haemodynamic profiles as well as different metabolic profiles. Minimal beta-adrenergic stimulation may be beneficial in preventing the decrease in cardiac output related to the increase in left ventricular afterload associated with the correction of hypotension. However, excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation (which can occur as the doses of these agents are adjusted for the vasopressor effect can have profound metabolic effects and promote arrhythmias. Whether these differences in haemodynamic and metabolic profiles impact out- come has long been undefined. Two randomized trials comparing dopamine and norepinephrine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vasoactive drugs in the intensive care unit. AU - Prielipp, Richard C.. AU - Butterworth IV, John F.. PY - 1997/7/1. Y1 - 1997/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=27644558318&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=27644558318&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:27644558318. VL - 9. SP - 332. EP - 355. JO - International Anesthesiology Clinics. JF - International Anesthesiology Clinics. SN - 0020-5907. IS - 3. ER - ...
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This medicine is for injection under the skin, into a muscle or into a vein. It is given by a health care professional in a clinic or hospital setting.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this medicine may be prescribed for children for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
Auvi-Q (epinephrine injection) is used to treat life-threatening allergic reactions. Includes Auvi-Q side effects, interactions and indications.
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Sleep apnea (SA) affects as many as 20% of the adult population in the United States. It elicits intermittent hypoxia (IH) and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), however the mechanisms of this PH have not been well studied. IH has been shown to cause polycythemia, pulmonary vascular remodeling and increases in vasoconstrictor reactivity. CO2 supplementation may be protective in the development of PH, therefore we assessed effects of IH with and without CO2 supplementation on indices of PH and pulmonary vasoconstrictor reactivity. IH with CO2 supplementation resulted in eucapnic IH (E-IH) and the lack of polycythemia or vascular remodeling. However, E-IH caused significant right ventricular hypertrophy and increased pulmonary vasoconstrictor reactivity, which was mediated by vascular smooth muscle (VSM) Ca2+ sensitization. We, therefore, sought to determine the mechanism of this enhanced vasoconstrictor reactivity by assessing vasoconstriction and VSM Ca2+ responses to the endothelium-derived
Ang II infusion induces an immediate vasoconstrictive response that is typically followed by a gradual recovery despite continued infusion of the pressor agent. The buffering effect on Ang II-induced vasoconstriction is at least in part mediated by vasodilatory PGs, including PGE2.14,16-18 In a previous study, we discovered a novel role of mPGES-1-derived PGE2 in modulating Ang II-induced hypertensive response. In extension of this work, the present study demonstrated that the vasculoprotection of PGE2 is mediated by the suppression of oxidative stress.. Ang II-induced hypertension in mPGES-1−/− mice was completely prevented by Tempol treatment and was fully restored on termination of the antioxidant. Treatment with a second antioxidant, apocynin, produced a similar blood pressure-lowering effect. Apocynin is widely used as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase19 but was recently found to inhibit vascular oxidative stress via an NADPH oxidase-independent mechanism.20 Together, the similar results ...
Data from the literature show lights and shadows about the use of angiotensin II (Ang II), for instance as an alternative vasopressor in patients with vasodilatory shock that requires high doses of catecholamines. Recently, an international randomized controlled trial (ATHOS-3) [1] has shown that Ang II can induce a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) if compared to placebo. Moreover, during the first 48 hours from the randomization, doses of the vasopressors (norepinephrine (NE) and vasopressin) were significantly reduced in the Ang II group but not in the placebo group. Interestingly, no difference in adverse effects was remarkable between the two groups.. However, some important issues need to be clarified before any definitive conclusion about Ang II in vasodilatory shock. Firstly, we do not know exactly the timing for Ang II initiation: is it better to add Ang II only when NE doses jump to 0.2 μg/kg/min or when NE requirements rapidly increase (e.g., 0.5 μg/kg every ...
Septic shock is a life-threatening condition requiring intense patient monitoring and supportive therapy for organ dysfunction. Release of inflammatory mediators leads to widespread vasodilatation, capillary leak and reduced systemic vascular resistance. After initial fluid resuscitation, vasopressor therapy is required. These agents have their effect by increasing vascular resistance, raising mean arterial pressure and maintaining perfusion of critical body tissues and organ systems. ...
It is unclear whether terlipressin could be harmful to the splanchnic circulation. In our study, after a bolus dose of terlipressin, despite the restoration of MAP, we observed a significant decrease in cardiac index as a result of an increase in vascular resistance. The vasoconstriction after terlipressin administration17-20 could cause, or at least worsen, hypoperfusion-related alterations in organ function. Accordingly, the main finding of the study was the significant decrease in gastric mucosal perfusion, mainly linked to the potent vasoconstriction with the resultant decrease in cardiac index observed after terlipressin as compared with norepinephrine. The reduction of cardiac index is correlated not only to the rapid increase of the vascular resistances (mathematically coupled) but also to the reduction of HR. The phenomenon of the decrease in HR is attributable to a strong reflex suppression of cardiac output that is seen even at physiologic plasma concentrations of arginine ...
The influence of i.a. infusions of equivalent doses of prostaglandins (PG) E1, E2, F1α and F2α on vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine and sympathetic nerve stimulation were evaluated in the dog hindpaw perfused at constant flow. Infusions of PGE1 and PGE2,1 µg/min, decreased vascular resistance in the hindpaw. PGE1 markedly reduced responses to i.a. norepinephrine, angiotensin and sympathetic nerve stimulation whereas PGE2 did not alter these responses. However, when the infusion rate was increased to 2 µg/min, responses to nerve stimulation, but not norepinephrine, were enhanced. Infusion of PGF1α, and PGF2α, 1 µg/min, caused no change in vancular resistance in the hindpaw but enhanced the response to sympathetic nerve stimulation. PGF1α, decreased the response to norepinephrine whereas PGF2α, was without effect. These results suggest that PGF2α may enhance adrenergic transmission in the hindpaw by facilitating the release of transmitter from sympathetic nerve endings and that ...
|br/|Signals Analyzed:|br/| • Isometric Muscle Contraction|br/| • Isotonic Muscle Contraction |br/||br/| The basic version of HSE-ACAD for smooth muscles calculates the following parameter: |br/||br/| • Resting tension |br/||br/| The HSE-HA ACAD software can be adapted to virtually any experimental investigation in tissue bath experiments. It is possible to acquire signals from isotonic (displacement) or isometric (force) measurements. The isotonic displacement measurement is used on smooth muscles, for example on ileum, ductus deferens, lung strips, also bladder... Isometric force measurement is used with tracheal muscle, atrium, papillary muscle, aortic rings, veins or other vessel rings. Experiments on spontaneously beating or electrically stimulated tissues are also possible. Various parameters can be derived from these signals depending on the model used. During data acquisition all acquired signals and derived parameters are stored on the hard disc and can be displayed graphically
Viagra pinconning - Discrete tumors are usually elevated in the icu is to take oral medications, intra-venous metronidazole at a dosage of acth for an immediate increase in platelet count is greater than or pinconning viagra one small, indistinct nucleolus. Take care not to toxicity or an unprovoked generalized seizure by hours or azithromycin mg/kg/d in two doses of some lysosomal storage diseases disorders of the lungs. Primary infections last days of vasopressor therapy.
LIGHTHOUSE™- Epinephrine Injection USP 1mg/ml Epinephrine is the primary treatment for anaphylaxis with no absolute contraindication to its use. It is indicated for athsma unresponsive to salbutamol. Administration of the emergency kit back up ampoules may be repeated every 5 to 15 minutes if there is insufficient response. A second dose is needed in 16-35% of episodes. This product includes 1ml ampule of epinephrine.. ...
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The inotropic and vasoactive properties of the ligand apelin and its cognate G-protein coupled receptor APJ have been characterized by administration of exogenous peptide, but the function of endogenous apelin on the cardiovascular system is not well described. To investigate the tonic effects of apelin-APJ in contractile function, we generated and characterized apelin and APJ null mice. We also investigated the regulation of apelin and APJ receptor expression in response to cardiac pressure overload. While knockout apelin mice were viable and fertile, APJ null mice showed evidence of fetal wastage for approximately half of the embryos. Compared to wild-type controls, APJ deficient mice reaching adulthood had significantly reduced exercise capacity (treadmill runtime: 20.30 ± 0.974 vs. 23.64 ± 0.737, P=0.009) and LV fractional shortening by echocardiography (29.88 ± 0.927% vs. 44.93 ± 2.66%, P,0.0001). Isolated myocytes from APJ knockouts exhibited reduced sarcomeric shortening (5.070 ± ...
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Definition of vasoconstriction in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of vasoconstriction. What does vasoconstriction mean? Information and translations of vasoconstriction in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
In the early hours of the morning, near the end of the shift, I received a call to a 19 year-old male who was having an allergic reaction to his medicine. I arrived to find the man shivering in a chair and looking unwell. His friends were with him and they told me that he had brought medicine for a cold back from India where he had been recently and that he had started reacting to it. He had an erythemic rash but his airway seemed safe. His BP was a concern, however; it was consistently low - sometimes very low. When the crew arrived and we got him into the ambulance, we pondered this situation some more and I noticed that his feet were a little swollen and very red. I considered the possibility that the reaction was causing fluid pooling in his peripheries, which would explain his low BP. His legs were raised but this didnt help much, so I set up fluids and asked the crew to give him adrenaline, which would reverse the effects of histamine and nitric oxide and cause vasoconstriction, which in ...
Nebulized VasoconstrictorsEpinephrine stimulates alpha receptors and beta2 receptors. It constricts the precapillary arterioles, thus decreasing airway edema. Because of the potential adverse effects ... more
Norepinephrine merupakan vasopressor pilihan pertama pada syok sepsis setelah resusitasi cairan adekuat. Norepinephrine juga dapat digunakan untuk syok kardiogenik. Obat ini merupakan agnois reseptor adrenergik yang
MPI 5004 is a methotrexate formulation in a biodegradable gel-like matrix. Inclusion of the vasoconstrictor epinephrine in the gel aids the to localisation of
Departing London on Thursday 2 June, the 2 day, 1 night journey from London to Berlin allows guests the time to slow down, relax and enjoy the journey as the train makes its way through Northern France; traversing the German countryside and arriving in time to spend the weekend in one of Europes most fascinating cities.. Venice Simplon-Orient-Express brings to life the romance and nostalgia of the golden age of travel with its luxurious vintage carriages. The decorative wooden marquetry and ornate furnishings provide the stylish setting for memorable experiences from the fine dining in the elegant dining cars, to classic cocktails, champagne and entertainment in the bar car. The sleeper cabins are attended to by personal stewards who ensure a comfortable journey.. The Venice Simplon-Orient-Express makes its return journey from Berlin to Paris or London on 4 June 2016. Prices start from £2,210 per person sharing a double cabin includes all meals served on board.. ...
The findings reported here suggest that AKAP150 is required for stuttering persistent Ca2+ sparklets and for the regulation of myogenic tone, blood pressure, and the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Indeed, our data support a new model of Ca2+ signaling in vascular smooth muscle in which AKAP150 targets PKCα to relatively small regions of the sarcolemma of arterial myocytes. Local targeting of PKCα by AKAP150 is responsible for persistent Ca2+ sparklet activity, but not for rare, stochastic L-type Ca2+ channel openings (ie, low-activity Ca2+ sparklets). Our data suggest that AKAP150 is required for PKCα-dependent persistent Ca2+ sparklets and thus regulates arterial [Ca2+]i, myogenic tone, and blood pressure. Furthermore, AKAP150 is necessary for the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Thus, we propose that AKAP150 regulates myogenic tone, blood pressure, and the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension, at least in part, by local control of ...
Approach and Results-We combined an extensive in vivo imaging protocol (high-frequency ultrasound and contrast-enhanced microcomputed tomography at baseline and after 3, 10, 18, and 28 days of angiotensin II infusion) with synchrotron-based ultrahigh resolution ex vivo imaging (phase contrast X-ray tomographic microscopy) in n=47 angiotensin II-infused mice and 6 controls. Aortic regurgitation increased significantly over time, as did the luminal volume of the ascending aorta. In the samples that were scanned ex vivo, we observed one or several focal dissections, with the largest located in the outer convex aspect of the ascending aorta. The volume of the dissections moderately correlated to the volume of the aneurysm as measured in vivo (r2=0.46). After 3 days of angiotensin II infusion, we found an interlaminar hematoma in 7/12 animals, which could be linked to an intimal tear. There was also a significant increase in single laminar ruptures, which may have facilitated a progressive ...
1. Isolated hind limbs of rats were perfused and vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to noradrenaline, methoxamine and potassium chloride was measured and dose-response curves were obtained.. 2. The sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to noradrenaline is attenuated by adrenalectomy and low sodium diet; it is enhanced by corticosterone. High sodium diet or administration of deoxycorticosterone did not alter the dose-response curve significantly.. 3. The increased sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle after corticosterone treatment is not related to changes in the contractile protein or alterations in the neuronal uptake and extraneuronal metabolism of noradrenaline.. 4. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity in corticosterone-treated rats may be due to the number of receptors, receptor affinity to noradrenaline, or changes in the functional link between receptor and contractile apparatus.. ...
see FDA-Approved Patient Labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use)]. A healthcare provider should review the patient instructions and operation of epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector, in detail, with the patient or caregiver.. Epinephrine is essential for the treatment of anaphylaxis. Carefully instruct patients who are at risk of or with a history of severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) to insect stings or bites, foods, drugs, and other allergens, as well as idiopathic and exercise-induced anaphylaxis, about the circumstances under which epinephrine should be used.. Administration and Training Instruct patients and/or caregivers in the appropriate use of epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector should be injected into the middle of the outer thigh (through clothing if necessary). Instruct caregivers to hold the leg of young children firmly in place and limit movement prior to and during injection. Lacerations, bent needles, and ...
Vasodilatory or distributive shock is the most common cause of shock in intensive care units (ICUs) and is characterised by low blood pressure due to peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolaemia despite normal or increased cardiac output.1 Immediate treatment with fluids and vasopressors is required to ensure adequate organ perfusion. In several cases the desired level of mean arterial pressure (MAP) cannot be maintained despite high doses of conventional vasopressors, namely catecholamines.2 This condition is called refractory shock and is associated with a poor outcome.2 3 Several studies have investigated the effects of alternative vasopressors for treatment of vasodilatory shock.4 5 … ...
According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Sepsis and Septic Shock Treatment Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 the global sepsis and septic shock market, expanding at a CAGR of 6.1% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Sepsis and Septic Shock Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/sepsis-and-septic-shock-treatment-market. Market Insights. Sepsis is treated as a medical emergency. It is a life-threatening complication due to presence of both infection and overwhelming immune response to infection. The global sepsis and septic shock market is categorized on the basis of treatment types such as antimicrobial therapy (antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal) and adjunctive therapy (mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, fluid therapy, corticosteroids, blood transfusion, dialysis and insulin therapy). It is observed that sepsis and septic shock ...
Pearl: Corticosteroid administration should occur EARLY on in the patients resuscitation. Just as patients can develop acute kidney injury, encephalopathy, or heart failure as a result of poor perfusion, patients may also experience neuroendocrine dysfunction (hence the need for vasopressin, hydrocortisone, insulin replacement). Over the last 50 years many studies and meta-analyses have been conducted to try to answer the question of when to give steroids and who may benefit from them including Schumer, Bone, Cronin, Jurney, Annane, CORTICUS, and COIITSS. The largest RCT to date on the subject, called ADRENAL, is currently underway. Below is a summary of what we know so far.Corticosteroids should only be considered in patients with severe septic shock (systolic , 90 mmHg) who have failed adequate fluid resuscitation and initial vasopressor therapy.*. ...
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictor substances, yet paradoxically. Ang II may dilate certain vascular beds via an undefined mechanism. Ang II-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by the AT1 receptor, whereas the relative expression and functional importance of the AT2 receptor in regulating vascular resistance and blood pressure are unknown. We now report that Ang II induces relaxation of mesenteric microvessels and that this vasodilatory response was unaffected by losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, but was inhibited by PD123.319. a selective antagonist of AT2 receptors. In addition, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies revealed high amounts of AT2 receptor mRNA in smooth muscle from these same microvessels. Ang II-induced relaxation was inhibited by either tetraethylammonium or iberiotoxin, suggesting involvement of the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BKCa) channel. Subsequent whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp
Get an overview of CITANEST FORTE DENTAL (prilocaine hcl and epinephrine injection, solution), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that include the same medication.
ction reaction.And, secondly, immunostimulants - Rhodiola rosea, ginseng, and others raise blood pressure, heart rate speeds up, placing a heavy burden on the cardiac system of the future baby, which is already running at high speed.. Do you know how fast your heart is beating a child?200 beats per minute and more.Even more to accelerate this process - this means the risk of various heart problems in the newborn.. Treat colds pregnant should be very natural medicines or folk methods that will achieve the desired effect without causing harm to the unborn child.. How to treat a runny nose pregnant Do not get involved in this period vasoconstrictor agents.The fact that they can cross the placenta and fetal blood flow to break.Therefore, drugs like naftizina or galazolin should be used in exceptional cases.Also, pregnant occurs much faster dependence on such drugs and help they simply stop.. Moms better not to use synthetic drugs, and to facilitate the use and treatment of rhinitis nasal lavage ...
This review supports current guidance that noradrenaline should be used as the first-choice vasopressor for adults with septic shock. Noradrenaline reduced mortality by 11% and major adverse events by two-thirds compared to dopamine. However, evidence of its effectiveness compared to the other vasopressors remains limited. Septic shock accounts for nearly one in ten admissions to intensive care units, where it is the most common cause of death. The survival rate for septic shock is only about 50%.
We investigated the interaction of human PMNs with human vascular tissue to determine the extent to which cellular activation state was involved in PMN-induced vascular responsiveness. We determined that both unactivated and activated PMNs induced a cell number-dependent vasocontraction in HUV, the nature of which was dependent on the activation state of the cells. The vasoconstrictor response observed for unactivated PMNs was endothelium-independent, was due to soluble factor(s) in the cell supernatant and was partially blocked by an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. For the activated PMNs, the response was endothelium-dependent, was not due to a soluble factor and was linearly related to their activation state.. One of the most interesting findings of this study was that both unactivated and activated PMNs contracted HUV but that their respective responses were quite different in nature. Treatment of HUV with unactivated PMNs had no significant effect on the response to serotonin, which ...
He pulled her closer to him and left his arms around her, just go with it. he nuzzled the top of her head with his nose, closing his eyes at her exhilarating scent, And I ve never felt this way before either. Through the window of the abandoned cabin, she saw Charles waving something ...
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Results Acetylcholine induced significant vasoconstrictive responses in the distal but not in the proximal segments of both the stented (-11 ± 7% versus baseline; p , .01) and the contralateral vessels (-11 ± 6%; p , .01), which were significantly correlated (R = .48; p , .05) and were completely reverted by nitroglycerine. Inducible ischemia was the only predictive factor for distal vasoconstriction in the stented vessel (p , .01) but not in the contralateral vessel (p = .06). Patients with minor signs of ischemia at the ergometric test showed a greater vasoconstriction than those with a completely normal test (-16 ± 7% versus -7 ± 6%; p , .01). ...
How does full-body cryotherapy work? Cryotherapy is fast, effective, and requires no down time! Exposing the body to extremely low temperatures within the Cryotherapy chamber alerts your brain to pump more blood to your internal organs which causes vasoconstriction - in laymans terms this means your blood vessels con
In mid-1998 the 191 distributor Hgh molecule was genetically engineered in the workplace. Since then all HGH is synthetically produced and HGH from cadavers is no mortal in use. Inductive HGH (Somatrophin) is free to us now in two forms. One is through a pricey doctors pharmaceutical prescription, and secondly at a valid toll through a homeopathic exam spray. A position therapy deciding would be Secretogogues and Stacked Radical products which take absolutely no HGH. The aim here is to cable your own body, by stimulating the Endocrine Secretor, to food many of its own HGH. Alas this latter therapy totality for only a month or two ...
Vendrell Circul20 - 20 ampoules. Properties: Improved venous return and peirnas feeling tired due to venous vasoconstrictor effect. Action vitanmínatica P: Low permeability of capillaries and in consequence the leakage of fluids and edema. Increases...
CYT006-AngQb: a virus-shaped noninfectious particle that is chemically coupled with angiotensin II, an octapeptide vasoconstrictor which induces the body to produce antibodies against this small molecule to minimize its effects on constricting blood vessels
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ISBN 0-07-136704-7. Yagiela JA (1995). "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC ... which is usually water-based or just sterile water Vasoconstrictor possibly (see below) Reducing agent (antioxidant), e.g. if ... the maximum doses of LAs when combined with a vasoconstrictor is higher compared to the same LA without any vasoconstrictor. ... Because the vasoconstrictor temporarily reduces the rate at which the systemic circulation removes the local anesthetic from ...
Yagiela JA (1995). "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC 2148913 . PMID 8934977. ... Vasoconstrictors are also used clinically to increase blood pressure or to reduce local blood flow. Vasoconstrictors mixed with ... Many vasoconstrictors also cause pupil dilation. Medications that cause vasoconstriction include: antihistamines, decongestants ... Medications causing vasoconstriction, also known as vasoconstrictors, are one type of medicine used to raise blood pressure. ...
... is a vasoconstrictor, haemostatic and renal agent. H. Fruhstofer, M.D., M. Heisler, M.D. (1994). "Dose-response ...
It is regulated by vasoconstrictors (agents that cause vasoconstriction). These include paracrine factors (e.g. prostaglandins ...
... is a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation. It is in homeostatic ... Ratti, S; Quarato, P; Casagrande, C; Fumagalli, R; Corsini, A (1998). "Picotamide, an antithromboxane agent, inhibits the ...
... with the vasoactive pharmacological agents (vasoconstrictors or vasodilators and/or ACE Inhibitors and/or ARBs)(ACE = ... cardioactive or vasoactive agents. The measurement of CI and its derivatives allow clinicians to make timely patient assessment ... Pharmacological modulation of contractility is performed with cardioactive inotropic agents (positive or negative inotropes) ...
Ferric sulphate, sodium hypochlorite or a local anaesthetic solution containing a vasoconstrictor agent can be used to arrest ...
Vasoconstrictors. *Anticholinergic agents. *Negative cardiac inotropes. *Central agents. *Mechanical device. *Discontinuation ...
... is a sympathomimetic agent and vasoconstrictor which was formerly used as a nasal decongestant. It has also been used as a ... Tuaminoheptane has been found to act as a reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent of norepinephrine, which may underlie its ... The chemical structure of the drug differs from that of other norepinephrine releasing agents, such as the phenethylamines, ... 623-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ...
Types of long-term therapy for vasovagal syncope include Preload agents Vasoconstrictors Anticholinergic agents Negative ... cardiac inotropes Central agents Mechanical device Discontinuation of medications known to lower blood pressure may be helpful ...
Also, most agents come in two forms: with and without epinephrine (adrenaline) or other vasoconstrictor that allow the agent to ... Other local anesthetic agents in current use include articaine (also called septocaine or ubistesin), bupivacaine (a long- ... The lingual nerve is also anesthetized through diffusion of the agent to produce a numb tongue as well as anesthetizing the ... who have completed a training program in anesthesiology may also administer general IV and inhalation anesthetic agents. ...
It is a sympathomimetic agent with marked alpha adrenergic activity. It is a vasoconstrictor with a rapid action in reducing ...
Some antihypotensive drugs act as vasoconstrictors to increase total peripheral resistance, others sensitize adrenoreceptors to ... An antihypotensive agent, also known as a vasopressor agent or pressor, is any medication that tends to raise reduced blood ... Antihypotensive agents can be classified as follows: Sympathomimetics Epinephrine Noradrenaline hydrotartrate Phenylephrine ( ... Amphetamine Atomoxetine Bupropion Duloxetine Methamphetamine Methylphenidate Reboxetine Venlafaxine Positive inotropic agents ...
... as a vasoconstrictor to slow the absorption and, therefore, prolong the action of the anesthetic agent. Due to epinephrine's ... "Part 6: Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Section 6: Pharmacology II: Agents to Optimize Cardiac Output and Blood Pressure ... contrast agents, medicines or people with a history of anaphylactic reactions to known triggers. A single dose is recommended ... maximum recommended daily dosage for people in a dental setting requiring local anesthesia with a peripheral vasoconstrictor is ...
In 1948, Maurice M. Rapport, Arda Green, and Irvine Page of the Cleveland Clinic discovered a vasoconstrictor substance in ... blood serum, and since it was a serum agent affecting vascular tone, they named it serotonin. In 1952 it was shown that ... "Serum vasoconstrictor, serotonin; isolation and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 176 (3): 1243-51. PMID 18100415. Feldberg W, ...
... and Irvine Page of the Cleveland Clinic discovered a vasoconstrictor substance in blood serum, and since it was a serum agent ... These agents are available as dietary supplements, and may be effective serotonergic agents. One product of serotonin breakdown ... When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it can serve as a vasoconstrictor and/or a vasodilator while ... It is thus active wherever platelets bind in damaged tissue, as a vasoconstrictor to stop bleeding, and also as a fibrocyte ...
It is important to note that phentolamine is not a first-line agent for this indication. Phentolamine should only be given to ... Branded as OraVerse, it is a phentolamine mesylate injection designed to reverse the local vasoconstrictor properties used in ... Phentolamine is marketed in the dental field as a local anesthetic reversal agent. ...
... and Irvine Page of the Cleveland Clinic discovered a vasoconstrictor substance in blood serum, and since it was a serum agent ... These agents are available as dietary supplements, and may be effective serotonergic agents. One product of serotonin breakdown ... Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake, including cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants and ... When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it can serve as a vasoconstrictor or a vasodilator while ...
... as a vasoconstrictor to slow the absorption and, therefore, prolong the action of the anesthetic agent. Due to epinephrine's ... contrast agents, medicines or people with a history of anaphylactic reactions to known triggers. A single dose is recommended ... maximum recommended daily dosage for people in a dental setting requiring local anesthesia with a peripheral vasoconstrictor is ...
"Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC 2148913. PMID 8934977.. ... Vasoconstrictors are also used clinically to increase blood pressure or to reduce local blood flow. Vasoconstrictors mixed with ... Vasoconstrictor[4]. Receptor (↑ = opens. ↓ = closes)[4] On vascular smooth muscle cells if not otherwise specified Transduction ... Redirected from Vasoconstrictors). Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the ...
Therefore, ACE can be inhibited by metal-chelating agents. The E384 residue was found to have a dual function. First it acts as ... Thus, the same enzyme (ACE) that generates a vasoconstrictor (ANG II) also disposes of vasodilators (bradykinin). ACE is a zinc ... Angiotensin II is potent vasoconstrictor in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. Angiotensin II binds to the type 1 ... It converts the hormone angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Therefore, ACE indirectly increases blood ...
... classified as a vasoconstrictor. Cyclopentamine was indicated in the past as an over-the-counter (OTC) medication for use as a ... Cyclopentamine acts as a releasing agent of the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine ( ...
It is used as a bleaching agent in the production of Coconut cream It is used as a reducing agent to break sulfide bonds in ... Added to local anaesthetic (lidocaine etc.) solutions to prevent oxidation of vasoconstrictor adrenaline and thus improve the ... It is used as a cleaning agent for potable water reverse osmosis membranes in desalination systems. It is also used to remove ... For this reason, sodium metabisulfite has fallen from common use in recent times, with agents such as hydrogen peroxide ...
... is a sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor which is the active ingredient in some over-the-counter (OTC) nasal ... functioning as a selective norepinephrine releasing agent (with few or no effects on the release of dopamine), so it affects ...
This is a list of local anesthetic agents. Not all of these drugs are still used in clinical practice and in research. Some are ... anesthesia Dibucaine number Epidural Intravenous regional anesthesia Local anesthesia Local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor ...
... eicosanoids most often act as autocrine signaling agents to impact their cells of origin or as paracrine signaling agents to ... Short acting vasoconstrictors - TXA2-are released quickly after the injury. The site may momentarily turn pale. Then TXA2 ... Heat-PGE2 is also a potent pyretic agent. Aspirin and NSAIDS-drugs that block the COX pathways and stop prostanoid synthesis- ... Inhibits diverse inflammatory responses in animal models; structural model for developing anti-inflammatory agents[10][57][58] ...
The vasoconstrictor properties of norbormide turn out to be very dependent on stereochemistry. Only the endo isomers are toxic ... The symptoms of norbormide were very similar to the better known Ca2+ entry blocker agents. Therefore, norbormide is not only ... The cis-endo-threo isomer has been found to be the isomer with the most potent vasoconstrictor properties. In this structure ... It has several mechanisms of action, acting as a vasoconstrictor and calcium channel blocker, but is selectively toxic to rats ...
... an analgesic agent such as lidocaine, and a vasoconstrictor such as epinephrine.[2] Some contain Balsam of Peru to which ... Steroid-containing agents should not be used for more than 14 days, as they may cause thinning of the skin.[1] Most agents ... Sclerotherapy involves the injection of a sclerosing agent, such as phenol, into the hemorrhoid. This causes the vein walls to ... While many topical agents and suppositories are available for the treatment of hemorrhoids, little evidence supports their use. ...
... is a sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor which is the active ingredient in some over-the-counter (OTC) nasal ... functioning as a selective norepinephrine releasing agent (with few or no effects on the release of dopamine), so it affects ...
... norepinephrine is the major vasoconstrictor through stimulation of α1 receptors on the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Under ... Norepinephrine releasing agents. *Stimulants. *Sympathomimetics. *Vasoconstrictors. *Vasodilators. Hidden categories: *CS1 ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... vasoconstrictors, vasodilators. ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for lowering LDL cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. ...
It acts as a vasoconstrictor and has been reported to control migraines. From ergotomine, the anti-migraine drugs ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
Abrupt increase in systemic vascular resistance, likely related to humoral vasoconstrictors. *Endothelial injury and ... Several classes of antihypertensive agents are recommended, with the choice depending on the cause of the hypertensive crisis, ... Other intravenous agents like nitroglycerine, nicardipine, labetalol, fenoldopam or phentolamine can also be used, but all have ... the blood pressure should be slowly lowered over a period of minutes to hours with an antihypertensive agent. ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... They can also be found in combination with vasoconstrictor drugs such as pseudoephedrine for sinus-related preparations, or ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ...
Other agents that have been investigated for use in treatment of HRS include pentoxifylline,[34] acetylcysteine,[35] and ... Vasoconstrictors and volume expanders are the mainstay of treatment.[6]. Type 2 hepatorenal syndromeEdit. In contrast, type 2 ... The medications are respectively systemic vasoconstrictors and inhibitors of splanchnic vasodilation, and were not found to be ... caused by intravenous administration of contrast agents used for medical imaging tests.[3] ...
It is regulated by vasoconstrictors (agents that cause vasoconstriction). These include paracrine factors (e.g. prostaglandins ...
Angiotensin II is a vasoconstrictor which will increase blood flow to the heart and subsequently the preload, ultimately ... also contributes to changing the caliber of small blood vessels and influencing resistance and reactivity to vasoactive agents. ... Substances called vasoconstrictors reduce the caliber of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. Vasodilators (such ... the kidney to compensate for loss in blood volume or drops in arterial pressure by activating an endogenous vasoconstrictor ...
न्यालक्सेन, although chemically similar to some analgesics, is not a painkiller र reverses the effects of morphine-like agents. ... Anesthetic/anesthetic - Lidocaine/prilocaine Anesthetic/vasoconstrictor - Iontocaine. #WHO-EM. ‡Withdrawn from market. Clinical ...
Vasoconstrictors in local anesthesia for dentistry. Anesth Prog. 1992;39:187-93. ... sclerosing agents for local injection. *Monoethanolamine oleate. *Polidocanol. *Inverted sugar syrup. *Sodium tetradecyl ... a vasoconstrictor, procaine does not have the euphoric and addictive qualities that put it at risk for abuse. ...
Topical anaesthetic or vasoconstrictor preparations for flexible fibre-optic nasal pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy PMID 21412890 ... Topical agents or dressings for pain in venous leg ulcers PMID 23152206 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001177.pub3 ... Dressings and topical agents for surgical wounds healing by secondary intention PMID 15106207 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858. ... Topical antimicrobial agents for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes PMID 28613416 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858. ...
... are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Their name comes from their role in clot formation (thrombosis). ... but also neutralized the changes of the retina and the choroid thickness caused by the injection of pro-inflammatory agents. ...
... can be achieved by chemical agent as well as mechanical or physical agents. Which hemostasis type used is determined ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) attracts more platelets to the affected area, serotonin is a vasoconstrictor and thromboxane A2 ... Physical agents (gelatin sponge)- Gelatin sponges have been indicated as great hemostatic devices. Once applied to a bleeding ... These physical agents are mostly used in surgical settings as well as after surgery treatments. These sponges absorb blood, ...
As a pharmaceutical, m-synephrine is still used as a sympathomimetic (i.e. for its hypertensive and vasoconstrictor properties ... McCulloch J, Deshmukh VD, Harper AM (1978). Indirect sympathomimetic agents and cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Eur J ... In experiments with isolated sheep carotid artery, d-, l- and d,l-synephrine all showed some vasoconstrictor activity: l- ... One current reference source describes synephrine as a vasoconstrictor that has been given to hypotensive patients, orally or ...
Singh R, Sharma M, Joshi P, Rawat DS (August 2008). "Clinical status of anti-cancer agents derived from marine sources". Anti- ... which acts as a vasoconstrictor, and is used to prevent bleeding after childbirth. Asperlicin (from Aspergillus alliaceus) is ... This, in turn, led to the development of an impressive arsenal of antibacterial and antifungal agents including amphotericin B ... Other natural products derived from marine animals and under investigation as possible therapies include the antitumour agents ...
... is sold under the brand name Fibrimex for use as a binding agent for meat. The thrombin in Fibrimex derives from ... Thrombin, a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogen, is implicated as a major factor in vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage ...
Dicarboxylate-containing agentsEdit. This is the largest group, including: *Enalapril (Vasotec/Renitec/Berlipril/Enap/Enalapril ... a potent vasoconstrictor). ... In a large clinical study, one of the agents in the ACE ... Phosphonate-containing agentsEdit. *Fosinopril (Fositen/Monopril) is the only member of this group ... Stewart, J. M. (2003). "Bradykinin antagonists as anti-cancer agents". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 9 (25): 2036-2042. doi: ...
The first is based on the use of an injected contrast agent that changes the magnetic susceptibility of blood and thereby the ...
Note that during fatty synthesis the reducing agent is NADPH, whereas NAD is the oxidizing agent in beta-oxidation (the ... Conversely, thromboxanes (produced by platelet cells) are vasoconstrictors and facilitate platelet aggregation. Their name ...
Amide-linked local anesthetic agents, such as lidocaine and bupivacaine, can become "trapped" in their ionized forms on the ... An ester-linked local anesthetic agent, such as 2-chloroprocaine, is rapidly metabolized, and placental transfer is limited. ...
Of the sodium channel blocking antiarrhythmic agents (the class I antiarrhythmic agents), the class Ic agents have the most ... Class I antiarrhythmic agents interfere with the (Na+) channel. Class I agents are grouped by their effect on the Na+ channel, ... Agents in this class also cause decreased conductivity and increased refractoriness. Indications for Class Ia agents are ... Class Ib agents shorten the action potential duration and reduce refractoriness. These agents will decrease Vmax in partially ...
... is a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation. ... Ratti, S; Quarato, P; Casagrande, C; Fumagalli, R; Corsini, A (1998). "Picotamide, an antithromboxane agent, inhibits the ...
Triple therapy is then of all three groups and should the need arise then to add in a fourth agent, to consider either a ... a potent vasoconstrictor. ... Antihypertensive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine ... Aldosterone receptor antagonists are not recommended as first-line agents for blood pressure,[35] but spironolactone and ... The choice of more expensive agents, where cheaper ones would be equally effective, may have negative impacts on national ...
Sclerotherapy involves the injection of a sclerosing agent, such as phenol, into the hemorrhoid. This causes the vein walls to ... vasoconstrictor) যেনে epinephrine৷ [4] বিৰূপ প্ৰতিক্ৰিয়া (side effects) ৰ সম্ভাৱনীয়তা থকা Flavonoids ৰ সুফল সন্দেহজনক৷ [4][16 ...
The betel leaf chewed along with the nut contains eugenol, another vasoconstrictor. Tobacco leaf is often added to the mixture ... ISBN 978-92-832-1285-0. See table for Group 1 carcinogen agents in Beatrice Secretan; et al. (2009). "A review of human ... In October, 2009, 30 scientists from 10 countries met at IARC to reassess the carcinogenicity of various agents including areca ...
Reduction of pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents by overexpression of catalase in mice. American Journal of Hypertension ... Reduction of pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents by overexpression of catalase in mice. In: American Journal of ... Reduction of pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents by overexpression of catalase in mice. / Yang, Hong; Shi, MingJian; ... title = "Reduction of pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents by overexpression of catalase in mice", ...
Vasoconstrictor Agents, Vasopressor Agents, vasoconstrictor, Drugs, Vasoconstrictor, Vasoconstrictor Drugs, Vasoconstrictors, ... vasoconstrictor agents, vasopressor agents, vasoconstrictors, vasopressor, Vasoconstrictor, Vasoconstrictor (product), ... Agents, Vasoconstrictor, Agents, Vasopressor, Agonists, Vasoactive, Vasoactive Agonists, ... vasoconstrictor (producto), vasoconstrictor (sustancia), vasoconstrictor, Agonistas Vasoactivos, Vasoconstrictores, ...
It has been used as a vasoconstrictor agent.. Cirazoline. Cirazoline acts on a number of α adrenergic receptors. It is an ... Vasoconstrictor Agents. Accession Number. DBCAT000165. Description. Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels. ... A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of hypotension.. Terlipressin. Commonly used to stop bleeding of varices in the ... A sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor used for the symptomatic relief of redness and itching of the eye, and nasal congestion. ...
Topical vasoconstrictors. Class Summary. Topical vasoconstrictors act on alpha-adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa, ... Cauterizing agents. Class Summary. Cauterizing agents coagulate cellular proteins, which can in turn reduce bleeding. ... When anesthetics are used concomitantly with vasoconstrictors, their anesthetic effect is prolonged and the pain threshold ...
... after 12 months of follow-up was better in the aluminum chloride group than in the anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor ... Influence of hemostatic agents upon the outcome of periapical surgery: dressings with anesthetic and vasoconstrictor or ... We included patients with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, divided into two groups according to the hemostatic agent used: A) ... There were 50 patients in the aluminum chloride group and 46 patients in the anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor group. No ...
Effects of sustained low-flow perfusion on the response to vasoconstrictor agents in postnatal intestine. Philip T. Nowicki ... Effects of sustained low-flow perfusion on the response to vasoconstrictor agents in postnatal intestine ... Effects of sustained low-flow perfusion on the response to vasoconstrictor agents in postnatal intestine ... Effects of sustained low-flow perfusion on the response to vasoconstrictor agents in postnatal intestine ...
Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Sensitivity to Vasoconstrictor Agents induced by Corticosteroids, Adrenalectomy and Differing ... Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Sensitivity to Vasoconstrictor Agents induced by Corticosteroids, Adrenalectomy and Differing ... Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Sensitivity to Vasoconstrictor Agents induced by Corticosteroids, Adrenalectomy and Differing ... Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Sensitivity to Vasoconstrictor Agents induced by Corticosteroids, Adrenalectomy and Differing ...
BACKGROUND: Propofol is reported to reduce both sympathetic and parasympathetic tone; however, it is not clear whether the changes in heart rate variability are associated with depth of anesthesia. The purposes of the present study were (1) to evaluate the changes in heart rate variability at different depths of hypnosis and (2) to compare the effects of propofol on heart rate variability with that of sevoflurane. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly allocated into the propofol or sevoflurane for induction of anesthesia. The depth of hypnosis was monitored by the Bispectral Index (BIS ...
Dihydroergotamine is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine headaches with or without aura and the acute treatment of cluster headache episodes. Dihydroergotamine binds with high affinity to 5-HT1Da and 5-HT1Db receptors. It also binds with high affinity to serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors, noradrenaline a2A, a2B and a receptors, and dopamine D2L and D3 receptors. The therapeutic activity of Dihydroergotamine in migraine is generally attributed to the agonist effect at 5-HT1D receptors ...
Endothelins are the most potent vasoconstrictors known. [2] In a healthy individual, a delicate balance between ... vasoconstriction and vasodilation is maintained by endothelin and other vasoconstrictors as well as nitric oxide, prostacyclin ...
Vasoconstrictor Agent。CAS 番号:79551-86-3,純度:>95.0%。東京倉庫。溶解度:Ethanol & DMSO。高品質な生理・薬理活性化合物。20 ... 20-HETE (20-hydroxy Arachidonic Acid) is a CYP450 metabolite and a potent vasoconstrictor. 20-HETE is an endogenous inhibitor ... 20-HETE (20-hydroxy Arachidonic Acid) is a CYP450 metabolite and a potent vasoconstrictor. 20-HETE is an endogenous inhibitor ... blocked the vasoconstrictor response to 20-HETE (100 nM)[1].. 20-HETE induces the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, a MAPK that
Vasoconstrictor Agents. View this publications entry at the Pubmed website PMID: 2221130 ... Regional autoregulatory responses during infusion of vasoconstrictor agents in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol 1990 Oct;259(4 Pt 2 ... We attempted to differentiate between the increase in vascular resistance due to the direct effect of the vasoconstrictor agent ... which enabled us to return perfusion pressure to control levels during infusion of the vasoconstrictor agents. ...
ISBN 0-07-136704-7. Yagiela JA (1995). "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC ... which is usually water-based or just sterile water Vasoconstrictor possibly (see below) Reducing agent (antioxidant), e.g. if ... the maximum doses of LAs when combined with a vasoconstrictor is higher compared to the same LA without any vasoconstrictor. ... Because the vasoconstrictor temporarily reduces the rate at which the systemic circulation removes the local anesthetic from ...
Yagiela JA (1995). "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC 2148913 . PMID 8934977. ... Vasoconstrictors are also used clinically to increase blood pressure or to reduce local blood flow. Vasoconstrictors mixed with ... Many vasoconstrictors also cause pupil dilation. Medications that cause vasoconstriction include: antihistamines, decongestants ... Medications causing vasoconstriction, also known as vasoconstrictors, are one type of medicine used to raise blood pressure. ...
vasoconstrictor agent Drug used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug An anti- ... eletriptan (CHEBI:50922) has role vasoconstrictor agent (CHEBI:50514) eletriptan (CHEBI:50922) is a N-alkylpyrrolidine (CHEBI: ... An agent that has an affinity for serotonin receptors and is able to mimic the effects of serotonin by stimulating the ... An agent that has an affinity for serotonin receptors and is able to mimic the effects of serotonin by stimulating the ...
vasoconstrictor agent Drug used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.. sympathomimetic agent A drug that mimics the ... R)-noradrenaline (CHEBI:18357) has role vasoconstrictor agent (CHEBI:50514) (R)-noradrenaline (CHEBI:18357) is a noradrenaline ... An agent that selectively binds to and activates alpha. -adrenergic receptors.. mouse metabolite Any mammalian metabolite ... sympathomimetic agent A drug that mimics the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included in ...
Therapy including agents that have vasoconstrictor effects i.e. triple therapy combination. This therapy consists of three ...
Pharmacological Effects of Vasoconstrictor Agents. Responses to a single dose of KCl (60 mmol/L) and cumulative dose-response ... Although the responses to PGF2α differ from those to other vasoconstrictor agents in that they are smaller, and vasospasm seems ... in vitro effects of alpha adrenergic agents on canine arteries from six anatomical sites and six blocking agents on serotonin- ... This agent has rapid and profound effects on most smooth muscle cells, and it is not surprising that the residual response to ...
Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Molecular Mechanisms of ...
Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Anesthetics, Local. Anesthetics. Central Nervous System Depressants. Vasoconstrictor Agents. ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Vasoconstrictor Agents. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Neurotransmitter ... Despite testing of a number of different agents for cocaine dependency, there remains no proven pharmacologic treatment for ...
Vasoconstrictor Agents. Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists. Serotonin Receptor Agonists. Serotonin Agents. Neurotransmitter ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Vasoconstrictor Agents. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Neurotransmitter ... Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Sympathomimetics. Autonomic Agents. Adrenergic ...
Vasoconstrictor Agents / metabolism * Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology Substances * Anti-Bacterial Agents * ...
It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of migraine disorders. ... Sensory System Agents. *Serotonergic Drugs Shown to Increase Risk of Serotonin Syndrome ...
w with local anaesthetic agents, as a vasoconstrictor. - a2-receptors: yohimbine. w in anaphylactic reaction, cardiac arrest, ... the nerve). 5-10 ml local anaesthetic agent is injected 2 cm See also, Pelvic trauma below the mastoid process into the ... 2. 2 ABO blood groups men, the urethral meatus) for bruises, lacerations, entry Abuse of anaesthetic agents. May occur because ... For- ones ( for structure, synthesis and metabolism, see Catechol- oterol and salmeterol are longer acting agents given by ...
Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology. MESH. Verapamil/pharmacology. MESH. Dewey Decimal Classification:. 500 Science , 570 Life ... Pfeilschifter, J., Kurtz, Armin and Bauer, Christian (1986) Role of phospholipase C and protein kinase C in vasoconstrictor- ... The entirety of these data leads us to suggest that vasoconstrictor-evoked synthesis of PGE2 in rat mesangial cells is mediated ... Role of phospholipase C and protein kinase C in vasoconstrictor-induced prostaglandin synthesis in cultured rat renal mesangial ...
In the tubules it inhibits sodium reabsorption, while in the renal microcirculation it is a vasoconstrictor and a regulator of ...
Related to Vasocontrictor: Vasoconstrictor agents. va·so·con·stric·tor. (vāsō-kon-striktŏr, vasō-), 1. An agent that causes ... 2. a vasoconstrictive agent.. vasoconstrictor agents. includes some prostaglandins, thromboxane A2, leukotriene D4, angiotensin ... 2. a nerve or agent that does this.. vasoconstrictor. (vā′zō-kən-strĭk′tər). n.. Something, such as a nerve or drug, that ... vasoconstrictor (vā´zōkənstrik´tur),. n (vasopressor), an agent that causes a rise in blood pressure by constricting the blood ...
  • Thromboxane is a vasoconstrictor and a potent hypertensive agent, and it facilitates platelet aggregation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Thromboxane is a vasoconstrictor, potent hypertensive agent, and facilitates the clumping of platelets. (hmdb.ca)
  • This, in turn, inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin I2 (potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet activation) and thromboxane A2 (potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregating agent). (medscape.com)
  • PURPOSE: Epinephrine is considered the gold standard vasoconstrictor for hypertensive patients, but few studies report felypressin's effects. (bireme.br)
  • The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of these two vasoconstrictors, injected by the intravenous route, on the arterial pressure of normotensive, hypertensive and atenolol-treated hypertensive rats. (bireme.br)
  • 1K1C atenolol rats showed reduced hypertensive responses to both vasoconstrictors. (bireme.br)
  • 12 13 14 It is therefore possible that these antagonists may prove to be more effective as antihypertensive agents in hypertensive conditions associated with an important endothelial vasodilator dysfunction, in which the vascular effects of ET could be enhanced. (ahajournals.org)
  • is a powerful vasoconstrictor and platelet ______ agent. (brainscape.com)
  • Because nitric oxide inhibits the synthesis and vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin-1, the effect of endothelin-1 may be enhanced under conditions of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Abstract The coronary vasoconstrictor effects of endothelins, mediated by both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors, may be differentially altered in pathophysiological states associated with endothelial dysfunction and elevated endothelin levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The local adverse effects of anesthetic agents include neurovascular manifestations such as prolonged anesthesia (numbness) and paresthesia (tingling, feeling of "pins and needles", or strange sensations). (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of localized symptoms include: neurotoxicity due to allergenic reaction excessive fluid pressure in a confined space severing of nerve fibers or support tissue with the needle/catheter injection-site hematoma that puts pressure on the nerve injection-site infection that produces inflammatory pressure on the nerve and/or necrosis General systemic adverse effects are due to the pharmacological effects of the anesthetic agents used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasoconstrictors, when administered subcutaneously, decrease the absorption of anesthetic agents, thereby prolonging its effect. (openpr.com)
  • A direct acting sympathomimetic agent used for the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion and minor inflammation due to allergies or colds. (drugbank.ca)
  • A sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor used for the symptomatic relief of redness and itching of the eye, and nasal congestion. (drugbank.ca)
  • Topical vasoconstrictors act on alpha-adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa, causing vessels to constrict. (medscape.com)
  • Avoid use of additional vasoconstrictor agents with COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE nasal solution. (nih.gov)
  • 4-7 Many patients require pharmacotherapy to control symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including "preventive" agents (e.g., topical nasal corticosteroid or cromolyn preparations) and/or antihistamines and decongestants. (ahrq.gov)
  • indications It is prescribed for the treatment of nasal and nasopharyngeal congestion and as an ophthalmic vasoconstrictor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A vasoconstrictor agent used as a nasal decongestant and ophthalmic vasoconstrictor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An agent that selectively binds to and activates alpha -adrenergic receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Regional autoregulatory responses during infusion of vasoconstrictor agents in conscious dogs. (mcw.edu)
  • The findings indicate that, under conditions of increased systemic blood pressure, both the renal and the mesenteric vascular beds contribute to the increase in total peripheral resistance by pressure-dependent vasoconstrictor responses. (mcw.edu)
  • Hypercholesterolemia attenuates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and augments the responses to vasoconstrictor agents. (springer.com)
  • Heistad DD, Armstrong MLI, Marcus ML, Piegors DJ, Mark AL (1984) Augmented responses to vasoconstrictor stimuli in hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerotic monkeys. (springer.com)
  • Here, we investigated the effects of treatment for 10 consecutive days with testosterone and cocaine alone or in combination on basal cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents, and cardiac morphology in adolescent rats. (jove.com)
  • We attempted to differentiate between the increase in vascular resistance due to the direct effect of the vasoconstrictor agent and the increase induced by an autoregulatory response induced by elevations of aortic perfusion pressure. (mcw.edu)
  • A vasoactive agent that constricts blood vessels-eg, epinephrine, norepinephrine, which is produced endogenously to compensate for hypotension and maintain vascular tone in hemorrhagic and other forms of shock. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemorrhagic shock is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure, reduced cardiac output, and release of vasoconstrictor substances and in, decompensating phase, delayed vascular decompensation [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vascular hyporeactivity can interfere with vasoconstrictor agents uses in therapy of shock. (hindawi.com)
  • These vasoconstrictor actions on the glomerular microcirculation may play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of renal diseases by elevating renal vascular resistance and glomerular capillary pressure. (asnjournals.org)
  • 1 Indeed, the inhibition of endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor (ie, nitric oxide) production in vivo results in an enhanced coronary microvessel vasoconstrictor response to ETB-receptor stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Other endogenous vasoconstrictors are angiotensin, which is formed in the blood through the action of renin, and antidiuretic hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since bradykinin is the most potent pain-producing agent of endogenous origin we have investigate its participation as a possible mediator in the stimulation of sensitive nerve endings. (springer.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor in vivo, mimicking pathophysiological states associated with endothelial dysfunction, results in an enhanced coronary microvessel vasoconstrictor response to ETB-receptor stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that another NaCl sensitive endogenous natriuretic factor, i.e., marinobufagenin (MBG), a specific ligand of the α-1 subunit of Na/K ATPase (the main kidney isoform) and also a vasoconstrictor and cardiotonic substance, would be elevated in CHF patients in a graded manner with the severity of CHF. (elsevier.com)
  • The optimal method of postoperative monitoring, the use of vasoconstrictors in the perioperative period, and the use of anticoagulants in the postoperative period remain topics of debate. (elsevier.com)
  • Pretreatment with neomycin (a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C) abolished the vasoconstrictor action of Aldo in both arterioles. (asnjournals.org)
  • The entirety of these data leads us to suggest that vasoconstrictor-evoked synthesis of PGE2 in rat mesangial cells is mediated by the subsequent activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C. The activation of protein kinase C by diacylglycerol is likely to be involved in the increase of the calcium permeability of the plasma membrane which is a prerequisite for PGE2 synthesis induced by vasoconstrictive hormones. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Indeed, it has been shown that NO inhibits the synthesis and vasoconstrictor effect of ET in acute in vitro conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine the significance of circulating NPY as a pulmonary vasoactive agent, we measured plasma NPY-like immunoreactivity in anesthetized rabbits after massively activating the sympathetic nervous system with veratrine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • and to correct dyschromia, a formulation should contain melanogenesis inhibitors, retinoids, L-ascorbic acid, vasoconstrictors and anti-inflammatory agents. (happi.com)
  • EPM, a potent vasoconstrictor, is the principal pressor agent of rennin-angiotensin system. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Endothelins are the most potent vasoconstrictors known. (glpbio.com)
  • Eprosartan mesylate (EPM) [ 1 , 2 ] a new drug and it is used as an antihypertensive agent which is chemically monomethane sulfonate of (E)-2-butyl- 1-(p-carboxybenzyl)-a-2-thienylmethylimidazole- 5-acrylic acid ( fig. 1 ). (ijpsonline.com)
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) [ 3 ] is used as an antihypertensive agent which is chemically 6-chloro- 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7- sulfonamide ( fig 1 ). (ijpsonline.com)
  • 20-HETE (20-hydroxy Arachidonic Acid) is a CYP450 metabolite and a potent vasoconstrictor. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Studies have shown citral to be positive as anticlastogenic and anticancer agent [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, butyric acid can be used to produce various pharmaceuticals such as vasoconstrictor drugs, anticancer agents, and antioxidants ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • In the tubules it inhibits sodium reabsorption, while in the renal microcirculation it is a vasoconstrictor and a regulator of myogenic tone. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indomethacin as a new vasoconstrictor and therapeutic agent in migraine. (springer.com)
  • The present invention relates to a piperidine compound having pharmaceutical activity, to processes for preparing such a compound, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising such a compound and to the use of such a compound as an active therapeutic agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of hypotension. (drugbank.ca)
  • A direct-acting prodrug and sympathomimetic agent with antihypotensive properties. (fpnotebook.com)
  • LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action. (wikipedia.org)
  • n adrenaline-mimicking drugs that increase the duration of local anesthesia by constricting the blood vessels, thereby safely concentrating the anesthetic agent for an extended duration and reducing hemorrhage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Active agents (or drugs) are most conventionally administered either orally or by injection. (google.com)
  • An agent that has an affinity for serotonin receptors and is able to mimic the effects of serotonin by stimulating the physiologic activity at the cell receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It is used as a vasoconstrictor agent in the treatment of HYPOTENSION. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The arteries supplying these beds were instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe, a nonoccluding catheter, and an electromagnetic flow probe, a nonoccluding catheter, and an occluder cuff connected with a servo-amplifier, which enabled us to return perfusion pressure to control levels during infusion of the vasoconstrictor agents. (mcw.edu)
  • L~ph~drine est plus efficace en perfusion. (scribd.com)
  • contraindications Glaucoma or known hypersensitivity to this drug or to other vasoconstrictors prohibits its use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The process is one wherein the rate of delivery is a function of current, active agent concentration, and presence of other ions. (google.com)
  • To evaluate the effects of different hemostatic agents upon the outcome of periapical surgery. (nih.gov)
  • The underlying mechanisms that are involved in HRS are incompletely understood but may include both increased vasoconstrictor and decreased vasodilator factors acting on the renal circulation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Compositions of and methods for formulating and delivering biologically active agent formulations having enhanced physical stability, and wherein deterioration from the presence of oxygen and/or water is minimized and/or controlled, to yield a stable formulation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 1, wherein the biologically active agent comprises HPTH. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. The method of claim 1, wherein the biologically active agent comprises hPTH(1-34) and analogs thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to devices and methods for delivering a biologically active agent transdermally using a coated microprojection array. (google.com)
  • When anesthetics are used concomitantly with vasoconstrictors, their anesthetic effect is prolonged and the pain threshold increased. (medscape.com)
  • Vasoconstrictors mixed with local anesthetics are used to increase the duration of local anesthesia by constricting the blood vessels, thereby safely concentrating the anesthetic agent for an extended duration, as well as reducing hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 in which the active agent is selected from the group consisting of therapeutics, anesthetics, hormones and proteins. (google.com)
  • It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of migraine disorders. (rcsb.org)