Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial: An autosomal dominant inherited form of HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. It results from any of more than 50 mutations involving genes encoding contractile proteins such as VENTRICULAR MYOSINS; cardiac TROPONIN T; ALPHA-TROPOMYOSIN.Pulmonary Valve: A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Mitral Valve Prolapse: Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Cardiomyopathy, Alcoholic: Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Diabetic Cardiomyopathies: Diabetes complications in which VENTRICULAR REMODELING in the absence of CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS and hypertension results in cardiac dysfunctions, typically LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION. The changes also result in myocardial hypertrophy, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis, and collagen deposition due to impaired glucose tolerance.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Mitral Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annuli of HEART VALVES. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Peripartum Period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Ventricular Myosins: Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plakophilins: Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Sarcoglycans: A family of transmembrane dystrophin-associated proteins that play a role in the membrane association of the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Ileocecal Valve: The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Desmoglein 2: A CALCIUM-dependent adhesion molecule of DESMOSOMES that also plays a role in embryonic STEM CELL proliferation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium: Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIb: An X-linked dominant multisystem disorder resulting in cardiomyopathy, myopathy and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. It is caused by mutation in the gene encoding LYSOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED MEMBRANE PROTEIN 2.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Ablation Techniques: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Aortic Valve Prolapse: The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Atrioventricular Block: Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Ventricular Septum: The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.Epicardial Mapping: Recording the locations and measurements of electrical activity in the EPICARDIUM by placing electrodes on the surface of the heart to analyze the patterns of activation and to locate arrhythmogenic sites.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Endocardial Fibroelastosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of ENDOCARDIUM due to proliferation of fibrous and elastic tissue, usually in the left ventricle leading to impaired cardiac function (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE). It is most commonly seen in young children and rarely in adults. It is often associated with congenital heart anomalies (HEART DEFECTS CONGENITAL;) INFECTION; or gene mutation. Defects in the tafazzin protein, encoded by TAZ gene, result in a form of autosomal dominant familial endocardial fibroelastosis.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Coxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Kinetocardiography: The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.IodobenzenesCardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Desmocollins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Friedreich Ataxia: An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Penetrance: The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Earlier onset of murmur Mitral valve prolapse BP rises at onset of straining-because the increased ... increases the intensity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmurs, namely those of dynamic subvalvular left ventricular outflow ... Nedelmann; Eicke, BM; Dieterich, M (2005). "Increased incidence of jugular valve insufficiency in patients with transient ...
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy[edit]. The breed does have instances of the genetic disorder hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). ... The Sphynx cat has a high rate of heart disease, either as HCM or mitral valve dysplasia. In a 2012 study of 114 Sphynx cats, ... "The Genetic Basis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Cats and Humans". Journal of Veterinary Cardiology. 17 (Suppl 1): S53-S73. ... 34% were found to have an abnormal heart,[24] with 16 cats having mitral valve dysplasia and 23 cats having HCM.[24] These ...
The breed does have instances of the genetic disorder hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Studies are being undertaken to ... 16 had mitral valve dysplasia and 23 had HCM. These prevalences were found in cats with an average age of 2.62 years. A type of ... The Sphynx cat has a high rate of heart disease, either HCM or mitral valve dysplasia. In a study of 114 cats, 34% were found ...
... myectomy after unsuccessful alcohol septal ablation for the treatment of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy ... Mitral valve repair in patients with low left ventricular ejection fractions: early and late results. Chest. 2004 Sep;126(3): ... Mitral valve: toward complete repairability. Surg Technol Int. 2006;15:189-97. PMID 17029176 Lawrie GM, Earle EA, Earle NR. ... Ensuring proper leaflet apposition during mitral valve repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Jan;135(1):228; author reply 228- ...
Familial renal disease is inherited in Abyssinians and Persians Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Heart valve dysplasia ...
Murmurs that are due to forward flowing of blood such as aortic stenosis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy decrease in intensity ... The reason for this is that there is a larger pressure gradient across the aortic valve. A complementary maneuver for ... Tanser, Paul H. (reviewed Mar 2007). "Mitral Valve Prolapse", The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library, Retrieved 2011-01-08. ... This includes aortic regurgitation (AR), mitral regurgitation (MR), and a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Mitral valve ...
Palpitation that occurs regularly with exertion suggests a rate-dependent bypass tract or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. If a ... but occasionally abnormalities such as valve problems may be present. Usually, but not always, the cardiologist will be able to ... diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and ... A waves in the jugular venous pulsations that occur when the right atrium contracts against a closed tricuspid valve. ...
Can be due to aortic valve stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), with a harsh and rough quality.. **Valvular aortic ... Subvalvular aortic stenosis is usually due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), with murmur loudest over the left sternal ... Tricuspid valve prolapse Uncommon without concomitant mitral valve prolapse. Best heard over left lower sternal border. ... The most common cause of mitral valve prolapse is "floppy" valve (Barlow's) syndrome. If the prolapse becomes severe enough, ...
It is a sign of problems with the aortic valve, including aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation, as well as hypertrophic ... cardiomyopathy causing subaortic stenosis. Riojas, CM; Dodge, A; Gallo, DR; White, PW (January 2016). "Aortic Dissection as a ...
Cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic or dilated; Certain medicines such as digoxin, which increases heart contraction or tricyclic ... For example, some cases of premature ventricular contraction have a mitral-valve prolapse which can be determined through the ... In these cases, if the PVCs are reduced or removed (for example, via ablation therapy) the cardiomyopathy usually regresses. ... One drawback comes from emerging data that suggests very frequent ventricular ectopy may be associated with cardiomyopathy ...
... hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the time course of "false positive stress ECGs" In the late 1950s Barlow had returned to South ... In 1968 Barlow and Wendy Pocock co-authored a paper published by the British Heart Journal Perspectives on the Mitral Valve F.A ... In addition to his specialised work on the mitral valve he furthered research and published papers in other cardiac pathologies ... He also described other pathological conditions of the mitral valve including associated regurgitation, abnormal changes of ...
... or aortic valve disease. In a large subset of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, thickening of the heart ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition of the heart muscle which grows abnormally thick, in the absence of a physiologic ... February 2005). "Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: comparison of outcomes after myectomy or alcohol ablation adjusted by ... Sigwart U (July 1995). "Non-surgical myocardial reduction for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy". Lancet. 346 (8969): 211 ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease, occurring in 1:500 individuals in the general ... Negative inotropes improve LV obstruction by decreasing LV ejection acceleration and hydrodynamic forces on the mitral valve. ... 2011 accf/aha guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A report of the American College of ... It is estimated that there are 600,000 individuals in the United States with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The most common ...
... typicall pulmonary valve stenosis with dysplastic pulmonary valve also atrial septal defect and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), ... For example, there is an increase in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients with a mutation of KRAS and an increased risk of ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (12-35%) Restrictive lung function has been reported in some patients Failure to thrive From ...
Florida keratopathy Haemophilus felis Head pressing Heart valve dysplasia Hookworm infection Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy ...
Arterial vasospasm Cocaine/marijuana toxicity and induced vasospasm Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Valvular stenosis Mitral valve ...
In human diseases, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic cardiomyopathy and others, ALC-2 ... In patients with mitral valve disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease and pressure ... Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy shown an increased expression of ALC-2 in whole heart tissue. ... Lim DS, Roberts R, Marian AJ (October 2001). "Expression profiling of cardiac genes in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ...
... hypertrophic cardiomyopathy/myectomy and minimally invasive cardiac surgery. McCarthy is one of four brothers who graduated ... Heart valve repair (annuloplasty) rings and bands were designed for symmetric dilatation of the heart valve. They are used to ... McCarthy co-founded a company called Cardiac Valve Innovations in 2015, directed to improving heart valve repair rings. ... McCarthy, PM (9 January 2017). "Valve-in-Ring and the Forgotten Valve". JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 10 (1): 64-65. doi: ...
Acute aortic dissection Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Long QT syndrome Marfan syndrome (treatment with propranolol ... Migraine prophylaxis Mitral valve prolapse Myocardial infarction Phaeochromocytoma, in conjunction with α-blocker Postural ...
... cardiomyopathy, dilated MeSH C14.280.238.100 --- cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic MeSH C14.280.238.100.500 --- cardiomyopathy, ... heart valve prolapse MeSH C14.280.484.400.100 --- aortic valve prolapse MeSH C14.280.484.400.500 --- mitral valve prolapse MeSH ... hypertrophic, familial MeSH C14.280.238.160 --- cardiomyopathy, restrictive MeSH C14.280.238.190 --- chagas cardiomyopathy MeSH ... cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic MeSH C14.280.484.150.070.210 --- discrete subaortic stenosis MeSH C14.280.484.275 --- heart ...
... mitral valve dysplasia, cardiomyopathy; Eyes Disease - the most common eyes problems are ectropion, entropion, conjunctivitis; ... Hip dysplasia Elbow dysplasia Hyperuricosuria Juvenile laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy Minor concerns Hypertrophic ...
... hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), some cause the heart to abnormally expand and weaken (dilated cardiomyopathy), some cause the ... One valve lies between each atrium and ventricle, and one valve rests at the exit of each ventricle. The valves between the ... Many cardiomyopathies can lead to heart failure in the later stages of the disease. Healthy heart valves allow blood to flow ... Some cardiomyopathies such as hypertrophic cardiomopathy are linked to a higher risk of sudden cardiac death, particularly in ...
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (or hypertrophic subaortic stenosis) will be a systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur ... Stenosis of Bicuspid aortic valve is similar to the aortic valve stenosis heart murmur, but a systolic ejection click may be ... resulting in an increase in the loudness of the murmur of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, since outflow obstruction is increased ... in detecting hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Both standing and Valsalva maneuver will decrease venous return ...
Clinically, cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy commonly have a systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (see graphic). ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at Curlie (based on DMOZ) GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy ... hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) has also historically been known as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis ( ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. Retrieved November 14, 2016. Colan, Steven (October 2010). "Hypertrophic ...
Hypertriglycidemia Hypertrophic branchial myopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic hemangiectasia Hypertrophic ... hypogonadotropic due to mutations in GR hormone Hypogonadism male mental retardation skeletal anomaly Hypogonadism mitral valve ... familial Hypoglycemia with deficiency of glycogen synthetase in the liver Hypoglycemia Hypogonadism cardiomyopathy Hypogonadism ... myocardiopathy Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary or idiopathic Hypertropia Hypertropic neuropathy of Dejerine-Sottas ...
Cardiomyopathy *Dilated *Alcoholic. *Hypertrophic. *Tachycardia-induced. *Restrictive. *Loeffler endocarditis. *Cardiac ... valves. Endocarditis. *infective endocarditis *Subacute bacterial endocarditis. *non-infective endocarditis *Libman-Sacks ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other ... Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. ...
... responds in this paradoxical way to these common maneuvers is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also known as idiopathic ... Systolic Murmurs - Mitral Valve Prolapse. You are listening to a typical example of the murmur caused by mitral valve prolapse ... The murmur of mitral valve prolapse is somewhat complex. Following a normal S1 and briefly quiet systole, the valve suddenly ... The pathophysiology of mitral valve prolapse is varied, but can be thought of as an inability of the papillary muscles or ...
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in cats, often causes Subaortic- like Stenosis. Murmur due to Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation ... Mitral Valve Dysplasia is a congenital defect of the valve. *Mitral Valve Regurgitation can occur secondary to heart ... Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia is a congenital defect of the valve *Tricuspid Valve Regurgitation can occur secondary to Pulmonary ... Each of the four valves in the heart act as non-return valves, permitting blood flow in one direction (forwards). If a valve ...
In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, sparing the mitral valve can be a great challenge for the cardiac ... Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Septal Myectomy and Transaortic Mitral Valve Repair. Wednesday, April 3, 2019 ... Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Septal Myectomy and Transaortic Mitral Valve Repair. April 2019. doi:10.25373/ctsnet. ... Septal myectomy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: national outcomes of concomitant mitral surgery. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(1):66- ...
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Abstract 20063: Mitral Valve Alterations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sarcomere Mutation ... Abstract 20063: Mitral Valve Alterations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sarcomere Mutation Carriers Without Left Ventricular ... Abstract 20063: Mitral Valve Alterations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sarcomere Mutation Carriers Without Left Ventricular ... Abstract 20063: Mitral Valve Alterations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sarcomere Mutation Carriers Without Left Ventricular ...
... the role of mitral valve surgical correction. Henein, Michael Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Anterior mitral leaflet, Obstruction, Exercise echocardiography National Category Cardiac and ... Long anterior mitral leaflet causing outflow tract obstruction in a symptomatic patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ...
Echocardiography, Genetics, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Mitral valve, Screening Persistent URL. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-018- ... Prognostic significance of anterior mitral valve leaflet length in individuals with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy gene mutation ... of anterior mitral valve leaflet length in individuals with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy gene mutation without hypertrophic ... elongation is a primary phenotypic feature in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Our aim was to assess AMVL length in ...
He is a member of the Multi-Disciplinary Mitral Valve Disease program and performs both percutaneous mitral valve repair and ... Veselys clinical interests include structural and coronary heart disease, with particular focus on mitral valve disease. ... Veselys research interests are focused on the development and utilization of percutaneous mitral valve techniques. ... Maryland and with the Multi-Disciplinary Mitral Valve Disease program in Baltimore. ...
Gammie was named a "Top Doctor" in the specialty of Cardiac Surgery: Mitral Valve/Aortic Valve/Coronary Artery Bypass by ... His clinical and research interests include mitral valve repair, beating heart mitral valve repair, surgical treatment of ... Gammie, an expert in mitral valve repair, is a Professor of Surgery and Chief of Cardiac Surgery at the University of Maryland ... Special interests include aortic valve bypass surgery, heart and lung transplantation, and cryoprobes and microwave technology. ...
Early screening for a genetic variant that predisposes people to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could help reduce the incidence of ... Mitral Valve Stenosis And Mitral Valve Replacement. Mitral valve replacement is a surgical heart procedure to correct either ... Exercise Not Associated With Sudden Death in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle (myocardium). ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treatment. Left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be treated with ... Aortic valve stenosis treatment. Left ventricular hypertrophy that is caused by aortic valve stenosis might require surgery to ... What tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and what is the role of genetic testing? ... Blood pressure medication might also help prevent further enlargement of the left ventricle and even shrink your hypertrophic ...
A new mitral valve repair strategy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. The Journal of heart valve disease 2008;17:642- ... Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and mitral valve abnormalities. Download PDF. Nelis Asan1, E. Apetrei1,2, D. Deleanu1, ... Of 78 mitral valve specimens from patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, 10 were identified as having direct ... Abstract: Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is a fascinating disease entity and a source of controversy since the first ...
Heart Healthy Heart Statins Mitral Valve Prolapse Aortic Valve Stenosis Pericarditis Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle (myocardium). ... Aortic Valve Stenosis. Aortic valve Stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the c valve. Symptoms include angina, and that of ... Mitral Valve Prolapse. Mitral Valve Prolapse is a relatively common condition and causes leakage of blood through the valve. ...
A mitral valve impact lesion was no more common in patients with dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than in those with typical ... Disarray was less prominent in dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than in typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (mean disarray ... hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients only (that is, after exclusion of patients with dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). ... Microscopic fibrosis was greater in hearts with dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than in those with hypertrophic ...
Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve associated with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Gaetano Nucifora, Luigi P. Badano ... Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve associated with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Journal of Cardiovascular ... Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve associated with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. / Nucifora, Gaetano; Badano, ... To our knowledge, the association between quadricuspid aortic valve and obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has never been ...
keywords = "Cardiomyopathy, Echocardiography, Hypertrophic, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mitral valve, Multimodal imaging, ... Methods and Results: We studied 121 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (age, 49±17 years; 60 ... Methods and Results: We studied 121 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (age, 49±17 years; 60 ... Methods and Results: We studied 121 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (age, 49±17 years; 60 ...
Previous data suggest that mitral valve leaflets are elongated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and mitral valve leaflet ... Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of mitral valve length in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.. Tarkiainen M1, Sipola P1,2, Jalanko M ... Anterior mitral valve leaflet (AML) and posterior mitral valve leaflet (PML) lengths were measured by CMR in 47 subjects with ... but mitral valve elongation does not constitute primary phenotypic expression of the disease. Instead, elongated mitral valve ...
Intrinsic mitral valve alterations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sarcomere mutation carriers.. Groarke JD1, Galazka PZ1, ... Mitral valve abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a primary expression of the disease? Getting closer to the answer. [ ... Intrinsic mitral valve alterations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sarcomere mutation carriers. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. ... Intrinsic mitral valve alterations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sarcomere mutation carriers. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. ...
MedlinePlus related topics: Cardiomyopathy Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Aortic Valve Stenosis ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy None - this is an observational study.. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will be observed ... Cardiomyopathies. Hypertrophy. Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic. Heart Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Pathological Conditions, ... Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry: The rationale and design of an international, observational study of hypertrophic ...
Care guide for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment ... Heart valve surgery: You may need to have a heart valve repaired or replaced so your heart can pump enough blood to your body. ... Learn more about Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (Inpatient Care). Associated drugs. *Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Micromedex® Care ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of your heart muscle that causes your ventricles to become thick and stiff. The ...
This increased force can prevent the valve between your hearts left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve) from closing ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Illustrations of a normal heart (left) and a heart with hypertrophic ... The severity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy varies widely. Most people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a form of the ... obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy).. Sometimes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs without significant blocking of blood ...
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Program. The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Corrigan ... Valve Repair Surgery. Mitral valve and aortic valve repairs treat obstruction to flow, leakage or a combination of both ... Valves in the heart that become stenotic (narrow) or insufficient (leaky) can be replaced. Different kinds of valves made from ... Heart Valve Program. The Heart Valve Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Corrigan Minehan Heart Center brings ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. General considerations. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively common form of genetic ... 1991) Preclinical diagnosis of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by genetic analysis of blood lymphocytes. N Engl J Med 325: ... 1995) Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults: echocardiographic analysis of 4,111 ... Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP). Mitral valve prolapse (i.e., myxomatous degeneration) is of particular importance in the ...
Patients With Aortic And Mitral Valve Stenosis, Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. As with all other vasodilators, ... or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.. Hypotension. Lotrel can cause symptomatic hypotension. Symptomatic hypotension is ...
Task Force 4: HCM and other cardiomyopathies, mitral valve prolapse, myocarditis, and Marfan syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; ... From Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center, Division of Cardiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA; and Hypertrophic ... From Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center, Division of Cardiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA; and Hypertrophic ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging changes the paradigm. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:567-568. doi: ...
  • Although it is usually a mild symptom, patients with mitral valve prolapse with evidence of regurgitation by echo should be given antibiotic prophylaxis during invasive procedures to help prevent bacterial endocarditis. (ucla.edu)
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. (thinkgenetic.com)
  • Each of the four valves in the heart act as non-return valves, permitting blood flow in one direction (forwards). (uk.net)
  • This backward squirt of flow through an incompetent valve results in an abnormal heart sound called a heart murmur. (uk.net)
  • If a heart valve is abnormally narrowed, usually due to a congenital defect (eg. (uk.net)
  • Following a normal S1 and briefly quiet systole, the valve suddenly prolapses, resulting in a mid-systolic click. (ucla.edu)
  • As the left ventricle chamber decreases in size, the papillary muscles and/or the chordae fail to maintain tension on the mitral valve, and it prolapses with a brief regurgitant period into the left atrium. (ucla.edu)
  • This is because those maneuvers which decrease the volume of the left ventricle (Valsalva, standing) will cause the prolapse to occur sooner and more severely, while those that increase venous return and diastolic filling (squatting) and thereby enhance the ventricular volume, help to maintain tension along the chordae and to keep the valve shut. (ucla.edu)
  • Blood flow from the left atrium (LA) is upwards through the mitral valve (MV) and into the left ventricle (LV). (uk.net)
  • When the left ventricle (LV) pumps, the mitral valve should prevent any backflow. (uk.net)
  • Until relatively recently, surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard of care in adults with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis . (medscape.com)
  • The PARTNER series of randomized controlled trials has firmly established the role of TAVI with the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien valve in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) at prohibitive risk of surgery (PARTNER IA), high risk for surgery (PARTNER IB), and intermediate risk for surgery (PARTNER 2). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pulmonary valve restitution following transannular patch repair of tetralogy of Fallot. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chronic pulmonary insufficiency following transannular patch repair of tetralogy of Fallot may mandate restoration of a competent pulmonary valve. (bioportfolio.com)
  • No established indications or guidelines exist yet for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • The method of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) introduced in 2002 by Alain Cribier et al. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To observe the clinical outcomes of the different valve sizing strategies treating type-0 Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis (BAS) with self-expandable transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). (bioportfolio.com)