**Odds Ratio**: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Logistic Models**: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Genetic Predisposition to Disease**: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

**Prevalence**: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Polymorphism, Genetic**: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

**Risk Assessment**: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

**Smoking**: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.

**United States**

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Risk**: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Infant, Newborn**: An infant during the first month after birth.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Gene Frequency**: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

**Chi-Square Distribution**: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Asian Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.

**Incidence**: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

**Comorbidity**: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**China**: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

**Japan**

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Haplotypes**: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.

**Registries**: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Prognosis**: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

**Sex Distribution**: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Sweden**

**Health Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

**African Americans**: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.

**Hospital Mortality**: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.

**Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic**: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

**Environmental Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.

**Breast Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

**Alcohol Drinking**: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.

**Ethnic Groups**: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.

**California**

**Educational Status**: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**Stroke**: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**Epidemiologic Methods**: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

**Parity**: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.

**African Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.

**Genetic Association Studies**: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.

**Age Distribution**: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Hospitalization**: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

**Hispanic Americans**: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

**Hypertension**: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

**Italy**

**Myocardial Infarction**: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).

**Pregnancy Outcome**: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.

**HIV Infections**: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

**Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)**: Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

**Diabetes Mellitus**: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.

**Residence Characteristics**: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.

**Population Surveillance**: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

**Denmark**

**France**: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.

**Diet**: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

**Germany**

**Pregnancy Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.

**Occupational Diseases**: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

**Spain**: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

**Colorectal Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Great Britain**

**Linkage Disequilibrium**: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

**Continental Population Groups**: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.

**Health Status**: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

**Premature Birth**: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).

**Postoperative Complications**: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Occupations**: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.

**Urban Population**: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.

**Life Style**: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

**Rural Population**: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

**Asthma**: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).

**Washington**

**Genome-Wide Association Study**: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

**Republic of Korea**: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

**Netherlands**: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.

**Publication Bias**: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.

**Age of Onset**: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

**Occupational Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**New York**

**Length of Stay**: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.

**Norway**

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Massachusetts**

**Mass Screening**: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.

**Coronary Artery Disease**: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.

**Taiwan**

**Pesticides**: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.

**Birth Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Recurrence**: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

**Europe**

**North Carolina**

**Canada**: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

**Metabolic Syndrome X**: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)

**Depression**: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

**Breast Feeding**: The nursing of an infant at the breast.

**Chronic Disease**: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

**Causality**: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.

**Mothers**: Female parents, human or animal.

**Interviews as Topic**: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.

**Abortion, Spontaneous**: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.

**Acute Disease**: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Cardiovascular Diseases**: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.

**Survival Analysis**: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

**Tobacco Smoke Pollution**: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.

**Bias (Epidemiology)**: Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

**Gestational Age**: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.

**Disease Progression**: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

**Maternal Exposure**: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.

**Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2**: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

**San Francisco**

**Patient Acceptance of Health Care**: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.

**Polymerase Chain Reaction**: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

**Housing**: Living facilities for humans.

**Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects**: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Infant, Low Birth Weight**: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.

**Coronary Disease**: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**India**

**Sexual Behavior**: Sexual activities of humans.

**Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice**: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

**Finland**

**Data Collection**: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

**Survival Rate**: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

**Contraceptives, Oral**: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.

**Outcome Assessment (Health Care)**: Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

**Lung Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.

**Mexico**

**Health Behavior**: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

**Urban Health**: The status of health in urban populations.

**England**

**Social Class**: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.

**Overweight**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".

**Family Health**: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

**Texas**

**Health Services Accessibility**: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.

**Prostatic Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.

**Boston**

**Intensive Care Units**: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.

**Diabetes Complications**: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.

**Healthcare Disparities**: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.

**Physician's Practice Patterns**: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.

**Maternal Age**: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.

**Los Angeles**

**Wounds and Injuries**: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

**Patient Compliance**: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

**C-Reactive Protein**: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.

**Cooking**: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.

**Meta-Analysis as Topic**: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

**Homozygote**: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.

**Marital Status**: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.

**Pennsylvania**

**Self Report**: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.

**Smoking Cessation**: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.

**Respiratory Sounds**: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.

**Postmenopause**: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**New Hampshire**

**Neoplasms**: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

**Anti-Bacterial Agents**: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

**Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)**: A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.

**Stress, Psychological**: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

**Ontario**: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

**Nutrition Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.

**Philadelphia**

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Brain Ischemia**: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.

**Family Characteristics**: Size and composition of the family.

**Parents**: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.

**Income**: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.

**Gravidity**: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

**Emergency Service, Hospital**: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.

###### Obesity-associated morbidity

###### Differential diagnoses of depression

###### War of the Ring (SPI game)

###### Two envelopes problem

###### Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

###### Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

###### Group B streptococcal infection

###### Medical malpractice

###### Porcelain gallbladder

###### 5-HT2A receptor

###### Binomial regression

###### HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2

###### Hypericum perforatum

###### 1990 Luzon earthquake

###### PS Power and Sample Size

###### Familial adenomatous polyposis

###### Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

###### Cancer Genome Anatomy Project

###### Tuberkulóza - Wikipedie

###### Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

###### Inverted Dirichlet distribution

###### Exact statistics

###### Reproducibility

###### Television licensing in the United Kingdom

###### Design of experiments

###### Blinded experiment

###### Believability of relative risks and **odds** **ratios** in abstracts: cross sectional study | The BMJ

###### Analysis of biomarker data: logs, **odds** **ratios**, and receiver operating characteristic curves. - PubMed - NCBI

###### IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational **Odds** **Ratio**

###### The **Odds** **Ratio** Estimates Table :: SAS/STAT(R) 13.2 User's Guide

**Odds** **ratio** | definition of **odds** **ratio** by Medical dictionary

###### R] Getting **Odds** **ratios** for tree branches-CART model

###### NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20033772 - Comparing **odds** **ratios** measuring improvement or deterioration across repeated...

**odds** **ratio** - Math Help Forum

###### Down with **odds** **ratios**! | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine

###### Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant **Odds** **Ratios** May Be Poor Classifiers

**Odds** **Ratio** and Attributable Risk (Retrospective) - StatsDirect

**Odds** **ratios** of work related deaths in United States workers. | Occupational & Environmental Medicine

###### Association between suicidal ideation and suicide: meta-analyses of **odds** **ratios**, sensitivity, specificity and positive...

###### New resource can help you assess hazards and risks and **odds** **ratios** | Association of Health Care Journalists

###### Table 7 **Odds** **ratios** relating change in home smoke-free status and other selected characteristics to smokers' quitting in a two...

###### Download Unconditional Small Sample Confidence Intervals For The **Odds** **Ratio**

###### Difference between revisions of "**Odds** **ratio**" - Lesswrongwiki

###### Multivariate **odds** **ratios** of chronic kidney disease | Zanran

ProbabilitiesCoefficientsLogitHazardInterpretationMeta-analysesBinaryTerms of odds ratiosEstimates of odds ratiosCalculation of odds ratiosEpidemiologyBayesCommonlyOutcomesInterpret odds ratiosCoefficientRegressionConvertMeasuresIntervalsCalculate the odds ratioPLOS GeneticsPredictorsObtain the oddsConfounderSimplifiesTrickyCalculatesExposure odds ratioLikelihood ratiosComputeStatisticalProbability and oddsConfidence limitsProportionalMarginal oddsHaving a myocardial infarctionEstimationDifferencesConditional oddsPlotQuartiles

###### Probabilities19

- In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)
- My impression is that, although it is true that predicted probabilities might be easier to understand, odds ratios have been used extensively in research when we interpret results from logit models. (stata.com)
- One other area where we deal with odds, rather than probabilities, where the latter would seem more natural, is logistic regression. (statistics.com)
- However, after the model is fit, it is possible to convert from odds to probabilities. (statistics.com)
- Odds ratios are an alternate way of expressing probabilities, which simplifies the process of updating them with new evidence. (lesswrong.com)
- Fortunately, Bayes' theorem has a very intuitive formulation, not in terms of probabilities but in terms of odds ratios. (cornell.edu)
- Clearing the denominators reveals that we've just multiplied by an odds ratio of 9, which is the ratio of the two probabilities of getting a positive test result (9/10 in one case, 1/10 in the other). (cornell.edu)
- Whether consciously or subconsciously, your own assessments of the probabilities will be guided by what the odds suggest. (fussballgames.eu)
- A likelihood ratio of 1 implies that there will be no difference between pretest and posttest probabilities. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To use this formulation, probabilities must be converted to odds, where the odds of having a disease are expressed as the chance of having the disease divided by the chance of not having the disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Odds are summaries of probabilities that get used by sports books and nearly no one else, because they are counter-intuitive non-linear approximations to probabilities. (jasonkerwin.com)
- As you can see, this slight adjustment in the calculation allows you to easily covert both fractional odds and decimal odds into probabilities. (bettinggods.com)
- Furthermore, we provide code for converting ORs into other measures of test performance like predictive values, post-test probabilities, and likelihood ratios, under mild conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
- The odds ratio is a single summary score of the effect, and the probabilities are more intuitive. (theanalysisfactor.com)
- Presenting probabilities without the corresponding odds ratios can be problematic, though. (theanalysisfactor.com)
- First,when X, the predictor, is categorical, the effect of X can be effectively communicated through a difference or ratio of probabilities. (theanalysisfactor.com)
- Second, when X, the predictor is continuous, the odds ratio is constant across values of X. But probabilities aren't. (theanalysisfactor.com)
- Edit 1: I gave this some thought and after thinking about this I conclude that standardization is a form of weighted averaging using population weights (as opposed to variance weights which then would make this a meta-analysis and not standardization) so standardizing ORs using probabilities a) Does not uncondition the odds (agree with you) b) Does define the collapsibility issue. (datamethods.org)
- To uncondition an odds ratio I would have thought that you must uncondition the underlying probabilities then build back the OR from these actual probabilities. (datamethods.org)

###### Coefficients5

- There is a direct relationship between the coefficients and the odds ratios. (ucla.edu)
- This means that the coefficients in logistic regression are in terms of the log odds, that is, the coefficient 1.695 implies that a one unit change in gender results in a 1.695 unit change in the log of the odds. (ucla.edu)
- 3,25,26 For example, geeglm() function in library (geepack DQGVSHFLI Ordinal Logistic Regression Models and Statistical Software: example to illustrate the One way to interpret the coefficients is via a proportional odds ratio. (isellmx.com)
- Models of binary dependent variables often are estimated using logistic regression or probit models, but the estimated coefficients (or exponentiated coefficients expressed as odds ratios) are often difficult to interpret from a practical standpoint. (blogspot.com)
- Since the coefficients are returned in log odds, exponentiating converts them to odds. (pjs-web.de)

###### Logit3

- So let's define the logit function as the log of the odds. (coursera.org)
- P1 minus logit P2, that's the log odds ratio for P1 to P2. (coursera.org)
- Wald statistics: The squared ratio of the unstandardized logit coefficient to its standard error . (wikiversity.org)

###### Hazard20

- 2) Make sure the results are reported in one of the following units: hazard ratios, odds ratios, relative risk (including risk ratio and rate ratio) or percentage change. (healthjournalism.org)
- The finding in relative risk, hazard ratio, percentage change or odds ratio. (healthjournalism.org)
- Effect ratios such as odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) are useful measures of relative treatment effects and are used extensively in randomized clinical trials (RCT). (fharrell.com)
- Log odds and log hazard ratios have an unlimited ranges and can possibly apply to everyone. (fharrell.com)
- Risk Ratio Confidence Interval Standard Errors The odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs), incidence-rate ratios (IRRs), and relative-risk ratios (RRRs) are all just univariate transformations of the estimated betas for the logistic, survival, and multinomial Confidence Interval Crosses 1 Specifically, the OR measures the ratio of the odds that an event or result will occur to the odds of the event not happening. (comunidadwindows.org)
- Odds ratio.Hazard ratio is frequently interpreted as risk ratio (or relative risk), but they are not technically the same. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- However, if that helps you to understand hazard ratio then it is OK. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk - Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already have relative risk, why wouldYouTube. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Tutorial about Hazard Ratios - Students 4 Best Evidence - Hazard Ratios vs. Risk Ratios (or Relative Risk) Hazard ratio is frequently interpreted Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires 161 may abandon the questionnaire. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Kaplan-Meier Curves, Hazard Ratios Composite Open-ended vs. Close-ended Questions in Web Questionnaires 161 may abandon the questionnaire.relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds ratios are also commonly used in epidemiological studies to describe the likely harm an exposure might cause Bandolier therefore turned to Jon Deeks, PDF Prevalence odds ratio versusconvert hazard ratio to relative risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Hazard ratio. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- So if the relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) is 1.0, the two groups have the same chance of having whatever the study is measuring, be it an heart attack or stroke or death or whatever.Help with difference between odds ratio and relative risk (example included)? (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- 1. Odds Ratio It is defined as the ratio of the odds of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group or to a Relative risk, odds ratio, attributable risk and number needed to treat.RATE, RISK, HAZARD, AND ODDS Depending upon the focus, different indices are used to assess disease occurrence in a group of subjects. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- hazard ratio vs relative risk reduction.are hazard ratio and relative risk the same thing. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already have relative risk, why would we want to calculate the odds ratio?Can hazard ratios be used instead of risk ratios in population with OR vs HR varies with the Odds Ratio versus Relative Risk. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio and Relative Risk 61 Since we already In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- La plupart des commentaires des acheteurs disent que le Hazard Ratio Vs Relative Risk Vs Odds Ratio sont excellent produit. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- Relative risk is a ratio of the probability of the event occurring in the exposed group versus a non (Population) Attributable risk Confidence interval Odds ratio Hazard ratio Number needed to treat (NNT) Number needed to harm (NNH) OpenEpi EpiInfo. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- The proportional hazard fit will report odds ratios for single variables (i.e. sex, variable 1, variable 2), but only gives a warning for the variable involved in an interaction (same as with logistic regressions). (jmp.com)

###### Interpretation2

- The Calculation and Interpretation of Odds Ratios) and may be somewhat more meaningful. (blogspot.com)
- For most people, for practical purposes, this is probably a more useful interpretation of the relationship between age and participation compared to odds ratios. (blogspot.com)

###### Meta-analyses1

- Pair-Matched Case -Control Table and the McNemar test and the Pair-Matched Odds Ratio to evaluate whether an association It looks like there are no examples One relative risk versus two odds ratios: implications for meta-analyses involving paired and unpaired binary data. (mastersgfp.org)

###### Binary11

- In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. (wikipedia.org)
- Sensitivity and specificity Binary classification Positive predictive value and negative predictive value Odds ratio Glas, Afina S. (wikipedia.org)
- This second approach can be applied to categorical predictors having any number of levels, but in the case of a binary (i.e., two-level) predictor, an attractive alternative is to measure their association with odds ratios. (r-bloggers.com)
- The odds ratio may be viewed as an association measure between binary variables, and it is defined as follows. (r-bloggers.com)
- For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
- Further, if x and y are two statistically independent binary random variables, it can be shown that the odds ratio is equal to 1. (r-bloggers.com)
- Analyze matched case helps you use the McNemar's test calculator that is part In this example, the odds ratio for the association between risk, Abstract Binary as well as polytomous logistic models have been found useful for estimating odds ratios when the under matched pair example is presented and. (mastersgfp.org)
- Learn Calculation of matched pairs odds ratio ignores ____ pairs because they do not This measure is an example of Paired and Matched Binary Data odds ratio .8028169 .5564015 1.153877 (exact) NOTE 17. (mastersgfp.org)
- Paired and Matched Binary Data odds ratio .8028169 .5564015 1.153877 (exact) NOTE 17. (mastersgfp.org)
- As noted on paragraph 18.4.1 of the book Veterinary Epidemiologic Research, logistic regression is widely used for binary data, with the estimates reported as odds The odds ratio is 3.68 we must address the overdispersion and then fit the overdispersed logistic regression model. (isellmx.com)
- In my last post, I discussed the use of odds ratios to characterize the association between edibility and binary mushroom characteristics for the mushrooms characterized in the UCI mushroom dataset . (blogspot.com)

###### Terms of odds ratios1

- The reviewer commented that all results are expressed in terms of odds ratios which makes it very difficult to assess the magnitude of the effect. (stata.com)

###### Estimates of odds ratios1

- It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. (sas.com)

###### Calculation of odds ratios2

- This paper uses a toy data set to demonstrate the calculation of odds ratios and marginal effects from logistic regression using SAS and R, while comparing them to the results from a standard linear probability model. (blogspot.com)
- This package simplifies the calculation of odds ratios in binomial models. (pjs-web.de)

###### Epidemiology1

- In my discipline (epidemiology) we have relied heavily on odds ratios simply out of habit and convenience (logistic regression) when our interest is almost never in the OR itself, but rather in the risk or prevalence ratio or difference. (stata.com)

###### Bayes1

- The odds ratio form of Bayes' rule is one way mathematicians can give back to doctors. (cornell.edu)

###### Commonly7

- Odds ratios are commonly written as the ratio of two numbers separated by a colon. (lesswrong.com)
- Odds are most commonly expressed as ratios, but converting them to percentages often make them easier to work with. (wikipedia.org)
- Odds ratios are most commonly used in case-control studies, however, they can also be used in cross-sectional and cohort study designs as well (with some modifications and/or assumptions). (wordpress.com)
- The goal of this post is to explain the meanings of (commonly-heard) metrics that indicate the "odds" of something (either directly or indirectly). (fullybooked.club)
- First of all, the discussion is framed in terms of "matched pairs", which have nothing to do with odds ratios, or with the study designs and regression models from which odds ratios are commonly estimated. (andershuitfeldt.net)
- Odds ratio (OR) is a statistic commonly encountered in professional or scientific medical literature.Posted in UncategorizedTagged odds ratio vs relative risk usmle, relationship between odds ratio and relative risk, relative risk and Statistical ratios. (automarket-mongolia.tk)
- These can easily be used to calculate odd ratios, which are commonly used to interpret effects using such techniques, particularly in medical statistics. (proteus.co.nz)

###### Outcomes3

- Odds ratios (95% CIs) comparing those with fatty kidney to those without fatty kidney are presented for dichotomous outcomes. (zanran.com)
- An approach for modelling multiple correlated outcomes in a network of interventions using odds ratios. (semanticscholar.org)
- If an event has an X% chance of happening, the odds that it happens are (X%)/(100-X%). The basic problem with odds ratios is that long ago someone (we should figure out who and curse their name) realized that for rare outcomes, an OR is approximately a relative risk, or (% chance thing occurs in treatment group)/(% chance thing occurs in control group). (jasonkerwin.com)

###### Interpret odds ratios1

- FAQ: How do I interpret odds ratios in logistic regression? (ucla.edu)

###### Coefficient8

- Polygenic Risk Scores: Odds ratio or Beta-coefficient? (biostars.org)
- I am wondering about the use of odds ratio (OR) versus the Beta-coefficient of each SNP variant in a risk score model. (biostars.org)
- For instance, here they used the Beta-coefficient in their model, while here they used the odds ratio. (biostars.org)
- Is there any difference in using the odds ratio versus the Beta-coefficient in a risk score model? (biostars.org)
- The odds ratio (OR) is the exponent of the beta coefficient. (biostars.org)
- Note that Wald = 3.015 for both the coefficient for gender and for the odds ratio for gender (because the coefficient and the odds ratio are two ways of saying the same thing). (ucla.edu)
- In other words, the exponential function of the regression coefficient ( e b1 ) is the odds ratio associated with a one-unit increase in the exposure. (wordpress.com)
- this is not the same as the change in the (unlogged) odds ratio though the 2 are close when the coefficient is small. (theanalysisfactor.com)

###### Regression17

- Because of past help I have received on this list I have learned how to convert model-based predictions from logistic regression into risk ratios or differences using marginal standardization with bootstrapped confidence intervals. (stata.com)
- I have a question regarding a reviewer's comment on my use of odds ratio in interpreting the results of a logistic regression, and would appreciate it very much if you can provide any insight or any references for responding to the comment. (stata.com)
- 10%), the adjusted odds ratio derived from the logistic regression can no longer approximate the risk ratio. (nih.gov)
- Yes, odds ratios are analogous to 'effect size' and can be interpreted in the same way for logistic regression and for 2x2 tables. (talkstats.com)
- I believe they're computed the same way in both logistic regression and contingency tables - they're simply the ratio of two odds. (talkstats.com)
- Browse other questions tagged regression logistic odds-ratio or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
- How do I interpret the odds ratio of an interaction term in Conditional Logistic Regression? (stackexchange.com)
- In this page, we will walk through the concept of odds ratio and try to interpret the logistic regression results using the concept of odds ratio in a couple of examples. (ucla.edu)
- Exact Logistic Regression for a Matched Pairs a Matched Pairs case-Control Design with Polytomous in estimating odds ratios under matched pairs case, It only deals with the case of a matched pair: For this example, the odds ratio is computed as 21/4 = 5.25. (mastersgfp.org)
- When averaging two odds ratios (sort of what the adjusted regression is doing), their average will not usually be the unadjusted odds ratio even in the absence of confounding. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- I can derive the the marginal odds ratio, the risk difference and the relative risk from the adjusted logistic regression even though the model results are conditional odds. (frankpopham.co.uk)
- Generalized Linear Models to work with generalized linear models in R. We see that the odds ratio corresponding to income is 1.070, The odds can vary on a scale of 2 Basic R logistic regression models We will illustrate with the Cedegren dataset on the website. (isellmx.com)
- Odds Ratios (ORs) Allele Counting r 1 A + 1 B + 1 C + 1 D Lower limit of 95% CI LHON Example: Con dence Intervals for Odds Ratios (ORs) rs6767450 Cases Controls Cluster vs. Robust Estimation of Risk Ratio using Expanded Logistic Regression. (isellmx.com)
- R: Calculate and interpret odds ratio in logistic regression. (isellmx.com)
- That has ever since been taught to applied statisticians working in certain fields (public health is one example) who use odds ratios for the scientifically important reason that they are the default output of many regression packages when you run a logistic regression. (jasonkerwin.com)
- The object which they call the "odds ratio" does not correspond to the parameter which is estimated from logistic regression models or case-control studies, and it is not a ratio of odds . (andershuitfeldt.net)
- Hi JMP users - I'm a newbie and cannot figure out how to do a simple logistic regression which will display in a table format my variables with p-values, odds ratios, and confidence intervals. (jmp.com)

###### Convert7

- Convert A to B odds for winning or losing to probability percentage values for both winning and losing. (bookofranovoline.net)
- On this page you'll be able to convert sports betting odds across the three different formats, or convert chance of winning percentages to each of the different formats, hassle-free and in a flash. (bookofranovoline.net)
- To convert this ratio to the equivalent percentage, these two numbers are added together and the cost of the call is divided by this sum. (wikipedia.org)
- To convert any percentage or fraction to the equivalent odds, the numerator is subtracted from the denominator and then this difference is divided by the numerator. (wikipedia.org)
- After entering the numbers, click "Calculate" to convert the odds ratio to NNT. (knowledgetranslation.net)
- But it's only slightly more complicated to convert fractional odds to probability. (bettinggods.com)
- Now you can analyze those values and, if you want to present summary statistics as odds ratios instead of log odds ratios, you can just convert them back. (deeplytrivial.com)

###### Measures3

- The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds ( i.e. , information gained after knowing exposure status). (mdpi.com)
- That is, the OR measures how the odds of Y change per unit increase in each X. (stackexchange.com)
- So the goal of today is to talk about some relative measures, like the odds ratio and the relative risk. (coursera.org)

###### Intervals17

- produces a plot of log odds vs x2 with 0.95 confidence intervals. (ethz.ch)
- This function calculates odds ratios and population attributable risk with confidence intervals. (statsdirect.com)
- Provides structured output (data frame) of all predictors and their corresponding odds ratios and confident intervals for further analyses. (fiocruz.br)
- I are advances get best when decisions receive Documenting download Unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds. (nuttyb.com)
- We refer in our infant download Unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds looking the support and we constitute it! (nuttyb.com)
- We have learning to feel a download Unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds ratio out annoying scan. (nuttyb.com)
- 87 other because the roles which break the characteristic showhomes have Many with the professionals upon which the human download Unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds ratio teaches asked. (nuttyb.com)
- personal download Unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds children writings hope packaged in their next-generation to Contact used because they also have Passionate resources that have sexual to the Common course. (nuttyb.com)
- Katy permits a download Unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds ratio value listening with a preschooler who is not been proposed as Writing motive climate, and abandons not seeming. (nuttyb.com)
- Similarly, confidence intervals for the odds ratio are easily constructed by appealing to the asymptotic normality of log OR, which has a limiting variance given by the square root of the sum of the reciprocals of these four numbers. (blogspot.com)
- Including "alpha = 0.05" in the parameter list fixes the default value for alpha at 0.05, which yields the 95% confidence intervals for the computed odds ratio, based on the Wald approximation described above. (blogspot.com)
- How To Report Odds Ratios And Confidence Intervals For a child without hay fever, the proportion with eczema is 420/13 945 (3.0%) and the odds is 420/13 525. (comunidadwindows.org)
- The plot shows the confidence intervals on the probability of row2 for fixed odds ratio and specified probability for row1. (rdocumentation.org)
- Also, automatically confident intervals (CI) of odds ratios are calculated and returned. (pjs-web.de)
- In this video Darryl explains how you can calculate the odds ratio, as well calculations for associated confidence intervals estimates and standard errors. (proteus.co.nz)
- Odds ratios (OR)† and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity by education level. (nih.gov)
- At the involving download unconditional small sample confidence intervals for the odds ratio, the LLC wave transmission examines the computers example computer PDU and means the money it is( much an IP housing) to the Building secret Optimism. (sermondominical.com)

###### Calculate the odds ratio1

- you have to learn how to calculate the odds ratio. (muscle-fitness.ga)

###### PLOS Genetics1

- Somewhat reassuringly, a recent study published in PLoS Genetics showed that odds ratios at 19 Type II diabetes associated SNPs were consistent across European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. (genomesunzipped.org)

###### Predictors4

- It helps to avoid false references of predictors and increments by specifying these parameters in a list instead of using 'exp(coef(model))' (standard approach of odds ratio calculation for GLMs) which just returns a plain numeric output. (fiocruz.br)
- For GAM(M)s, odds ratio calculation is highly simplified with this package since it takes care of the multiple 'predict()' calls of the chosen predictor while holding other predictors constant. (fiocruz.br)
- Usually you just create a vector which stores the increments of your predictors you want to calculate odds ratios for. (pjs-web.de)
- output (which is usually the intercept) because you only want to calculate odds ratios for your predictors! (pjs-web.de)

###### Obtain the odds1

- This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)

###### Confounder3

- Hi, So we have been given odds ratio for males and females in four different scenarios to find out if sex is a confounder or effect modifier in a study looking at the association between lung cancer and smoking. (talkstats.com)
- I'm not sure as to how to interpret these ratios in order to say if sex is a confounder or effect modifier. (talkstats.com)
- But it is common to see papers comparing odds ratios before and after confounder adjustment as a method of judging the extent of confounding. (frankpopham.co.uk)

###### Simplifies1

- This new definition of the odds ratio then simplifies to the traditional odds ratio under certain independence conditions. (andershuitfeldt.net)

###### Tricky3

- Odds ratios are tricky. (stephanieevergreen.com)
- And it gets more tricky with other odds ratios. (deeplytrivial.com)
- Join us to see how they differ, what each one means, and how to tame that tricky beast: Odds Ratios. (theanalysisfactor.com)

###### Calculates2

- Free online Odds Ratio (OR) statistical calculator calculates Odds Ratio with 95% Confidence Interval from a 2x2 table. (bookofranovoline.net)
- pari mutuel system that calculates and continually updates betting odds. (muscle-fitness.ga)

###### Exposure odds ratio1

- The exposure odds ratio is equal to the disease odds ratio. (automarket-mongolia.tk)

###### Likelihood ratios7

- ODDS-LIKELIHOOD RATIOS is a topic covered in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests . (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios of serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios can be calculated using the above formulas. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios provide an estimation of whether there will be significant change in pretest to posttest probability of a disease given the test result, and thus can be used to make quick estimates of the usefulness of contemplated diagnostic tests in particular situations. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Likelihood ratios between 1 and 2 and between 0.5 and 1 indicate small differences (rarely clinically significant). (unboundmedicine.com)
- The simplest method for calculating posttest probability from pretest probability and likelihood ratios is to use a nomogram ( Figure 1-7 ). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Nomogram for determining posttest probability from pretest probability and likelihood ratios. (unboundmedicine.com)

###### Compute5

- We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, (wikipedia.org)
- As reported elsewhere , you can compute the standard error of the proportion as square root of the product of P * (1 - P) / N, where P is the ratio of patients with events/all patients, and N is the sample size (ie all patients). (stackexchange.com)
- I am not aware of any formula to compute the standard error of an odds, but it is reasonable you could find one. (stackexchange.com)
- Next, we will add another variable to the equation so that we can compute and odds ratio. (ucla.edu)
- In SPSS, the syntax is very similar to Excel: COMPUTE log_oddsratio = LN(oddratio). (deeplytrivial.com)

###### Statistical1

- In this paper, we investigate dichotomisation for statistical inference about odds ratios in a situation where two underlying distributions from which independent samples are drawn are skewed and unknown. (lboro.ac.uk)

###### Probability and odds4

- Formulas for converting between probability and odds. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Understanding probability and odds is one of the skills you need to find value selections in whatever sports you want to bet on. (bettinggods.com)
- Although probability and odds both measure how likely it is that something will occur, probability is just so much easier to understand for most of us. (theanalysisfactor.com)
- The problem is that probability and odds have different properties that give odds some advantages in statistics. (theanalysisfactor.com)

###### Confidence limits1

- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the odds ratio by using the log transform. (sas.com)

###### Proportional1

- We propose a model, the proportional odds ratio (POR) model, which makes no assumptions about the shape of OR p , a baseline function capturing the way OR changes across papers. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Marginal odds1

- Evaluation of the propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios in case of small sample size. (inserm.fr)

###### Having a myocardial infarction3

- The odds of having a myocardial infarction are therefore 5/15 = 0.33. (robertbarrington.net)
- The odds of having a myocardial infarction are therefore 8/12 = 0.66. (robertbarrington.net)
- Therefore the odds of having a myocardial infarction while taking magnesium were about 0.5 (or 50 %) of the odds of having a myocardial infarction while not talking magnesium. (robertbarrington.net)

###### Estimation1

- If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)

###### Differences2

- DIFF=FIRST computes differences from the first level, and DIFF=ALL computes odds ratios based on all pairwise differences. (sas.com)
- Comparing one group with another, expresses differences in the odds of something happening. (aidsmap.com)

###### Conditional odds1

- The joint distributions are used to calculate conditional odds ratios. (mastersgfp.org)

###### Plot6

- get a plot of odds ratios vs x2 instead? (ethz.ch)
- Calculated odds ratio of GAM(M)s can be inserted into the smooth function plot. (fiocruz.br)
- Forest plot of odds ratios of using 'poor' menstrual absorbent vs. 'good' menstrual absorbents in those with confirmed bacterial vaginosis. (figshare.com)
- We have also shown the plot of log odds against odds. (ucla.edu)
- Add odds ratios into plot of GAM(M) smoothing function. (r-pkg.org)
- Calculate or plot the odds ratio for a 2x2 table of counts. (rdocumentation.org)

###### Quartiles2

- Circles mark direct odds ratio estimates comparing higher hsCRP quartiles to the lowest quartile. (nih.gov)
- The odds of hypertension decreased across quartiles of 3-MU. (theveganapprentice.com)