Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Colony Count, Microbial
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Therapy, Combination
Serum Bactericidal Test
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylmuramic Acid
Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase
Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/2494)BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission. (+info)
Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (2/2494)Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates. (+info)
Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up. (3/2494)Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus bacteremia. The presumed source of infection was an intravascular device in 50.8% of patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed evidence of IE in 20 patients (33.9%), whereas transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed evidence of IE in 48 patients (81.4%). The outcome for patients was strongly associated with echocardiographic findings: 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients with vegetations visualized by TTE had an embolic event or died of their infection vs. five (16.7%) of 30 patients whose vegetations were visualized only by TEE (P < .01). Most patients with S. aureus IE developed their infection as a consequence of a nosocomial or intravascular device-related infection. TEE established the diagnosis of S. aureus IE in many instances when TTE was nondiagnostic. Visualization of vegetations by TTE may provide prognostic information for patients with S. aureus IE. (+info)
Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. (4/2494)We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in Hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes. (+info)
Synergy of an investigational glycopeptide, LY333328, with once-daily gentamicin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a multiple-dose, in vitro pharmacodynamic model. (5/2494)The pharmacodynamics of an investigational glycopeptide, LY333328 (LY), alone and in combination with gentamicin, against one vancomycin-susceptible and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains were studied with a multiple-dose, in vitro pharmacodynamic model (PDM). Dose-range data for the PDM studies were obtained from static time-kill curve studies. In PDM experiments conducted over 48 h, peak LY concentrations of 0.1x and 1x the MIC every 24 h and peak gentamicin concentrations of 18 micrograms/ml every 24 h (Gq24 h) and 6 micrograms/ml every 8 h (Gq8 h) were studied alone and in the four possible LY-gentamicin combinations. Compared to either antibiotic alone, LY-gentamicin combination regimens produced significantly higher apparent killing rates (KRs) calculated during the initial 2 h postdosing. The mean KRs for LY or gentamicin alone versus those for the LY-gentamicin combination regimens were 0.35 +/- 0.55 log10 CFU/ml/h (95% confidence interval [CI95%], 0 to 0.70) and 1.46 +/- 0.71 log10 CFU/ml/h (CI95%, 1.01 to 1.91), respectively (P < 0.0001). Bacterial killing at 48 h (BK48), which was calculated by subtracting the bacterial counts at 48 h from the initial inoculum, with a negative value indicating net growth, was also significantly greater. The mean BK48S were -0.69 +/- 0.44 log10 CFU/ml (CI95%, -0.41 to -0.97) and 3.72 +/- 2.28 log10 CFU/ml (CI95%, 2.28 to 5.17) for LY or gentamicin alone versus LY-gentamicin combination regimens, respectively (P < 0.0001). None of the 12 regimens with LY or gentamicin alone but 75% (9 of 12) of the LY-gentamicin combination regimens were bactericidal. Eighty-three percent (10 of 12) of the LY-gentamicin combination regimens also demonstrated synergy. No significant differences between the pharmacodynamics of LY-gentamicin combination regimens containing Gq24 h versus those containing Gq8h were detected. (+info)
Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods. (6/2494)This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit. (+info)
Changing susceptibilities of coagulase-negative staphylococci to teicoplanin in a teaching hospital. (7/2494)The susceptibility of two collections of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from clinical specimens for teicoplanin and vancomycin were compared. They comprised 91 and 101 isolates, collected in 1985 and 1994 respectively, from different departments of a teaching hospital. MICs of vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined by a modified Etest method. Additionally, a disc diffusion test was performed for teicoplanin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (MIC < or = 4 mg/L). Two of the 91 isolates collected in 1985 were intermediate to teicoplanin (MIC between 8 and 32 mg/L), whereas in 1994 the number of intermediate isolates was 20 out of 101 (P < 0.01). The correlation between MICs, as determined by the modified Etest assay, and disc diffusion zones was poor (r = -0.35). Results show that resistance to teicoplanin in CNS has increased in the study hospital over a period of 9 years. This increase is likely to be correlated with the introduction of teicoplanin. Furthermore, a disc diffusion method does not appear to be the first method of choice for detection of strains of CNS with diminished susceptibility to teicoplanin. (+info)
Transmission dynamics of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in England and Wales. (8/2494)A simple epidemiological framework for the analysis of the transmission dynamics of hospital outbreaks of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals in England and Wales is presented. Epidemic strains EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 are becoming endemic in hospitals in the United Kingdom, and theory predicts that EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16 will reach respective endemic levels of 158 (95% confidence interval [CI], 143-173) and 116 (95% CI, 109-123) affected hospitals with stochastic fluctuations of up to 30 hospitals in each case. An epidemic of VRE is still at an early stage, and the incidence of hospitals newly affected by VRE is growing exponentially at a rate r=0.51/year (95% CI, 0.48-0.54). The likely impact of introducing surveillance policies if action is taken sufficiently early is estimated. Finally, the role of heterogeneity in hospital size is considered: "Super-spreader hospitals" may increase transmission by 40%-132% above the expected mean. (+info)
Vancomycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including severe skin infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections. It is particularly effective against bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Vancomycin works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. It is typically administered intravenously, although it can also be given orally in some cases. Vancomycin is a powerful antibiotic, and it is important to use it only when it is necessary and to follow the prescribed dosage and duration of treatment. Overuse or misuse of vancomycin can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be more difficult to treat.
Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, thereby preventing the spread of the infection. There are several types of anti-bacterial agents, including: 1. Penicillins: These are the first antibiotics discovered and are effective against a wide range of bacteria. 2. Cephalosporins: These are similar to penicillins and are effective against many of the same types of bacteria. 3. Macrolides: These antibiotics are effective against bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. 4. Tetracyclines: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat acne. 5. Fluoroquinolones: These antibiotics are effective against a wide range of bacteria and are often used to treat respiratory infections. It is important to note that antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and are not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Additionally, overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be more difficult to treat.
Teicoplanin is an antibiotic medication used to treat bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species. It is a glycopeptide antibiotic, which means it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize cell walls. Teicoplanin is typically administered intravenously and is used to treat severe or life-threatening infections, such as endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), bone and joint infections, and pneumonia. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent infections in patients who are at high risk, such as those undergoing surgery or chemotherapy. Teicoplanin is generally well-tolerated, but like all antibiotics, it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions. It is important to take the full course of teicoplanin as prescribed by a healthcare provider to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus. These bacteria are commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy individuals, but can sometimes cause infections when they enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings. Staphylococcal infections can range from mild skin infections like impetigo to more serious infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Some types of staphylococcal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are resistant to certain antibiotics and can be more difficult to treat. Treatment for staphylococcal infections typically involves antibiotics, although in some cases surgery may be necessary.
Daptomycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat certain bacterial infections. It is a member of a class of antibiotics called lipopeptides, which are made up of a combination of amino acids and fatty acids. Daptomycin works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by disrupting their cell membranes, which prevents them from taking up essential nutrients and ultimately leads to their death. It is typically used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Daptomycin is usually administered intravenously, although it is also available in an oral form. It is generally well-tolerated, although it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Gram-positive bacterial infections are infections caused by bacteria that stain positively with the Gram stain, a common laboratory test used to differentiate between different types of bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls, which stains pink or purple with the Gram stain. Gram-positive bacterial infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, respiratory system, urinary tract, and bloodstream. Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include strep throat, pneumonia, cellulitis, and endocarditis. Treatment for gram-positive bacterial infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, which are medications that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The choice of antibiotic will depend on the specific type of bacteria causing the infection and the severity of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections.
Oxazolidinones are a class of synthetic antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections. They are a type of antibiotic called a "linezolid" and are often used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Oxazolidinones work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with the production of proteins that are essential for bacterial cell growth and reproduction. They are typically administered orally or intravenously and are generally well-tolerated by patients. However, like all antibiotics, they can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Acetamides are a class of organic compounds that contain a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded to an amide group (-CONH2). They are commonly used as drugs and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. In the medical field, acetamides are used as analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory agents. One example of an acetamide drug is acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol), which is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Other examples of acetamide drugs include amantadine, which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and influenza, and acetazolamide, which is used to treat glaucoma and altitude sickness. Acetamides can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. For example, they can be converted into amides, which are important components of many drugs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants.
Glycopeptides are a class of biomolecules that consist of a peptide chain covalently linked to one or more carbohydrate molecules, also known as glycans. In the medical field, glycopeptides are often used as antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to cell lysis and death. Examples of glycopeptide antibiotics include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and dalbavancin. These antibiotics are often used to treat severe and resistant bacterial infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
Bacteremia is a medical condition in which bacteria are present in the bloodstream. It is a serious condition that can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation and organ damage. Bacteremia can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. It can be diagnosed through blood cultures, which involve taking a sample of blood and growing the bacteria in a laboratory to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment for bacteremia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and manage the symptoms of the infection.
Endocarditis, bacterial is an infection of the inner lining of the heart (endocardium) and the heart valves. It is caused by bacteria that enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to the heart valves or other areas of the heart. The infection can cause inflammation, damage to the heart valves, and the formation of scar tissue, which can lead to heart failure or other complications. Bacterial endocarditis is typically treated with antibiotics, but surgery may be necessary in some cases to repair or replace damaged heart valves. It is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.
In the medical field, Carbon-Oxygen Ligases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a carbon-oxygen group from one molecule to another. These enzymes are involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including the synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as well as the breakdown of certain drugs and toxins. One example of a carbon-oxygen ligase is acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a carbon-oxygen group from bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA, producing malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is then used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids. Carbon-oxygen ligases are also involved in the metabolism of drugs and toxins. For example, cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of carbon-oxygen ligases that are responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and toxins in the liver. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of a carbon-oxygen group from oxygen to the drug or toxin, producing a metabolite that is more easily excreted from the body. In summary, Carbon-Oxygen Ligases are enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of various molecules in the body, including fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides, and drugs.
Gentamicins are a group of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. They are derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus and are classified as aminoglycosides. Gentamicins are effective against many gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are also effective against some gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Gentamicins are typically administered intravenously, although they can also be given intramuscularly or topically. They are often used to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Gentamicins are also used to treat infections in the urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. However, gentamicins can have serious side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and nerve damage. They should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and with careful monitoring of the patient's response to treatment.
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and meningitis. They work by binding to the ribosomes of bacterial cells, which are responsible for protein synthesis, and interfering with this process, leading to the death of the bacteria. Aminoglycosides are typically administered intravenously, although some may also be given by mouth or injection. They are often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of bacterial resistance. However, aminoglycosides can also have serious side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and neuromuscular disorders. As a result, they are typically reserved for use in severe infections and are administered with caution, under close medical supervision.
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who are taking antibiotics or have weakened immune systems. It is commonly found in the environment and can be transmitted through contaminated surfaces, food, or water. Infection with C. difficile can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and bloody diarrhea, and can be life-threatening in severe cases. Treatment typically involves stopping the use of antibiotics and using antibiotics specifically effective against C. difficile.
Enterocolitis, pseudomembranous, also known as Clostridium difficile colitis, is an inflammatory condition of the colon that is caused by the overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile. This bacterium is normally present in the gut in small numbers, but when the balance of bacteria in the gut is disrupted, it can overgrow and produce toxins that damage the colon. The symptoms of pseudomembranous enterocolitis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and nausea. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is typically treated with antibiotics to target the overgrowth of C. difficile and the toxins it produces. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Nafcillin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a member of the penicillin group of antibiotics, which work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Nafcillin is typically used to treat infections of the skin, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and bones and joints. It is usually given by injection, although it can also be taken by mouth in some cases. Nafcillin is generally considered to be effective against a wide range of bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, it is important to note that nafcillin may not be effective against all types of bacteria, and it is important to use the medication as directed by a healthcare provider.
In the medical field, "Colony Count, Microbial" refers to the process of counting the number of colonies of microorganisms that have grown on a culture plate. This is a common laboratory technique used to determine the concentration or density of microorganisms in a sample. To perform a colony count, a sample is typically taken from a patient or an environmental source and then cultured on a nutrient-rich agar plate. The plate is incubated for a specific period of time to allow the microorganisms to grow and form colonies. The colonies are then counted and the results are expressed in colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter or per gram of the original sample. The colony count can be used to diagnose infections caused by microorganisms, to monitor the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments, and to assess the quality of food and water. It is an important tool in the field of microbiology and is used in a variety of settings, including hospitals, laboratories, and research facilities.
Cefazolin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including skin infections, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the bones and joints. It is a cephalosporin antibiotic, which means that it works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Cefazolin is usually given intravenously (into a vein) or intramuscularly (into a muscle) and is typically used in hospital settings. It is important to note that cefazolin may not be effective against all types of bacteria, and it is important to use the medication as directed by a healthcare provider.
Methicillin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is a member of the penicillin group of antibiotics and is effective against many types of bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Methicillin works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. It is typically administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's condition. However, it is important to note that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria that has become resistant to methicillin and other antibiotics in the penicillin group. As a result, it is important to use methicillin and other antibiotics judiciously and only when necessary to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.
Oxacillin is a type of antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a beta-lactam antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the production of bacterial cell walls, leading to the death of the bacteria. Oxacillin is commonly used to treat skin infections, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and other types of bacterial infections. It is often prescribed for patients who are allergic to penicillin, as it is a close relative of penicillin and is less likely to cause an allergic reaction. It is important to note that oxacillin is only effective against bacterial infections and will not work against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Additionally, it is important to take oxacillin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider to ensure that it is effective and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.
Peptidoglycan is a complex carbohydrate and protein molecule that forms the cell wall of most bacteria. It is composed of alternating units of sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid) and peptides (short chains of amino acids) that are cross-linked together to form a strong, rigid structure. The peptidoglycan layer provides bacteria with structural support and protection against external stresses such as osmotic pressure and mechanical forces. It is also an important target for antibiotics, as many antibiotics work by disrupting the synthesis or integrity of the peptidoglycan layer, leading to bacterial cell lysis and death.
Pneumonia, Staphylococcal is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. It is a serious infection that can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in older adults, infants, and people with weakened immune systems. Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacteria that can be found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. However, when it enters the lungs, it can cause an infection that can be difficult to treat. Symptoms of Staphylococcal pneumonia may include fever, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or the brain, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for Staphylococcal pneumonia typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy or intravenous fluids. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have Staphylococcal pneumonia, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Clostridium infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the genus Clostridium. These bacteria are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. They can cause a variety of infections, including gas gangrene, botulism, and tetanus. Gas gangrene is a serious infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria release toxins that damage tissue and cause it to die. This can lead to the formation of gas bubbles in the affected tissue, which can cause severe pain and swelling. Botulism is a type of food poisoning caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Tetanus is a serious infection that occurs when Clostridium tetani bacteria release a toxin that affects the nervous system. Clostridium infections can be treated with antibiotics, antitoxins, and supportive care. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damage caused by the infection. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you or someone else may have a Clostridium infection, as prompt treatment is essential for a good outcome.
Penicillins are a group of antibiotics that are derived from the Penicillium fungi. They are one of the most widely used antibiotics in the medical field and are effective against a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. Penicillins work by inhibiting the production of cell walls in bacteria, which causes the bacteria to burst and die. There are several different types of penicillins, including penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins, which have different properties and are used to treat different types of infections. Penicillins are generally well-tolerated by most people, but can cause side effects such as allergic reactions, diarrhea, and nausea. It is important to take penicillins exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to finish the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
Cross infection is the transmission of an infectious agent from one person or animal to another through direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects, surfaces, or bodily fluids. It can occur in a variety of settings, including hospitals, schools, homes, and workplaces. Cross infection can be prevented through proper hygiene practices such as hand washing, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and disinfecting surfaces. It is also important to follow proper infection control procedures, such as isolation of infected individuals and proper disposal of contaminated materials. In the medical field, cross infection is a serious concern as it can lead to the spread of nosocomial infections, which are infections acquired in a healthcare setting. These infections can be particularly dangerous for patients with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Therefore, healthcare workers are trained to follow strict infection control protocols to prevent the spread of cross infection.
Rifampin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. It is a member of the rifamycin family of antibiotics and works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to produce proteins. Rifampin is typically taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness. It is important to take rifampin exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
Anti-infective agents, also known as antimicrobial agents, are drugs that are used to treat infections caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganisms or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several types of anti-infective agents, including antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antifungal drugs, and antiparasitic drugs. Antibiotics are the most commonly used anti-infective agents and are used to treat bacterial infections. Antiviral drugs are used to treat viral infections, while antifungal drugs are used to treat fungal infections. Antiparasitic drugs are used to treat parasitic infections. The use of anti-infective agents is an important part of modern medicine, as they are essential for treating a wide range of infections and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. However, the overuse and misuse of these agents can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.
Lysostaphin is a protein that is produced by certain bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. It is a protease that specifically cleaves the peptide bond between the alanine and valine residues in the cell wall of certain bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. This cleavage weakens the cell wall and makes the bacteria more susceptible to lysis or destruction by other antibiotics or the host immune system. Lysostaphin has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bacterial infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
In the medical field, the cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane of certain types of cells, such as plant cells and some bacteria. The cell wall provides structural support and protection to the cell, and helps to maintain its shape and integrity. It is composed of various polysaccharides, proteins, and other molecules, and is essential for the survival and function of these types of cells. In some cases, the cell wall may also play a role in cell division and communication with other cells.
Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the mold species Cephalosporium acremonium. They are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the bones and joints. Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which leads to the death of the bacteria. They are generally well-tolerated and have a broad spectrum of activity against many types of bacteria. There are several different classes of cephalosporins, each with its own specific characteristics and uses. The most commonly used classes are first-generation cephalosporins, second-generation cephalosporins, third-generation cephalosporins, and fourth-generation cephalosporins. The choice of which cephalosporin to use depends on the type of infection being treated, the severity of the infection, and the specific characteristics of the bacteria causing the infection.
Meningitis, Pneumococcal is a serious bacterial infection that affects the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. The infection can cause inflammation and swelling of the meninges, leading to symptoms such as severe headache, fever, neck stiffness, sensitivity to light, and vomiting. In severe cases, meningitis can lead to complications such as brain damage, hearing loss, seizures, and even death. Pneumococcal meningitis is typically treated with antibiotics, which are given intravenously to quickly eliminate the bacteria from the body. In some cases, additional supportive care may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Prevention of pneumococcal meningitis is also important, and can be achieved through vaccination. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is recommended for infants and young children, while the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is recommended for older adults and individuals with certain medical conditions.
Coagulase is an enzyme produced by certain strains of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, that is responsible for the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, a key step in the clotting of blood. The presence of coagulase in a bacterial culture is often used as a diagnostic test to identify S. aureus infections, as this enzyme is not produced by most other types of bacteria. In addition to its role in blood clotting, coagulase has also been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, including the ability of the bacteria to form biofilms and evade the host immune system.
Endophthalmitis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the inner part of the eye, called the vitreous humor, becomes infected or inflamed. This can happen as a result of a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection, or it can be caused by a traumatic injury to the eye. Symptoms of endophthalmitis may include severe eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, and vision loss. If left untreated, endophthalmitis can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness. Treatment for endophthalmitis typically involves the use of antibiotics or antifungal medications to fight the infection, as well as surgery to remove any infected or damaged tissue from the eye. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have endophthalmitis, as prompt treatment is crucial for preventing permanent damage to the eye.
Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent the development of an infection in a person who is at risk of developing an infection. This is typically done before a person undergoes a medical procedure or is exposed to an infection-causing organism, such as during surgery or when traveling to a high-risk area. Antibiotic prophylaxis is often used to prevent infections that can occur after surgery, such as infections of the surgical site or bloodstream infections. It may also be used to prevent infections in people who are immunocompromised or have other medical conditions that increase their risk of developing infections. The choice of antibiotic and the duration of treatment will depend on the specific situation and the type of infection that is being prevented. It is important to use antibiotics only when they are necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Uridine diphosphate N-acetylmuramic acid (UDP-NAM) is a compound that plays a role in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. It is a nucleotide sugar that is synthesized from uridine diphosphate (UDP) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). In the cell, UDP-NAM is used as a building block to form the peptidoglycan backbone, which is then modified by the addition of peptides and other sugars to form the mature cell wall. In the medical field, UDP-NAM is of interest because it is a target for antibiotics that disrupt bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as penicillin and vancomycin.
In the medical field, culture media refers to a nutrient-rich substance used to support the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Culture media is typically used in diagnostic laboratories to isolate and identify microorganisms from clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or sputum. Culture media can be classified into two main types: solid and liquid. Solid media is usually a gel-like substance that allows microorganisms to grow in a three-dimensional matrix, while liquid media is a broth or solution that provides nutrients for microorganisms to grow in suspension. The composition of culture media varies depending on the type of microorganism being cultured and the specific needs of that organism. Culture media may contain a variety of nutrients, including amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as antibiotics or other agents to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms. Overall, culture media is an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection and select the most appropriate treatment.
Metronidazole is an antibiotic medication that is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial and protozoal infections. It is particularly effective against anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that thrive in oxygen-poor environments. Metronidazole is often used to treat infections of the gastrointestinal tract, such as giardiasis and trichomoniasis, as well as infections of the vagina, skin, and respiratory tract. It is also sometimes used to treat infections caused by certain types of parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and creams, and is typically taken orally or applied topically. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking metronidazole, as it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a cephalosporin antibiotic, which means that it works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Ceftriaxone is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin, as well as infections that affect the bones and joints, blood, and central nervous system. It is usually given by injection, although it is also available in an oral form. Ceftriaxone is a powerful antibiotic and can be effective against many types of bacteria, but it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare provider to avoid the development of antibiotic resistance.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a lincosamide antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clindamycin is often used to treat infections of the skin, respiratory tract, and reproductive system, as well as certain types of bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is usually taken by mouth or given by injection, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Clindamycin can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication.
Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. It works by binding to the ribosomes of bacteria, which are responsible for protein synthesis, and inhibiting their ability to produce essential proteins. This leads to bacterial cell death and the resolution of the infection. Netilmicin is typically administered intravenously, although it can also be given intramuscularly or by inhalation. It is usually used in cases where other antibiotics have failed or are not effective, or when the infection is caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Netilmicin can cause a number of side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and allergic reactions. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully monitor patients who are receiving netilmicin to detect and manage any potential side effects.
Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix. In the medical field, biofilms are often associated with chronic infections that are difficult to treat with antibiotics. Biofilms can form on medical devices such as catheters, prosthetic joints, and dental implants, as well as on the surfaces of the human body. The bacteria in a biofilm are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune system than bacteria in a planktonic state, making them a significant challenge in the treatment of infections.
Dibekacin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat bacterial infections. It is a member of the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics, which work by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Dibekacin is typically used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and soft tissues. It is usually administered intravenously, although it may also be given intramuscularly or orally in some cases. Dibekacin is not effective against all types of bacteria, and it may not be suitable for use in people with certain medical conditions or allergies. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dibekacin and to report any side effects that occur.
Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase is an enzyme that is involved in the final step of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. It is responsible for cleaving the peptide bond between the amino acids D-alanine and D-alanine in the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall. This enzyme is a type of carboxypeptidase, which are a class of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl end of amino acids. Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase is a key target for antibiotics that disrupt bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, such as beta-lactam antibiotics.
Bacitracin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including skin infections, urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections. It is typically used in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness. Bacitracin is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces subtilis and works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to make cell walls. It is available in various forms, including ointments, creams, and solutions, and is usually applied topically to the affected area.
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Production of antibiotics
Treatment of infections after exposure to ionizing radiation
Clostridioides difficile infection
New York City agar
Vancomycin: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of Vancomycin Resistance
Vancocin (vancomycin) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
vancomycin (injection) | Michigan Medicine
Vancomycin Injection 5 mg/mL (100 mL) | Cigna
Good Bacteria May Expunge Vancomycin-Resistant Bacteria from the Gut
vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium | West Indian Medical Journal
PRIME PubMed | Antistaphylococcal activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil and its synergy with vancomycin
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- Since 1989, a rapid increase in the incidence of infection and colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has been reported by U.S. hospitals. (cdc.gov)
- From 1989 through 1993, the percentage of nosocomial enterococcal infections reported to CDC's National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system that were caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) increased from 0.3% to 7.9% (1). (cdc.gov)
- Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides, thus presenting a challenge for physicians who treat patients who have infections caused by these microorganisms (1,4). (cdc.gov)
- The increasing emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has resulted in the development of guidelines for use by the Centers for Disease Control Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. (wikipedia.org)
- Now researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, and Centro Superior de InvestigaciÃ³n en Salud PÃºblica, Valencia, Spain, show that reintroducing normal microbial diversity largely eliminated vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from the intestinal tracts of mice. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The researchers then analyzed the fecal microbiota from human patients who had received bone marrow transplants, who were at high risk of being colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococci. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Conclusions: An important change in vancomycin-resistant enterococci was observed. (jidc.org)
- Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are major nosocomial disease-causing bacteria. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- It is more active than vancomycin against enterococci, and equally active against MRSA. (pharmacy180.com)
- Fabian Grein's research group 'Bacterial Interference' exploits the human gut microbiome as a source for novel decolonization agents against enteropathogenic bacteria such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci. (dzif.de)
- 1e4e: D. I. Roper, T. Huyton, A. Vagin & G. Dodson (2000) The molecular basis of vancomycin resistance in clinically relevant Enterococci: crystal structure of D-alanyl-D-lactate ligase (VanA). (rcsb.org)
- Continued infection control and appropriate antibiotic use are infections are resistant to vancomycin, reducing important to maintain decreases in VRE infections. (cdc.gov)
- Vancomycin is used to treat colitis (inflammation of the intestine caused by certain bacteria) that may occur after antibiotic treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic medication used to treat a number of bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Vancomycin is an antibiotic that is used to treat severe infections that are resistant to certain other antibiotics. (uofmhealth.org)
- Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is used to treat certain infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, such as skin infections, sepsis, endocarditis, bone & joint infections, and meningitis. (factmr.com)
- No cross-resistance occurs between vancomycin and other antibiotic medications. (factmr.com)
- The global vancomycin industry is growing as antibiotic consumption rises in low- and middle-income nations, with pharmaceutical companies investing heavily in research and development, besides the rising prevalence of infectious diseases. (factmr.com)
- Vancomycin is an antibiotic drug used to treat serious, life-threatening infections by gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to less-toxic agents. (medscape.com)
- Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic first isolated in 1953. (medscape.com)
- Generic vancomycin is became available and approved for use in 1958 and quickly became a common antibiotic in treating rapidly growing penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species. (medscape.com)
- Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic considered the gold standard in the treatment of staphylococcal infections that are oxacillin-resistant. (bvsalud.org)
- Vancomycin : It is a glycopeptide antibiotic discovered in 1956 as a penicillin substitute which has assumed special significance due to efficacy against MRSA, Strep. (pharmacy180.com)
- Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that has been extensively utilized to treat severe bacterial infections for more than 60 years. (kireportscommunity.org)
- Vancomycin is a bacteriostatic antibiotic commonly used in combination with other medications to treat severe gram positive bacterial infections including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (kireportscommunity.org)
- Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat infections with gram-positive bacteria (e.g. streptococci or staphylococci ). (dzif.de)
- In the treatment of severe infections caused by staphylococci , vancomycin is often used as a reserve antibiotic. (dzif.de)
- The antibiotic vancomycin blocks the construction of bacterial cell walls. (rcsb.org)
- Vancomycin is effective for blocking formation of this type of cell wall and is currently used as a last resort antibiotic for persistent infections by these bacteria. (rcsb.org)
- Intestinal microbiota containing Barnesiella species cures vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Resende M, Caierão J, Prates JG, Narvaez GA, Dias CAG, d'Azevedo PA (2014) Emergence of vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a hospital in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. (jidc.org)
- The high sensitivity of amplification by polymerase chain reaction requires the specimen to be processed in an environment in which contamination of the specimen by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus DNA is unlikely. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- Linezolid treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ventriculitis. (qxmd.com)
- The successful treatment of a 7-month-old infant with shunt-associated ventriculitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium is presented. (qxmd.com)
- aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have emerged. (pharmacy180.com)
- Vancomycin is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibiotics such as vancomycin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you stop taking vancomycin too soon or miss doses, your infection may not be completely cured and bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
- Vancomycin is indicated for the treatment of serious, life-threatening infections by Gram-positive (aerobic and/or anaerobic) bacteria unresponsive to other antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
- The reduced diversity of microbiota wrought by antibiotics 'allow[s] VRE to invade and thrive in the intestine, suggesting that bacterial species that are wiped out by antibiotics are key to preventing colonization by VRE,' says first author Carles Ubeda of the Centro Superior de Investigacion en Salud Publica, Valencia, Spain. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Vancomycin is used with other antibiotics when treating methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal prosthetic valve endocarditis or enterococcal endocarditis. (msdmanuals.com)
- Vancomycin belongs to the group of medications known as antibiotics . (rxhealthmed.ca)
- Several randomized clinical trials have found that vancomycin was associated with a higher AKI risk than other antibiotics. (kireportscommunity.org)
- A meta-analysis of 4033 patients in 2016 by Ray et al found that vancomycin administration led to a 2.5-fold increased AKI risk versus non-glycopeptide antibiotics. (kireportscommunity.org)
Early impure versions of vancomycin2
- Damage to the kidneys (nephrotoxicity) and to the hearing (ototoxicity) were side effects of the early impure versions of vancomycin, and these were prominent in the clinical trials conducted in the mid-1950s. (wikipedia.org)
- Clinical experiments conducted in the mid-1950s revealed that early impure versions of vancomycin tablets caused kidney damage (nephrotoxicity) and hearing loss (ototoxicity). (factmr.com)
- An increased risk for VRE infection and colonization has been associated with previous vancomycin and/or multiantimicrobial therapy, severe underlying disease or immunosuppression, and intraabdominal surgery. (cdc.gov)
- This report presents recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee for preventing and controlling the spread of vancomycin resistance, with a special focus on VRE. (cdc.gov)
- in particular, in cases of relapse or where the infection is unresponsive to metronidazole treatment (for this indication, vancomycin is given orally, rather than by its typical intravenous route) For treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms in patients with serious allergies to beta-lactam antimicrobials. (wikipedia.org)
- Vancomycin will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold. (uofmhealth.org)
- In an in vivo rabbit model, subtherapeutic (15-mg/kg) and therapeutic (30- or 45-mg/kg) doses of telavancin were demonstrated to be noninferior and superior to vancomycin (20 mg/kg), respectively, for preventing subcutaneous implant colonization and infection by Staphylococcus aureus. (nih.gov)
- Vancomycin is widely used in hospitals to treat infection. (nbc4i.com)
- We evaluated the infection rates of cefazolin and vancomycin for craniotomy for tumor patients with and without shunts. (cns.org)
- Patients receiving cefazolin and vancomycin with no prior shunt had infection rates of 2/164 (1.22%) and 1/19 (5.26%), respectively. (cns.org)
- Patients receiving vancomycin had higher incidence of infection. (cns.org)
- Moreover, regardless of prior shunt, vancomycin had a similar infection rate (8.70% prior shunt and 5.26% no prior shunt). (cns.org)
- To identify a significant difference in infection rates between vancomycin and cefazolin. (cns.org)
- To analyse the concentration of serum level in the voucher (one hour before the next administration of the drug dose) of vancomycin in newborns with Staphylococcus aureus infection or oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative. (bvsalud.org)
- The length of treatment with IV vancomycin depends on the severity of the infection and the response to the medication. (rxhealthmed.ca)
- Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal infections and infection caused by diphtheroids respond very well to vancomycin. (pharmacy180.com)
- Vancomycin will not kill bacteria or treat infections in any other part of the body when taken by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- vancomycin does not cure the patient and success is limited Treatment of endophthalmitis by intravitreal injection for gram-positive bacteria coverage. (wikipedia.org)
- Vancomycin is considered a last resort medication for the treatment of sepsis and lower respiratory tract, skin, and bone infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- Vancomycin does not have any effect on gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, or even fungi in vitro. (factmr.com)
- Only some bacteria are susceptible to vancomycin. (rcsb.org)
- Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli , on the other hand, build their peptidoglycan beneath an outer membrane, where it is protected from this stain and from attack by vancomycin. (rcsb.org)
- Bacteria become resistant to vancomycin by getting rid of its target. (rcsb.org)
Purer forms of vancomycin2
- Later trials using purer forms of vancomycin found nephrotoxicity is an infrequent adverse effect (0.1% to 1% of patients), but this is accentuated in the presence of aminoglycosides. (wikipedia.org)
- Nephrotoxicity was discovered to be a rare adverse effect in later investigations using purer forms of vancomycin (0.1% to 1% of patients). (factmr.com)
- Serum vancomycin levels may be monitored in an effort to reduce side effects, although the value of such monitoring has been questioned. (wikipedia.org)
- The application of serum vancomycin monitoring has been a source of debate for many years. (medscape.com)
- Among all the newborns, mean serum concentrations in the vancomycin valley were 40% adequate, 13.34% lower than expected, and 46.67% higher than the reference values. (bvsalud.org)
- In seven patients (23.34%), the first serum level in the Vancomycin valley collected was adequate, but in nine (30%) and 14 (46.67%) patients, the serum concentration in the valley was respectively below and above the correct values. (bvsalud.org)
- The monitoring of serum levels in the vancomycin valley is of great importance as it minimises nephrotoxic effects, thus increasing the efficacy of the drug. (bvsalud.org)
- Monitoring of serum creatinine levels is important during vancomycin therapy to detect early signs of nephrotoxicity. (kireportscommunity.org)
Activity of vancomycin2
Resistance to vancomycin2
- Antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus has increased dramatically, particularly in the hospital, where the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the appearance of S. aureus isolates with resistance to vancomycin have led to concern that this organism may become untreatable with currently available antimicrobials. (cdc.gov)
- Enterococcal resistance to vancomycin is due to a plasmid mediated alteration of the dipeptide target site, reducing its affinity for vancomycin. (pharmacy180.com)
- General indications for measuring vancomycin trough levels include risk of nephrotoxicity and inadequate therapeutic response. (medscape.com)
- Vancomycin is made by the soil bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis. (wikipedia.org)
- North America is expected to hold a significant share of the global vancomycin market because of rising vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infections, increased R&D initiatives, and rising demand for new treatments. (factmr.com)
- However, vancomycin is less effective than antistaphylococcal beta-lactams for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections. (msdmanuals.com)
- The emergence of pseudomembranous enterocolitis, coupled with the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), led to a resurgence in the use of vancomycin. (medscape.com)
- We selected 30 patients who had staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative sepsis and used vancomycin as a treatment. (bvsalud.org)
- Historically, isolates resistant to oxacillin (commonly referred to as MRSA) were resistant to most agents other than vancomycin, but these isolates were limited to nosocomial infections. (medscape.com)
- Vancomycin levels outside the target range for individual patients can cause acute nephrotoxicity and acute kidney injury (AKI), leading to worsening patient conditions, longer hospital stays, and higher costs of care. (nbc4i.com)
- Vancomycin trough concentrations above the therapeutic range may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. (medscape.com)
- Vancomycin peak concentrations above the therapeutic range may be associated with an increased the risk of nephrotoxicity, although peak concentrations do not correlate well with toxicity. (medscape.com)
- Even though modern, more purified compounds are considered safer, the incidence of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN) remains high in some studies. (kireportscommunity.org)
- Vancomycin has been plagued with concerns about nephrotoxicity since its approval in 1958. (kireportscommunity.org)
- Through improved purification processes, current preparations contain ∼90-95% vancomycin B (the active moiety), but nephrotoxicity persists. (kireportscommunity.org)
- First, there remains conflicting evidence as to the direct nephrotoxicity of vancomycin in various clinic settings. (kireportscommunity.org)
- A subsequent cohort study in 2020 by Gaggl et al found no increased nephrotoxicity with vancomycin with an adjusted hazard ratio for vancomycin versus all other comparators of 0.74 (95% CI 0.45-1.21), although the authors admit residual confounding might remain. (kireportscommunity.org)
- The reference range for vancomycin trough levels is 10-20 µg/mL (15-20 µg/mL for complicated infections). (medscape.com)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to vancomycin, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in vancomycin capsules or oral solution. (medlineplus.gov)
- You should not take this medication if you are allergic to vancomycin. (uofmhealth.org)
- [ 3 ] Vancomycin is also used in patients who are intolerant or allergic to beta-lactams. (medscape.com)
- Vancomycin should not be used by anyone who is allergic to vancomycin or to any of the ingredients of the medication. (rxhealthmed.ca)
- This increase poses important problems, including a) the lack of available antimicrobial therapy for VRE infections, because most VRE are also resistant to drugs previously used to treat such infections (e.g., aminoglycosides and ampicillin), and b) the possibility that the vancomycin-resistant genes present in VRE can be transferred to other gram-positive microorganisms (e.g. (cdc.gov)
- Results: All isolates were identified as vancomycin/ampicillin resistant E. faecium carrying the vanA gene. (jidc.org)
- Vancomycin demand is predicted to grow due to rising prevalence of infectious diseases, increased awareness programs, and government financing for the research and development of new treatments. (factmr.com)
- These symptoms can be challenging to attribute to vancomycin since they are common in patients with infectious diseases as well. (kireportscommunity.org)
- Vancomycin is also taken orally (by mouth) as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis. (wikipedia.org)
- Two typical adverse drug reactions associated with IV vancomycin are severe local pain and thrombophlebitis (which affect about 1% of patients). (factmr.com)
- The severe model compared omadacycline versus vancomycin in survival , weight loss , clinical scoring, and C. difficile toxin production . (bvsalud.org)
- [ 52 ] .The results of such testing are often delayed .Because of these drawbacks and the availability of less nephrotoxic and more effective alternatives , vancomycin has a very limited role in treating staphylococcal infections. (medscape.com)
- Methodology: Twenty-nine isolates from inpatients of Mãe de Deus Hospital that were identified and characterized for their susceptibility profile, vancomycin genotype, presence of esp gene, biofilm production, and clonal relationship were collected. (jidc.org)
- isolates with an increased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to vancomycin are becoming more common and include both MRSA and MSSA. (medscape.com)
- SAN FRANCISCO , Sept. 19, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- InsightRX - which provides cloud-based precision medicine software to optimize treatment decisions - today announced results of a data analysis by Mount Nittany Medical Center showing how deploying InsightRX's Bayesian software integrated with PINC AI™ Clinical Surveillance powered by TheraDoc ® for monitoring vancomycin dosing helped increase efficiency and optimized pharmacist workflow compared to industry benchmarks. (nbc4i.com)
- The actual increase in the incidence of VRE in U.S. hospitals might be greater than reported because the fully automated methods used in many clinical laboratories cannot consistently detect vancomycin resistance, especially moderate vancomycin resistance (as manifested in the VanB phenotype) (9-11). (cdc.gov)
- however, the erratic penetration of vancomycin into cerebrospinal fluid (especially during concomitant use of dexamethasone ) and reports of clinical failures make it less than optimal when used alone to treat pneumococcal meningitis. (msdmanuals.com)
- Other oto and nephrotoxic drugs like aminoglycosides must be very carefully administered when vancomycin is being used. (pharmacy180.com)
- Vancomycin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (uofmhealth.org)
- In Q4 2022, only 1 percent of patients experienced an AKI 48 hours after initiation of vancomycin therapy - well below the industry range of 8 percent to 16 percent. (nbc4i.com)
- 168 patients given cefazolin and 42 patients given vancomycin were identified. (cns.org)
- Vancomycin should be given to all septic patients with indwelling catheters or devices. (medscape.com)
- The dosage adjustment of vancomycin in severely ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit is important and requires more studies related to this area, as the work of a multidisciplinary body makes the treatment better and more specific. (bvsalud.org)
- Along with Holyk, Hayden Hayward , PharmD, and Jessica McDonald , PharmD, Pharmacy Department, Mount Nittany Medical Center, were inducted into the 2022 CHART Institute Patient Safety Hall of Fame in recognition of their efforts in implementing Bayesian dosing software, InsightRX, to assist with vancomycin dosing. (nbc4i.com)
- Vancomycin acts by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. (pharmacy180.com)
- Vancomycin is not absorbed orally. (pharmacy180.com)
- As shown here in PDB entry 1fvm , vancomycin binds tightly to this D-alanine-D-alanine peptide, blocking the ability to form the crosslink. (rcsb.org)
- Vancomycin trough concentrations below 10 µg/mL are associated with inadequate therapy and an increased risk of developing bacterial resistance. (medscape.com)
- For empirical therapy of bacterial meningitis, i.v. vancomycin is usually combined with i.v. ceftriaxone/cefotaxime. (pharmacy180.com)
- In a study of 296 consecutive MRSA bacteremia episodes, several factors were predictive of high vancomycin MIC, including age older than 50 years, prior vancomycin exposure, history of MRSA bacteremia, history of chronic liver disease, and presence of a nontunneled catheter. (medscape.com)
- Repeat exposure to vancomycin may also contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease from recurrent AKI. (kireportscommunity.org)
- In a small study (40 subjects) with MRSA bacteremia, the combination of ceftaroline plus daptomycin was found to have lower in-hospital mortality rate as compared to vancomycin or daptomycin monotherapy. (medscape.com)
- Efficacy of Omadacycline or Vancomycin Combined with Germinants for Preventing Clostridioides difficile Relapse in a Murine Model. (bvsalud.org)
- Vancomycin comes as a capsule and oral solution (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
- dysgeusia (distorted sense of taste), in case of administration of vancomycin oral solution, but not in case of vancomycin capsules. (wikipedia.org)
- Vancomycin is not appreciably absorbed from a normal gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. (msdmanuals.com)
- Vancomycin was isolated in 1957 from a fungus, Streptomyces orientalis, found in the soil of Borneo. (kireportscommunity.org)
- Certain limitations, such as rising use of generic alternatives, particularly as patents expire, and short lifecycle of medications, are expected to hinder vancomycin market growth. (factmr.com)
- In murine models of CDI, omadacycline improved survival versus vancomycin . (bvsalud.org)
- Store vancomycin capsules at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). (medlineplus.gov)
- What Might Restrain Demand for Vancomycin to Some Extent? (factmr.com)
- It remains uncertain to what extent vancomycin is directly responsible for kidney injury, as numerous factors co-exists during bacteremia and sepsis (endotoxins, hypotension, capillary leak syndrome, etc) that may also cause kidney injury. (kireportscommunity.org)