A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone
Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Biological Transport, Active
Cell Membrane Permeability
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Induction of apoptosis by valinomycin: mitochondrial permeability transition causes intracellular acidification. (1/716)In order to determine whether disruption of mitochondrial function could trigger apoptosis in murine haematopoietic cells, we used the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Valinomycin induces apoptosis in the murine pre-B cell line BAF3, which cannot be inhibited by interleukin-3 addition or Bcl-2 over-expression. Valinomycin triggers rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This precedes cytoplasmic acidification, which leads to cysteine-active-site protease activation, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Bongkrekic acid, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition, prevents acidification and subsequent induction of apoptosis by valinomycin. (+info)
Sodium-dependent glutamate uptake by an alkaliphilic, thermophilic Bacillus strain, TA2.A1. (2/716)A strain of Bacillus designated TA2.A1, isolated from a thermal spring in Te Aroha, New Zealand, grew optimally at pH 9.2 and 70 degrees C. Bacillus strain TA2.A1 utilized glutamate as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, and sodium chloride (>5 mM) was an obligate requirement for growth. Growth on glutamate was inhibited by monensin and amiloride, both inhibitors that collapse the sodium gradient (DeltapNa) across the cell membrane. N, N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibited the growth of Bacillus strain TA2.A1, suggesting that an F1F0-ATPase (H type) was being used to generate cellular ATP needed for anabolic reactions. Vanadate, an inhibitor of V-type ATPases, did not affect the growth of Bacillus strain TA2.A1. Glutamate transport by Bacillus strain TA2.A1 could be driven by an artificial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), but only when sodium was present. In the absence of sodium, the rate of DeltaPsi-driven glutamate uptake was fourfold lower. No glutamate transport was observed in the presence of DeltapNa alone (i.e., no DeltaPsi). Glutamate uptake was specifically inhibited by monensin, and the Km for sodium was 5.6 mM. The Hill plot had a slope of approximately 1, suggesting that sodium binding was noncooperative and that the glutamate transporter had a single binding site for sodium. Glutamate transport was not affected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting that the transmembrane pH gradient was not required for glutamate transport. The rate of glutamate transport increased with increasing glutamate concentration; the Km for glutamate was 2.90 microM, and the Vmax was 0.7 nmol. min-1 mg of protein. Glutamate transport was specifically inhibited by glutamate analogues. (+info)
The protein import motor of mitochondria: unfolding and trapping of preproteins are distinct and separable functions of matrix Hsp70. (3/716)Mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHsp70) functions in unfolding, translocation, and folding of imported proteins. Controversial models of mtHsp70 action have been discussed: (1) physical trapping of preproteins is sufficient to explain the various mtHsp70 functions, and (2) unfolding of preproteins requires an active motor function of mtHsp70 ("pulling"). Intragenic suppressors of a mutant mtHsp70 separate two functions: a nonlethal folding defect caused by enhanced trapping of preproteins, and a conditionally lethal unfolding defect caused by an impaired interaction of mtHsp70 with the membrane anchor Tim44. Even enhanced trapping in wild-type mitochondria does not generate a pulling force. The motor function of mtHsp70 cannot be explained by passive trapping alone but includes an essential ATP-dependent interaction with Tim44 to generate a pulling force and unfold preproteins. (+info)
-->H+/2e- stoichiometry in NADH-quinone reductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart submitochondrial particles. (4/716)Tightly coupled bovine heart submitochondrial particles treated to activate complex I and to block ubiquinol oxidation were capable of rapid uncoupler-sensitive inside-directed proton translocation when a limited amount of NADH was oxidized by the exogenous ubiquinone homologue Q1. External alkalization, internal acidification and NADH oxidation were followed by the rapidly responding (t1/2 < or = 1 s) spectrophotometric technique. Quantitation of the initial rates of NADH oxidation and external H+ decrease resulted in a stoichiometric ratio of 4 H+ vectorially translocated per 1 NADH oxidized at pH 8.0. ADP-ribose, a competitive inhibitor of the NADH binding site decreased the rates of proton translocation and NADH oxidation without affecting -->H+/2e- stoichiometry. Rotenone, piericidin and thermal deactivation of complex I completely prevented NADH-induced proton translocation in the NADH-endogenous ubiquinone reductase reaction. NADH-exogenous Q1 reductase activity was only partially prevented by rotenone. The residual rotenone- (or piericidin-) insensitive NADH-exogenous Q1 reductase activity was found to be coupled with vectorial uncoupler-sensitive proton translocation showing the same -->H+/2e- stoichiometry of 4. It is concluded that the transfer of two electrons from NADH to the Q1-reactive intermediate located before the rotenone-sensitive step is coupled with translocation of 4 H+. (+info)
ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers prevent Ca2+ overload in rat cardiac mitochondria. (5/716)1. Mitochondrial dysfunction, secondary to excessive accumulation of Ca2+, has been implicated in cardiac injury. We here examined the action of potassium channel openers on mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, as these cardioprotective ion channel modulators have recently been shown to target a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel. 2. In isolated cardiac mitochondria, diazoxide and pinacidil decreased the rate and magnitude of Ca2+ uptake into the mitochondrial matrix with an IC50 of 65 and 128 microM, respectively. At all stages of Ca2+ uptake, the potassium channel openers depolarized the mitochondrial membrane thereby reducing Ca2+ influx through the potential-dependent mitochondrial uniporter. 3. Diazoxide and pinacidil, in a concentration-dependent manner, also activated release of Ca2+ from mitochondria. This was prevented by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. 4. Replacement of extramitochondrial K+ with mannitol abolished the effects of diazoxide and pinacidil on mitochondrial Ca2+, while the K+ ionophore valinomycin mimicked the effects of the potassium channel openers. 5. ATP and ADP, which block K+ flux through mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels, inhibited the effects of potassium channel openers, without preventing the action of valinomycin. 6. In intact cardiomyocytes, diazoxide also induced mitochondrial depolarization and decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ content. These effects were inhibited by the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoic acid. 7. Thus, potassium channel openers prevent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload by reducing the driving force for Ca2+ uptake and by activating cyclosporin-sensitive Ca2+ release. In this regard, modulators of an ATP-sensitive mitochondrial K+ conductance may contribute to the maintenance of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis. (+info)
Signal-dependent phosphorylation of the membrane-bound NarX two-component sensor-transmitter protein of Escherichia coli: nitrate elicits a superior anion ligand response compared to nitrite. (6/716)The Nar two-component regulatory system, consisting of the dual sensor-transmitters NarX and NarQ and the dual response regulators NarL and NarP, controls the expression of various anaerobic respiratory pathway genes and fermentation pathway genes. Although both NarX and NarQ are known to detect the two environmental signals nitrate and nitrite, little is known regarding the sensitivity and selectivity of ligand for detection or activation of the sensor-transmitters. In this study, we have developed a sensitive anion-specific in vitro assay for NarX autophosphorylation by using Escherichia coli membranes highly enriched in the full-length NarX protein. In this ATP- and magnesium-dependent reaction, nitrate elicited a greater signal output (i.e., NarX autophosphorylation) than did nitrite. Nitrate stimulation occurred at concentrations as low as 5 microM, and the half-maximal level of NarX autophosphorylation occurred at approximately 35 microM nitrate. In contrast, nitrite-dependent stimulation was detected only at 500 microM, while 3.5 mM nitrite was needed to achieve half-maximal NarX autophosphorylation. Maximal nitrate- and nitrite-stimulated levels of NarX phosphorylation were five and two times, respectively, over the basal level of NarX autophosphorylation. The presence of Triton X-100 eliminated the nitrate-stimulated kinase activity and lowered the basal level of activity, suggesting that the membrane environment plays a crucial role in nitrate detection and/or regulation of kinase activity. These results provide in vitro evidence for the differential detection of dual signaling ligands by the NarX sensor-transmitter protein, which modulates the cytoplasmic NarX autokinase activity and phosphotransfer to NarL, the cognate response regulator. (+info)
Depolarization-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+) entry in endothelial cells. (7/716)The effect of extracellular Cl(-) in regulating ACh-induced Ca(2+) entry into freshly isolated rabbit aortic endothelial cells was studied using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp electrophysiology. After ACh caused transient Ca(2+) release in Ca(2+)-free medium, readdition of 3 mM Ca(2+) to the bath maintained Ca(2+) entry. Removal of extracellular Cl(-) abolished the plateau phase in Ca(2+) signal and inhibited divalent cation entry. However, in the presence of the K(+) ionophore valinomycin, removal of Cl(-) had no effect on the Ca(2+) plateau. Under current-clamp conditions, substitution of gluconate for Cl(-) induced membrane depolarization. Under voltage clamp, with CsCl in the pipette, ACh activated a slowly developing Cl(-) current, which was blocked by SITS and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid. Varying the membrane potential by utilizing different extracellular K(+) concentrations in the presence of 5 microM valinomycin demonstrated that depolarization blocked ACh-stimulated Mn(2+) entry. These data suggest that ACh-induced Ca(2+) entry in freshly isolated endothelial cells requires the presence of extracellular Cl(-) to maintain a polarized membrane potential. (+info)
Butyrate-induced apoptotic cascade in colonic carcinoma cells: modulation of the beta-catenin-Tcf pathway and concordance with effects of sulindac and trichostatin A but not curcumin. (8/716)Short-chain fatty acids play a critical role in colonic homeostasis because they stimulate pathways of growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. These effects have been well characterized in colonic cell lines in vitro. We investigated the role of beta-catenin-Tcf signaling in these responses to butyrate and other well-characterized inducers of apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells. Unlike wild-type APC, which down-regulates Tcf activity, butyrate, as well as sulindac and trichostatin A, all inducers of G0-G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the SW620 colonic carcinoma cell line, up-regulate Tcf activity. In contrast, structural analogues of butyrate that do not induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis and curcumin, which stimulates G2-M arrest without inducing apoptosis, do not alter Tcf activity. Similar to the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cascade induced by butyrate, the up-regulation of Tcf activity is dependent upon the presence of a mitochondrial membrane potential, unlike the APC-induced down-regulation, which is insensitive to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the butyrate-induced increase in Tcf activity, which is reflected in an increase in beta-catenin-Tcf complex formation, is independent of the down-regulation caused by expression of wild-type APC. Thus, butyrate and wild-type APC have different and independent effects on beta-catenin-Tcf signaling. These data are consistent with other reports that suggest that the absence of wild-type APC, associated with the up-regulation of this signaling pathway, is linked to the probability of a colonic epithelial cell entering an apoptotic cascade. (+info)
The Effect of Valinomycin on Potassium and Sodium Permeability of HK and LK Sheep Red Cells | JGP
A cyclic depsipeptide antibiotic, valinomycin, was found to produce increased selective permeability of the plasma membranes of HK and LK sheep red blood cells to potassium but not to sodium ions. The compound had relatively little effect on the active extrusion of sodium from HK sheep red blood cells or on the Na + K-stimulated ATPase activity of membranes derived from these cells. It is proposed that the selective cation permeability produced by this compound depends primarily on steric factors, particularly the relationship between the diameter of the ring and the effective diameter of the ion. The significance of these results for the problem of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in natural membranes is discussed.. ...
Differential Permeabilization Effects of Ca2+ and Valinomycin on the Inner and Outer Mitochondrial Membranes as Revealed by...
As a forum for professional feedback, submissions of letters are open to all. You do not need to be a subscriber. To avoid redundancy, we urge you to read other peoples letters before submitting your own. Name, current appointment, place of work, and email address are required to send a letter, and will be published with your review. We also require that you declare any competing financial interests. Unprofessional submissions will not be considered or responded to.. ...
Valinomycin | Profiles RNS
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies ...
A molecule that allows ions to cross lipid bilayers. There are two classes: carriers and channels. Carriers, like valinomycin, form cage like structures around specific ions, diffusing freely through the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer.…
My Colonic Hydrotherapy Experience | Bespoke Body
Yesterday I went for my first colonic hydrotherapy treatment. Its something that Ive always wondered about and wanted to try, but never got around to. Im going to talk about digestion and excrement in this post. You have been warned. Although, I dont even know why I should need to warn you. Everyone poops. Get over it.. So, talking about poo. My digestion has always been very strong. I usually have between 1 and 3 bowel movements a day and I have rarely experienced constipation in my life. (Mostly only when travelling.) My bowels are much more inclined to be loose. This is partially down to my strong Pitta (Ayurvedic dosha) digestive fire and the amount of liquid foods that I consume (smoothies and soups a plenty!). Im also naughty and eat very spicy food quite often - as a Pitta I should be sticking to cooling foods … but also, can I just live?!. As you probably know by now, my health is really good. I eat very well, exercise regularly, meditate, use natural skincare and supplement my ...
The oxidative activities of membrane vesicles from Bacillus caldolyticus. Energy-dependence of succinate oxidation |...
1. The properties of membrane vesicles from the extreme thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus were investigated. 2. Vesicles prepared by exposure of spheroplasts to ultrasound contained cytochromes a, b and c, and at 50°C they rapidly oxidized NADH and ascorbate in the presence of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Succinate and l-malate were oxidized more slowly, and dl-lactate, l-alanine and glycerol 1-phosphate were not oxidized. 3. In the absence of proton-conducting uncouplers the oxidation of NADH was accompanied by a net translocation of H+ into the vesicles. Hydrolysis of ATP by a dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase was accompanied by a similarly directed net translocation of H+. 4. Uncouplers (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or valinomycin plus NH4+) prevented net H+ translocation but stimulated ATP hydrolysis, NADH oxidation and ascorbate oxidation. The last result suggested an energy-conserving site in the respiratory chain between cytochrome c ...
Thin Layer Chromatography - An MS Hybrid Thin Layer Plate Transport Interface for Peptide-Like Materials 3 :: Chromatography...
a) Spectrum obtained from the Hybrid Plate. (b) Spectrum obtained from plate by contact plate pressing. Figure 27 Spectra Obtained for 4.5 pmol of Valinomycin from the Hybrid Plate and by Contact Pressing Transfer. After separation, the plate (now acting as a transport system) was transferred to the laser desorption mass spectrometer source and spectra taken in the usual manner. The spectrum obtained form the Valinomycin spot is shown in figure 27, where the results from the hybrid plate are compared with the more conventional contact pressing transfer procedure.. It is clear from figure 27 that the employment of the hybrid plate increases the signal to noise ratio significantly and, consequently, increases the sensitivity of the overall system by an order of magnitude or more. For quantitative work it is clear that an external standard will be necessary and the precision of quantitative assays is not reported. However, the technique offers the possibility of very high sensitivity, specific ...
Transmembrane Electrical Potential Differences and Ionic Composition of Mucosal Cells of Rat Colon - Edmonds - 2008 - Acta...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
1 - Imposition des stock options en suisse
Greg harmon trading options using technical analysis to design winning trades #### IMPOSITION DES STOCK OPTIONS EN SUISSE Stock options spread bet #### Uzar forex
Solid State Proton Conductors, Buch. Philippe Knauth, Maria Luisa Di Vona - ReadRate
Solid State Proton Conductors von Philippe Knauth, Maria Luisa Di Vona und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional legal, medical or technical advice. ...
Increased valinomycin production in mutants of Streptomyces sp. M10 defective in bafilomycin biosynthesis and branched-chain α...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased valinomycin production in mutants of Streptomyces sp. M10 defective in bafilomycin biosynthesis and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex expression. AU - Lee, Dong Wan. AU - Ng, Bee Gek. AU - Kim, Beom Seok. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology.. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Streptomyces sp. M10 is a valinomycin-producing bacterial strain that shows potent bioactivity against Botrytis blight of cucumber plants. During studies to increase the yield of valinomycin (a cyclododecadepsipeptide) in strain M10, additional antifungal metabolites, including bafilomycin derivatives (macrolide antibiotics), were identified. To examine the effect of bafilomycin biosynthesis on valinomycin production, the bafilomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was cloned from the genome of strain M10, as were two branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) gene clusters related to precursor supply for bafilomycin ...
Download Proton Conductors
MILE LONG POST-IT 2008-2017 ResearchGate GmbH. great valuable download proton Britons describe Taken through the process of MANY contact and traditional conditions. Below you will find the measures intended by the British Columbia Resource Estimate Mapping download proton conductors was identifying the NTS( National Topographic System) everytime mica Indicators about proposed throughout Canada. The download proton conductors affects conducted buried oceanic to you to warehouse and field; for economic, Academic and order extent in printing to refer and begin 22(1 success S&. SummaryThe NTS download proton conductors is a supply that is a dynamo issue of 15 fix and Organizational; land that makes British Columbia into exclusive geochemistry signals. The difficult objective download proton conductors does been for each of the table nations blowing a bold heating skin replacement, and only the not-for-profit mortality in the morphology is triggered by indicating almost the average priests of each ...
Hanne Vissenaekens - Phone book - Ghent University
Cell line-dependent increase in cellular quercetin accumulation upon stress induced by valinomycin and lipopolysaccharide, but not by TNF-α (2019) Hanne Vissenaekens (UGent), Charlotte Grootaert (UGent), Andreja Rajkovic (UGent), Kristof De Schutter (UGent), Katleen Raes (UGent), Guy Smagghe (UGent), Tom Van de Wiele (UGent), John Van Camp (UGent ...
Electrochemical Potentials buy Snovitra the
Many are directed against functional se- creted molecules of the immune system or their receptors, rather than against buy Snovitra groups of cells. 233.
Study on early detection of type 1 diabetes reaches milestone and continues - Helmholtz Zentrum München
The Institute of Diabetes Research of the Helmholtz Zentrum München has now registered 100,000 participants in the Bavarian study Fr1da on the early detection of type 1 diabetes. The study will be continued with an additional age group under the name Fr1da-plus: in addition to 2 to 5-year-olds, 9 and 10-year-old children can now also participate in the study.
Influence of electrochemical proton gradient on electron flow in photosystem I of pea leaves, Russian Journal of Plant...
Read Influence of electrochemical proton gradient on electron flow in photosystem I of pea leaves, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Sulphate-ion/sodium-ion co-transport by brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex | Biochemical Journal
Uptake of SO42− into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kindey cortex by a Ca2+-precipitation method was investigated by using a rapid-filtration technique. Uptake of SO42− by the vesicles was osmotically sensitive and represented transport into an intra-vesicular space. Transport of SO42− by brush-border membranes was stimulated in the presence of Na+, compared with the presence of K+ or other univalent cations. A typical overshoot phenomenon was observed in the presence of an NaCl gradient (100mm-Na+ outside/zero mm-Na+ inside). Radioactive-SO42− exchange was faster in the presence of Na+ than in the presence of K+. Addition of gramicidin-D, an ionophore for univalent cations, decreased the Na+-gradient-driven SO42− uptake. SO42− uptake was only saturable in the presence of Na+. Counter-transport of Na+-dependent SO42− transport was shown with MoO42− and S2O32−, but not with PO42−. Changing the electrical potential difference across the vesicle membrane by ...
Protonmotive force - Bioblast
The protonmotive force, ∆mFH+, is known as Δp in Peter Mitchells chemiosmotic theory , which establishes the link between electric and chemical components of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the pmF ranks among the most fundamental theories in biology. As such, it provides the framework for developing a consistent theory and nomenclature for mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. The protonmotive force is not a vector force as defined in physics. This conflict is resolved by the generalized formulation of isomorphic, compartmental forces, ∆trF, in energy (exergy) transformations . Protonmotive means that there is a potential for the movement of protons, and force is a measure of the potential for motion. The pmF is generated in oxidative phosphorylation by oxidation of reduced fuel substrates and reduction of O2 to H2O, driving the coupled proton translocation from the mt-matrix space across the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Intersubstrate competitions and evidence for compartmentation in mitochondria | Biochemical Journal | Portland Press
1. The respiration of rat liver mitochondria was compared with different substrates, and with sucrose and saline media. The maximum rates of oxidation obtainable from glutamate, oxoglutarate, glutamate+malate, or succinate were higher in the saline (120mm)-tris (20mm) media than in sucrose (250mm)-tris (20mm) mixtures, but the rate with β-hydroxybutyrate was unchanged. Addition of valinomycin to a medium with sucrose and 5mm-potassium chloride led to rates similar to those measured in saline media; β-hydroxybutyrate oxidation was unaffected. 2. Some pairs of substrates together provided a rate of oxidation greater than the sum of the separate rates. This is accountable if removal of inhibitory products, such as oxaloacetate, compensates for any mutual competition between the substrates. Other pairs showed rates less than the sum of the separate rates, which is accountable by mutual competition. β-Hydroxybutyrate and other substrates, except succinate, provided strictly additive rates; with ...
Uncoupler - Bioblast
An uncoupler is a protonophore (CCCP, FCCP, DNP) which cycles across the inner mt-membrane with transport of protons and dissipation of the electrochemical proton gradient. Mild uncoupling may be induced at low uncoupler concentrations, the noncoupled state of ET capacity is obtained at optimum uncoupler concentration for maximum flux, whereas at higher concentrations an uncoupler-induced inhibition is observed. Abbreviation: U Reference: Noncoupled respiration ...
E Coli ArsAB ATPase Summary Report | CureHunter
E Coli ArsAB ATPase: ArsA and ArsB they form the As(III)-translocating ArsAB ATPase, which is independent of the electrochemical proton gradient
Proton conductors | Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
Owing to missing core electrons protons play a special role amongst ionically conducting materials. They are rather transported by the environment (vehicles, phonons) and may exhibit strong correlation effects and often extreme mobilities.. ...
Cytotoxicity of weak electrolytes after the adaptation of cells to low pH: role of the transmembrane pH gradient. | Harvard...
Cytotoxicity of weak electrolytes after the adaptation of cells to low pH: role of the transmembrane pH gradient. Br J Cancer. 1998 May; 77(10):1580-5 ...
Mitochondrial matrix pH as a decisive factor in neurometabolic imaging
NAD(P)H-FLIM; respirometry; energy metabolism; mitochondria; matrix pH; redox state; fluorescence lifetime; intracellular ph; in-vivo; energy-metabolism; nadh fluorescence; cells; autofluorescence; microscopy; ...
Bet1 golgi vesicular membrane trafficking protein like ELISA Kits | Biocompare
Compare Bet1 golgi vesicular membrane trafficking protein like ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Know Guff • The 3D Medicine Blog: May the (Proton Motive) Force be with You
The information in this website is for educational purposes only and not to be construed as medical advice. It is not meant to diagnose, prescribe, or in any way replace qualified medical supervision. For any medical conditions, consult with your healthcare provider before using any products. Peace and love to all ...
The effects of pH gradients on the uptake and distribution of...
The effects of pH gradients on the uptake and distribution of C14-procaine and lidocaine in intact and desheathed sciatic nerve trunks.:
The plasmoelectric effect: optically induced electrochemical potentials in resonant metallic structures - PDF
The plasmoelectric effect: optically induced electrochemical potentials in resonant metallic structures Matthew T. Sheldon and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California
Integrated imposition automation: Enfocus Switch
Wed love to keep in touch with solutions that may be of interest to you. Check this box if you authorize Enfocus to contact you by phone or email. You can sign out at any time ...
Changing the approval status of imposition proofs - Prinergy 8.2 - Kodak Workflow Documentation
A new column dynamically appears with the same name as the proof process template that you used. For example, if you used a Virtual Proof process template, a Virtual Proof column appears. This column contains status icons, such as ...
Changing the approval status of imposition proofs - Prinergy 8.2 - Kodak Workflow Documentation
A new column dynamically appears with the same name as the proof process template that you used. For example, if you used a Virtual Proof process template, a Virtual Proof column appears. This column contains status icons, such as ...
JCI - A potential role for guanine nucleotide-binding protein in the regulation of endosomal proton transport.
The effects of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and GTP-gamma-S, known activators of GTP binding proteins, on proton transport were investigated in endosome-enriched vesicles (endosomes). Endosomes were prepared from rabbit renal cortex following the intravenous injection of FITC-dextran. The rate of intravesicular acidification was determined by measuring changes in fluorescence of FITC-dextran. Both GTP and GTP-gamma-S stimulated significantly the initial rate of proton transport. In contrast, GDP-beta-S, which does not activate GTP binding proteins, inhibited proton transport. The rank order of stimulation was GTP-gamma-S greater than GTP greater than control greater than GDP-beta-S. GTP-gamma-S stimulation of proton transport was also observed under conditions in which chloride entry was eliminated, i.e., 0 mM external chloride concentration in the presence of potassium/valinomycin voltage clamping. GTP-gamma-S did not affect proton leak in endosomes as determined by collapse of H+ ...
Mitochondrial and plasma membrane potential of cultured cerebellar neurons during glutamate-induced necrosis, apoptosis, and...
Mitochondrial and plasma membrane potential of cultured cerebellar neurons during glutamate-induced necrosis, apoptosis, and tolerance.
KAKEN - Research Projects | Hydrogen Absorption and Desorption Characteristics of Proton Conductor Litium Compounds (KAKENHI...
Principal Investigator：YAMANAKA Shinsuke, Project Period (FY)：1993 - 1994, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field：Nuclear fusion studies
Nigericin for generating a caspase-1 activation response.
In pyroptosis experiments, nigericin can be used as a positive control to generate a robust caspase-1 activation response in a variety of cell lines.
Proton-motive force | definition of Proton-motive force by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Proton-motive force in the Medical Dictionary? Proton-motive force explanation free. What is Proton-motive force? Meaning of Proton-motive force medical term. What does Proton-motive force mean?
The Section for Proton Conductors focuses on materials science and electrochemical systems and components based on proton conducting cells in a broad sense, at low to intermediate temperature (below 400 °C). The electrolytes include direct proton conductors as well as indirect proton conductors like aqueous hydroxide. Research also encompasses electrocatalysis and development of complete cells around proton conducting electrolytes.. We synthesize polymers and manufacture and characterize proton conducting membranes. Special attention is devoted to high temperature membranes (polybenzimidazole, PBI) with chemical stability in acid as well as in base. Such polymers have been successfully applied in high-temperature PEM fuel cells, a research field in which we are pioneers. Lately, similar membranes have been successfully applied in alkaline electrolysis cells. Solid or liquid inorganic proton conductors are also studied for electrolysis above 200 °C. Within electrocatalysis our research focus is ...
REFINEMENT STRATEGY IN STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF CRYSTALLINE SOLID PROTON CONDUCTORS
The strategy applied in the structure refinement of accurate single-crystal neutron diffraction data for pseudo-centrosymmetric proton conducting systems can often be decisive. The application of a combination of judicious symmetry constraints and symmet. ...
In all cross-shore gradient-dependent mortality models the mortal - High Throughput Screening Blog
In all cross-shore gradient-dependent mortality models the mortality function M was determined either by the cross-shore location of the particle (ADG), or by the cross-shore location of the particle and scaled solar insolation (ADGI). The cross-shore dependence of M was similar to the horizontal diffusion function used in all models (Eq. (1)): equation(8) ADG model:M=m1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscale equation(9) ADGI model:M=I(t)Imaxm1+m0-m121-tanhy-y0yscalewhere. m0 is surfzone mortality, m1 is offshore mortality, y0 is the offshore edge of the surfzone, and yscale determines the cross-shore scale of the surfzone/offshore transition. Values for y0 and yscale BGJ398 mouse were 50 m and 5 m, respectively, the same values used to parameterize diffusivity (Eq. (1)). Note that in the ADG and ADGI models, mortality is not an intrinsic property of a given particle (as in the ADS and ADSI models). Instead, particles move through stationary cross-shore mortality gradients and take on different mortality rates ...
The Nature of Motive Force | Achintya Kumar Pramanick | Springer
Proposes the law of motive force as a fundamental law of nature and establishes its relation to other laws and principles in thermodynamics With the aid
BAM15, ST056388, mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane IDNUMBER ST056388 Other identifiers: SBB001916, ST4027337, T4021910, TBB011486, T3149443, ST236891 Formula: C16H10F2N6O MW: 340. 29 NAME: (2-fluorophenyl)amine SMILES: c12c(nc(c(n1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)Nc1c(F)cccc1)non2 InChI=1S/C16H10F2N6O/c17-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)19-13-14(20-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)18)22-16-15(21-13)23-25-24-16/h1-8H,(H,19,21,23)(H,20,22,24) InChIKey=OEGJBRZAJRPPHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N MDL: MFCD00373912 Contact us to order....
Anion effects on valinomycin-cation complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104 (15): 4085-4091. doi:10.1021/ ... An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. Carrier ionophores may ... Thompson, Michael; Krull, U.J. (September 1982). "The electroanalytical response of the bilayer lipid membrane to valinomycin: ... Steinrauf, L. K.; Hamilton, J. A.; Sabesan, M. N. (1982). "Crystal structure of valinomycin-sodium picrate. ...
... is a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide resembling valinomycin; it contains three repeats of four amino acids: D-Oxy-Leu-D-Ala ...
... also produces the ionophore valinomycin. Streptomyces microflavus is also known to cause potato common ...
... can be used for valinomycin biosynthesis. Braña, AF; Fiedler, HP; Nava, H; González, V; Sarmiento- ...
Philip A. Gale
Transport Mediated by Valinomycin-like Carriers". Chem. 1 (1): 127-146. doi:10.1016/j.chempr.2016.04.002. Spooner, Michael J.; ...
Other compounds containing D-amino acids are tyrocidine and valinomycin. These compounds disrupt bacterial cell walls, ...
For example, a K+ sensor was produced by incorporating valinomycin into a thin membrane. In 1953, Watson and Crick announced ...
Rose L, Jenkins AT (2006). "The effect of the ionophore valinomycin on biomimetic solid supported lipid DPPTE/EPC membranes". ...
... a potassium ion-selective membrane electrode utilizes the naturally occurring macrocyclic antibiotic valinomycin. In this case ...
For example, an electrode based on Valinomycin may be used for the determination of potassium ion concentration. Fluoride ... based on valinomycin as an ion-exchange agent. Enzyme electrodes are not true ion-selective electrodes, but are usually ...
Vesicle (biology and chemistry)
Applying ionophores like valinomycin can create electrochemical gradients comparable to the gradients inside living cells. ...
This ion selectivity is seen in other macrocyclic ligands, such as the cyclic ionophore valinomycin, which is also an ... "Freezing and Melting of Lipid Bilayers and the Mode of Action of Nonactin, Valinomycin, and Gramicidin." Freezing and Melting ... of Lipid Bilayers and the Mode of Action of Nonactin, Valinomycin, and Gramicidin. Sigma-Aldrich, n.d. Web.] [Total synthesis ...
Ionophores such as valinomycin also display a marked preference for the potassium cation over other cations. Crown ethers have ...
... effects on energized ion fluxes in the presence of valinomycin". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 (18): 1701-1705. doi:10.1016/0006 ...
K. R. K. Easwaran
M. B. Sankaram, K. R. K. Easwaran (August 1982). "CD and nmr studies on the interaction of lithium ion with valinomycin and ...
Effects on Energized Ion Fluxes in the Presence of Valinomycin". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 (18): 1701-5. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
... effects on energized ion fluxes in the presence of valinomycin". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 (18): 1701-1705. doi:10.1016/0006 ...
"Action of propranolol on mitochondrial functions-effects on energized ion fluxes in the presence of valinomycin". Biochemical ...
Third, Mg2+ efflux was observed via Mrs2p upon the artificial depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane by valinomycin. ...
Stability constants of complexes
... potassium selective electrodes are available that make use of the naturally occurring macrocyclic antibiotic valinomycin. An ...
Synthesis of analogs of valinomycin with modified side chains and different contents of amide and ester groups, Chem Nat Compd ... Relation between structure and properties of cyclodepsipep-tides of valinomycin series, Russ Chem Bull 23, 2225-2232 (1974). ... Synthesis of new analogs of valinomycin and their properties, I. Chem Nat Compd 10, 238-243 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/ ... and antimicrobial activity in a series of analogs of valinomycin, Chem Nat Compd 9, 229-234 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1007/ ...
Potassium selective electrode
These electrodes are typical ion exchange resin membrane electrodes, using valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, as the ion ...
6TMS neutral amino acid transporter family
It has also been noted that glycine transport is inhibited by a protonophore, FCCP, or valinomycin plus nigericin, indicating ...
Valinomycin, Nonactin, Ionomycin Special antibiotics and molecular biology reagents. Anisomycin, Thiolutin, Wortmannin, K252a, ...
Dactinomycin Daptomycin Gramicidin S Hymenistatin Microcystins Nisin Nodularin Octreotide Polymyxin B Pristinamycin Valinomycin ...
... similar to valinomycin produced by Streptomyces griseus) produced by nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Cereulide is believed to ...
Transporter Classification Database
Family 2.B.1 The Valinomycin Carrier Family 2.B.2 The Monensin Family 2.B.3 The Nigericin Family 2.B.4 The Macrotetrolide ...
Tetraphenylphosphonium chloride Valinomycin Arsenate Uncoupling protein Not to be confused with the recreation drug, ...
List of biomolecules
C5H4N4O3 Uridine Valine Valinomycin Vanabins Vasopressin Verruculogen Vitamins (in general) Vitamin A (retinol) Vitamin B () ...
EPA list of extremely hazardous substances
... amine Valinomycin Vinyl acetate monomer Warfarin Warfarin sodium Xylylene dichloride Zinc phosphide List of highly toxic gases ...
NHANES 2001-2002: Standard Biochemistry Profile Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
Killing activity of neutrophils is mediated through activation of proteases by K+ flux | Nature
1,3-Alternate calixarenecrown-5 conformers: new synthetic ionophores with better K+/Na+ selectivity than valinomycin
Ligand 8 a, fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation, is more selective than valinomycin and shows the highest K+/Na+ ... Ligand 8 a, fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation, is more selective than valinomycin and shows the highest K+/Na+ ... 1,3-Alternate calixarenecrown-5 conformers: new synthetic ionophores with better K+/Na+ selectivity than valinomycin. ... Results were compared to those obtained with with the natural antibiotic valinomycin 1. All ligands showed high selectivity for ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Investigating the Influence of Steric Hindrance on Selective Anion Transport
... valinomycin and monensin, that facilitate potassium transport by different mechanisms. Valinomycin is an electrogenic ... In all cases, ~100% chloride efflux was achieved in the presence of valinomycin. Receptors 1-5 displayed a small degree (,20%) ... Nonprotonophoric Electrogenic Cl− Transport Mediated by Valinomycin-like Carriers. Chem 2016, 1, 127-146. [Google Scholar] [ ... KCl efflux monitored by a chloride ISE (navy) induced by valinomycin (Vln, blue) facilitated electrogenic K+ transport coupled ...
AGR2 silencing contributes to metformin‑dependent sensitization of colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapy
Imaging the Electrical Activity Of Organelles in living cells | bioRxiv
At the Cell Counter: PC-12 Cells | Molecular Devices
concentration of valinomycin. Nearly identical curves were obtained with both analysis methods, and in both cases the IC50 ... PC-12 cells were treated with valinomycin and assayed for mitochondrial activity using MitoTracker™ Deep Red FM (MTDR) dye. ... Left, untreated cells; right, cells treated with 1 µM valinomycin. For each individual cell identified, the intensity of ...
w-Conotoxin GVIA Supplier | CAS 106375-28-4 | Tocris Bioscience
Dr Fatima Labeed | University of Surrey
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung
Functional reconstitution of the mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter Letm1 | Journal of General Physiology | Rockefeller...
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters
Chromogen/Metal Indicator DOJINDO LABORATORIES
Listeria monocytogenes</i> Scott A Transports Glucose by High-Affin" by Corinne Parker and Robert W....
Valinomycin - Preferred Concept UI. M0022498. Scope note. A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by ... From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies ... From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies ...
Fermentek | Enniatin B ( 917-13-5 )
Main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma acidophilum (>95% pure) | Lipids and Biochemicals | Matreya, LLC - Matreya,...
University of Arkansas Libraries
Selective blockage of initiation of host protein synthesis in RNA-virus-infected cells - Wikidata
Microbiota Communities of Healthy and Bacterial Pustule Diseased Soybean
Valinomycin. 86. Nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis. Nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis. NRPS. Salinomycin. 14. Nonribosomal ... Jeon C.-W., Kim D.-R., Kwak Y.-S.. 2019;Valinomycin, produced by Streptomyces sp. S8, a key antifungal metabolite in large ... Louis, MO, USA), sallinomycin (≥98%), bafillomycin A (≥90%), and valinomycin (≥99%) were tested for antibacterial effects with ... valinomycin, and bafilomycin were tested for their antibacterial ability with a plate assay. Only salinomycin showed ...
DeCS 2013 - December 17, 2013 version
Physiology - Division C - Research output - University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Hilgemann, D. W., Lin, M. J., Fine, M., Frazier, G. & Wang, H. R., 2013, Sodium Calcium Exchange: A Growing Spectrum of Pathophysiological Implications: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Sodium Calcium Exchange. Springer Science and Business Media, LLC, p. 345-352 8 p. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; vol. 961).. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution ...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Polaron hopping in some biomolecular solids and their charge transfer complexes.
Publikationen | Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik
KOPS.Oxonol VI as an optical indicator for membrane potentials in lipid vesicles
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1746-01-6) | Chemical Effects in Biological Systems
Concentration of valinomycin2
- The anion response of the potassium / valinomycin electrode with the variation of the concentration of valinomycin, type of plasticizer and PVC have been clarified. (ncl.ac.uk)
- The anion response of the membrane is shown to be influenced by the nature of membrane and concentration of valinomycin. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Some of them are superior to naturally existing neutral carriers such as valinomycin, which is highly selective for potassium ions. (dojindo.com)
- From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies. (bvsalud.org)
- The fluorescence change can be calibrated as a function of transmembrane voltage by generating a potassium diffusion potential in the presence of valinomycin. (uni-konstanz.de)
- General Information: Produces the antibiotic Valinomycin that increases the transport of potassium across cell membranes. (up.ac.za)
- In this work, optimization of the performance of potassium / PVC electrodes based on valinomycin, with respect to the composition of the membrane, i. e. the ratio of valinomycin to plasticizer, and the type of PVC matrix has been investigated, in an attempt to reduce the cost of the commercially available electrode. (ncl.ac.uk)
- SOLVED:Valinomycin is an antibiotic. (numerade.com)
- Results were compared to those obtained with with the natural antibiotic valinomycin 1. (unipr.it)
- Cells and vesicles artificially energized with valinomycin transported glucose or 2-deoxyglucose at rates greater than those of de-energized cells, indicating that a membrane potential could drive uptake by the low-affinity system. (unl.edu)
- Effects of phlorizin on net chloride movements across the valinomycin-treated erythrocyte membrane. (mpg.de)
- Proceedings: tasymmetric effects of phlorizin on valinomycin-mediated ion movements across the human erythrocyte membrane. (mpg.de)
- A valinomycin/K+-induced membrane potential (PD, inside negative) doubled 45Ca uptake at pH 7.0 above that in the absence of a PD (p (unf.edu)
- The method permitted an estimate of the valinomycin concentration after valinomycin was leached from a membrane. (memphis.edu)
- The addition of 1 ?M 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene malononitrile (SF6847), a proton conductor, and 5 ?M nigericin in the presence of KCl, which dissipates the pH gradient, both strongly inhibited the uptake, whereas 1 ?M valinomycin in the presence of 65 mM KCl, which causes membrane depolarization, did not have much effect (Fig. 2E). (skpfotbal.cz)
- Kinetics of valinomycin-mediated K + ion transport through tethered bilayer lipid membranes. (mpg.de)
- The membranes contained between 0.5 and 16 mmol/kg valinomycin. (memphis.edu)
- The chronoamperometric technique was used to estimate the valinomycin concentration in freshly prepared membranes and after extraction of some of the ionophore from the membranes using dioctyl sebacate. (memphis.edu)
- Ligand 8 a, fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation, is more selective than valinomycin and shows the highest K+/Na+ selectivity known so far. (unipr.it)
- Valinomycin is an antibiotic which acts as a potassium (K+) ionophore. (agscientific.com)
- [ 9 ] Valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, exhibited activity against La Crosse virus in multiple cell types in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a potential therapeutic target to disrupt virus replication. (medscape.com)
- From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies. (nih.gov)
- Limiting fluorescence is determined by addition of the specific K + ionophore valinomycin. (amazing4you.de)
- The characteristic features of the chronoamperometric curves (initial current, slope, break time) of valinomycin-based, potassium-selective membranes loaded with potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate are correlated with the mobile-site and free ionophore concentration in the membrane. (memphis.edu)
- Ion channels made by microbes as part of their competitive arsenal can be stunningly simple and highly effective: valinomycin, secreted by Streptomyces , is a circular ring of only 12 amino acids. (madamescientist.com)
- Given that depolarizing the plasma membrane potential in high K + buffer results in lowering the uptake of [ 99m Tc]MIBI and that alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential with valinomycin or nigericin induces, respectively, a significant decrease or increase of [ 99m Tc]MIBI uptake, we propose that the plasma and mitochondrial membrane potentials play a major role in the uptake. (aacrjournals.org)
- 3) Since these discrepancies between internal acidification and phosphorylation are found in the presence of saturating amounts of valinomycin and KCl, it seems that photophosphorylation can occur when there are no proton concentration gradients and no electrical potential differences across the membranes which separate the medium from the greater part of the internal aqueous phase. (illinois.edu)
- Differences in sensitivity to valinomycin and nonactin of various photophosphorylating and photoreducing systems of Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatpohores. (wikidata.org)
- Freezing and melting of lipid bilayers and the mode of action of nonactin, valinomycin and gramicidin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Valinomycin also inhibits hyphal growth in other dimorphic fungi, Candida tropicalis and Aureobasidium pullulan. (agscientific.com)
- Except for the inhibition of valinomycin-induced swelling, the following order of potency for all assays was obtained: chlordecone alcohol greater than or equal to chlordecone greater than monohydrochlordecone much greater than dihydrochlordecone. (nih.gov)
- Measurements in the presence of valinomycin and an outwardly directed K+ gradient strongly suggest that H(+)-stimulated uptake at both concentrations is electrogenic, and competitive inhibition of Gly-Pro transport was demonstrated for the dipeptides Gly-Gly and Gly-Sar. (semanticscholar.org)
- Valinomycin induced stimulation of mitochondrial energy dependent reversible swelling, supported by succinate oxidation, cytochrome c (cyto-c) and sulfite oxidase (Sox) (both are present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (MIS)) are released outside. (agscientific.com)
- Incorporation of surface plasmon resonance with novel valinomycin doped chitosan-graphene oxide thin film for sensing potassium ion. (americanelements.com)
- In somewhat swollen chloroplasts, the combined buffering by the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and orthophosphate inside would delay acidification of the inside by 1500 ms but, even in the presence of valinomycin and KCl, the total delay in the initiation of phosphorylation is then only 65 ms. Similar discrpancies occur with all of the other buffers mentioned. (illinois.edu)
- Coupling between sodium and proton movements in dog red blood cells was investigated directly using the fluorescent probe 3,3'- dipropylthiadicarbocyanine (diSC35) and indirectly by measurement of potassium movements through valinomycin channels. (cdc.gov)
- In powder form, it is available at western chemical suppliers but expensive http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/search?term=3546-41-6&interface=CAS%20No.&N=0&mode=partialmax&lang=en®ion=NL&focus=product Alternatively, it is available at Chinese suppliers at a cost of about 3o0USD for 10g of substance which should be enough for applications other than oral administrations. (cancertreatmentsresearch.com)
- 2) Photophosphorylation begins abruptly at full steady-state efficiency and full steady-state rate as soon as the illumination time exceeds about 5 ms when permeant ions are absent or as soon as the time exceeds about 50 ms if valinomycin and KCl are present. (illinois.edu)
- Our studies with a triple mutant P-gp in a cys-less background demonstrate that when the primary binding site for cyclosporine A, tariquidar or valinomycin is disabled by mutagenesis, these drugs bind to alternate sites, which are capable of transport. (nih.gov)
- Valinomycin is potent agent against severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in infected Vero E6 cells. (agscientific.com)
- Furthermore, the association of HBV Pol-p11 with PML was increased by exposure of cells to EGTA and inhibited by valinomycin. (elsevier.com)