Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLMyeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphoid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells from which B-LYMPHOCYTES; T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS derive.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Cell SeparationHematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Myelopoiesis: Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Thrombopoietin: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Lymphopoiesis: Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Megakaryocyte Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to cells in the MEGAKARYOCYTE lineage, and ultimately BLOOD PLATELETS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Receptor, Notch1: A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the MEGAKARYOCYTE and the ERYTHROCYTE lineages.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Receptors, Erythropoietin: Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.LIM-Homeodomain Proteins: A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Neuroepithelial Cells: Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Mice, Inbred BALB CDentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leukopoiesis: The process of generating white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS of the BONE MARROW. There are two significant pathways to generate various types of leukocytes: MYELOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes in the blood are derived from MYELOID STEM CELLS, and LYMPHOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOCYTES) are generated from lymphoid stem cells.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Blood Component Removal: Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Thrombopoiesis: The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Hemangioblasts: Bipotential angio-hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to both HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS and ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
"Circulation endothelial progenitor cells, vascular function, and cardiovascular risk". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (10): 999-1007. doi ... Activated c-kit is then able to recruit hematopoietic, endothelial and mast cell progenitor cells, these cells are then ... "Coregulation of vascular tube stabilization by endothelial cell TIMP-2 and pericyte TIMP-3". J. Cell Biol. 175 (1): 179-191. ... "Low dose irradiation promotes tissue revascularization through VEGF release from mast cells and MMP-9 mediated progenitor cell ...
Once produced in endothelial cells, NO diffuses across the vascular smooth muscle cell membranes and activates the enzyme ... Duda DG, Fukumura D, Jain RK (Apr 2004). "Role of eNOS in neovascularization: NO for endothelial progenitor cells". Trends in ... Sumpio BE, Riley JT, Dardik A (Dec 2002). "Cells in focus: endothelial cell". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell ... eNOS is primarily responsible for the generation of NO in the vascular endothelium, a monolayer of flat cells lining the ...
Moreno, PR; Sanz, J; Fuster, V (Jun 2009). "Promoting mechanisms of vascular health: circulating progenitor cells, angiogenesis ... Mechanisms leading to myocardial infarction: insights from studies of vascular biology". Circulation. 90 (4): 2126-46. doi: ... by leaking red blood cells into the interstitium induces an inflammatory reaction that predisposes to the rupture of the ... low HDL into mice with high HDL The first demonstration of rapamycin as a powerful inhibitor of post-injury smooth muscle cell ...
"Migration of human hematopoietic progenitor cells across bone marrow endothelium is regulated by vascular endothelial cadherin ... "A novel endothelial-specific membrane protein is a marker of cell-cell contacts". J. Cell Biol. 118 (6): 1511-22. doi:10.1083/ ... "Alteration of interendothelial adherens junctions following tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction in vitro". Exp. Cell Res. ... "Alteration of interendothelial adherens junctions following tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction in vitro". Exp. Cell Res. ...
"Multipotent flk-1+ cardiovascular progenitor cells give rise to the cardiomyocyte, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle ... multipotent precursor cell that can differentiate to the hematopoietic and endothelial cell fates-using embryonic stem cell ... cholangiocytes and pancreatic progenitors; as well as to mesodermal cell fates: cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, T lymphocytes and ... "T lymphocyte potential marks the emergence of definitive hematopoietic progenitors in human pluripotent stem cell ...
CD34 positive cells promote angiogenesis to increase blood flow, improving cardiac perfusion and decreasing vascular resistance ... Waon therapy also increases blood flow by stimulating the mobilization endothelial progenitor cells marked with CD34 molecules ... while also having benefits in vascular function including decreased vascular resistance and blood pressure. Improvements were ... non-pharmacological treatment for chronic heart failure patients and other vascular resistance diseases. Miyata, M., Kihara, T ...
"Modified mRNA directs the fate of heart progenitor cells and induces vascular regeneration after myocardial infarction". Nature ... By 1994 Genzyme had a new version of Cerezyme produced in genetically engineered cells in a process that was easier and cheaper ... They returned the red cells and paid for the plasma ... There were ethical concerns about the payments. Very vulnerable people ...
It is co-transcribed with miR-145 in cardiac progenitors before becoming vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMCs are ... 145 alters smooth muscle cell maintenance and vascular homeostasis in mice: correlates with human disease". Cell Death Differ. ... mir-143 was found to be the most enriched miRNA in mouse embryonic stem cells that were differentiating into cardiac progenitor ... Akao Y, Nakagawa Y, Iio A, Naoe T (2009). "Role of microRNA-143 in Fas-mediated apoptosis in human T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells ...
"FibroGen Reports New Research on Development of HIF Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors Related to Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Anti ... and Vascular Biology. 27 (12): 2548-2554. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.148551. " ...
CXCL12 binds the receptor CXCR4 actively counteracting apoptosis and recruiting progenitor cells to the site of injury. mir-126 ... mir-126 is also released with in these bodies are upon absorption in a neighbouring cell induce the CXCL12 dependant vascular ... This includes controlled cell death and responses to wounds. During apoptosis cell death, cells release apoptotic bodies ... Increased expression of mir-126 inhibits cell proliferation of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and prevents tomour ...
Cellular factors include reduced number and function of bone-marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells.[17] and reduced ... the process of blood vessel formation that occurs through a de novo production of endothelial cells which then form vascular ... where greater movement of cells and materials is necessary.[citation needed] A capillary wall is only 1 cell thick and is ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF). ...
Cellular factors include reduced number and function of bone-marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells.[20] and reduced ... the process of blood vessel formation that occurs through a de novo production of endothelial cells which then form vascular ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF). ... and therefore utilize gaps present in cell junctions to permit transfer between endothelial cells, and hence across the ...
... can also occur in the adult organism from circulating endothelial progenitor cells (derivatives of stem cells) ... These vascular trees are then pruned and extended through angiogenesis. Vasculogenesis occurs during embryologic development of ... of the microvascular endothelium of the ectopic endometrial tissue originates from endothelial progenitor cells. Vasculogenic ... Vasculogenesis is the process of blood vessel formation occurring by a de novo production of endothelial cells. It is sometimes ...
The COMBO Stent features active endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) capture technology, which promotes the accelerated natural ... OrbusNeich is a global company that designs, develops, manufactures and markets medical devices for the treatment of vascular ... www.medgadget.com/2013/05/orbusneich-combo-drug-eluting-stent-with-endothelial-progenitor-cell-capture.html Haude, M; Lee, SW; ... a randomized comparison of a combination sirolimus-eluting endothelial progenitor cell capture stent with a paclitaxel-eluting ...
"Differential Mobilization of Subsets of Progenitor Cells from the Bone Marrow". Cell Stem Cell. 4 (1): 62-72. doi:10.1016/j. ... Researchers at Imperial College have demonstrated that plerixafor in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF ... can produce mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells in mice. Blockade of CXCR4 signalling by plerixafor has ... Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization, which is important as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, is ...
... fewer endothelial progenitor cells), likely related to the presence of antiendothelinal cell antibodies (AECA). Despite this ... Endothelial cell damage and apoptosis ensue, leading to the vascular leakiness that manifests in early clinical stages as ... B cells mature into plasma cells, which furthers the autoimmune component of the condition. T cells differentiate into subsets ... B cells are implicated in this stage, IL-6 and TGF-β produced by the B cells decrease collagen degradation and increase ...
... and controls the competence of progenitor cells to regulate numbers of retinal ganglionic cells developing in the retina.[26] ... "Vascular and neurogenic rejuvenation of the aging mouse brain by young systemic factors". Science. 344 (6184): 630-4. doi ... "GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development". Development ... Kim J, Wu HH, Lander AD, Lyons KM, Matzuk MM, Calof AL (June 2005). "GDF11 controls the timing of progenitor cell competence in ...
"Clinical Application of Tissue Engineered Human Heart Valves Using Autologous Progenitor Cells". Circulation. Retrieved January ... From 1993 to 1996 he worked as the Director for heart and vascular surgery at the Kiel University. In 1996 he returned to the ... He postulated that the damage by inflamed vasa vasorum leads to cell death within the wall and subsequent plaques formation. ... In 1985 he became Senior Surgeon (Oberarzt) at the Clinic for Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery at the MHH. His ...
... endothelial progenitor cells by using appropriate growth factors such as VEGF and Ang-1 to promote proliferation and vascular ... such as cell aggregation, migration, proliferation and activation; cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion; endocytosis of HA, ... HA with receptors such as CD44 or RHAMM promote the cell changes that allow for the cancer cells to infiltrate the vascular or ... To date, it is recognized as the main cell surface receptor for HA. CD44 mediates cell interaction with HA and the binding of ...
Induced Vascular Progenitor Cells (iVPCs) are useful for cell-based therapy designed to stimulate coronary collateral growth. ... cells in a way that induces marrow stem cells that normally develop into white blood cells to become neural progenitor cells. ... "Induction of Vascular Progenitor Cells from Endothelial Cells Stimulates Coronary Collateral Growth". Circulation Research. 110 ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ...
... not to a different blood cell type like a red blood cell. Examples of progenitor cells are vascular stem cells that have the ... Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types. The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the ... In cell biology, a unipotent cell is the concept that one stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into only one cell type. ... In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor cells to differentiate into a few cell types. It is a degree of potency. ...
... can be used to drive transgene expression during the differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into vascular progenitors. ... BMC Cell Biology 9: 2, 2008, PMID 18190688. Miyazaki, J; Takaki, S; Araki, K; Tashiro, F; Tominaga, A; Takatsu, K; Yamamura, K ... Okabe M, Ikawa M, Kominami K, Nakanishi T, Nishimune Y. 'Green mice' as a source of ubiquitous green cells. FEBS Lett. 1997 May ...
... produced in conditioned medium is a chemo-attractant for rat vascular smooth muscle cells, mouse endothelial cells and ... Egfl7 is expressed in endothelial progenitors and in endothelial cells during embryonic and neonatal development. Expression is ... Endothelial cell lines naturally express egfl7, on the contrary to non-endothelial cells. In endothelial cells, expression is ... An up-regulation of egfl7 is observed in endothelial cells during vascular remodelling tissues, such as in reproductive organs ...
2005). "Somatic stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 is expressed in embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors". Stem Cells. 23 (6 ... "Neuron-like differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells and vascular smooth muscle cells". Differentiation. 74 (9- ... Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. Stem cells can ... Hirao A, Arai F, Suda T (December 2004). "Regulation of cell cycle in hematopoietic stem cells by the niche". Cell Cycle. 3 (12 ...
Vasculogenesis is the new production of a vascular network from mesodermal progenitor cells. This can be distinguished from ... These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor ... red blood cells), megakaryocytes/platelets, mast cells, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, ... CEPs are derived from EPCs within the bone marrow, and the bone marrow is a reservoir of stem and progenitor cells. These cell ...
Park SW, Yan YP, Satriotomo I, Vemuganti R, Dempsey RJ (Sep 2007). "Substance P is a promoter of adult neural progenitor cell ... "Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
2) Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis. (3) Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, ... We tested whether a specific arterial or venous EC fate could be induced in human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) ... In vitro and in vivo arterial differentiation of human multipotent adult progenitor cells. Xabier L. Aranguren (1), Aernout ... Many stem cell types have been shown to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs); however, their specification to arterial or ...
Diabetic Foot and Vascular Progenitor Cells. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... A)To validate the prognostic value of vascular progenitor cells, identified by flow cytometric analysis of antigenic phenotype ... The Diabetic Foot: Relevance of Vascular Progenitor Cells as a Prognostic Marker of Cardiovascular Mortality, Restenosis, and ... To determine the mechanisms responsible for vascular progenitor cell dysfunction in the perspective of new therapies for the ...
Cells cocultured with ECs generated substantially more CD34+CD45+ hematopoietic progenitors compared with cells cocultured ... multipotent progenitor cells (MPP) has hampered the clinical application of these cells and suggests that MPP require ... Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an alternative hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) source for treating hematopoietic disease ... EC-induced cells exhibited Notch activation and expressed HSC-specific Notch targets RUNX1. and GATA2. . EC-induced PSC-MPP ...
... cells were detected in the mice transplanted with vascular niche cells alone. Together, these data indicate that vascular niche ... Vascular niche promotes hematopoietic multipotent progenitor formation from pluripotent stem cells. Jennifer L. Gori,1 Jason M ... Cells cocultured with ECs generated substantially more CD34+CD45+ hematopoietic progenitors compared with cells cocultured ... Identification of a hierarchy of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in human cord blood. Cell Stem Cell. 2007;1(6):635-645. ...
Development of a nanofibrous bioactive vascular graft that wo uld direct appropriate cell adhesion and growth would have a ... examine cell binding, retention and growth by nEDA-UEL-I. Development of a nanofibrous bioactive vascular graf t would have a ... This failure is attributed to the lack of endothe lial cells at the biomaterial/blood interface, a lining that normal blood ... The goal of this two-year Phase I project is to synthesize and characterize in vitro a novel nanofibrous vascular graft ...
Angiogenic Factor AGGF1-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Repair Vascular Defect in Diabetic Mice. ... Angiogenic Factor AGGF1-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Repair Vascular Defect in Diabetic Mice ... Angiogenic Factor AGGF1-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Repair Vascular Defect in Diabetic Mice ... Angiogenic Factor AGGF1-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Repair Vascular Defect in Diabetic Mice ...
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a key role in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis and ... Vascular progenitor cells and translational research: the role of endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cells in endogenous ... 2007). Redefining endothelial progenitor cells via clonal analysis and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell principals. Blood, ... Intrinsic Vascular Repair by Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Acute Coronary Syndromes: an Update Overview. Stem Cell Rev and ...
To generate a guidance molecule directing progenitor cells to sites of vascular... ... Regenerative medicine Endothelialization Progenitor cells Stem cells Vascular injury Guidance molecule Vascular disease Therapy ... Chavakis E, Urbich C, Dimmeler S (2008) Homing and engraftment of progenitor cells: a prerequisite for cell therapy. J Mol Cell ... Multipotent embryonic isl1+ progenitor cells lead to cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cell diversification. Cell 127: ...
... and Incorporation Into Vascular Structures. Oren M. Tepper, Robert D. Galiano, Jennifer M. Capla, Christoph Kalka, Paul J. ... Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Type II Diabetics Exhibit Impaired Proliferation, Adhesion, and Incorporation Into ... Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Type II Diabetics Exhibit Impaired Proliferation, Adhesion, and Incorporation Into ... Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Type II Diabetics Exhibit Impaired Proliferation, Adhesion, and Incorporation Into ...
Fluid shear stress further accelerates ES commitment to CD31+ VPC vascular progenitor cells. These ES-derived CD31+ cells ... Fluid shear stress further accelerates ES commitment to CD31+ VPC vascular progenitor cells. These ES-derived CD31+ cells ... Thus, hemodynamic forces and ES cell differentiation to vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) are of emerging interests for ... Thus, hemodynamic forces and ES cell differentiation to vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) are of emerging interests for ...
Your Name) thought you would like to see the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology web site. ... Hyperglycemia Reduces Survival and Impairs Function of Circulating Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells. Nicolle Kränkel, Volker ... Hyperglycemia Reduces Survival and Impairs Function of Circulating Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells ... Hyperglycemia Reduces Survival and Impairs Function of Circulating Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells ...
Background Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to vascular repair. Whether a diurnal and/or day-to- ... Abstract 530: Diurnal and Day-to-Day Variability of Endothelial Progenitor Cells. Umberto Campia, Rana Saber, Yihua Liao, Kiang ... Abstract 530: Diurnal and Day-to-Day Variability of Endothelial Progenitor Cells ... Abstract 530: Diurnal and Day-to-Day Variability of Endothelial Progenitor Cells ...
Characterization of progenitor cells with high vascular endothelial engraftment potential during mouse development. ... Few cell types have been identified that can integrate/differentiate to vascular cells in non-ischemic tissue upon ... Using the hemato-vascular reporter vector SCL-3Enh for hemato-vascular progenitor isolation and endothelial lineage tracing, ... Among these are the blood-related cells derived from the adult bone marrow. However, they present limited vascular endothelial ...
... suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect. Further ... During aging, EPCs with ERβ suppression mobilize to the vascular wall, differentiate into ERβ-suppressed mouse endothelial ... We conclude that perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction through ERβ suppression in EPCs. ... subsequently potentiating vascular dysfunction. Bone marrow transplantation of EPCs that overexpressed with either ERβ or a ...
Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular ... Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular ... The α4/VCAM-1 pathway mediates selectin-independent rolling of progenitor cells in BM microvessels. (A) CFSE-labeled anti-VCAM- ... C) Role of selectins in FDCP-mix cell rolling in wild-type mice. FDCP-mix cell rolling was measured in the same BM vessels ...
hematopoietic progenitor cells. IV. intermediate venule. PSV. postsinusoidal venule. VCAM. vascular cell adhesion molecule. ... Cells.. The murine progenitor cell lines factor-dependent cells Paterson-mix (FDCP-mix) and M1 were grown as previously ... Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular ... Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular ...
Introduction Late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (LEPC) are putative mediators of endogenous vascular repair, and ... restoration of Akt activity in endothelial progenitor cells from human subjects at high cardiovascular risk rescues vascular ... restoration of Akt activity in endothelial progenitor cells from human subjects at high cardiovascular risk rescues vascular ... migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (5 [0.7] vs 10 [1.7] cells/microscopic field*) and in vitro angiogenesis (1.9 [ ...
... emerging evidence indicates that purified progenitor cell populations are required to induce optimal vascular regeneration. In ... hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (MSC). First, I demonstrated that human UCB ... Taken together, my work establishes the value of ALDH as a marker of cells with increased vascular regenerative potential. My ... I demonstrated that after a 20-fold increase in total cell number, expanded HPC maintained robust vascular regenerative ...
Vascular progenitor cells isolated from human embryonic stem cells give rise to endothelial and smooth muscle like cells and ... Ischemic vascular damage can be repaired by healthy, but not diabetic, endothelial progenitor cells. Diabetes. 2007;56:960-967. ... VASCULAR, vascular lineage-specific genes; VP, vascular progenitor; and vWF, von Willebrand factor. ... Vascular Progenitors From Cord Blood-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Possess Augmented Capacity for Regenerating ...
... once the vascular complications are noted, the repair or vascular regeneration is difficult as the progenitor cell pool is ... Ischemic vascular damage can be repaired by healthy, but not diabetic, endothelial progenitor cells. Diabetes. 2007;56:960-967. ... Use of p53‐Silenced Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Treat Ischemia in Diabetic Peripheral Vascular Disease. Nabanita Kundu, ... Endothelial progenitor cell: a blood cell by many other names may serve similar functions. J Mol Med (Berl). 2013;91:285-295. ...
The identification of precise paracrine signals that drive the cell-fate decision of these multipotent progenitors, … ... smooth muscle and endothelial cell lineages during mammalian cardiogenesis. ... Distinct families of multipotent heart progenitors play a central role in the generation of diverse cardiac, ... Driving vascular endothelial cell fate of human multipotent Isl1+ heart progenitors with VEGF modified mRNA Cell Res. 2013 Oct; ...
To date, the identity of stromal cells remains unclear. ... Hemangioblastoma is composed of neoplastic stromal cells and a ... Stromal cells of hemangioblastomas exhibit mesenchymal stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cell properties. Zeitschrift:. ... In conclusion, stromal cells of hemangioblastomas exhibit mesenchymal stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cell properties. ... Stromal cells of hemangioblastomas exhibit mesenchymal stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cell properties ...
Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions With Retinal Vascular Endothelial Cell Monolayers and in a 3-D Model of Retinal ... Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions With Retinal Vascular Endothelial Cell Monolayers and in a 3-D Model of Retinal ... Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions With Retinal Vascular Endothelial Cell Monolayers and in a 3-D Model of Retinal ... Purpose:: Endothelial progenitor cells have been shown to engage in angiogenesis (AG) in various tissues including the retina. ...
Title:Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Mediators of the Crosstalk between Vascular Repair and Immunity: Lessons from Systemic ... Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Mediators of the Crosstalk between Vascular Repair and Immunity: Lessons from Systemic ... "Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Mediators of the Crosstalk between Vascular Repair and Immunity: Lessons from Systemic ... Keywords: Endothelial progenitor cells, systemic diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, ...
... circulating vascular progenitor cells, which form 20% of the total vascular components. In this study, we sought to determine ... from less than 1 to 15 cells per lesion at two weeks). The number of bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells in the ... Blood-derived macrophages and Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cells contribute to intrachoroidal vascular changes in ... Blood-derived macrophages and Bone Marrow Derived Progenitor Cells contribute to intrachoroidal vascular changes in ...
  • In vitro, in the presence of VEGF(165), hAC133(+) cells only adopted a venous and microvascular EC phenotype, while hMAPCs differentiated into both arterial and venous ECs, possibly because hMAPCs expressed significantly more sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its receptors as well as Notch 1 and 3 receptors and some of their ligands. (cun.es)
  • These results represent the first demonstration of adult stem cells with the potential to be differentiated into different types of ECs in vitro and in vivo and provide a useful human model to study arteriovenous specification. (cun.es)
  • MSC have been widely investigated for vascular regenerative cellular therapies, however substantial variability between donor sources indicating a need for better markers to select pro-angiogenic MSC subsets for clinical applications. (uwo.ca)
  • The resident population of endothelial cells that is competent to respond to an available level of angiogenic growth factors, however, may potentially limit the extent to which cytokine supplementation enhances tissue neovascularization. (pnas.org)
  • New insights on endothelial progenitor cell subpopulations and their angiogenic properties. (nih.gov)
  • This webinar will provide an overview of the different types of "endothelial progenitor cells" with special emphasis on endothelial colony forming cells and pro-angiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells and their roles in PAH. (peachnewmedia.com)
  • Diminazene attenuates pulmonary hypertension and improves angiogenic progenitor cell functions in experimental models. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endothelial cells derived from rat brain (rBCEC4) were incubated with EPC-derived conditioned medium (EPC-CM). The angiogenic response of rBCEC4 to EPC-CM was assessed as effect on cell number, migration and tubular network formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059 were used to study the involvement of these two signaling pathways in the transduction of the angiogenic effects of EPC-CM. Viable cell number, migration and tubule network formation were significantly augmented upon incubation with EPC-CM. Similar findings were observed for aortic ring outgrowth with significantly longer sprouts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Similarly to the outcome of the rBCEC4 experiments, inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways significantly interfered with capillary sprouting induced by EPC-CM. The present study demonstrates that EPC-derived paracrine factors substantially promote the angiogenic response of brain microvascular endothelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We report the identification of a population of vascular progenitor cells (hVPCs) in the human fetal aorta composed of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that coexpress endothelial and myogenic markers. (uniss.it)
  • Distinct families of multipotent heart progenitors play a central role in the generation of diverse cardiac, smooth muscle and endothelial cell lineages during mammalian cardiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • By comparing angiocrine factors expressed by the human OFT-ECs and non-cardiac ECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was identified as the most abundantly expressed factor, and clonal assays documented its ability to drive endothelial specification of human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived Isl1+ progenitors in a VEGF receptor-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Human Isl1-ECs (endothelial cells differentiated from hESC-derived ISL1+ progenitors) resemble OFT-ECs in terms of expression of the cardiac endothelial progenitor- and endocardial cell-specific genes, confirming their organ specificity. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies to evaluate the developmental potential of candidate hESC-derived progenitors have delivered these cells into murine and porcine cardiac tissue, with inconclusive evidence regarding the capacity of these human cells to physiologically engraft in xenotransplantation assays. (pnas.org)
  • 2003) Endothelial progenitor cells are decreased in blood of cardiac allograft patients with vasculopathy and endothelial cells of noncardiac origin are enriched in transplant atherosclerosis. (nature.com)
  • Evidence that migratory cells participate in the formation of virtually all cardiac structures in transplanted heart comes from work of Quaini documenting the systemic chimerism in cases in which a male patient received a heart from a female . (escardio.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS:Systemic delivery of iVPCs after cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury is limited by pulmonary entrapment of the cells. (edu.au)
  • Pericytes are key regulators of vascular maturation, but their value for cardiac repair remains unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, microRNA-132 (miR-132) was constitutively expressed and secreted by SVPs and remarkably upregulated, together with its transcriptional activator cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, on stimulation by H/S or vascular endothelial growth factor B. We next investigated if SVP-secreted miR-132 acts as a paracrine activator of cardiac healing. (ahajournals.org)
  • With myocardial infarction (MI) remaining a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, cell therapy now aims to offer a novel option for cardiac repair. (ahajournals.org)
  • Delayed erythropoietin therapy reduces post-MI cardiac remodeling only at a dose that mobilizes endothelial progenitor cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Blood mononuclear cells also adhere to neoendothelial cells and migrate into the subendothelial space. (nature.com)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that BM-mononuclear cells (MNCs), as well as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have the ability to immunoregulate and improve tissue repair through IL-10 secretion ( 9 - 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • First, I demonstrated that human UCB cells prospectively purified based on high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH hi ), promote the recovery of perfusion and vascularization in mice with acute unilateral hindlimb ischemia. (uwo.ca)
  • Accordingly, we transplanted human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) to athymic nude mice with hindlimb ischemia. (pnas.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced vascular repair, as indicated by impaired wound healing and reduced collateral formation in ischemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, they could promote recovery from neurological function deficits by attenuating cell injury through decreases in ischemia-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and macrophage infiltration. (frontiersin.org)
  • We tested systemically delivered, platelet-targeted induced vascular progenitor cells (iVPCs) to study their potential to salvage damaged myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion injury. (edu.au)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) through Ang II type 1 receptor (AT 1 -R) activation plays an important role in vascular damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • The limited engraftment of human PSC-derived (hPSC-derived) multipotent progenitor cells (MPP) has hampered the clinical application of these cells and suggests that MPP require additional cues for definitive hematopoiesis. (jci.org)
  • Unfortunately, the rarity of ALDH hi cells impedes clinical implementation for patients with PAD. (uwo.ca)
  • Despite the fact that EPC exhibit important characteristics which support a link of this cell subset with a number of inflammatory and immune networks, little is known on the actual mediators involved and the clinical relevance of these features. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Clinical trials involving intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived cells in patients demonstrated that stem/progenitor cells have the potential to improve the function of the myocardium after the ischaemic injury. (escardio.org)
  • The experimental studies using animal models as well as clinical trials involving intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived cells in patients demonstrated that these stem /progenitor cells have the potential to improve the function of the myocardium after the ischaemic injury . (escardio.org)
  • The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing up-to-the-minute coverage of the latest research from bench science and developments to clinical applications. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • S1P agonists might serve as sensitizers of CXCR4-mediated signaling and may be applied in clinical progenitor cell therapy to improve EPC or BMC function in patients with coronary artery disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to evaluate simultaneously the effects of EPC and inflammatory cells on the presence and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the grade of coronary collateral growth in patients with clinical suspicion of CAD. (anatoljcardiol.com)
  • A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation reveals that the presence of endothelial cells, which make up the lining of blood vessels, improves the ability of PSC-derived cells to repopulate blood cell lineages. (eurekalert.org)
  • EC-induced PSC-MPP engrafted at a markedly higher level in NOD/SCID/IL-2 receptor γ chain-null (NSG) mice compared with cytokine-induced cells, and low-dose chemotherapy-based selection further increased engraftment. (jci.org)
  • Long-term engraftment and the myeloid-to-lymphoid ratio achieved with vascular niche induction were similar to levels achieved for cord blood-derived MPP and up to 20-fold higher than those achieved with hPSC-derived MPP engraftment. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, in a mouse model, these cells were capable of a long-term engraftment similar to levels achieved with cord blood-derived progenitors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can give rise to committed vascular progenitor cells, and ephrin-B2/EphB4 and Notch signaling have crucial roles in these steps. (springermedizin.de)