Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.G(M3) Ganglioside: A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Genomic Structural Variation: Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
  • There are 4 well characterized functional variants of Fv1 and additional Fv1 -like restrictions found in inbred strains and wild mouse species ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Seven phylogenetic species are recognized based on host specificity, morphology and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses, namely P. coronata s.str. (wikipedia.org)
  • We set out to define the species- and strain-specific features of this regulon based on global gene expression profiling. (asm.org)
  • Strain comparisons also demonstrated variation in gene expression patterns within species. (asm.org)
  • Differential gene expression and coding polymorphisms within expressed loci appear to be the primary determinants of species-specific phenotypes ( 9 , 20 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • First, 2 species of African pygmy mice (subgenus Nannomys ) show an Fv1 -like MLV resistance, and transduced cells expressing the Nannomys Fv1 gene reproduce this resistance pattern. (pnas.org)
  • This suggests that the previously observed species specificity of Y-Sat-induced symptoms is due to natural sequence variation in the CHLI gene, preventing CHLI silencing in species with a mismatch to the Y-Sat siRNA. (nih.gov)
  • These mechanisms often lead to complex patterns of genetic variation and the creation of novel genotypes, which may establish if they become isolated from gene flow. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Postmating isolation was also quantified to determine the role of this barrier in restraining gene flow between hybrids and the parental species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypoxia-specificity of HIF-1α target genes in vivo has been questioned due to the confounding influence of other microenvironmental abnormalities known to affect gene expression (e.g., low pH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This would suggest that miRNAs are selectively targeted for secretion in 1 cell and taken up by a distant, target cell, possibly to regulate gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • In order to determine the association of SRV-2 subtypes with SAIDS-RF, and study the evolution and transmission of SRV-2 in captive macaque populations, we have molecularly characterized the env gene of a number of SRV-2 isolates from different macaque species with and without RF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The minimal genetic variability of the env gene within a subtype over time suggests that a strong degree of adaptation to its primate host has occurred during evolution of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple gene genealogies and AFLPs suggest cryptic speciation and long-distance dispersal in the basidiomycete Serpula himantioides (Boletales). (uio.no)
  • The mouse IFN- λ 1 gene orthologue is a pseudogene containing some variations in addition to a stop codon in the first exon and does not code for an active protein [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The remaining 41 genes are shared by the two complete LEEs, and we describe the nature and extent of variation among the two strains for each gene. (asm.org)
  • The genes responsible for this phenotype are contained in the LEE pathogenicity island, and sequence variation in one LEE gene has been implicated in different intestinal colonization sites ( 44 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • This report studied how the interplay of genetic and environmental variation affects gene expression by exposing Drosophila melanogaster strains to four different developmental temperatures. (sdbonline.org)
  • further suggested that a selective sweep occurred recently at the Pi-ta gene in O. rufipogon , but the extent of selection around the Pi-ta genomic region has not been demonstrated in either O. rufipogon or O. sativa . (genetics.org)
  • The protective effect of naturally occurring genetic variation is strong enough to overcome the use of "gene drives" based on CRISPR-based technology -- unless a gene drive is matched to the genetic background of a specific target population, Wade added. (newswise.com)
  • Based on this study, anyone trying to reduce insect populations through this method should conduct a thorough genetic analysis of the target gene region to assess variation rates," Wade said. (newswise.com)
  • Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant- Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Since TLR7 is located in a syntenic region of the X chromosome in humans and mice and since an increased prevalence of SLE in women ( 7 ) suggests an X-linked genetic component, we sought to determine whether, similar to the findings in the Yaa mouse, there were increased gene copy numbers of TLR7 in humans with SLE. (wiley.com)
  • We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. (nih.gov)
  • The results from large-scale proteomics experiments are in line with evidence from cross-species conservation, human population variation studies, and investigations into the relative effect of gene expression and alternative splicing. (blogspot.com.br)
  • Gene expression levels, not alternative splicing, seem to be the key to tissue specificity. (blogspot.com.br)
  • The researchers thus noted a lack of specificity of the effects of individual genera and species on the endpoints. (nutraingredients.com)
  • These key structural features are also found in the rev -binding site of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ( 10 , 110 ), but aminoglycosides are unlikely to become anti-HIV drugs, as was originally hoped ( 116 ), without thorough chemical optimization and/or screening ( 51 , 78 ) because of their lack of specificity. (asm.org)
  • We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Ant-fungus mutualism is a symbiosis seen in certain ant and fungal species, in which ants actively cultivate fungus much like humans farm crops as a food source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagrammatic representation of the consequences of hyphal fusion between fungal individuals that do, or do not, differ in specificity at heterokaryon incompatibility ( het ) loci, such as het-c in N. crassa . (asm.org)
  • Human/fungal chimaeric signal sequences identified a small region of five amino acids that was predominantly responsible for this species specificity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Instead, fungal community composition on decomposing litter differed substantially between litter types for unsterilized litter, suggesting that the leaf microbiome, either directly or indirectly, is an important determinant of fungal community composition on decomposing leaves. (wur.nl)
  • Orchidaceae includes about 880 genera and 22,075 species broadly distributed throughout the world except in Antarctica ( Ackerman, 1995 ). (cabi.org)
  • Lower agriculture is the most primitive system and is currently practiced by 80 species in 10 genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalized higher agriculture is practiced by 63 species in two genera and refers to the condition of highly domesticated fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leafcutter agriculture, which is a more highly derived form of higher agriculture, is practiced by 40 species in two genera and has the most recent evolution, originating between 8 and 12 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attini form twelve genera with over 200 species, which for the most part cultivate Lepiotaceae fungi of the tribe Leucocoprineae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of the studies included multiple genera and species of probiotic. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Since its origin, approximately 50 million years ago, the tribe Attini has diversified into more than 230 described species in 12 genera [ 11 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Sequences from R, intracellularis-Hemiaulus membranaceus sampled in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were almost identical, demonstrating that the genetic relatedness was not dependent on geographical location, All sequences displayed a deep divergence between symbionts from different genera and a high degree of host specificity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Acylsugars were reported from genera across the Solanaceae family, including Datura , Nicotiana , Petunia , Physalis , Salpiglossis , and Solanum with single species producing at least three dozen chromatographically distinct acylsugars ( 10 , 13 , 16 , 19 - 22 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Small size at maturity is normally a characteristic phenotype of this species in the tropical eastern Pacific, and the change in the squid's life history in the Sea of Cortez is consistent with the decreasing productivity and increasing temperatures observed over the last 6 years. (stanford.edu)
  • The Yaa locus has previously been shown to increase the severity of lupus-like disease in males of the BXSB mouse strain ( 3 ) and to change their autoantibody specificity ( 4 ), leading to the suggestion that increased expression of Tlr7 due to this increase in genomic DNA may affect the autoimmune phenotype of these mice. (wiley.com)
  • A major cause of this diversity may be local adaptation to host species. (usda.gov)
  • However, evidence for the existence of subpopulations that are adapted to specific reservoir host species has recently been forthcoming ( 7 , 9 , 10 ), and these subpopulations appear to possess differing potential to be a public health threat ( 7 , 9 , 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The role of natural selection in determining host-specificity was addressed using experimental selection followed by reciprocal fitness assays in both host species. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, a phylogenetic study was undertaken whereby the genomes of 16 representative isolates encompassing a range of biotypes, serotypes, host species (eight from rainbow trout, seven from Atlantic salmon and one from European eel), geographic locations and dates of isolation were considered. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Our results highlight the general potential for discovering useful biotechnological functions from untapped natural sequence variation and provide functional insight into emergent SGE1 alleles with reduced capacities to protect against IIL toxicity. (genetics.org)
  • The het-c locus has at least three mutually incompatible alleles, termed het-c OR , het-c PA , and het-c GR . Hyphal fusion between strains that are of alternative het-c specificity results in vegetative heterokaryons that are aconidial and which show growth inhibition and hyphal compartmentation and death. (asm.org)
  • We also constructed a number of artificial alleles that contained novel het-c specificity domains. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate common functional properties of Plasmodium- resistance alleles in passerine birds, suggesting this is a model system for parasite- Mhc associations in the wild. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Each pathogenic race can attack a specific line of plants within the species typical host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of a specific immune response suggests that H. parainfluenzae may have a pathogenic role in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. (asm.org)
  • In fish, the major pathogenic species that cause streptococcosis are S. agalactiae (GBS), S. dysgalactiae , S. iniaee and Lactococcus garvieae , which also infect human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The emergence of new pathogenic strains, together with vaccine breakdown in the field, has emphasised the need for greater knowledge about strain diversity which may lead to the development of improved vaccines for both species. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The transcription of a type III secretion system (TTSS) locus is also Bvg activated in both species, although the synthesis of TTSS proteins appears to be posttranscriptionally blocked specifically in B. pertussis ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • These data suggest that ZNRF proteins play a role in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal transmission and plasticity via their ubiquitin ligase activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Proteins homologous to ZNRF1 are present in a wide range of species including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila . (jneurosci.org)
  • The widespread expression of ZNRF proteins in the nervous system along with their involvement in exocytosis in presynaptic terminals that we demonstrate here suggests that they may participate in the regulation of proteins involved in presynaptic exocytosis and/or synaptic vesicle recycling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, most alternative exons do not seem to be under selective pressure, suggesting that a large majority of predicted alternative transcripts may not even be translated into proteins. (blogspot.com.br)
  • This suggests that most annotated alternative variants are unlikely to have a functional cellular role as proteins. (blogspot.com.br)
  • Wild mouse species and inbred laboratory strains vary in their susceptibility to gammaretrovirus infection, and such resistance can be due to constitutively expressed antiviral factors that target various stages of the retroviral life cycle. (pnas.org)
  • The local distribution and abundance of a species may be influenced by a number of factors, including competition (both within and between species), predation, disease, physical barriers to movement, and the physiological barriers imposed by climate or microclimate. (asm.org)
  • Studies done (with the concept of the prisoner's dilemma in mind) to test what further drives partner fidelity among species have shown that external factors are an even greater driving force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental and human factors seem better than species specificities at explaining behavioural heterogeneity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thus of interest to clarify the geographical distributions of the species, the importance of environmental factors and the influences of ecological variation on behavioural heterogeneity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Factors constraining the evolution of host-specificity were investigated using a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode, Strongyloides ratti. (elsevier.com)
  • These species-specificity factors likely evolved through reciprocal selection (i.e. coevolution) and are predicted to result in codiversification between partners [ 6 , 7 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Ecological factors such as the distribution, abundance and species richness of intermediate (birds) and definitive hosts (Diptera) regulate the transmission possibilities of hemoparasites [ 4 , 5 ] and can promote their diversification. (springer.com)
  • Currently, this species is found throughout the Neotropics, making it one of the most successful invasive plants ( Stern, 1988 ) and it is included in the World Compendium of Weeds ( Randall, 2012 ). (cabi.org)
  • This resistance could complicate attempts to use CRISPR-Cas9 in the fight against malaria -- a deadly mosquito-borne disease that threatens over 3 billion people worldwide -- or crop blights such as the western corn rootworm, an invasive species that costs the U.S. about $1 billion in lost crops each year. (newswise.com)
  • Substitutions at the 3 sites and variation at the C terminus all contribute to resistance ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • We report on studies of stress resistance including mild stress, effects of high larval densities, inbreeding and age on Hsp expression, as well as on natural variation in the expression of Hsps. (wiley.com)
  • These findings suggest that Mhc -linked malaria resistance should also exist in wild avian hosts, a premise supported by the results of several studies in passerine birds [ 16 - 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In ants, species of the Attini tribe are engaged in a highly coevolved nutritional symbiosis with basidiomycetes in which both partners are codependent, and that shows their reciprocal specializations and codispersal [ 4 - 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, our results could not rule out the possibility that bacterial leaf symbiosis originated once in a common ancestor of the Sericanthe species. (up.ac.za)
  • It has been suggested through multiple studies that testis, and neural tissues express the greatest amount of long non-coding RNAs of any tissue type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to higher tissue specificity, lncRNAs are characterized by higher developmental stage specificity, and cell subtype specificity in heterogeneous tissues, such as human neocortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both tumour models, fragmentation into pieces weighing 10 to 60 mg resulted in tissue fragments with highly variable relative content of hypoxic cells as evidenced by an up to 13-fold variation in FAZA radioactivity per mass of tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While a small number of alternative isoforms are conserved across species, have strong tissue dependence, and are translated in detectable quantities, most have variable tissue specificities and appear to be evolving neutrally. (blogspot.com.br)
  • Overall, the results suggest that the profile of inflammatory response in this disease is determined, to a significant degree, by the serotype of Salmonella , and the profile of certain cytokines and calprotectin remains abnormal for a number of months following the acute disease stage. (hindawi.com)
  • Infections by various Salmonella species remain one of the leading causes of gastrointestinal disorders in the world resulting in significant morbidity and some mortality [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical picture of the disease depends on the host, the serotype of Salmonella , and the specificity of the interaction of certain serotypes with the host, but not all details of these complex interactions are fully understood. (hindawi.com)
  • The distribution of morphological and chemical characters across the phylogeny was analyzed and it was concluded that three morphologically cryptic, but genetically well supported, species occur: T. vermicularis s. str. (diva-portal.org)
  • We then used temperatures in current ranges and a phylogeny of 81% of the species to study the timing and mode of cold tolerance evolution across the subfamily. (nlbif.nl)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 , wherein said species and the product of said catalytic reaction derived from said species differ in ability to act as electrochemiluminescence coreactants for said electrochemiluminescent label. (google.com)
  • This mutation in CD27L resulted in an increased activity against selected serotypes of L. monocytogenes , demonstrating the potential to tune the species specificity of the catalytic domain of an endolysin. (asm.org)
  • Big efforts have been put into investigating lncRNAs in plant species, since they remain far more uninvestigated than in mammal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orchid family has a considerable economic and horticultural value and large number of species and cultivars are widely commercialized as ornamentals ( Jones, 2006 ). (cabi.org)
  • The presence of Wolbachia in Anastrepha is therefore of considerable interest since these bacteria may be exploited as biological controls of pest insects, as suggested by Bourtzis (1). (scielo.br)
  • Among the traits that likely have contributed to the successful spread and invasion of this species within its new environment are a wide environmental tolerance, efficient reproductive system, and fast growth. (cabi.org)
  • Considering whether and how sexual dimorphism evolves in POLS traits provides a more holistic framework to understand how behavioral variation is integrated with life histories and physiology, and we call for studies that focus on examining the sex-specific genetic architecture of this integration. (springer.com)
  • The multivariate analytical approach used here is directly applicable to any species and set of traits exhibiting correlation. (phys.org)
  • Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated high variation among genotypes for most of the studied traits. (ac.ir)
  • However, for several decades it was still widely held that the abundance of sea fish was boundless, and fluctuations in catches essentially were caused by variations in migratory patterns (Ottersen et al. (redorbit.com)
  • Historically, motile (biotype 1), serotype O1 isolates of Y. ruckeri have been mostly responsible for ERM in rainbow trout worldwide but non-motile (biotype 2), serotype O1 isolates have become increasingly prevalent in this species over wide geographic areas since their first isolation in the UK in the 1980s. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the variation in bacterial community assemblages across geographical locations did not correlate with the composition of microalgal Symbiodinium symbionts. (peerj.com)
  • The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epichloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses. (nih.gov)
  • While the abundance and conservation of these interleaved arrangements suggest they have biological relevance, the complexity of these foci frustrates easy evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, observations in the western English Channel of sea temperature, plant nutrients such as phosphorus, the presence or absence of "cold" or "warm" water zooplankton species, and the abundance of sardine changed between 1925 and 1935 and reversed in 1965 and 1979. (redorbit.com)