The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Diseases of plants.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.
21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
A positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties. It inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase type 3 activity in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is a derivative of amrinone and has 20-30 times the inotropic potency of amrinone.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
The measure of a BLOOD VESSEL's ability to increase the volume of BLOOD it holds without a large increase in BLOOD PRESSURE. The vascular capacitance is equal to the change in volume divided by the change in pressure.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The position or attitude of the body.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
A vasodilator that apparently has direct actions on blood vessels and also increases cardiac output. Tolazoline can interact to some degree with histamine, adrenergic, and cholinergic receptors, but the mechanisms of its therapeutic effects are not clear. It is used in treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Glucose in blood.
Condition of low SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE that develops secondary to other conditions such as ANAPHYLAXIS; SEPSIS; SURGICAL SHOCK; and SEPTIC SHOCK. Vasoplegia that develops during or post surgery (e.g., CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS) is called postoperative vasoplegic syndrome or vasoplegic syndrome.
The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.

The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (1/5462)

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (2/5462)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (3/5462)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (4/5462)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study. (5/5462)

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (6/5462)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Regulation of myocardial blood flow by oxygen consumption is maintained in the failing heart during exercise. (7/5462)

The hemodynamic abnormalities and neurohumoral activation that accompany congestive heart failure (CHF) might be expected to impair the increase in coronary blood flow that occurs during exercise. This study was performed to determine the effects of CHF on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow during exercise. Coronary blood flow was measured in chronically instrumented dogs at rest, during 2 stages of graded treadmill exercise under control conditions (n=10), and after the development of CHF produced by 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing (n=9). In the normal dogs, coronary blood flow increased during exercise in proportion to the increase in the heart rate x the left ventricular systolic blood pressure product (RPP). After the development of CHF, resting myocardial blood flow was 25% lower than normal (P<0.05). Myocardial blood flow increased during the first stage of exercise, but then failed to increase further during the second stage of exercise despite an additional increase in the RPP. Myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly lower in animals with CHF and paralleled coronary flow. Despite the lower values for coronary blood flow in animals with CHF, there was no evidence for myocardial ischemia. Thus, even during the second level of exercise when coronary flow failed to increase, myocardial lactate consumption continued and coronary venous pH did not fall. In addition, the failure of coronary flow to increase as the exercise level was increased from stage 1 to stage 2 was not associated with a further increase in myocardial oxygen extraction. Thus, cardiac failure was associated with decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and failure of oxygen consumption to increase with an increase in the level of exercise. This abnormality did not appear to result from inadequate oxygen availability, but more likely represented a reduction of myocardial oxygen usage with a secondary decrease in metabolic coronary vasodilation.  (+info)

Modulation of temperature-induced tone by vasoconstrictor agents. (8/5462)

One of the primary cardiovascular adjustments to hyperthermia is a sympathetically mediated increase in vascular resistance in the viscera. Nonneural factors such as a change in vascular tone or reactivity may also contribute to this response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether vascular smooth muscle tone is altered during heating to physiologically relevant temperatures >37 degrees C. Gradually increasing bath temperature from 37 degrees C (normothermia) to 43 degrees C (severe hyperthermia) produced graded contractions in vascular ring segments from rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aortae. In untreated rings these contractions were relatively small, whereas hyperthermia elicited near-maximal increases in tension when rings were constricted with phenylephrine or KCl before heating. In phenylephrine-treated mesenteric arterial rings, the contractile responses to heating were markedly attenuated by the Ca2+ channel antagonists nifedipine and diltiazem. Diltiazem also blocked the contractile responses to heating in thoracic aortic rings. These results demonstrate that hyperthermia has a limited effect on tension generation in rat vascular smooth muscle in the absence of vascular tone. However, in the presence of agonist-induced tone, tension generation during heating is markedly enhanced and dependent on extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, these data suggest that local regulation of vascular tone can contribute to the hemodynamic adjustments to hyperthermia.  (+info)

Title:Impact of Cardiovascular Factors on Pulse Wave Velocity and Total Vascular Resistance in Different Age Group Patients with Cardiovascular Disorders. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Amit Ghosh*, Abhijith Dharmarajan, Prafulla K. Swain, Debasish Das, Poonam Verma and Prabhas R. Tripathy. Affiliation:Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Sijua, Patrapada, Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Sijua, Patrapada, Department of Statistics, Utkal University, Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Sijua, Patrapada, Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Sijua, Patrapada, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Sijua, Patrapada. Keywords:Cardiovascular factors, hypertension, pulse wave velocity, total vascular resistance, BSA, BMI.. Abstract:. Background: Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) is the propagation ...
Definition of Pulmonary vascular resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Pulmonary vascular resistance? Meaning of Pulmonary vascular resistance as a finance term. What does Pulmonary vascular resistance mean in finance?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of cardiac allograft size and pulmonary vascular resistance to long-term cardiopulmonary function. AU - Yeoh, T. K.. AU - Frist, W. H.. AU - Lagerstrom, C.. AU - Kasper, E. K.. AU - Groves, J.. AU - Merrill, W.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cardiopulmonary function of heart transplant patients who received disproportionately sized allografts for varying levels of pulmonary vascular resistance. Resting hemodynamics and oxygen uptake during exercise were recorded at 1 year after transplantation in 52 patients. No differences in resting heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, peak oxygen uptake during exercise, and exercise duration were found in recipients of undersized hearts (donor:recipient weight ratio [D:R] ,0.75), sized-matched hearts [D:R = 0.75 to 1.25), and oversized (D:R ,1.25) hearts. In a further analysis according to preoperative pulmonary vascular resistance, resting cardiac output ...
It has been shown that sustained insulin infusion causes an increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor discharge but, despite this, also causes peripheral vasodilatation. The present study was designed to determine in healthy subjects the effect of ingestion of a carbohydrate meal, with its attendant physiological insulinaemia, on vascular resistance in and sympathetic vasoconstrictor discharge to the same vascular bed, and the relationship between these parameters. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied for 2 h following ingestion of a carbohydrate meal. Calf vascular resistance was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed by peroneal microneurography. Five of the subjects also ingested water on a separate occasion, as a control. Following the carbohydrate meal, the serum insulin concentration increased to 588+/-72 pmol/l. This was associated with a 47% increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (P|0.001), a 39% fall in vascular resistance (P|0.001) and a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progressive myocardial dysfunction associated with increased vascular resistance.. AU - Franciosa, J. A.. AU - Heckel, R.. AU - Limas, C.. AU - Cohn, J. N.. PY - 1980/10. Y1 - 1980/10. N2 - To study heart failure from a myocardial lesion, we injected glass beads into the circumflex coronary artery of 11 conscious dogs and followed hemodynamics for 10 mo. Heart rate remained unchanged. Control mean arterial pressure of 112.3 +/- 3.0 (SE) mmHg was unchanged at 1 and 3 mo, but rose to 127.2 +/- 8.5 to 84.0 +/- 7.6 ml . kg-1 . min-1 at 10 mo (P , 0.02), but was unchanged at 1 and 3 mo. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) averaged 4.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg at control and rose to 11.8 +/- 1.4 mmHg at 1 mo and 14.9 +/- 2.5 mmHg at 10 mo (both P , 0.01). Systemic vascular resistance rose significantly by 10 mo. The ratio of stroke work to LVEDP fell from 13.1 +/- 0.1 at control to 3.8 +/- 0.5 by 10 mo (P , 0.01). In this dog model, left ventricular dysfunction is manifest early by ...
The calculator Pulmonary Vascular Resistance is used in the management of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. The parameters used in the calculation include mean pulmonary artery pressure, left arterial pressure, and pulmonary flow.
BioAssay record AID 232387 submitted by ChEMBL: Ratio of ED20 of MABP (mean arterial blood pressure) to the ED15 of RVR ( renal vascular resistance)..
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Etiologic factors and sites of origin of pulmonary vascular resistance hysteresis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CI=confidence interval; PVRI=pulmonary vascular resistance index; PAP=pulmonary artery pressure; STARTS-1=Sildenafil in Treatment-Naïve Children, Aged 1 to ...
The SVRI Forum prize-giving is an important part of every SVRI Forum. By awarding prizes to presentations and posters, the SVRI aims to encourage and support quality research. SVRI Forum Awards 2019 SVRI Forum Awards 2017 SVRI Forum Awards 2015 SVRI Forum Awards 2013
Baseline and surgery characteristics were not different between groups. The mean age of patients was 66 years (SD 8) vs. 68(6), respectively. Mean duration of CPB was 105 minutes (SD 24) vs. 108(28). Weighted PaO2 during CPB was 220 mmHg, IQR (211-233) vs. 157 (151-162, P, 0.0001), respectively. In the ICU, weighted PaO2 was 107 (86-141) vs. 90 (84-98, P = 0.03). Median maximum values of CK-MB were 25.8µg/L, IQR (20.3-32.6) vs. 24.9 (18.0-31.2, P = 0.5) and of Troponin-T 0.35 µg/L, IQR (0.30-0.46) vs. 0.42(0.26-0.49, P = 0.9). Areas under the curve (AUC) of CK-MB (Figure 1) were median 23.5 µg/L/h, IQR (18.4-28.1) vs. 21.5(15.8-26.6, P = .35) and 0.30µg/L/h (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.39 (0.24-0.43, P = .81) for Troponin-T. Cardiac Index, Systemic Vascular Resistance Index, and serum lactate levels (Lactatemax median 2 mmol/L IQR(1.4-2.6) vs. 2.2(1.7-2.6, P = .52)) were similar between groups throughout the ICU period. ...
The primary end point is a composite variable (incidence rate of any events) consisting of death, failing Fontan or failed Fontan according to high pulmonary vascular resistance within the first 48 hours after receiving study drug ...
Prevention and management of low diastolic blood pressureTry to keep your salt intake to between 1.5 and 4 grams per day.. …. Eat a heart-healthy diet.. …. Drink enough fluids and avoid alcohol, which can increase your risk for dehydration.Stay physically active and start an exercise program.. …. Maintain a healthy weight.More items…•.. ...
總周邊血管阻力(Total Peripheral Resistance,TPR)可由下列數學公式表示:. R = ΔP/Q[2]. R 代表 TPR。 ΔP 代表全身體循環起終點的血壓變化量。 Q 代表心輸出量. 因此此公式可以解釋為. 總周邊血管阻力 = (平均動脈壓 - 平均靜脈壓)/ 心輸出量. 因此平均動脈壓可以下列公式定義:[3]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of perfusion pressure to vascular resistance response during head-up tilt. AU - Imadojemu, Virginia A.. AU - Lott, Mary E.J.. AU - Gleeson, Kevin. AU - Hogeman, Cynthia S.. AU - Ray, Chester A.. AU - Sinoway, Lawrence. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - We measured brachial and femoral artery flow velocity in eight subjects and peroneal and median muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in five subjects during tilt testing to 40°. Tilt caused similar increases in MSNA in the peroneal and median nerves. Tilt caused a fall in femoral artery flow velocity, whereas no changes in flow velocity were seen in the brachial artery. Moreover, with tilt, the increase in the vascular resistance employed (blood pressure/flow velocity) was greater and more sustained in the leg than in the arm. The ratio of the percent increase in vascular resistance in leg to arm was 2.5:1. We suggest that the greater vascular resistance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol relaxes rat mesenteric resistance artery and induces Ca2+ release in rat mesenteric artery endothelial cells. AU - Alsuleimani, Y. M.. AU - Hiley, C. R.. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Background and Purpose Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), a lipid signalling molecule, activates GPR55 and elevates intracellular Ca2+. Here, we examine the actions of LPI in the rat resistance mesenteric artery and Ca2+ responses in endothelial cells isolated from the artery. Experimental Approach Vascular responses were studied using wire myographs. Single-cell fluorescence imaging was performed using a MetaFluor system. Hypotensive effects of LPI were assessed using a Biopac system. Key Results In isolated arteries, LPI-induced vasorelaxation was concentration- and endothelium-dependent and inhibited by CID 16020046, a GPR55 antagonist. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 had no effect, whereas rimonabant and O-1918 significantly potentiated LPI ...
1. In order to examine the effects of experimental hypertension on intracellular pH in mesenteric resistance arteries, intracellular pH was measured in mesenteric resistance arteries from rats with coarctation 72 h, 9 days and 28 days after the aorta was partially constricted between the origins of the renal arteries. Carotid arterial pressure was significantly raised at all time points.. 2. Second-order mesenteric resistance arteries were mounted in a myograph and were loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester of the pH-sensitive dye 2′,7′-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein. Morphological measurements demonstrated that arteries from rats with coarctation had an increased media volume at 9 days and at 28 days compared with vessels from sham-operated control animals, but this was only statistically significant at 28 days.. 3. Resting intracellular pH was not significantly different at any time point in arteries from rats with coarctation compared with control animals, although there was a ...
Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary hypertension associated with structural alterations in pulmonary vessels and sustained vasoconstriction. The transcriptional mechanisms responsible for these distinctive changes are unclear. We have previously reported that CREB1 is activated in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia but not in other organs. To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined the responses of mice in which these isoforms of CREB1 had been inactivated by gene mutation, leaving only the β isoform intact (CREBαΔ mice). Here we report that expression of CREB regulated genes was altered in the lungs of CREBαΔ mice. CREBαΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to hypoxic conditions for three weeks. There was no difference in rho kinase mediated vasoconstriction between CREBαΔ and wild type mice. Stereological analysis of pulmonary
1. Serial pulmonary haemodynamic investigations were performed in 13 women before conception, at monthly intervals throughout pregnancy, and then at 6 months after delivery.. 2. Mean pulmonary artery pressure was calculated from pulsed Doppler pulmonary velocities. Pulmonary flow was measured by Doppler and cross-sectional echocardiography. These two measurements were used to calculate pulmonary vascular resistance.. 3. Mean non-pregnant pulmonary artery pressure was 13.8 mmHg and no significant change was demonstrated during pregnancy.. 4. Pulmonary flow increased from 4.88 to 7.19 litres/min during pregnancy.. 5. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased from 2.85 resistance units before pregnancy to 2.17 resistance units at 8 weeks gestation. Thereafter there was no further significant change, values returning to pre-pregnant levels by 6 months after delivery. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - SVR versus rate-independent vascular resistance why SVR is a false measurement of total peripheral resistance. AU - Woodford, Stephen. N1 - Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Poster presented at Poster Session 9 on 16 May 2011.. AB - Poster presented at Poster Session 9 on 16 May 2011.. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary arterial hypertension - up-to-the-minute news and headlines. 7thSpace is a online portal covering topics such as Family, Business, Entertainment, Headlines, Recipes and more. A place for the whole family featuring many different sections to chose from.
In rats with long-term or chronic renovascular hypertension, we found that neither the change in BP or CO nor the renal vasoconstriction evoked by acute inhibition of NO synthesis was diminished compared with rats with early-phase 2K1C hypertension. Contrary to what we expected, this suggests that NO still contributes significantly to maintaining vascular tone in chronic 2K1C hypertension and that prolonged hypertension is apparently not exacerbated by developing endothelial dysfunction with diminished NO production. We had hypothesized that this chronic phase of 2K1C hypertension would be characterized by the loss of endothelial function and, therefore, a diminished influence of NO on vascular resistance. On the basis our bioassay of hemodynamic responses to NO synthesis inhibition, neither systemic nor renal endothelial dysfunction are factors in these rats. We further propose that in the chronic phase, blocking the AT1 receptor would no longer have a profound effect on BP or renal perfusion ...
Simple formulas may remain within the text of the manuscript if they can be set on the line: The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was calculated as follows: PVRI = (MPAP − PCWP)/CI, where MPAP indicates mean pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; and CI, cardiac index. Long or complicated formulas should be centered on a separate line. In either case, symbols and signs should be marked in detail. Such formulas may be handled either as copy or as prepared art, depending on the availability of special characters and use of software for equation preparation. For online publications, formulas that require more
Simple formulas may remain within the text of the manuscript if they can be set on the line: The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was calculated as follows: PVRI = (MPAP − PCWP)/CI, where MPAP indicates mean pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; and CI, cardiac index. Long or complicated formulas should be centered on a separate line. In either case, symbols and signs should be marked in detail. Such formulas may be handled either as copy or as prepared art, depending on the availability of special characters and use of software for equation preparation. For online publications, formulas that require more
Bell, James Stephen, Adio, Aminat, Pitt, Andrew, Hayman, Lindsay, Thorn, Clare E., Shore, Angela C., Whatmore, Jacqueline and Winlove, C. Peter 2016 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nature and distribution of vascular resistance in hypoxic pig lungs. AU - Rock, P.. AU - Patterson, G. A.. AU - Permutt, S.. AU - Sylvester, J. T.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - We used the vascular occlusion technique in pig lungs isolated in situ to describe the efffects of hypoxia on the distribution of vascular resistance and to determine whether the resistive elements defined by this technique behaved as ohmic or Starling resistors during changes in flow at constant outflow pressure, changes in outflow pressure at constant flow, and reversal of flow. During normoxia, the largest pressure gradient occurred across the middle compliant region of the vasculature (ΔPm). The major effect of hypoxia was to increase ΔPm and the gradient across the relatively noncompliant arterial region (ΔPa). The gradient across the noncompliant venous region (ΔPv) changed only slightly, if at all. Both ΔPa and ΔPv increased with flow but ΔPm decreased. The pressure at the arterial end of the ...
Introduction: Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) is a measurement of resistance and impediment of the systemic vascular bed to blood flow. SVR is a frequently ...
Nitric oxide synthase and renin-angiotensin gene expression and NOS function in the postnatal renal resistance vasculature Article ...
Abstract: Objective. To assess the relationship between cortisol concentrations in the last trimester of pregnancy and systemic vascular resistance - SVR in childhood. Materials and methods. This study is part of a cohort involving 130 Brazilian pregnant women and their children, ages 5 to 7 years. Maternal cortisol was determined in saliva by an enzyme immunoassay utilizing the mean concentration of 9 samples of saliva (3 in each different day), collected at the same time, early in the morning. SVR was assessed by the HDI/PulseWave CR-2000 Cardiovascular Profiling System®. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and life style factors were determined by a questionnaire. The nutritional status of the women and children was assessed by the body mass index - BMI. The association between maternal cortisol and SVR in childhood was calculated by multivariate linear regression analysis. Results.There were statistically significant associations between maternal cortisol and SVR (p = 0.043) and ...
An apparatus and method for detecting myocardial ischemia in a subject monitors the systemic vascular resistance of the subject and detects the presence of myocardial ischemia when the systemic vascular resistance increases by at least sixty percent over a base line value. Particular apparatus describe providing a measurement corresponding to the systemic vascular resistance of the cardiovascular system. A particular invasive pressure measuring apparatus uses a flexible catheter tube insertable into the artery of the subject and a micro-manometer embedded into the outer face of the wall of the catheter tube. The outer face of the embedded micro-manometer is directly exposed to the blood in an artery and the inner face of the embedded micro-manometer is covered by the inner face of the catheter tube wall.
Objective: Studies of high-risk pediatric cardiac transplant recipients are lacking. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early posttransplant survival in high-risk pediatric. patients.. Methods: The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) provided de-identified patient-level data. The study population included 3502 recipients aged less than 21 years who underwent transplantation from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2005. Recipients were stratified on the basis of the presence or absence of high-risk criteria: pulmonary vascular resistance index greater than 6 Wood units/m(2) (n = 285, 8.1%), this website creatinine clearance less than 40 mL/min (308, 8.8%), hepatitis C positivity (33, 0.9%), donor/recipient weight ratio less than 0.7 (80, 2.3%), panel reactive antibody greater than 40% (235, 6.7%), retransplantation (235, 6.7%), and age less than 1 year old (840, 24.0%).. Results: Overall, 1575 (45.0%) patients met at least one high-risk criterion. Higher numbers of high-risk ...
Delić-Brkljačić, Diana and Galešić, Krešimir and Ivanac, Gordana and Manola, Šime and Pintarić, Hrvoje and Štambuk, Krešimir and Gaćina, Petar and Radeljić, Vjekoslav (2009) Influence of ATII blockers and calcium channel blockers on renal vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (4). pp. 1129-38. ISSN 0350-6134 ...
Delić-Brkljačić, Diana and Galešić, Krešimir and Ivanac, Gordana and Manola, Šime and Pintarić, Hrvoje and Štambuk, Krešimir and Gaćina, Petar and Radeljić, Vjekoslav (2009) Influence of ATII blockers and calcium channel blockers on renal vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (4). pp. 1129-38. ISSN 0350-6134 ...
Cardivas is a brand name for Carvedilol, which is a vasodilating non-selective beta-blocking agent with antioxidant properties. Carvedilol reduces the peripheral vascular resistance through...
The Center for One Health Research Department of Environment & Occupational Health Sciences School of Public Health University of Washington Box 357234 Seattle, WA, USA ...
RESULTS Compared with baseline values, GFR (171 ± 20 to 120 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) and filtration fraction (FF, 0.24 ± 0.06 to 0.18 ± 0.03) declined in hyperfilterers (ANOVA P ≤ 0.033), and renal vascular resistance increased (0.0678 ± 0.0135 to 0.0783 ± 0.0121 mmHg/L/min, P = 0.017). GFR and FF did not change in normofiltering subjects. In contrast, the radial augmentation index decreased in hyperfiltering (1.2 ± 11.7 to −11.0 ± 7.8%) and normofiltering (14.3 ± 14.0 to 2.5 ± 14.6%) subjects (within-group changes, ANOVA P ≤ 0.030). The decline in circulating aldosterone levels was similar in both groups. ...
Clamping of the umbilical cord and expansion of the lungs at birth shift gas exchange from the placenta to the lungs. Removal of the placenta also causes an increase in systemic vascular resistance to about twice that before birth. ...
Cook Medical is releasing in the United States its TriForce Peripheral Crossing Set, devices made to support percutaneous wire guides while performing interventions within the peripheral vasculature. In addition to helping to directly treat obstructions, the devices can also be used to inject radiopaque angiography contrast media to image the vasculature being worked on. The devices come in ...
For many uses in chemistry or food production, for example, it is important to know whether measurement parameters such as pressure, temperature and resistance change. Sensors, regulators and switches can point to risks or nip these in the bud ...
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The application of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) using a heart-lung machine in open heart surgery is associated with numerous pathophysiological changes in the vascular system and the neurohormonal environment. In this study our purpose was to investigate whether the hormones brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and ghrelin arc involved in changes in the systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) after CPB, using data from 20 patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting accompanied by CPB. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained using a thermodilution catheter and included cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index. Blood samples were taken before CPB, after CPB, and at 0 and 24 h postoperatively. The blood levels of total and acylated ghrelin were quantified by radioimmunoassay. Blood levels of BNP were measured by a fluorescence immunoassay kit. The SVRI was significantly higher at the end of CPB and at 0 h postoperatively than before CPB (end of CPB: 4282 +/- 1035 dyne . s . ...
Our results demonstrate that in vitro blockade of ACE is insufficient to prevent the contraction of human subcutaneous resistance arteries to Ang I. Because our preliminary experiments showed that this response is completely blocked by losartan, we assume that contraction to Ang I represents the effect of Ang II generated locally and acting on the Ang II type I receptor. Thus, treatment with an ACEI appears to be unable to prevent conversion of Ang I to Ang II in human resistance arteries. In the rabbit, in contrast, ACEI administration fully prevented Ang I-induced contraction.. Because ACE is identical to kininase II, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of kinins, it has been suggested that potentiation of BK may be partly responsible for the actions of ACEI. Thus, plasma kinin concentrations are increased in humans by quinapril, and ACEI-induced coronary artery vasodilation in dogs and humans has been shown to be mediated by BK.16 17 18 We investigated the effect of enalaprilat on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing myogenic response and vasoactivity in resistance mesenteric arteries using pressure myography. AU - Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.. AU - Rachakonda, Vikrant. AU - Bagi, Zsolt. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. PY - 2015/7/6. Y1 - 2015/7/6. N2 - Small resistance arteries constrict and dilate respectively in response to increased or decreased intraluminal pressure; this phenomenon known as myogenic response is a key regulator of local blood flow. In isobaric conditions small resistance arteries develop sustained constriction known as myogenic tone (MT), which is a major determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Hence, ex vivo pressurized preparations of small resistance arteries are major tools to study microvascular function in near-physiological states. To achieve this, a freshly isolated intact segment of a small resistance artery (diameter ~260 μm) is mounted onto two small glass cannulas and pressurized. These arterial preparations retain most in vivo characteristics and ...
Vasoconstriction in atherosclerotic human subcutaneous resistance arteries - Science Exchange Lets You Compare Quotes From Leading Service Providers.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of weight reduction on cellular cation metabolism and vascular resistance. AU - Jacobs, David B.. AU - Sowers, James R.. AU - Hmeidan, Ammar. AU - Niyogi, Tushar. AU - Simpson, Lori. AU - Standley, Paul R. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The early stages of weight loss are associated with a reduction in blood pressure, and the mechanisms mediating this reduction remain unclear. Platelet free calcium levels, [Ca2+]i» have been reported to be elevated in essential hypertension and to decrease with pharmacological treatment of the hypertension. In the current study, 18 obese subjects had measurements of blood pressure, forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, and both basal platelet [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]i responses to vasopressin during 12 weeks on a very low calorie (3,360 kj, or 800 kcal) diet. Weight reduction was associated with reduction in mean arterial blood pressure at 3-4 weeks. There were associated reductions in forearm vascular resistance and platelet [Ca2+]i as ...
Selection of patients with congenital heart disease for surgical septation in biventricular repair or surgical palliation in functionally single ventricles requires low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Where there is uncertainty, PVR can be assessed using hybrid cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and fluoroscopic (X-Ray) guided cardiac catheterizations (XMR). CMR/XMR catheterization is a validated technique for accurate assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance. However, data concerning its application in clinical practice is lacking. PVR assessments were performed in 167 studies in 149 congenital heart disease patients by CMR/XMR catheterization. Data was collated on patient demographics, procedural data, complications and outcomes. Institutional ethics approval was obtained. Median age was 3.6 years (6 days - 67 years) and weight 13.8 kg (2.3 -122 kg). One hundred and eight studies were in biventricular circulations and 59 in functionally single ventricles. Median radiation dose was 0.72
BACKGROUND Creatine kinase (CK) is a main predictor of blood pressure, and this is thought to largely depend on high resistance artery contractility. We previously reported an association between vascular contractility and CK in normotensive pregnancy, but pregnancy is a strong CK inducer, and data on human hypertension are lacking. Therefore, we further explored CK-dependency of vascular contractility outside the context of pregnancy in normotensive and hypertensive women. METHODS AND RESULTS Nineteen consecutive women, mean age 42 years (SE 1.3), mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure respectively 142.6 (SE 5.9)/85.6 (3.4) mm Hg (9 hypertensive), donated an omental fat sample during abdominal surgery. We compared vasodilation after the specific CK inhibitor 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB; 10-6 mol/l) to sodium nitroprusside (10-6 mol/l) in isolated resistance arteries using a wire myograph. Additionally, we assessed predictors of vasoconstrictive force. DNFB reduced vascular contractility ...
Blood flow between these two vascular beds may not always be equal. If a state occurs in which pulmonary vascular resistance increases or systemic vascular resistance decreases blood will preferentially shift to the peripheral circulation at the expense of blood flow to the lungs. This is the pathophysiology behind the hypercyanotic spell (Tet spell) seen in children with tetralogy of Fallot and similar lesions. Increases in systemic vascular resistance or decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance will produce the opposite effect shunting blood to the pulmonary circulation at the expense of peripheral perfusion.. This may occur when a childs baseline state of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is suddenly reversed with additional oxygen or assisted ventilations that decrease avelolar carbon dioxide concentrations.. In the patient presented, a univentricular heart distributed blood to both the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Dehydration and acidosis produced compensatory hyperventilation ...
To evaluate the effect of inhaled nebulized AIR001 administered according to 3 treatment arms (80 mg once daily, 46 mg 4 times daily, or 80 mg 4 times daily) in subjects with WHO Group 1 PAH for 16 weeks, as determined by time to the first morbidity/mortality event as defined in Time to Clinical Worsening (TTCW) assessments and change from Baseline to Week 16 in the following:. Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI), N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), 6-Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) assessed at peak, 6MWD assessed prior to AIR001 nebulization (trough), Cardiac Output (CO), Cardiac Index (CI), Mean Right Atrial Pressure (mRAP), WHO/NYHA Functional Class (FC), Quality of Life (QOL) as measured by Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Borg Dyspnea Index, Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), PVR measured at trough, PVR/systemic vascular resistance (SVR) ratio at trough and peak,. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of AIR001 in subjects with WHO Group 1 PAH. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular Mechanisms of Post-exercise Blood Pressure Responses in Peripheral Artery Disease. AU - Correia, M A. AU - Soares, A H G. AU - Cucato, G G. AU - Lima, A H R. AU - Gomes, A P F. AU - Prazeres, T M P. AU - Rodrigues, S C. AU - Sobral-Filho, D. AU - Santos, A C. AU - Brasileiro-Santos, M S. AU - Ritti-Dias, R M. PY - 2015/11. Y1 - 2015/11. N2 - This study aimed to analyze the vascular mechanisms involved in post-resistance decreases in blood pressure in patients with peripheral artery disease. 17 patients underwent 2 experimental sessions conducted in random order: resistance exercise (REx-3×10 reps in 8 exercises with intensity of ~ 60% of 1 RM) and control (C- resting on the exercise machines for 50 min). Before and after each experimental session, blood pressure, reflected wave indicators, pulse wave velocity, blood flow, blood flow post-reactive hyperemia and peripheral vascular resistance responses were obtained. Both sessions increased brachial systolic, diastolic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reductions in blood pressure after acute exercise by hypertensive rats. AU - Overton, J. M.. AU - Joyner, M. J.. AU - Tipton, C. M.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Postexercise reductions in blood pressure at rest have been reported for hypertensive subjects. To determine whether postexercise hypotension would occur in spontaneously hypertensive rats and to test the hypothesis that any reductions would result because of decreases in regional vascular resistances, hypertensive rats (n=19) were instrumented with indwelling arterial catheters and Doppler probes to measure regional blood flows from the iliac, superior mesenteric, and renal arteries. Data were collected from animals who performed a 20- and a 40-min treadmill test at between 60 and 70% of their maximum O2 uptake. When the animals ran for 20 min, there was a pre- to postexercise drop in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 158±3.6 to 150±3.6 mmHg (P,0.05) which was recorded 30 min after the exercise had ceased. The pre- to ...
BACKGROUND: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality is high in addition to cases of bleeding and infection. In Indonesia hypertension in pregnancy is the cause of 30-40% of perinatal deaths. Hemokonsentrasi state is related to blood viscosity and hematocrit is an important determinant of the blood viscosity. Blood viscosity and peripheral vascular resistance affect the blood flow resistance, which has increased in primary hypertension. Careful observation of the several indicators prediction of preeclampsia, such as hematocrit levels can prevent from unwanted circumstances. METHODS: This research is to design interventions penelitiaan pre test - post to determine the relationship between hematocrit levels in preeclampsia before and after childbirth. All data collected old and new patients were evaluated. Pre and post test data is performed using the t test (t-test) and the test data to find the relationship of hematocrit levels with the degree of ...
We tested a sample of two Chhabra medium pressure shunts (containing two balls) using a 2 week evaluation protocol.2 Our main aim was to investigate the impact of posture (horizontal-vertical) on shunt pressure-flow performance. We also investigated how the fluctuations in proximal pressure, simulating the presence of naturally occurring waves of intraventricular pressure, may alter shunt function. Such waves may occur not only due to heart and respiratory function but also due to body movements during walking, jogging, etc.. The figure (B) shows two typical pressure-flow performance curves recorded in the horizontal and the vertical position. They represent two almost straight parallel lines. Their slopes depict the low hydrodynamic resistance of the shunt (1.3 mm Hg/ml/min) This is much lower than the physiological resistance to CSF outflow, which normally lies within the range 6-10 mm Hg/ml/min.5 The average operating pressure determined for the vertical shunt position was around 7 mm Hg and ...
Objective:The present study aimed to compare circadian hemodynamic characteristics in hypertensive patients with and without primary aldosteronism.Methods:Circadian hemodynamics, including 24-h brachial and central blood pressure (BP), SBP variability indices, central pulse wave velocity (PWV), augm
Kutter, A P N (2013). Invasive and non-invasive measurement and importance of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in animals. In: 23rd ECVIM-CA Congress, Liverpool, Great Britain, 12 September 2013 - 14 September 2013. ...
Under normal conditions, blood flow in the renal arterial circulation is antegrade and maintained during diastole. When renal arterial vascular resistance increases or compliance lessens, a decrease in renal diastolic blood flow occurs, which is more pronounced than the decrease in the systolic component (11). This action results in an increased RI. Importantly, the Doppler waveform is altered not by vascular resistance alone but by the interaction of vascular resistance and compliance (e.g., large arterial distensibility, pulse pressure). Therefore, aging, atherosclerosis, and stiffening of the large arteries will result in an increased RI (12). This scenario likely explains the significantly lower baseline RI value in the cohort of healthy young subjects compared with HF patients.. Baseline levels of VII were not different between groups. After multivariate analyses, there was a poor but significant correlation between RVSP and baseline VII, but no significant correlation remained between ...
T. Komatsu, V. Kumar, V. Sanchala, K. Shibutani; SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE NEEDS CORRECTION FOR HEMATOCRIT VALUES. Anesthesiology 1982; 57:A124 doi: Download citation file:. ...
in Veterinary Research Communications (1992), 16(6), 453-464. The lungs of 13 healthy Landrace piglets were isolated, perfused and maintained in an isogravimetric state under zone III conditions. By applying vascular occlusion methods, the total blood flow ... [more ▼]. The lungs of 13 healthy Landrace piglets were isolated, perfused and maintained in an isogravimetric state under zone III conditions. By applying vascular occlusion methods, the total blood flow resistance (Rt) was partitioned into four components: arterial (Ra), pre- (Ra) and post-capillary (Rv), and venous (Rv). The capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) was evaluated using a gravimetric technique. A bolus of 55 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxins (LPS) per 100 g of lung was injected into the arterial reservoir of eight lungs, followed by an infusion of LPS at a rate of 55 micrograms per 100 g of lung per hour for 180 min. A bolus of theophylline (85 mg per 100 g of lung weight) was injected into the arterial ...
Introduction: Some, but not all patients with advanced heart failure (HF) develop precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to unidentified mechanisms. We hypothesized that diminished local sensitivity to endogenous BNP, reflected by low rate of cGMP release, might be responsible for PH.. Methods: 18 patients with systolic HF and high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR , 3 w.u. in euvolemia, PHHF) and 28 HF patients with low PVR (non-PHHF) of similar age, gender, body size and HF severity (52±12 years, 54% ischemic, NYHA 2,9±0,7, EF 23±4%) underwent right heart cath. Samples were obtained from pulmonary artery (PA) catheter before and during wedging (02sat.,95%) to calculate transpulmonary BNP uptake and cGMP release (concentration difference × CO). PHHF patients were re-measured 1 hour after oral dose of sildenafil (40mg).. Results: PHHF had similar systemic resistance (SVR), BNPPA (684 vs. 607 pg/ml, p=0.8) as non-PHHF, but higher PVR (6.4 vs. 1.9 w.u., p ,0.001), PA wedge pressure (26 ...
Coronary blood flow closely matches to metabolic demands of heart and myocardial oxygen consumption and is conditioned by function of coronary resistance vessels. The microvascular endothelium of coronary resistance vessels is exposed to a spatially
An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. Arterioles have thick muscular walls and are the primary site of vascular resistance. The mean blood pressure in the arteries supplying the body is a result of the interaction between the cardiac output (the volume of blood the heart is pumping per minute) and the vascular resistance, usually termed total peripheral resistance by physicians and researchers. The up and down fluctuation of the arterial blood pressure is due to the pulsatile nature of the cardiac output and determined by the interaction of the stroke volume versus the volume and elasticity of the major arteries. Template:Anatomy-stub ...
Objective: We compared the renal and systemic vascular (renovascular) response to reducing bioavailable nitric oxide in patients with type 2 diabetes without nephropathy of African and Caucasian heritage.. Method: Under euglycaemic conditions, renal blood flow was measured by a constant infusion of paraminohippurate and changes in blood pressure and renal vascular resistance estimated before and after an infusion of L-Ng-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA).. Results: In the African heritage group there was a significant fall in renal blood flow (Δ − 46.0 mls/min/1.73 m2;p,0.05) and rise in systolic blood pressure (Δ10.0 [2.3 - 17.9] mmHg; p=0.017) which correlated with an increase in renal vascular resistance (r2=0.77; p=0.004).. Conclusions: The renal vasconstrictive response associated with nitric oxide synthase inhibition in this study may be of relevance to the observed vulnerability to renal injury in patients of African heritage.. ...
In the present study, vehicle-treated MI rats had depressed cardiac function that was characterized by reduced cardiac index and stroke volume index and increased systemic vascular resistance, indicating that heart failure developed in this animal model. Intravenous infusion of HGF, for 6 days beginning the day after ischemia/reperfusion, resulted in a significant improvement in cardiac performance, measured 8 weeks post-MI. Compared with rats with vehicle-treated MI, animals receiving HGF had significantly higher cardiac index and stroke volume index and reduced systemic vascular resistance. These three parameters were improved to near normal levels. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HGF improves cardiac function in conscious animals with heart failure induced by MI.. The premise for this work was based on the observations that myocardial HGF and c-Met were induced for several days after MI (Ono et al., 1997;Ueda et al., 2001) and that the peak levels occurred well past the ...
How do we distinguish a difference between physiology 1 and physiology 2? The answer lies in the PAd - Ppao difference [3, 5]. In example 2 [e.g. WHO II pulmonary hypertension], the PAd - Ppao difference will remain small - the PAd and Ppao will rise together; the difference is normally less than 6 mmHg. In example 1 [e.g. WHO I pulmonary hypertension], the PAd rises much more than the Ppao.. Implications for Practice. It should be clear from the aforementioned, that it is not adequate to imply mechanisms from the cPVR alone, especially with respect to the pulmonary vascular tree. Noting an increase in the cPVR in response to an intervention should be followed with an inquiry into why the cPVR increased. Was it driven by a change in the pressure gradient [numerator] and if so, how? Did the PAd increase with respect to the Ppao [i.e. a true increase in resistance - thought experiment 1], or did the transpulmonary gradient rise solely because of increased PAs with preserved PAd-Ppao gradient [i.e. ...
Patients with precapillary PH and PVR who do meet the definition of PAH may have functional limitations and may benefit from therapy.
Results Overall, a discordance between IMR and MVO was observed in 36.7% of cases, with 31 patients having MVO and IMR ≤40. Compared with patients with MVO and IMR ≤40, patients with both MVO and IMR ,40 had an 11.9-fold increased risk of final IS ,25% at 6 months (p = 0.001). Patients with MVO and IMR ≤40 had a significantly smaller IS at 6 months (p = 0.001), with significant regression in IS over time (34.4% [interquartile range (IQR): 27.3% to 41.0%] vs. 22.3% [IQR: 16.0% to 30.0%]; p = 0.001). ...
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Eiger BioPharmaceuticals ubenimex failed to show improvement in pulmonary vascular resistance or exercise capacity in the Phase 2 LIBERTY clinical trial.
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Am heart j online levitra q buy 1986;60:2236. 5d and 3d ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. The majority of cases in the fetus because the suppression of the tachycardia has the best strategy. The same probably applies to patients and visitors comply with the t waves appear together: As mentioned, systemic vascular resistance, flow into the distal right-sided aortic arch with aberrant left pulmonary artery, which arises from the lack of increase in left atrial isom- erism, resulting in patient subsets. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques available is considered (e. The action potential is conducted (indicated with arrow). Neilson jp. In a patient with wpw. Arch dis child 1976;119:73861. Question 8. A patient with severe as with transposition will result in a changing level of the increased afterload and myocardial injury. Although several drugs with antineoplastic capabilities have been used to prevent expression of vegf expression showed similar defects and atrial flutter using ...
Just shake the Aerobar in a rhythmic pattern and feel it excite your core. Your abs, back, arms & shoulders will gain new levels of strength and stability - all in one easy workout. Its the perfect cardio tool to firm and tone your muscles. The resistance increases as you shake it harder. ...
Many people believe that one thing that happens to T2s is as insulin resistance increases the beta cells put out more insulin to compensate. that actu
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Flexible UltraSet circuit connectors from Smiths Medical are designed to minimize flow resistance while maintaining low dead space.
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Vascular resistance[edit]. Main article: Vascular resistance. Resistance is also related to vessel radius, vessel length, and ... In a second approach, more realistic of the vascular resistance and coming from experimental observations on blood flows, ... The larger arteries, including all large enough to see without magnification, are conduits with low vascular resistance ( ... The pressure drop of the arterioles is the product of flow rate and resistance: ∆P=Q xresistance. The high resistance observed ...
Korner, P. I.; Angus, J. A. (1992). "Structural determinants of vascular resistance properties in hypertension. Haemodynamic ... The resistance attributable to a blood vessel depends on its radius as described by the Hagen-Poiseuille's equation (resistance ... Other physical factors that affect resistance include: vessel length (the longer the vessel, the higher the resistance), blood ... The presence of an arterial stenosis increases resistance to flow, however this increase in resistance rarely increases ...
... to cause a reduction in systemic vascular resistance. Fenoldopam has a rapid onset of action (4 minutes) and short duration of ...
By blocking this interaction, bosentan decreases pulmonary vascular resistance. Bosentan has a slightly higher affinity for ET- ...
Vascular disease of the neck and leg arteries.. *High pulmonary vascular resistance - over 5 or 6 Wood units. ...
Vascular resistance occurs where the vessels away from the heart oppose the flow of blood. Resistance is an accumulation of ... Main article: Vascular resistance. The circulatory system uses the channel of blood vessels to deliver blood to all parts of ... "Vascular" redirects here. For information about plants, see Vascular plant.. The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory ... The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin vas, meaning vessel. Some structures -- ...
Contribution of vasomotion to vascular resistance: a comparison of arteries from virgin and pregnant rats. J Appl Physiol. 1998 ... Reassessing the Mathematical Modeling of the Contribution of Vasomotion to Vascular Resistance. J Appl Physiol. 2002; 92: 888- ... Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration exhibits periodic oscillations in vascular smooth muscle cells. This is thought to ... a low ATP cycling state of prolonged force generation common in vascular smooth muscle. Finally, vasomotion has been shown to ...
Pulmonary vascular resistance-PVR > 240 dynes s cm−5 . Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure- PAOP < 15mmHg or transpulmonary ... and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) without affecting systemic artery pressure because it is rapidly inactivated by ... Luo, B; Liu, L; Tang, L; Zhang, J; Stockard, CR; Grizzle, WE; Fallon, MB (May 2003). "Increased pulmonary vascular endothelin B ... A subset of patients does not respond to any therapy, likely having fixed vascular anatomic changes.[citation needed] ...
is systemic vascular resistance. *. C. V. P. {\displaystyle CVP}. is central venous pressure and usually small enough to be ... Total peripheral resistance, Wikipedia *^ Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts: Mean Arterial Pressure, Richard E. Klabunde, Ph.D ... Total Peripheral Resistance = (Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure) / Cardiac Output Therefore, Mean arterial ... Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR) is represented mathematically by the formula:mean arterial pressure ...
Vasodilation leading to decreased systemic vascular resistance, and high output heart failure[20] ...
Vasodilation Vasoconstriction Vascular resistance "CV Physiology , Local Regulation of Blood Flow". ... The sympathetic nervous system and a variety of hormones, for instance, both exert some degree of control over vascular tone. ... Acute local blood flow regulation refers to intrinsic regulation, or control, of arterial vascular tone at a local level, ... This intrinsic type of control means that the blood vessels can automatically adjust their own vascular tone, by dilating ( ...
Wu G, Meininger CJ (2009). "Nitric oxide and vascular insulin resistance". BioFactors. 35 (1): 21-7. doi:10.1002/biof.3. PMID ... March 2012). "Systemic and vascular oxidation limits the efficacy of oral tetrahydrobiopterin treatment in patients with ... Channon KM (November 2004). "Tetrahydrobiopterin: regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular disease". Trends ... with little benefit on vascular function. Depletion of tetrahydrobiopterin occurs in the hypoxic brain and leads to toxin ...
With all this occurring, pulmonary vascular resistance increases causing a shift of the intraventricular septum. The ... A chest X-ray will show fluid in the alveolar walls, Kerley B lines, increased vascular shadowing in a classical batwing peri- ...
This reduces sympathetic tone to vascular smooth muscle. This reduces heart rate and vascular resistance. Digoxin increases ... which reach vascular smooth muscle. The vasomotor center changes vascular smooth muscle tone. This changes local and systemic ...
lycopersici, vascular wilt on tomato, is resistance. Other effective control methods are fumigating the infected soil and ... lycopersici causes vascular wilt in tomato. The disease starts out as yellowing and drooping on one side of the plant. Leaf ... Resistance analysis of cultivars and occurrence survey of Fusarium wilt on strawberry. Res. Plant Dis. 11: 35-38. Ploetz, Randy ... The most important of these is vascular wilt. Fusarium wilt starts out looking like vein clearing on the younger leaves and ...
Most influences on blood pressure can be understood in terms of their effect on cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, ... resistance∝1/radius4). Hence, the smaller the radius, the higher the resistance. Other physical factors that affect resistance ... In simple terms systemic vascular resistance is mainly determined by the caliber of small arteries and arterioles. The ... Blood pressure is influenced by cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance and arterial stiffness and varies depending on ...
When demand for oxygen in the myocardium is increased, the vascular resistance of the coronary arteries has the ability to ... Coronary circulation Vascular resistance Coronary artery Radó, Julia; Forster, Tamás (2001). "The significance of coronary flow ...
These functions of the cardiovascular system are directly related to vascular resistance, preload, afterload, and perfusion, ... Blood viscosity is a measure of the resistance of blood to flow. It can also be described as the thickness and stickiness of ... and its flow through blood vessels is greatly retarded because of increased resistance to flow. This will lead to decreased ... micropipette aspiration micro indentation optical tweezers high frequency electrical deformation tests These methods worked to ...
Mulvany, MJ (1999). "Vascular remodelling of resistance vessels: can we define this?". Cardiovasc Res. 41 (1): 9-13. doi: ... structural changes of the vascular walls in hypertension and their relation to the control of the peripheral resistance". Acta ... Folkow's description of these vascular alterations has since been verified in a large number of studies. The role of the ... He described this mechanism as an essential element in vascular control. This is now well-established knowledge in ...
The ventricles must develop a certain tension to pump blood against the resistance of the vascular system. This tension is ... A decrease in normal vascular resistance can also occur. Different cardiac responses operate to restore homeostasis of the ... Since the electrical stimulus begins at the apex, the contraction also begins at the apex and travels toward the base of the ... The electrical event, the wave of depolarization, is the trigger for muscular contraction. The wave of depolarization begins in ...
These changes result in increased vascular resistance and PAH. Due to the potential anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic ... Together, this causes vascular remodeling and narrowing of the pulmonary arteries. ... activity of terguride, this potential medicine could offer the hope of achieving reversal of pulmonary artery vascular ...
2004). «Effect of liposuction on insulin resistance and vascular inflammatory markers in obese women». Br J Plast Surg. 57 (3 ... Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB (2006). «Inflammation and insulin resistance». J. Clin. Invest. 116 (7): 1793-801. PMC 1483173 ... Shoelson SE, Herrero L, Naaz A (2007). «Obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance». Gastroenterology. 132 (6): 2169-80. ... and insulin resistance». Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87 (4): 801-9. PMID 18400700.. CS1-vedlikehold: Flere navn: forfatterliste (link) ...
Vessel occlusion increases vascular resistance and therefore leads to hypertension. In portal hypertension, the vessels ... Diagram of the vascular channels in a human embryo of the second week. Human embryo with heart and anterior body-wall removed ... Wang, Y. Vascular biology of the placenta. in Colloquium Series on Integrated Systems Physiology: from Molecule to Function. ...
The RI is altered not by vascular resistance alone but by the combination of vascular resistance and vascular compliance. ... Boas FE, Desser TS, Kamaya A (2011). "Does separating the resistive index into pre- and post-glomerular resistance and vascular ... The formula used to calculate resistance index is: R I = v s y s t o l e − v d i a s t o l e v s y s t o l e {\displaystyle RI ... "Relationship between the resistive index and vascular compliance and resistance". Radiology. 211 (2): 411-7. doi:10.1148/ ...
Peripheral vascular resistance falls during the infusion of 1-8 mg etilefrine but begins to rise at higher dosage. Marked falls ...
It reduces mean arterial blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance. Clevidipine does not reduce cardiac filling ... Clevidipine is a dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel blocker, highly selective for vascular, as opposed to myocardial, ...
Subclavian steal syndrome Vascular resistance Arteriolar vasodilator Gould KL (August 1989). "Coronary steal. Is it clinically ... Thus, dilating the resistance vessels in the coronary circulation causes blood to be shunted away from the coronary vessels ...
Further, pulmonary vascular resistance usually drops back to close normal levels. Since the pulmonary resistance is ... Pulmonary vascular steal in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Olman MA, Auger WR, Fedullo PF, Moser KM. Chest. ... Resolution of vascular steal after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Moser KM, Metersky ML, Auger WR, Fedullo PF. Chest. 1993; ... of patients and is a result of changes in permeability to the vascular endothelium. Management of this condition may require ...
This is because they can decrease vascular resistance and decrease pressure. However, while these drugs are generally well ... Hypertension is due to an increase in vascular resistance and vasoconstriction. Using α1 selective antagonists, such as ... thus decreasing vascular resistance, increasing vasodilation, and decreasing blood pressure overall. Blockers that have both ... thus causing blood vessels to increase in vascular resistance, and ultimately giving rise to hypertension. In addition, ...
... thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance. This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the ... On vascular smooth muscle cells if not otherwise specified Transduction (↑ = increases. ↓ = decreases)[5] ... The mechanism that leads to vasoconstriction results from the increased concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ions) within vascular ...
"Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. 14 (5): 400-406. doi:10.1177/1479164117715854. ISSN 1752-8984. PMC 5600262. PMID 28844155 ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... However, in the setting of insulin resistance, the liver inappropriately releases glucose into the blood.[10] The proportion of ... In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ...
The advantage is a better noise profile and resistance to the streak artifacts common with FBP, but the disadvantage is higher ... Cardiology, atherosclerosis and vascular disease study: In clinical cardiology, FDG-PET can identify so-called "hibernating ...
... differ morphologically from the leaves of vascular plants in that they lack vascular tissue, are usually only a single cell ... Divided and compound leaves reduce wind resistance and promote cooling.. *Hairs on the leaf surface trap humidity in dry ... Feugier, François (14 December 2006). Models of Vascular Pattern Formation in Leaves (PhD Thesis). University of Paris VI.. ... A leaf (plural leaves) is a dorsiventrally flattened organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the ...
... with the majority of deaths due to vascular disease[8][19] Women aged 45-70 years have a significantly higher mortality rate ... familial glucocorticoid resistance, and hyperthyroidism.[9] ...
The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and ... "Effect of barnacle fouling on ship resistance and powering". Biofouling. 33 (10): 819-834. doi:10.1080/08927014.2017.1373279. ...
This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... "The Geographic Spread of the CCR5 Δ32 HIV-Resistance Allele". PLoS Biology. 3 (11): e339. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030339 ...
... present in a solid/nested growth pattern and frequently involve vascular invasion. It has been observed that PAX8/PPAR y- ... "Thyroid hormone resistance and increased metabolic rate in the RXR-gamma-deficient mouse". The Journal of Clinical ...
Energy from vascular plant wastewater treatment systems - Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela lemna, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, ... Byers, J.E.; E.G. Noonburg (2003). "Scale dependent effects of biotic resistance to biological invasion". Ecology. 84 (6): 1428 ...
Suction airway secretions with variable airway resistance. *Palpable pulse. *Responds to needle thoracentesis and chest tube ... Vascular Access Trainers. *Ultrasound trainers. *Lumbar Puncture Trainers. *Pelvic Trainers. *Mechanical Ventilation Trainers ...
2004) Systemic inflammation-associated glucocorticoid resistance and outcome of ARDS. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1024:24-53. Morrison RJ ... such as the effects of inflammatory mediators on airway and vascular smooth muscle tone. As a rule of thumb, all these models ... is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and vascular ...
Kezirian, EJ; Boudewyns, A; Eisele, DW; Schwartz, AR; Smith, PL; Van de Heyning, PH; De Backer, WA (October 2010). "Electrical ... Shamsuzzaman AS, Gersh BJ, Somers VK (October 2003). "Obstructive sleep apnea: implications for cardiac and vascular disease". ... in 2014 granted pre-market approval for an upper airway stimulation system that senses respiration and delivers mild electrical ...
a) Vascular thrombosis in three or more organs or tissues and. *b) Development of manifestations simultaneously or in less than ... Protein C deficiency/Activated protein C resistance/Protein S deficiency/Factor V Leiden ... Classification with APS requires evidence of both one or more specific, documented clinical events (either a vascular ... are associated with thrombosis and vascular disease. The syndrome can be divided into primary (no underlying disease state) and ...
This resistance is proposed to be because autocrine growth signaling pathways distinct from EGFR are active in NSCLC cells. ... Another agent involved in autocrine cancer signaling is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF, produced by carcinoma ... In a recent study, one group showed that STAT3 and RANTES contribute to the maintenance of drug resistance by upregulating anti ... In breast cancer, the acquisition of tamoxifen resistance is another major therapeutic problem. It has been shown that ...
... this region makes the greatest contribution to outflow resistance of the aqueous humor. ... "Schlemm's canal is a unique vessel with a combination of blood vascular and lymphatic phenotypes that forms by a novel ...
Arellano, Ronald S. (19 January 2011). Non-vascular interventional radiology of the abdomen. New York: Springer. p. 67. ISBN ... July 2013). "Management of urinary tract infections in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance". Med Clin North Am. 97 ( ... The increased resistance of urinary pathogens to quinolone antibiotics has been reported worldwide and might be the consequence ... Resistance to many of the antibiotics used to treat this condition is increasing.[1] In complicated cases, a longer course or ...
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a type of defensive response that renders the entire plant resistant to a broad spectrum ... Some products of the coagulation system can contribute to the non-specific defenses by their ability to increase vascular ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ... Main article: Plant disease resistance § Immune system. Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect ...
O Aβ é o principal constituínte do amiloide do parénquima cerebral e do amiloide vascular; contribúe a lesións ... "NMR solution structure of rat Aβ(1-16): toward understanding the mechanism of rats' resistance to Alzheimer's disease" ... O amiloide beta pode ser principalmente vascular, como na anxiopatía amiloide cerebral, ou aparecer en placas senís e en vasos ... Prelli F, Castaño E, Glenner GG, Frangione B (August 1988). "Differences between vascular and plaque core amyloid in ...
Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in many aspects of vascular diseases. The researchers noted that the effect of vitamin C ... "Biosynthesis of Vitamin C by Yeast Leads to Increased Stress Resistance". PLOS ONE. 2 (10): e1092. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Resistance[edit]. Because of dysthymia's chronic nature, treatment resistance is somewhat common.[29][36] In such a case, ...
... peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure, and in particular when production of NO is compromised. Moreover, depending ... The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of active vasodilators. Although Nitric Oxide (NO) is ... In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to be a substance and/or electrical signal that ... In addition, in some cases hydrogen peroxide has been suggested to function as an EDHF in some vascular beds;[3] although the ...
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation of gene expression. • protein ... It also induces insulin resistance by promoting serine-phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which impairs ... positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell. • positive regulation of blood microparticle formation ... On other tissues: increasing insulin resistance. TNF phosphorylates insulin receptor serine residues, blocking signal ...
vascular disease or severe neurologic disorders;. *previous arthrodesis of the ipsilateral hip or knee or severe deformities of ... to guarantee longevity of the implant, which is mainly related to wear resistance; ...
Radiation-induced fibrosis, vascular cell damage and oxidative stress can lead to these and other late side effect symptoms.[20 ... Daly MJ (March 2009). "A new perspective on radiation resistance based on Deinococcus radiodurans". Nature Reviews. ... Weintraub NL, Jones WK, Manka D (March 2010). "Understanding radiation-induced vascular disease". Journal of the American ... The gastrointestinal tract can be damaged following abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy.[22] Atrophy, fibrosis and vascular ...
Upper airway resistance syndrome. *Restless leg syndrome. *Periodic limb movement disorder. *Circadian rhythm sleep disorders * ...
Angiogenesis or the growth of new blood vessels has been reported to correspond with MM progression where vascular endothelial ... Richardson, P. G. (12 July 2002). "Immunomodulatory drug CC-5013 overcomes drug resistance and is well tolerated in patients ... pomalidomide was noted to directly inhibit myeloma cell proliferation and thus inhibiting MM both on the tumor and vascular ...
Rihet P, Demeure CE, Bourgois A, Prata A, Dessein AJ (1991). "Evidence for an association between human resistance to ... and increased vascular permeability, it is presumed, to allow other immune cells to gain access to tissues, but which can lead ... 2005). "Allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 are markers of resistance and susceptibility in a human intestinal nematode infection". ...
It enters through the roots and spreads into the vascular system through the tree's sap. As it grows it clogs the vascular ... certain varieties of cucumber and squash have different degrees of resistance. Once a plant is infected, the bacteria spread ... A wilt disease is any number of diseases that affect the vascular system of plants. Attacks by fungi, bacteria, and nematodes ... Pathogens that cause wilting diseases invade the vascular vessels and cause the xylem to fail to transport water to the foliage ...
TCD is primarily a technique for diagnosing various intracranial vascular disorders such as emboli, stenosis, or vasospasm, and ... hydrodynamic resistance of eyeball vessels, etc.) do not influence the balance ICP=Pe and, as a consequence, such natural " ...
The identification of genomic sequencing of cancer may define reasons of drug(s) sensitivity and resistance during oncological ...
... and vascular resistance is analogous to electrical resistance.. Systemic calculations[edit]. The systemic vascular resistance ... and Systemic vascular resistance: (93 - 3) / 5 = 18 Wood Units. Or Systemic vascular resistance: 18 x 80 = 1440 dyn·s/cm5. ... Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow. The ... There are many factors that alter the vascular resistance. Vascular compliance is determined by the muscle tone in the smooth ...
Vascular function, insulin resistance and fatty acids.. Steinberg HO1, Baron AD. ... Insulins vascular actions are impaired in insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, Type II (non-insulin-dependent) ... Over the past 10 years it has become clear that intact vascular function, especially at the level of the endothelium, is ... It has also become clear that insulin itself, in addition to its metabolic actions, directly effects vascular endothelium and ...
Vascular insulin resistance.. A primary feature of insulin resistance whether in skeletal muscle or vascular cells is the ... insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis has yet to be established, vascular insulin resistance and vascular MR regulate ... IS VASCULAR INSULIN RESISTANCE AN EARLY CONTRIBUTOR TO VASCULAR DISEASE?. It has been accepted for many years that signs of ... Thus, vascular insulin resistance appears to be an early vascular defect in multiple disease models and may serve as a unifying ...
Pulmonary vascular resistance synonyms, Pulmonary vascular resistance pronunciation, Pulmonary vascular resistance translation ... English dictionary definition of Pulmonary vascular resistance. abbreviation for personal video recorder: a device for ... Pulmonary vascular resistance - definition of Pulmonary vascular resistance by The Free Dictionary https://www. ... redirected from Pulmonary vascular resistance). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia. ...
Pericyte-targeting prodrug overcomes tumor resistance to vascular disrupting agents. Minfeng Chen,1,2 Xueping Lei,1,2 ... Reversing resistance to vascular-disrupting agents by blocking late mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. ... Liang W, Ni Y, Chen F. Tumor resistance to vascular disrupting agents: mechanisms, imaging, and solutions. Oncotarget. 2016;7( ... Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs), mainly comprising tubulin-binding compounds, act primarily on tumor vascular endothelial ...
Patients with high pulmonary vascular resistance had relatively low pulmonary vascular compliance. ... Pulmonary Vascular Volume, Resistance, and Compliance in Man. WILLIAM R. MILNOR, ANTHONY D. JOSE, CHARLES J. MCGAFF ... The ratio of pulmonary blood volume to mean intravascular pressure was used as an indication of pulmonary vascular compliance. ... lending support to the hypothesis that the volume and elasticity of the pulmonary vascular bed contribute to the regulation of ...
... - up-to-the-minute news and ... was presented as a reliable non-invasive method of estimating pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Studies using this technique ... would form a reliable non-invasive tool to estimate PVR in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe pulmonary vascular ...
Vascular muscle membrane cation mechanisms and total peripheral resistance.. R K Hermsmeyer ... of sodium across vascular muscle membranes has been suggested to be more important in the increased total peripheral resistance ...
Role of In Vivo Vascular Redox in Resistance Arteries. Rob H.P. Hilgers, Kumuda C. Das ... However, the role of vascular redox in small resistance arteries is unknown. To determine how in vivo modulation of thiol redox ... Vascular thiol redox state has been shown to modulate vasodilator functions in large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and ... state affects small resistance arteries relaxation, we generated a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses thioredoxin, a ...
... vascular resistance include Lavage-induced Surfactant Depletion in Pigs As a Model of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ... and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. ... Assessing Myogenic Response and Vasoactivity In Resistance Mesenteric Arteries Using Pressure Myography, The Mouse Isolated ... 1Department of Surgery, Yale University, 2Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale University, 3Department of Vascular ...
The Vascular Contribution to Insulin Resistance: Promise, Proof, and Pitfalls Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... The vascular endothelial cell mediates insulin transport into skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006;291:E323-E332 ... Insulin entry into muscle involves a saturable process in the vascular endothelium. Diabetologia 2012;55:450-456pmid:22002008. ... Insulin crosses the vascular endothelium by a vesicular transport pathway and accesses the interstitium where most is removed ...
Patients with low pulmonary vascular resistance may benefit from complex procedure for PH. American Thoracic Society ... Patients with low pulmonary vascular resistance may benefit from complex procedure for PH ... In Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease And Low Preoperative Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Type: Scientific ... Crouch found that 64 subjects had pre-operative pulmonary resistance values (PVRs) less than 300 dyn∙/cm5 and 355 patients had ...
... and vascular resistance is analogous to electrical resistance. The systemic vascular resistance can therefore be calculated in ... and Systemic vascular resistance: (93 - 3) / 5 = 18 Wood Units. Or Systemic vascular resistance: 18 x 80 = 1440 dyn·s/cm5. ... would also affect the measured vascular resistance.[citation needed] Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) also depends on the ... Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.The ...
Adenosine and selective reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance in primary pulmonary hypertension.. J T Reeves, B M Groves, ... Adenosine and selective reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance in primary pulmonary hypertension. ... Adenosine and selective reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance in primary pulmonary hypertension. ... Adenosine and selective reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance in primary pulmonary hypertension. ...
... which is thought to be involved in the development of vascular dysfunction.... Early morning blood pressure surge (MBPS), ... Home / Resources / Articles / Poor Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance Associated with Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction ... Poor Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance Associated with Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction. Mar 20, 2014 ... Association Between Glycemic Control and Morning Blood Pressure Surge With Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic ...
LUNG VASCULAR RESISTANCE You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You ... K. Kuramoto, S. Rudbard; LUNG VASCULAR RESISTANCE. Anesthesiology 1963;24(4):601. ...
Body-part posture and movement may affect the resistance to perfusion of that region. The total vascular resistance placed on ... Vascular peripheral resistance and compliance in the lobster Homarus americanus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Resistance is inversely proportional to artery radius and, for each pathway, the resistance falls non-linearly as flow rate ... The peripheral resistance to flow through each arterial bed (in actuality, the entire pathway from the heart back to the ...
Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Placentas with Increased Vascular Resistance and Pre-Eclampsia Using Whole-Genome ... "Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Placentas with Increased Vascular Resistance and Pre-Eclampsia Using Whole-Genome ...
What is Total Pulmonary Vascular Resistance? Meaning of Total Pulmonary Vascular Resistance medical term. What does Total ... Looking for online definition of Total Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in the Medical Dictionary? Total Pulmonary Vascular ... total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.. vascular resistance the ... electrical resistance resistance (3).. multidrug resistance , multiple drug resistance in some malignant cell lines, resistance ...
Ethnicity, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammatory Adipokines in Women at High and Low Risk for Vascular Disease. ... Ethnicity, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammatory Adipokines in Women at High and Low Risk for Vascular Disease ... Ethnicity, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammatory Adipokines in Women at High and Low Risk for Vascular Disease ... Ethnicity, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammatory Adipokines in Women at High and Low Risk for Vascular Disease ...
Chemokine CXCL12 promotes vascular compensation in antiangiogenic resistance through CXCR7 in glioblastoma. [abstract]. In: ... Abstract 3275: Chemokine CXCL12 promotes vascular compensation in antiangiogenic resistance through CXCR7 in glioblastoma. ... Abstract 3275: Chemokine CXCL12 promotes vascular compensation in antiangiogenic resistance through CXCR7 in glioblastoma ... Abstract 3275: Chemokine CXCL12 promotes vascular compensation in antiangiogenic resistance through CXCR7 in glioblastoma ...
These include the impact of insulin resistance to induce impaired vascular function, which leads to impaired nitric oxide- ... Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. It is generally accepted that systemic inflammation contributes to insulin resistance.89 ... AGEs and Insulin Resistance. Several studies have reported interesting associations between AGE levels and insulin resistance, ... Obesity, Lipotoxicity, and Insulin Resistance. Obesity is the leading cause of insulin resistance, and obese individuals tend ...
Linking Obesity to CNS Insulin Resistance. Trends in Insulin Resistance. T2DM is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance ... The Pivotal Role of CNS Insulin Resistance in Leptin Resistance and in Obesity. Overlap of Insulin and Leptin CNS Effects ... Its absence confers CNS insulin resistance and obesity.57 However, the role of IRS2 in the expression of leptin resistance is ... Obesity as a Cause of Insulin Resistance Obesity is central to the development of insulin resistance. Risk of insulin ...
What is Pulmonary vascular resistance? Meaning of Pulmonary vascular resistance as a finance term. What does Pulmonary vascular ... Definition of Pulmonary vascular resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... because the pulmonary vascular resistance is only about 15% of systemic vascular resistance (SVR).. Anaesthesia and right ... Resistance. (redirected from Pulmonary vascular resistance). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, ...
Pulmonary ResistanceShunt Fraction (Invasive)Systemic Vascular Resistance ... Shunt Fraction (Invasive)TIMI Risk Score (STEMI)Systemic Vascular ResistanceGRACEThe GRACE ACS risk calculator estimates risk ... Systemic vascular resistance reflects the resitance across the whole of the systemic circulation from aorta to right atrium ( ... Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryEstimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgeryVascular ...
To directly investigate the role of α and Δ isoforms of CREB1 in the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance we examined ... CREBαΔ mice had greater pulmonary vascular resistance than wild types, both basally in normoxia and following exposure to ... expression in the lung and that normal activity of these isoforms is essential to maintain low pulmonary vascular resistance in ... Stereological analysis of pulmonary vascular structure showed characteristic wall thickening and lumen reduction in hypoxic ...
... C. ... Systemic spread and vascular responses were studied in a susceptible (Falcon) and a resistant genotype (SEM 05-500256) of ... Although these responses were found in vascular tissues of both genotypes, they occurred with a significantly higher intensity ... Histochemical studies revealed the build-up of vascular occlusions and the reinforcement of tracheary elements through the ...
The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of different resistance training protocols on bone marker ... Effects of high-intensity resistance training and low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on bone markers ... Karabulut M, Abe T, Sato Y, Bemben MG (2009) The effects of low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on leg ... Takarada Y, Sato Y, Ishii N (2002) Effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscle function in ...
A physiological reduction of uterine vascular resistance has already been demonstrated during a normal pregnancy (11). ... Several studies have suggested that endothelial factors linked to reduced uterine vascular resistance are strongly correlated ... Endothelial factors linked to reduced uterine vascular resistance are strongly correlated with the development of gestational ... The vascular endothelial growth factor family in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hum Reprod Update 2012; 18: 436-457, doi: 10.1093/ ...
This review examines the relevance of IR as a link between depressive disorder and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Relevant ... and athersclerotic vascular diseases has been well documented. ... The association of depression with insulin resistance (IR) ... Insulin resistance: a metabolic link between depressive disorder and atherosclerotic vascular diseases Med Hypotheses. 2002 Nov ... The association of depression with insulin resistance (IR) and athersclerotic vascular diseases has been well documented. This ...
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new high-intensity training modality comprised of vibration exercise with superimposed resistance exercise and vascular occlusion (vibroX) on skeletal muscle and performance. (
  • Chronic angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blockade decreases (intra)renal vascular resistance and increases renal perfusion despite significant BP reduction. (
  • This decreases systemic vascular resistance and lowers blood pressure. (
  • Opposite to this, when vasodilation occurs, the peripheral vascular resistance decreases and blood flow increases. (
  • In case of vasodilation, systemic vascular resistance decreases. (
  • Likewise when blood is less concentrated i.e. low viscosity, the peripheral vascular resistance automatically decreases. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 exposure decreases vascular insulin sensitivity by inducing pulmonary oxidative stress. (
  • Increased alveolar oxygen decreases pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to increased pulmonary blood flow. (
  • When blood vessels dilate, the blood flow decreases and ultimately peripheral vascular resistance also decreases. (
  • Contrary to it, when vasoconstriction occurs (narrowing of blood vessels), the peripheral vascular resistance increases and as a result blood flow decreases. (
  • The release of progesterone leads to vasodilation and as a result total peripheral vascular resistance decreases almost 20 percent. (
  • Combined Effects of Whole-Body Vibration, Resistance Exercise, and Vascular Occlusion on Skeletal Muscle and Performance. (
  • Limb vascular resistance (blood flow measured by venous occlusion plethysmography), prostaglandin I2 (as 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 plasma levels (detected by radioimmunoassay), and plasma catecholamines (detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection) were measured. (
  • Therefore, we tested whether the superimposition of resistance exercise with whole-body vibration and vascular occlusion (vibroX) would improve these variables in endurance-trained males relative to resistance exercise alone. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: We achieved a proof of concept by demonstrating that modification of resistance exercise by superimposing side-alternating whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion induced further improvements in CP, capillarization and hypertrophy, all of which were not observed with resistance training alone. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of low-load resistance training with vascular occlusion on the specific tension and tendon properties by comparing with those of high-load training. (
  • One leg was trained using low load (20% of 1 RM) with vascular occlusion (LLO) and other leg using high load (80% of 1 RM) without vascular occlusion (HL). (
  • The present study demonstrated that the specific tension and tendon properties were found to remain following low-load resistance training with vascular occlusion, whereas they increased significantly after high-load training. (
  • We used the vascular occlusion technique in pig lungs isolated in situ to describe the efffects of hypoxia on the distribution of vascular resistance and to determine whether the resistive elements defined by this technique behaved as ohmic or Starling resistors during changes in flow at constant outflow pressure, changes in outflow pressure at constant flow, and reversal of flow. (
  • In the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) murine model, CM is associated with marked brain inflammation, increased expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte and platelet accumulation in brain vessels, causing vascular occlusion and decreased blood flow, damaging the endothelium and leading to blood-brain barrier breakdown, leakage and hemorrhages. (
  • Insulin's vascular actions are impaired in insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and hypertension, which could contribute to the excessive rates of cardiovascular disease in these groups. (
  • Available evidence suggests that impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an early, perhaps principal, defect of vascular function and contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in persons with obesity, hypertension, and T2D. (
  • In the overweight and obese individual, as well as in persons with hypertension, systemic and vascular insulin resistance often occur in concert with elevations in plasma aldosterone. (
  • Pulmonary vascular resistance is chronically elevated in pulmonary arterial diseases such as scleroderma, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH--previously called primary pulmonary hypertension) and chronic thromboembolism. (
  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is a cardiopulmonary disorder that is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and systemic arterial hypoxemia. (
  • Left ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TVI lvot) can be easier to measure than TVI rvot, especially in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) with significant anatomical modifications of the right structures.AimsWe wanted to determine whether the TRV/TVI rvot and TRV/TVI lvot ratios would form a reliable non-invasive tool to estimate PVR in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe pulmonary vascular disease. (
  • Passive and active carrier-mediated transport of sodium across vascular muscle membranes has been suggested to be more important in the increased total peripheral resistance found in genetic hypertension. (
  • Randomised Cross-over Pilot Study to Determine the Effects of Isoflurane and Propofol on Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension. (
  • Adenosine and selective reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance in primary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • These elevated levels are not seen in those without exaggerated MBPS, suggesting that MBPS may be associated with vascular injury in patients with hypertension. (
  • Insulin resistance is associated with many serious medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. (
  • These include the impact of insulin resistance to induce impaired vascular function, which leads to impaired nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation, which may contribute to hypertension and increased risk of atherosclerosis. (
  • Endothelial factors linked to reduced uterine vascular resistance are strongly correlated with the development of gestational hypertension ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Several studies have suggested that endothelial factors linked to reduced uterine vascular resistance are strongly correlated with the development of gestational arterial hypertension (GAH) ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Importantly, increased vascular sympathetic nerve fiber density and innervation in early life plays a key role in the development of early‐onset hypertension in animal models. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: pulmonary vascular disease: the global perspective. (
  • Oxygen therapy improves cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary hypertension. (
  • NASDAQ: EIGR) Phase 2 LIBERTY study results in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) demonstrated no improvement overall or in key subgroups for both the primary efficacy endpoint of pulmonary vascular resistance and the secondary endpoint of 6-minute walk distance, the company said. (
  • Recent evidence implicates a relationship between HS intake and insulin resistance, even in the absence of hypertension. (
  • These results imply that reducing sodium intake may be important not only for management of hypertension but also for insulin resistance, and highlight the vasculature as a potential therapeutic target in the prevention of insulin resistance. (
  • Patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) who do meet the definition of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have functional limitations, adverse outcomes, and may benefit from PAH therapy, according to study results published in European Respiratory Journal . (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension with below threshold pulmonary vascular resistance [published online April 27, 2020]. (
  • Endre Z.H., Nicholls L.G., Ratcliffe P.J., Ledingham J.G.G. (1989) Prevention and Reversal of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Increases in Renal Vascular Resistance by Captopril. (
  • Resistance is inversely proportional to artery radius and, for each pathway, the resistance falls non-linearly as flow rate increases. (
  • On the other hand, if selling increases at $57, that may become the new resistance level. (
  • Studies have shown that IR is a state-dependent abnormality in depression and depression increases the risk of vascular morbidity and mortality. (
  • Sympathetic overactivity results in peripheral vasoconstriction and reduced systemic vascular compliance, which increases blood flow velocity during systole. (
  • PURPOSE: It is a widely accepted premise in the scientific community and by athletes alike, that adding resistance exercise to a regular regimen of endurance training increases endurance performance in endurance-trained men. (
  • We hypothesized that low nitric oxide bioavailability due to the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) increases vascular tone in severe malaria. (
  • If this systemic resistance increases than usual, then it can cause severe problems related to vital organs of body. (
  • In other cases, when vasoconstriction occurs, peripheral vascular resistance increases and let only a small amount of blood to pass at a time. (
  • When this systemic vascular resistance increases, it opposes blood flow and as a result high blood pressure occurs which may lead to further complications like heart failure, angina attack or even death. (
  • While the pulmonary tree is dilated [and therefore resistance is low], it is simultaneously stiff and this disproportionately increases the mPAP to the Ppao - the pressure gradient across the pulmonary bed rises and blood flow falls. (
  • There were associated reductions in forearm vascular resistance and platelet [Ca2+]i as well as increases in forearm blood flow at 3-4 weeks of the diet. (
  • Insulin-resistant states of obesity and Type II diabetes show a multitude of metabolic abnormalities that could cause vascular dysfunction. (
  • This review will highlight recent evidence supporting the hypothesis that aldosterone and MR signaling represent an ideal candidate pathway linking early promoters of diabetes, especially overnutrition and obesity, to vascular insulin resistance, dysfunction, and disease. (
  • Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and impacts the heart in various ways. (
  • Recent advances in understanding the role of metabolic, signaling, and inflammatory pathways in obesity have provided opportunities to better understand the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the heart. (
  • Generalized insulin resistance occurs primarily as a result of obesity, a consequence of caloric excess, physical inactivity, genetics, and age. (
  • Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. (
  • After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. (
  • Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity. (
  • This review summarizes the evidence that supports the concept of endothelial regulation of obesity and the associated insulin resistance in fat, liver, and skeletal muscles, the classic targets of insulin. (
  • Identification of the mechanisms of vascular endothelial regulation of metabolism may offer strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity and the related metabolic complications. (
  • However, as the latest studies show, these symptoms are the result of deleterious effects that cardiovascular risk factors, in particular insulin resistance and obesity, produce on the vascular wall, rather than to the presence of PCOS per se. (
  • Suppression of vascular insulin signaling by PM2.5 may accelerate the progression to systemic insulin resistance, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. (
  • Recent studies demonstrate chronic subacute inflammation is associated with obesity- and dietinduced insulin resistance and may well be involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. (
  • Obesity and diabetes are major risk factors for the development of vascular disease in the lower limbs. (
  • Because insulin resistance precedes the state of frank diabetes, the current study hypothesized that insulin resistance independent of obesity induced by fructose feeding would impair microvascular function in the skeletal muscle circulation in lean Zucker rats (LZR). (
  • Other aspects of skeletal muscle vascular function documented in obese models, specifically adrenergic tone and inward remodeling, must reflect either severe insulin resistance or other aspects of obesity. (
  • Prevention or restoration of these changes via blockade of aldosterone action in the vascular wall with MR antagonists (i.e., spironolactone, eplerenone) may therefore account for the clinical benefit of these compounds in obese and diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease. (
  • 21 in order to assure increased pulmonary vascular resistance and help balance pulmonary and systemic blood flow in patients with single ventricle physiology. (
  • Patients with high pulmonary vascular resistance had relatively low pulmonary vascular compliance. (
  • Effect of nitroglycerin in patients with increased pulmonary vascular resistance undergoing cardiac transplantation. (
  • In a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent PTE at UCSD between July 2010 and June 2013, Crouch found that 64 subjects had pre-operative pulmonary resistance values (PVRs) less than 300 dyn∙/cm5 and 355 patients had PVRs above 300dyn∙/cm5. (
  • In diabetes patients, insulin resistance and poor glycemic control are thought to activate sympathetic activity and subsequently cause MBPS. (
  • was designed to determine whether poor glycemic control, by causing MBPS, can accelerate vascular injury in diabetes patients. (
  • The results of this study show that higher HbA1C levels, as well as TG levels or HOMA-R as a measure of insulin resistance, are associated with higher MBPS in type 2 diabetes patients. (
  • MBPS should be a target for preventing vascular damage in patients with T2DM. (
  • Association Between Glycemic Control and Morning Blood Pressure Surge With Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients' Diabetes Care. (
  • METHODS: In the present study the variations in blood volume, stroke volume, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance were investigated in 68 patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis utilizing bioelectrical impedance cardiography. (
  • Mean pulmonary flow and mean pulmonary vascular resistance of the patients were 4. (
  • The aim of this prospective, a three-year follow-up study, was to establish the role of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) in predicting the recurrence of vascular events in patients after cerebrovascular incidents, particularly in the aspect of stroke etiology. (
  • Increased (intra)renal activity of the renin-angiotensin system may cause a persistent increase in renovascular resistance and intraglomerular pressure in patients with diabetes, thus contributing to the development of diabetic renal damage. (
  • Short-term studies in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have revealed a striking renal vasodilator response to acute administration of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), reflecting increased renovascular resistance (RVR) possibly resulting from (intra)renal RAS activation ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • This study investigated the relation between a genetic variant in the CETP gene and measures of insulin resistance and incident T2DM in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • Conclusion: Presence of CETP SNP rs3764261 is not associated with insulin resistance and incident T2DM in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. (
  • Assessment and follow-up of patients with ventricular septal defect and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. (
  • Cardiac catheterization was undertaken in 87 patients (for a total of 89 studies) with ventricular septal defects, including 58 patients with moderate or severe elevation of pulmonary arteriolar resistance. (
  • In 36 patients resting resistance measured greater than or equal to 8 U . m2. (
  • Patients with Congenital Systemic-to-Pulmonary Shunts and Increased Pulmonary Vascular Resistance: What Predicts Postoperative Survival? (
  • In our study we investigated the immediate effects of cyclosporin A (CyA) and tacrolimus (FK-506) on renal arterial resistance indices in patients with stable graft function after renal transplantation. (
  • Thus, IR may promote atherosclerosis and vascular disease in CHC patients. (
  • This project will specifically assess inhibition of NF-KB using the salicylate, salsalate (DisalsidTM), to reduce inflammation and insulin resistance and promote vascuar remodeling in 400 patients with CHD and the metabolic syndrome in a double masked placebo controlled trial design. (
  • We sought the cause of increased pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with COPD-A by examining the relation between PDG and each of the indices of pulmonary function included in Table 1. (
  • Selection of patients with congenital heart disease for surgical septation in biventricular repair or surgical palliation in functionally single ventricles requires low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). (
  • Short-term exposure to PM2.5 induces vascular insulin resistance and inflammation triggered by a mechanism involving pulmonary oxidative stress. (
  • CMR/XMR catheterization is a validated technique for accurate assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance. (
  • Consequently, accurate assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance is crucial to inform clinical decision-making in congenital heart disease and where invasive studies for direct measurement of pressures are still recommended [ 2 ]. (
  • More studies are needed to examine the importance of improving insulin sensitivity in the treatment of chronic-resistant depression and prevention of depression-related vascular morbidity and mortality. (
  • In the vasculature, insulin signaling plays a critical role in normal vascular function via endothelial cell nitric oxide production and modulation of Ca 2+ handling and sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • The cell viability, nitric oxide(NO), endothelin-1(ET-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species(ROS), p-IKK and IkBa protein levels were detected. (
  • This may be mediated through the nitric oxide scavenging potency of CFH, increasing basal vascular tone and impairing tissue perfusion. (
  • There is considerable debate whether insulin resistance is the primary event in atherosclerosis, with consequent activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways, or, alternatively, whether low-grade inflammation and subsequent insulin resistance accounts for the association of diabetes and vascular disease ( 2 ). (
  • Finally, 52-wk-old BATIRKO mice showed vascular dysfunction, macrophage infiltration, oxidative stress, and a significant increase of gene markers of endothelial activation and inflammation, the latter effect being totally reverted by anti-TNF-α antibody treatment. (
  • Role of High-intensity Resistance Exercise in Vascular Inflammation in" by Jin K. Park, Neil Schwarz et al. (
  • Endothelial dysfunction by different mechanisms such as NO depletion can contribute to vascular inflammation. (
  • MicroRNA-181b regulates NF-κB-mediated vascular inflammation. (
  • The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in vascular EC activation and inflammation remains poorly understood. (
  • Treatment with the antioxidant TEMPOL or lung-specific overexpression of ecSOD prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and inflammation. (
  • This project will test the hypothesis that aggressive treatment of inflammation and insulin resistance with salsalate can have significant favorable effects on coronary vascular remodeling as assessed by change in non-calcified plaque volume, cardiac endpoints, visceral and liver fat, lipid and circulating markers and mediatiors of inflammation. (
  • Alterations of central aortic pressure, coronary sinus flow, cardiac output, left atrial pressure, left ventricular work, left ventricular oxygen consumption, coronary vascular resistance, left ventricular mechanical efficiency, and left ventricular lactate and pyruvate extraction were determined before and after coronary embolization and at intervals during 1 hour of abdominal aortic obstruction. (
  • There are a number of mechanisms for regulating coronary vascular tone, including metabolic demands (ie: hypoxia), neurologic control, and endothelial factors (ie: EDRF, endothelin ). (
  • OBJECTIVE -We sought to compare the relationship between body composition, insulin resistance, and inflammatory adipokines in Aboriginal Canadian women, who are at high risk of vascular disease, with white women. (
  • Despite the increased insulin resistance, inflammatory adipokines are not significantly increased in First Nation women compared with white women. (
  • Treatment with anti-TNF-α antibody impaired the inflammatory activity in visceral adipose tissue, attenuated insulin resistance in WAT and aorta and induced glucose tolerance. (
  • Our results suggest that brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity through the concerted overexpression of cytoadipokines induces nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory signaling, vascular insulin resistance, and vascular dysfunction. (
  • Inhibition of inflammatory activity by anti-TNF-α antibody treatment attenuates vascular insulin resistance and impairs gene expression of vascular dysfunction markers. (
  • Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) are known as vascular inflammatory markers and play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. (
  • Although low to moderate intensity exercise may positively influence inflammatory markers, the role of high-intensity resistance exercise in sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 has not been fully examined. (
  • Thus, the current study suggests that high-intensity resistance exercise can also be an effective method to improve cardiovascular health since it reduced vascular inflammatory markers by decreasing sICAM-1 without altering sVCAM-1. (
  • DPTA-NO treatment also decreased the number of adherent leukocytes and platelets in pial vessels, particularly in venules 30-50 μm in diameter, decreased inflammatory vascular resistance and prevented the occurrence of arteriolar and venular albumin leakage observed in saline-treated PbA-infected mice, as assessed by intravital microscopy. (
  • These results indicate that the protective effect of exogenous NO on murine CM is associated with decreased brain vascular expression of inflammatory markers resulting in attenuated endothelial junction damage and facilitating blood flow. (
  • EC activation and dysfunction have been linked to a variety of vascular inflammatory disease states. (
  • Diets rich in calories, animal fats, and sugars have been shown to induce fatty livers, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increase activity of the inflammatory NF-KB pathway, and increase levels of inflammatory markers such as C reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen in both animals and humans. (
  • Metabolic stress, such as hyperglycemia in diabetes, is known to increase the production of ROS and promote inflammatory gene expression, accelerating vascular aging. (
  • The resistance offered by the systemic circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance ( SVR ) or may sometimes be called by the older term total peripheral resistance ( TPR ), while the resistance offered by the pulmonary circulation is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance ( PVR ). (
  • Systemic vascular resistance is used in calculations of blood pressure , blood flow , and cardiac function. (
  • The secondary endpoints are the percentage change in mean pulomanry artery pressure (PAP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). (
  • Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.The resistance offered by the systemic circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or may sometimes be called by the older term total peripheral resistance (TPR), while the resistance offered by the pulmonary circulation is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). (
  • In other words: Systemic Vascular Resistance = 80x(Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure or CVP) / Cardiac Output Mean arterial pressure is most commonly measured using a sphygmomanometer, and calculating a specialized average between systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (
  • As an example: If Systolic pressure: 120 mmHg, Diastolic pressure: 80 mmHg, Right atrial mean pressure: 3 mmHg, Cardiac output: 5 l/min, Then Mean Arterial Pressure would be: (2 Diastolic pressure + Systolic pressure)/3 = 93.3 mmHg, and Systemic vascular resistance: (93 - 3) / 5 = 18 Wood Units. (
  • Or Systemic vascular resistance: 18 x 80 = 1440 dyn·s/cm5. (
  • Online Health Calculator which calculates the Systemic vascular resistance from the given values of cardiac output, Central venous pressure and Mean artery pressure. (
  • Systemic vascular resistance in intradialytic hypotension determined by means of impedance cardiography. (
  • CONCLUSION: Intradialytic hypotension seems the consequence of an inadequate compensatory response to ultrafiltration-induced blood volume reduction, resulting in a fall in systemic vascular resistance. (
  • The resistance offered by the peripheral circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance (SVR), while the resistance offered by the vasculature of the lungs is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). (
  • Although it ejects the same blood volume as the LV, the RV generates about one-sixth of its work and pressure, because the pulmonary vascular resistance is only about 15% of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). (
  • Introduction: Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) is a measurement of resistance and impediment of the systemic vascular bed to blood flow. (
  • In our case, we used continuous Nicardipine infusion as an alternative agent in decreasing the Systemic Vascular Resistance, which is more cost effective, with more favorable side effect profile and provided the desired effects of decreasing the SVR. (
  • Day 2 of admission patient underwent Left and Right Heart catheterization and was found to have non occlusive coronary artery disease and dynamics showed Cardiac output (CO) 2.67, Cardiac Index (CI) 1.44, Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) 149.9, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) 2128.38 DSc, SVR-26.61 wood units, SVI 3937 DSc. (
  • Trivial Pulmonary regurgitation, PASP of 55 Mm Hg Discussion: Due to elevated Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) it was decided to use sodium nitroprusside which is a pure afterload reducing agent in effort to reduce her afterload in anticipation of decreasing systemic vascular resistance and in turn increasing Cardiac output. (
  • VS) and a significantly elevated systemic vascular resistance (RS) compared with non-affected naı¨ve counterparts. (
  • The systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) was estimated from the echocardiographic cardiac index and the mean arterial pressure. (
  • Total peripheral vascular resistance which is also known as systemic vascular resistance or an ancient term i.e. total peripheral resistance. (
  • The pulmonary vascular resistance of a newborn is slightly less than the systemic vascular resistance and begins to fall soon after birth. (
  • Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress. (
  • Vascular aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress and proinflammatory pheno- typic alterations. (
  • The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that vascular cells of long-lived species exhibit lower steady-state production of ROS and/or superior resistance to the prooxidant effects of metabolic stress. (
  • Thus, increased life span potential in P. leucopus is associated with decreased cellular ROS generation and increased resistance to prooxi- dant and proinflammatory effects of metabolic stress, which accord with predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging. (
  • However, the role of vascular redox in small resistance arteries is unknown. (
  • To determine how in vivo modulation of thiol redox state affects small resistance arteries relaxation, we generated a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses thioredoxin, a small redox protein (Trx-Tg), and another strain that is thioredoxin-deficient (dnTrx-Tg). (
  • The peripheral resistance to flow through each arterial bed (in actuality, the entire pathway from the heart back to the pericardial sinus) and the mechanical properties of the seven arteries leaving the lobster heart are measured and compared. (
  • The investigators also noted a marked right-left difference in vascular resistance between paired uterine arteries, which was almost completely abolished following epidural ropivacaine. (
  • This study assesses right-left difference in vascular resistance between paired uterine arteries as a primary end-point, assesses the dose-response effect of epidural lidocaine and compares the effect observed in pre- eclampsia with that in two control populations (term normal pregnancy and non-pregnant controls). (
  • Doppler ultrasound has a recognized role in the noninvasive assessment of uterine blood flow through the calculation of vascular impedance indices of the uterine arteries. (
  • Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) can really be a vascular pathology of either the veins or arteries. (
  • Here, these principles are applied to an understanding of organ-specific phenotypes in representative vascular beds including arteries and veins, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. (
  • Nasal vascular resistance was measured by either direct monitoring of the arterial inflow or a change in the perfusion pressure of the nasal vascular bed with blood flow maintained constant. (
  • Hemodynamic and Cardiac Metabolic Effects of Increasing Coronary Flow by Mechanical Increase of Vascular Resistance in Acute Myocardial Infarction with Shock. (
  • The current study examined the effects of resistance exercise at different intensities (low vs. high) on acute responses of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1. (
  • Conclusion: Aspirin resistance in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia was associated with a higher risk of recurrent medium-term vascular events, coexisting with large-vessel etiology of stroke. (
  • PURPOSE: Acute effects of drug administration on renal arterial resistance index (RI) are still discussed controversially. (
  • It is characterized by an acute rise in pulmonary pressures to the point where it exceeds systemic pressures due to rapid increase in pulmonary vascular resistance , causing pressure overload of right ventricle, decrease pulmonary blood flow, hypoxia, and decrease cardiac output due to leftward displacement of the inter ventricular septum with impending cardiac failure. (
  • Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute vascular responses to a single bout of handgrip resistance exercise (RE). (
  • Over the past 10 years it has become clear that intact vascular function, especially at the level of the endothelium, is paramount in the prevention or delay of cardiovascular disease. (
  • It has also become clear that insulin itself, in addition to its metabolic actions, directly effects vascular endothelium and smooth muscle. (
  • Raised non-esterified fatty acids impair insulin's effect on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and the vascular endothelium and thus could have detrimental effects on the vasculature, leading to premature cardiovascular disease. (
  • This first step of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, i.e., insulin's crossing from plasma to muscle interstitium, is governed by vascular endothelium. (
  • The insulin receptor can mediate transendothelial insulin transport ( 3 ), and mice lacking insulin receptor substrate 2 specifically in vascular endothelium are insulin resistant. (
  • Insulin crosses the vascular endothelium by a vesicular transport pathway and accesses the interstitium where most is removed by muscle through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent degradation. (
  • The goal is to underscore the importance of site-specific properties of the endothelium in mediating homeostasis and focal vascular pathology, while at the same time emphasizing the value of approaching the endothelium as an integrated system. (
  • Herein, we report that microRNA-181b (miR-181b) serves as a potent regulator of downstream NF-κB signaling in the vascular endothelium by targeting importin-α3, a protein that is required for nuclear translocation of NF-κB. (
  • Rescue of miR-181b levels by systemic administration of miR-181b 'mimics' reduced downstream NF-κB signaling and leukocyte influx in the vascular endothelium and decreased lung injury and mortality in endotoxemic mice. (
  • An increased prevalence of vascular disease in insulin-resistant states such as pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome has been long recognized ( 1 ). (
  • This review will summarize our current understanding of metabolic mechanisms for and consequences of insulin resistance in the heart and will discuss potential new areas for investigating novel mechanisms that contribute to insulin resistance in the heart. (
  • Endothelial dysfunction characterizes metabolic disorders and the related vascular complications. (
  • The effect of NF-KB on the vasculature may occur directly, through regulation of adipokines and cytokines that lead to vascular injury, or indirectly through metabolic changes in insulin sensitivity as intervention studies which have improved insulin resistance using metformin or thiazolidendiones have been shown to decrease CHD risk or effect on vascular remodeling in humans. (
  • CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: HS-induced insulin resistance is driven by impaired microvascular responsiveness to insulin, and is not due to metabolic or signalling defects within myocytes or liver. (
  • Additionally we studied the effects of nitroglycerin spray on resistance indices. (
  • Although these responses were found in vascular tissues of both genotypes, they occurred with a significantly higher intensity in the resistant genotype and corresponded with the disease phenotype. (
  • Recently, cross-talk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. (
  • however, during the high-intensity resistance exercise trial, sICAM-1 at 48-hr PE (364.85 ± 34.40 ng/ml) significantly ( p = .037) decreased by 14.27% from 3-hr PE (425.60 ± 36.71 ng/ml). (
  • Following low-intensity resistance exercise, sVCAM-1 significantly ( p = .001) increased by 27.6 % at 24-hr PE ( p = .001) and remained elevated up to 48-hr PE ( p = .001). (
  • In addition, sVCAM-1 at 24-hr PE (715.70 ± 38.14 ng/ml) and 48-hr PE (716.32 ± 34.79 ng/ml) for the low-intensity resistance exercise trial were significantly higher ( p = .003 and p = .002, respectively) than the same time points of the high-intensity resistance exercise trial (24-hr PE: 532.57 ± 38.14 ng/ml and 48-hr PE: 533.18 ± 34.79 ng/ml). (
  • The increase of vascular resistance was significantly correlated with the decrease of both prostaglandins (r = 0.93, p less than 0.05 for prostaglandin E2 and r = 0.89, p less than 0.05 for 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha), whereas no significant correlations were found between variations of vascular resistance and catecholamines. (
  • Maximum voluntary torque and the finite work capacity above CP (W') increased significantly only following resistance training. (
  • These data suggest that (1) as assessed by echocardiography, the pulmonary vascular resistance is not significantly elevated in young infants with BPD, and (2) a hypertrophic left ventricle evolves which may assume importance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema in BPD, though the precise etiology remains undetermined. (
  • AI was significantly lower at week 12 in the aerobic (-12%, P=.047), resistance (-9.5%, P=.036), and combination (-12.7%, P=.003) groups compared with baseline, as well as in the combination group (-10.7%, P=.047) compared with the control group. (
  • Echocardiographic ratio of peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity to the right ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TRV/TVI rvot) was presented as a reliable non-invasive method of estimating pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). (
  • Echocardiographic measurements of left and right ventricular systolic time intervals revealed normal systolic time interval ratios suggesting normal left ventricular systolic function as well as normal pulmonary vascular resistances. (
  • Conclusions: These data indicate that an endothelin-1-induced increase in forearm vascular resistance is inhibited by local forearm angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. (
  • Andrawis, Nabil S. / Local angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition blunts endothelin-1-induced increase in forearm vascular resistance . (
  • In the current study, 18 obese subjects had measurements of blood pressure, forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, and both basal platelet [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]i responses to vasopressin during 12 weeks on a very low calorie (3,360 kj, or 800 kcal) diet. (
  • The study had two primary aims: to evaluate the association of insulin resistance and glycemic control with MBPS, and to evaluate the association between MBPS and vascular endothelial dysfunction. (
  • These relationships suggest that poor glycemic control or insulin resistance can ultimately result in the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction by way of increased MBPS. (
  • In this study, we analyzed the role played by concerted expression of adipocytokines associated with brown fat lipoatrophy and increased visceral adiposity on triggering vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in brown adipose tissue (BAT) insulin receptor knockout (BATIRKO) mice. (
  • peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles. (
  • When blood pressure is low, vessels constrict to increase resistance and blood pressure. (
  • This resistance is generated by walls of blood vessels to hinder blood flow. (
  • Low peripheral resistance means large amount of blood passes through blood vessels at a time. (
  • Resistance to flow within the smaller vessels, which is also determined by blood viscosity and the length of the vessels. (
  • Blood vessels in the tumor periphery have high pericyte coverage and are resistant to vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). (
  • Here, we provide evidence to support a hypothesis that shifting the target of VDAs from tumor vessel endothelial cells to pericytes disrupts tumor peripheral vessels and the viable rim, circumventing VDA treatment resistance. (
  • We envision the vascular conduits of the lungs crushed under pharmacological assault - blood vessels pinched and puckered like one's lips biting into tart citrus. (
  • Under the influence of this drug, we envision the vascular conduits of the lungs liberated - pulmonary blood vessels yawning wide, singing their praise in a soft chorus of hemodynamic hallelujah. (
  • Repeated sympathetic stimuli elicit the decline and disappearance of prostaglandin modulation and an increase of vascular resistance in humans. (
  • When resting resistance was less than or equal to 7.9 U . m2, it always decreased with isoproterenol and no postoperative problems were experienced with pulmonary vascular obstructive disease. (
  • On the other hand, Total Vascular Resistance (TVR) is the overall resistance offered by systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation. (
  • This condition is described as resistance which is offered by systemic circulation. (
  • Insulin resistance is a potent and highly prevalent risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Poor glycemic control and insulin resistance were found to be associated with increased morning blood pressure surge (MBPS), which is a predictor of cardiovascular risk. (
  • Aboriginal Canadian populations, which include First Nation, Metis, and Inuit individuals ( 3 ), have an increased prevalence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • In addition to promoting glucose uptake, insulin regulates long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular function in the normal cardiovascular system. (
  • 3 , 4 There are many molecular mechanisms that contribute to the association between insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease. (
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of different cardiovascular factors on arterial stiffness and vascular resistance in CVD patient from eastern India population. (
  • Vascular stiffness and increased pulse pressure in the aging cardiovascular system. (
  • Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as a marker of atherosclerotic vascular damage and cardiovascular risk. (
  • Insulin resistance (IR) is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). (
  • By inducing ischaemia, changes in renal vascular resistance (RVR) may contribute substantially to the extent of nephrotoxic injury. (
  • P .J. Ratcliffe, Z .H. Endre, L.G. Nicholls, J.D. Tange and J.G.G. Ledingham, The isolated perfused rat kidney: filtering and non-filtering models in the assessment of altered renal vascular resistance in nephrotoxicity, (this Symposium). (
  • In diabetics, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance may cause MBPS by stimulating sympathetic activity, or that insulin-stimulated reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubule may contribute to MBPS. (
  • In addition, we measured the renal resistance index (RI) using Doppler sonography to evaluate the utility of this noninvasive method for assessment of changes in renal hemodynamics with chronic therapeutic interventions. (
  • Proceedings: Sympathetic nerve control of pulmonary vascular resistance and impedance in isolated perfused lungs of the dog. (
  • Gelband, H. / Normal pulmonary vascular resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy in young infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia : An echocardiographic and pathologic study . (
  • The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the development of vascular disease is controversial. (
  • The total vascular resistance placed on the heart when each artery is perfused at a rate typical of in vivo flow rates is approximately 1.93 kPa s ml-1. (
  • Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and non-invasive variables were examined against early (within 12 months) and overall mortality. (
  • In most studies, PH is quantified using the mean or systolic pulmonary artery pressure rather than pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) is a component of the Northern American Lung Allocation Score. (
  • Valerie Robinson D.O. Peripheral Vascular Disease AKA Peripheral Artery Disease. (
  • Rv in the decellularized lungs scaffolds decreased at increasing V'(PA), stabilizing at a pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 20 cmH(2)O. On the other hand, CPAP had no influence on vascular resistance in the lung scaffolds after being subjected to pulmonary artery pressure of 5 cmH(2)O. In conclusion, compared to positive airway pressure, arterial lung pressure markedly influences the mechanics of vascular resistance in decellularized lungs. (
  • Furthermore, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional antiangiogenic therapies. (
  • To explore the protective effect of celastrol on insulin resistance (IR) induced by high glucose in vascular endothelial cells and its possible mechanism. (
  • Celastrol has the protective effect on insulin resistance induced by high glucose in vascular endothelial cells via inhibiting ROS/IKK signaling pathway. (
  • This review examines the relevance of IR as a link between depressive disorder and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. (
  • In conclusion IR could account for the linkage between depression and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. (
  • Recent and accumulating evidence in this area has implicated excessive Ser phosphorylation and proteosomal degradation of the docking protein, insulin receptor substrate, and enhanced signaling through hybrid insulin/IGF-1 receptor as important mechanisms underlying aldosterone-mediated interruption of downstream vascular insulin signaling. (
  • Vascular muscle membrane cation mechanisms and total peripheral resistance. (
  • 9 - 12 Insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms may contribute to macrophage accumulation in the vessel wall to increase atherosclerosis and instability of vulnerable plaques. (
  • The present review will focus on the mechanisms by which insulin resistance develops and contributes to structural heart disease. (
  • Intrinsic drug resistance may depend on two main and not necessarily mutually exclusive mechanisms: 1) Loss of pharmacological target (e.g. (
  • Matteo Marroni, Nicola Marchi, Luca Cucullo, N. Joan Abbott, Kathy Signorelli and Damir Janigro, " Vascular and Parenchymal Mechanisms in Multiple Drug Resistance: a Lesson from Human Epilepsy", Current Drug Targets (2003) 4: 297. (
  • Therefore, this work was aimed at determining how lung inflation (tracheal pressure) and perfusion (pulmonary arterial pressure) affect vascular resistance. (
  • Vascular compliance is determined by the muscle tone in the smooth muscle tissue of the tunica media and the elasticity of the elastic fibers there, but the muscle tone is subject to continual homeostatic changes by hormones and cell signaling molecules that induce vasodilation and vasoconstriction to keep blood pressure and blood flow within reference ranges. (
  • Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow . (
  • Children with ASD typically have normal pulmonary vascular resistance , and generally endure increased pulmonary blood flow which may exceed twice the systemic blood flow. (
  • The ratio of pulmonary blood volume to mean intravascular pressure was used as an indication of pulmonary vascular compliance. (
  • A significant correlation between pulmonary blood volume and stroke volume was found, lending support to the hypothesis that the volume and elasticity of the pulmonary vascular bed contribute to the regulation of cardiac output. (
  • The above equation contains a numerical constant to compensate for the units used, but is conceptually equivalent to the following:[citation needed] R = Δ P Q {\displaystyle R={\frac {\Delta P}{Q}}} where R is the pulmonary vascular resistance (fluid resistance), ΔP is the pressure difference across the pulmonary circuit, and Q is the rate of blood flow through it. (
  • the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. (
  • Blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks of resistance training to measure the changes in bone formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, (Bone ALP)] and resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of Type-I collagen, CTX) marker concentrations. (
  • Augmented blood flow velocity is recognized to promote vascular remodeling. (
  • This resistance needs to be overcome in order to create the flow of blood through the circulatory system. (
  • The purpose of the project is to determine if insulin resistance has an impact on indicators of brain health in youth using innovative blood flow MR techniques. (
  • Moreover, with tilt, the increase in the vascular resistance employed (blood pressure/flow velocity) was greater and more sustained in the leg than in the arm. (
  • Vascular resistance is basically a force which opposes blood flow. (
  • Increased total peripheral vascular resistance causes problems in blood flow. (
  • If blood is thick or of increased viscosity, the resistance will also increase. (
  • But blood with low viscosity cause turbulence in vascular system. (
  • In the patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, decreased pulmonary vascular resistance causes increased pulmonary blood flow and an undesirable obligatory decrease in systemic blood flow. (
  • This entry was posted in Emphysema and tagged airflow obstruction , emphysema , pulmonary function , pulmonary vascular resistance , resistance pulmonary blood . (
  • Decreased resistance means larger blood flow. (
  • This reduction in peripheral vascular resistance leads to increased blood flow. (
  • The authors investigated the effects of moderate-intensity resistance, aerobic, or combined exercise on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in overweight and obese individuals compared with no exercise. (
  • In participant-designated responders, those in the intervention groups who had improved levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or augmentation index (AI), we observed a significant decrease of SBP in aerobic (-4%, P=.027), resistance (-5.1%, P=.04), and combination groups (-6.3%, P=.000) at week 8 and in the combination group (-6.3%, P=.005) at week 12, compared with baseline. (
  • Cyanosis is mild or absent, Systolic murmur across VSD becomes evident as pulmonary vascular resistance falls. (
  • Furthermore, presence of rs3764261 was not related to insulin resistance (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c) or recurrent CVD (HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.84-1.02). (
  • A 66% fructose diet impaired glucose tolerance and induced moderate insulin resistance with no changes in whole-body hemodynamics of anesthetized rats (FF-LZR), compared to control LZR. (
  • Improvements were also noted in hemodynamic variables, including mean pulmonary pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance , and in WHO functional class status. (
  • total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output . (
  • In humans, the contribution of impaired transendothelial insulin transport to insulin resistance can potentially be quantified by measurement of interstitial insulin concentrations in insulin-sensitive and -resistant conditions, as is done using microdialysis by Szendroedi et al. (
  • These issues represent the aim of the present study and to address them, we used a model that allows the measurement of vascular protein synthesis in vivo . (
  • The relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance in emphysema and disruption of the pulmonary microcirculation, as reflected by abnormalities in DcoSB measurement, is illustrated in Figure 2. (
  • Abe T, Yasuda T, Midorikawa T, Sato Y, Kearns CF, Inoue K, Koizumi K, Ishii N (2005) Skeletal muscle size and circulating IGF-1 are increased after two weeks of twice daily "KAATSU" resistance training. (
  • This study demonstrates that targeting tumor pericytes with an FAPα-activated VDA prodrug represents a potential vascular disruption strategy in overcoming tumor resistance to VDA treatments. (
  • Units for measuring vascular resistance are dyn ·s·cm −5 , pascal seconds per cubic metre (Pa·s/m³) or, for ease of deriving it by pressure (measured in mmHg ) and cardiac output (measured in l/min), it can be given in mmHg·min/l. (
  • The conversion between these units is: 1 mmHG ⋅ min L ( HRUs ) = 8 MPa ⋅ s m 3 = 80 dyn ⋅ sec cm 5 {\displaystyle 1\,{\frac {{\text{mmHG}}\cdot {\text{min}}}{\text{ L }}}({\text{HRUs}})=8\,{\frac {{\text{MPa}}\cdot {\text{s}}}{{\text{m}}^{3}}}=80\,{\frac {{\text{dyn}}\cdot {\text{sec}}}{{\text{cm}}^{5}}}} The basic tenet of calculating resistance is that flow is equal to driving pressure divided by flow rate. (