A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).
Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)
A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.

The importance of pharmacological synergy in psychoactive herbal medicines. (1/38)

The therapeutic effects of many herbal medicines have been well established; however, definitive mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated for many psychoactive herbal medications. Although several mechanisms have been identified, they are often insufficient to account for the observed effects of the plant or its extracts. This review emphasizes that, in addition to searching for more potent mechanisms, one must consider the additive and supra-additive effects of a plant's multiple constituents. Synergy may occur through pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions. Examples are given that illustrate synergistic actions in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), kava kava (Piper methysticum), and valerian (Valeriana officinalis).  (+info)

Valerian. (2/38)

Valerian is a traditional herbal sleep remedy that has been studied with a variety of methodologic designs using multiple dosages and preparations. Research has focused on subjective evaluations of sleep patterns, particularly sleep latency, and study populations have primarily consisted of self-described poor sleepers. Valerian improves subjective experiences of sleep when taken nightly over one- to two-week periods, and it appears to be a safe sedative/hypnotic choice in patients with mild to moderate insomnia. The evidence for single-dose effect is contradictory. Valerian is also used in patients with mild anxiety, but the data supporting this indication are limited. Although the adverse effect profile and tolerability of this herb are excellent, long-term safety studies are lacking.  (+info)

Incorporation of isobutyrate and valerate into cellular plasmalogen by Bacteroides succinogenes. (3/38)

Wegner, G. H. (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and E. M. Foster. Incorporation of isobutyrate and valerate into cellular plasmalogen by Bacteroides succinogenes. J. Bacteriol. 85:53-61. 1963.-Bacteroides succinogenes was found to require both a branched-chain volatile fatty acid (e.g., isobutyric) and a straight-chain acid (e.g., valeric) for growth. The organism used the acids as precursors for the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids and fatty aldehydes, which in turn were employed in the synthesis of phospholipid, mainly ethanolamine plasmalogen. Isobutyric acid was incorporated primarily into branched-chain C(14) and C(16) acids (tentatively identified as 12-methyl tridecanoic and 14-methyl pentadecanoic acids, respectively), and into fatty aldehydes. Valeric acid was used mainly for the synthesis of n-C(13) and n-C(15) fatty acids and fatty aldehydes. Apparently the two short-chain fatty acids were built up by the addition of two-carbon units to form the long-chain acids and aldehydes of the plasmalogen.  (+info)

Effect of supplemental tryptophan, vitamin E, and a herbal product on responses by pigs to vibration. (4/38)

Economic losses related to increased stress during the transport of pigs are well documented. The effects of supplementing of tryptophan (Trp), vitamin E, or a herbal product via feed or drinking water were investigated in terms of effects on stress response in pigs during transport simulation. The study consisted of three analogous experiments. For the testing in each experiment, the pigs (23.5+/-3.2 kg) were allocated to one of two treatments, with and without supplementation of a product. The applied doses were Trp (5 g/L drinking water for 3 d), vitamin E (additional amount of 300 mg/kg feed for 21 d, as-fed basis), and Sedafit (2.5 g/L drinking water for 2 d). Sedafit is a commercial herbal product containing Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. as active components. In each experiment of the study, at least 47 pigs were involved, which were treated in groups of 3. The day before transport simulation, a Holter device was attached to the pigs to produce an electrocardiogram during the night (rest values), as well as during vibration in the transport simulator (1.2 Hz, 1 m/s2), where the behavior of the pigs (standing-sitting-lying) was also observed. Samples of saliva (taken before, during, and after [3x] vibration) and blood (taken before and after vibration) were analyzed for cortisol and intermediate metabolites (glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, and nonesterified fatty acids), respectively. Pigs supplemented with Trp tended to spend more time lying down during the second hour of vibration (P < 0.05). Vitamin E decreased the peak heart rate (P < 0.05), ventricular ectopic beats (P < 0.01), and ST elevation (P < 0.10). The supplementation of Sedafit resulted in smaller increases of the investigated heart variables (minimum heart rate, P < 0.05; ventricular ectopic beats, P < 0.05; ST elevation, P < 0.01) during and after stress evocation compared with the control group. None of the tested products influenced the intermediate metabolites; one possible explanation for this finding may be that peak values were reached before the time of bleeding. In conclusion, Trp had a positive behavioral effect in this experiment, and vitamin E and Sedafit mediated an increase in some heart variables, suggesting sedative and antianxiety effects.  (+info)

Multiple night-time doses of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) had minimal effects on CYP3A4 activity and no effect on CYP2D6 activity in healthy volunteers. (5/38)

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a valerian extract on the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4. Probe drugs dextromethorphan (30 mg; CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (2 mg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally to healthy volunteers (n = 12) at baseline and again after exposure to two 500-mg valerian tablets (1000 mg) nightly for 14 days. The valerian supplement contained a total valerenic acid content of 5.51 mg/tablet. Dextromethorphan to dextorphan metabolic ratios (DMRs) and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after valerian treatment. The DMR was 0.214 +/- 0.025 at baseline and 0.254 +/- 0.026 after valerian supplementation (p > 0.05). For alprazolam, the maximum concentration in plasma was significantly increased after treatment with valerian (25 +/- 7 ng/ml versus 31 +/- 8 ng/ml; p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters at baseline and after valerian exposure (all p values > or = 0.05; time to reach maximum concentration in plasma, 3.0 +/- 3.2 versus 3.1 +/- 2.1 h; area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, 471 +/- 183 versus 539 +/- 240 hx ng x ml(-1); half-life of elimination, 13.5 +/- 4.3 versus 12.2 +/- 5.6 h). Our results indicate that although a modest increase was observed in the alprazolam Cmax, typical doses of valerian are unlikely to produce clinically significant effects on the disposition of medications dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways of metabolism.  (+info)

In vitro activity of commercial valerian root extracts against human cytochrome P450 3A4. (6/38)

PURPOSE: Valerian root ( Valeriana officinalis L.) has been used since antiquity as a medicinal herb. Recent studies have found that certain herbal products used concomitantly with conventional therapeutic products can markedly affect drug disposition. METHODS: The in vitro effect of aliquots from 14 commercially available single-entity and blended products containing valerian root on cytochrome P450 CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport has been determined with aqueous, ethanol and acetonitrile extracts. RESULTS: Hydroxyvalerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valerenic acid content was analyzed and wide variation was found between samples and compared to the concentrations noted on the product labels. Valerian extracts from the products tested also exhibited a marked capacity to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport based upon the ATPase assay. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variation between commercially available samples of valerian root. The findings from this study suggest that valerian root may have an initial inhibitory effect when taken with therapeutic products. Further work is warranted to determine whether valerian root can affect other CYP450 isozymes and how the results of this in vitro investigation can be extrapolated to in vivo situations.  (+info)

In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4/5 phenotypes. (7/38)

OBJECTIVES: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis ), black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa ), kava kava ( Piper methysticum ), or valerian ( Valeriana officinalis ) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 activity. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women) were randomly assigned to receive goldenseal, black cohosh, kava kava, or valerian for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. RESULTS: Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratio means revealed significant inhibition (approximately 40%) of CYP2D6 (difference, -0.228; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.268 to -0.188) and CYP3A4/5 (difference, -1.501; 95% CI, -1.840 to -1.163) activity for goldenseal. Kava produced significant reductions (approximately 40%) in CYP2E1 only (difference, -0.192; 95% CI, -0.325 to -0.060). Black cohosh also exhibited statistically significant inhibition of CYP2D6 (difference, -0.046; 95% CI, -0.085 to -0.007), but the magnitude of the effect (approximately 7%) did not appear to be clinically relevant. No significant changes in phenotypic ratios were observed for valerian. CONCLUSIONS: Botanical supplements containing goldenseal strongly inhibited CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 activity in vivo, whereas kava inhibited CYP2E1 and black cohosh weakly inhibited CYP2D6. Accordingly, serious adverse interactions may result from the concomitant ingestion of goldenseal supplements and drugs that are CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5 substrates. Kava kava and black cohosh may interact with CYP2E1 and CYP2D6 substrates, respectively. Valerian appears to be less likely to produce CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions.  (+info)

Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of valerian roots on farms. (8/38)

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during various stages of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) roots processing by herb farmers and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 15 farms owned by valerian cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air showed a marked variability and were within a range of 0.95-7,966.6 x 10(3) cfu/m (3). Though median was relatively low (10.75 x 10(3) cfu/m (3)), on 4 farms the concentrations exceeded the level of 10(5) cfu/m (3) and on 1 farm the level of 10(6) cfu/m (3). During the processing of valerian roots, distinct changes could be observed in the composition of airborne microflora. In the first stages of processing, the freshly dug and washed roots until shaking in the drying room, the most numerous were Gram-negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae (mostly Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens). After drying, the dominant organisms were thermo-resistant endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and fungi, among which prevailed Aspergillus fumigatus. Altogether, 29 species or genera of bacteria and 19 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during valerian processing, of these, 10 and 12 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin on the examined farms were very large and ranged from 10.0-776.7 mg/m (3), and from 0.15-24,448.2 microg/m (3), respectively (medians 198.3 mg/m (3) and 40.48 microg/m (3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease.  (+info)

Dextrorphan is a psychoactive compound that is found naturally in trace amounts in the brain and is also produced by the breakdown of the opioid analgesic drug codeine. It is a potent antagonist of the NMDA receptor, which is involved in a variety of neurological processes, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. In the medical field, dextrorphan is sometimes used as a research tool to study the NMDA receptor and its role in various neurological disorders. It has also been studied as a potential treatment for conditions such as depression, anxiety, and addiction, although its therapeutic potential is still being investigated. However, dextrorphan is also a psychoactive drug and can produce effects such as euphoria, sedation, and hallucinations when taken in large doses. It is also an opioid antagonist, which means that it can block the effects of opioids such as morphine and heroin. As a result, dextrorphan can be used to counteract the effects of opioid overdose and to treat opioid addiction.

Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a group of sleep disorders that affect a person's ability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or both. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night, and early morning awakenings. Some common sleep initiation and maintenance disorders include insomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. These disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can lead to a range of physical and mental health problems if left untreated. Treatment for sleep initiation and maintenance disorders typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy.

Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.

Alprazolam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and symptoms of anxiety associated with depression. Alprazolam works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to reduce feelings of anxiety and tension. Alprazolam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally. The immediate-release form is usually taken as needed to treat symptoms of anxiety or panic, while the extended-release form is taken once a day to provide continuous relief. While alprazolam can be effective in treating anxiety disorders, it can also be habit-forming and may cause dependence if used for extended periods of time. As such, it is typically prescribed for short-term use only, and patients are closely monitored for signs of dependence or withdrawal. Additionally, alprazolam can interact with other medications and may cause drowsiness, dizziness, and other side effects.

Look up Valerian or valerian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Valerian may refer to: a fictional character in Valérian and ... a play published in 1938 Valerian (name), including a list of people with the given name and surname Valerian (emperor), Roman ... other plants in the genus Valeriana Centranthus, a genus containing plants closely related to Valeriana HMS Valerian (1916) All ... emperor from 253 to 260 Valerian (herb), Valeriana officinalis, a medicinal plant, and the namesake for other valerians. ...
Valerian Ivanovich Abakovsky (Russian: Валериа́н Ива́нович Абако́вский, Latvian: Valerians Abakovskis; 5 October 1895 - 24 July ... German delegate Valerian Abakovsky himself, at the age of 25. The seven men killed in the crash lay in state at the House of ...
Valerian "Valiko" Shalikashvili (Georgian: ვალერიან "ვალიკო" შალიკაშვილი) (1874-1919) was a Georgian producer, actor, and ...
Media related to Valerian Gunia at Wikimedia Commons Valerian Gunia at IMDb Valerian Gunia on Georgian National Filmography ( ... Valerian "Valiko" Gunia (Georgian: ვალერიან [ვალიკო] გუნია; 21 January 1862 - 31 July 1938) was a Georgian dramatist, actor, ... "Valerian Gunia". Georgian National Filmography. Retrieved 10 February 2013. ...
"Valerian". Drugs.com. 9 June 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022. "Valerian". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of ... Headache and diarrhea have occurred among subjects using valerian in clinical studies. Valerian root is a cat attractant in a ... Red valerian, often grown in gardens, is also sometimes referred to as "valerian", but is a different species (Centranthus ... Valerian has been used as a herb in traditional medicine since at least the time of ancient Greece and Rome. Hippocrates ...
... is a common name for several plants and may refer to: Polemonium caeruleum, native to Europe Polemonium reptans ...
... (born 1955) is a Romanian publicist, civic and human rights activist, dignitary, lawyer, and military officer. He ... Valerian Stan - Casele, demnitarii și demnitatea" România Liberă, 19 July 1997, "Lista lui Stan/ Moșierii nu mai vin, i-a făcut ... "Prin demiterea lui Valerian Stan, Guvernul rade incoruptibilii" Adevărul, 28 August 1997, "Monstruoasa coaliție l-a demis pe ... "Valerian Stan la Porţile Orientului" Curentul, 11 January 2000, Ștefan Augustin Doinaș, "Morala politicii şi politica moralei ...
Valerian Lvovych Polishchuk (Ukrainian: Валеріан Львович Поліщук, 1 October 1897 - 9 October 1937) was a Ukrainian writer and ...
Valerian II (died 257), Roman Caesar, grandson of the Emperor Valerian Saints Tiburtius, Valerian and Maximus Valerian of ... Valerian is a given name and surname. Valerian (emperor) (200-c. 260), Roman emperor (253-260) ... Soviet diplomat Valerian Zubov (1771-1804), Russian general who led the Persian Expedition of 1796 Lars Valerian Ahlfors (1907- ... Russian lieutenant general Valerian Freyberg, 3rd Baron Freyberg (born 1970), British peer, sitting as a crossbencher Valerian ...
... (Georgian: ვალერიან გაფრინდაშვილი) (December 21, 1888 - January 31, 1941) was a Georgian poet and ...
... (born 29 july 1949) is an Indian political scientist. He is known for his influential work on Babasaheb ... Rodrigues, Valerian (2011). "In Search of an Anchor: Muslim Thought in Modern India". Economic and Political Weekly. Rodrigues ... ISBN 978-0-19-567055-4. Rodrigues, Valerian (2011). "Reading Texts and Traditions: The Ambedkar-Gandhi Debate". Economic and ... "Democracy and Religious Minorities in India" (PDF). Rodrigues, Valerian (2014). "Elections and Civil Society in India". ...
1930 FIDE Album 1914-1944/III Valerian Oniţiu (also Valeriu Oniţiu) (April 8, 1872, Sibiu, Romania - 31 December 1948, ...
... (born Valeriu Ionescu; August 1, 1895 - November 21, 1980) was a Romanian writer and journalist. Born in Ivești, ... in Romanian) I. Valerian at the Paul Păltănea History Museum Galați site; accessed July 10, 2013 (Articles with Romanian- ... According to George Călinescu, Valerian, through this magazine and Sentinela (1939-1944), showed a wide-ranging vision in a ...
... (born 1 August 1950) is a Moldovan politician and diplomat, currently serving as Deputy Mayor of Orhei. In ...
Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhia (Russian: Валериан Османович Кобахия; 15 May 1929, Lykhny - 28 June 1992, Lykhny) was an Abkhaz ...
Traian Lascu, Valerian, 1951-1984, Knello, Detroit, 1984. Ion Mihai Pacepa, Red Horizons: Chronicles of a Communist Spy Chief, ... They also argued that Valerian Trifa had acted after being forced to choose between the pro-Soviet and the pro-Nazi camps, ... The deportation was still in progress when Valerian Trifa died at the age of 72, in a Cascais hospital, during emergency ... Valerian Trifa (Romanian pronunciation: [valeriˈan ˈtrifa]; secular name Viorel Donise Trifa Romanian pronunciation: [vi.oˈrel ...
... (Georgian: ვალერიან თევზაძე, Polish: Walerian Tewzadze) (February 10, 1894 - December 13, 1985) was a ... After the Red Army took control of Poland, Valerian Tevzadze joined the Polish underground against the communists until his ... In 2019, Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki visited the tomb of Valerian Tevzadze at the Dzierżoniów cemetery. The annual ...
hrono.info Media related to Valerian Dovgalevsky at Wikimedia Commons Dovgalevsky Valerian Savelievich Biography in the ... Valerian Savelievich (Saulovich) Dovgalevsky (23 September 1885 - 14 July 1934) was a member of the Bolshevik revolutionary ... Справочник по истории Коммунистической партии и Советского Союза 1898 - 1991 Dovgalevsky Valerian Savelievich Валериан ...
Valerian appears in Joseph of Anchieta's play O Auto de São Lourenço as one of the main characters. In Act III, Valerian is ... Valerian headed south but was too late: Gallus was killed by his own troops, who joined Aemilianus before Valerian arrived. The ... Valerian's capture was a tremendous defeat for the Romans. While fighting the Persians, Valerian sent two letters to the Senate ... In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged Valerian. Valerian's first act as emperor was to appoint his son Gallienus augustus, ...
... In the Land of White Death William Barr. The First Tourist Cruise in the Soviet Arctic Works by Valerian ... Valerian Ivanovich Albanov (Russian: Валериа́н Ива́нович Альбанов; 26 May 1881 - 1919) was a Russian navigator, best known for ... In 1975, Arctic expert William Barr wrote, "The name of Valerian Ivanovich Albanov must be ranked among those of the immortals ... in the Severnaya Zemlya group has been named after Valerian Albanov. A Russian expedition in September 2010, following the ...
"Maykov, Valerian Nikolayevich". www.hrono.ru. Retrieved 2010-06-01. Goncharov, I. S. "Maykov, Valerian Nikolayevich. Obituary ... Valerian Maykov's promising career suddenly came to an end on July 15, 1847. While guesting in Petergof region, he died of a ... Valerian Maykov, son of painter Nikolay Maykov, was born in Moscow and received a high-quality home education: Ivan Goncharov, ... Valerian Nikolayevich Maykov (Russian: Валериа́н Никола́евич Ма́йков; September 9 1823 - July 27, 1847) was a Russian writer ...
... (born Edvige Maria Valcarenghi, 8 May 1886 - 1969) was an Italian film actress of the silent era. She was the ... Bice Valerian at IMDb v t e (CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty, CS1 Italian-language sources (it), Articles with short ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to Valerian Okeke. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valerian Okeke. (Pages using the ... Valerian Okeke later served as parish priest of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows' Parish, Umuoji (1983- 1986). He served as the Rector ... Through the Archbishop Valerian Okeke Foundation (AVOF) he is able to send young ambassadors of good will to countries like ... Valerian Maduka Okeke// (born 20 October 1953) is a Nigerian prelate who serves as the Archbishop of the Catholic Archdiocese ...
... (born 19 April 1978) is a Georgian footballer who is currently a free agent. "Játékosok - Valerian Zirakadze ... " [Players: Valerian Zirakadze]. futbalmanach.hu (in Hungarian). Retrieved 14 August 2014. v t e (CS1 Hungarian-language ...
Valerian Sergeevich Sokolov (Russian: Валериан Серге́евич Соколов; born 30 August 1946) is a former Soviet bantamweight Olympic ... Valerian Sokolov. sports-reference.com Boris Khavin (1979). All about Olympic Games (in Russian) (2nd ed.). Moscow: Fizkultura ...
... 's profile at Sports Reference.com Valerian Netedu at hhof.com Biographical information and career statistics ... Valerian Netedu (born January 26, 1953) is a former Romanian ice hockey goaltender. He played for the Romania men's national ...
Valerian Tulgar is a politician from Transnistria. He is a member of parliament and president of the Union of Moldovans in ... Official biography of Valerian Tulgar v t e v t e (1956 births, Living people, Transnistrian politicians, People from Telenești ... Valerian Tulgar was born November 27, 1956 in Bessarabia, in the village of Sărătenii Vechi, Teleneşti district of Moldova. " ...
Shortly after his acclamation as Emperor (Augustus) Valerian made Gallienus his co-Emperor and his grandson, Valerian, Caesar, ... As in case of his brother, Saloninus, who was later made Caesar in Gaul, the little we know of Valerian's short reign in ... Because of his youth (he was probably no more than fifteen at the time), Valerian was put under the guardianship of Ingenuus, ... Despite this precaution, Valerian died in early 258 in circumstances sufficiently suspicious for Gallienus to attempt to demote ...
Valerian Borisovich Aptekar (Russian: Валериа́н Бори́сович Апте́карь; 24 October 1899 - 29 July 1937) was a Russian linguist ... Valerian Borisovich Aptekar (1934). N.Y. Marr and the new doctrine of language. State Socioeconomic Publisher. p. 185. Nikolay ... Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr; Valerian Borisovich Aptekar (1934). Language and Society. State Academy of the History of Material ... 2003). "Aptekar, Valerian Borisovich". Bibliographical Dictionary of Orientalists - victims of political terror in the Soviet ...
Valerian Johann von Engelhardt (Russian: Валериан Фёдорович Энгельгардт) (1798-1856) was a Russian lieutenant general and ...
... containing valerian have been promoted to help with insomnia -- but is it safe and effective? ... Unlike benzodiazepines, valerian causes little to no neurologic impairment.[5,6] A one-time 1600-mg valerian dose did not ... What Is Valerian?. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a plant native to Europe and Asia, and naturalized to the United States ... Valerian appears to be safe for most people, and the small amount of valerian in herbal infusion products further broadens its ...
Archbishop Valerian *Chancery Office *Constitution & By-Laws and Official Documents *Episcopate Council *Deaneries *Romanian ... CLICK HERE to read an article about Archbishop Valerian. APĂSAȚI AICI pentru a citi un articol despre Înaltpreasfințitul ...
What is Valerian Used For?. There have been numerous human clinical trials conducted on Valerian and many have shown positive ... What is Valerian Used For?. There have been numerous human clinical trials conducted on Valerian and many have shown positive ... Valerian. This plant is native to Europe but was readily cultivated in North America in the early 19th century. Every eclectic ... There is a small percentage of people who respond paradoxically with valerian and it causes stimulation rather than sedation.. ...
VALERIANA OFFICINALIS- valerian pellet. Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. Out of ... VALERIANA OFFICINALIS- valerian pellet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... VALERIANA OFFICINALIS- valerian pellet. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, ...
Testing Status of Valerian (various) 10048. Testing Status of Valerian (various) 10048. CASRN: VALERIAN. Synonyms/Common Names ...
Valerian overview for health professionals. Research supplement sources, historical uses, health effects, safety, and ... Home , Health Information , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Valerian , Valerian. Valerian. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals ... What is valerian?. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), a member of the Valerianaceae family, is a perennial plant native to ... How does valerian work?. Many chemical constituents of valerian have been identified, but it is not known which may be ...
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Fr Valerians funeral Mass and burial service will be held on Tuesday, June 6 at 10 am in St Vincent Ferrer Church, Valencia.. ... Fr Valerian retired from active ministry in 2016 and was residing at St Zuze Vaz Home, Jeppu. ... Mangalore diocese priest Fr Valerian Rodrigues passes away at 79. * Sun, Jun 04 2023 11:12:43 PM ... Hailing from Bajpe and born to Peter Rodrigues and Florine Pinto, Fr Valerian had his priestly ordination on May 11, 1973. ...
Marsh Valerian: identification, pictures, distribution, habitat, blooming times, folklore, herbal uses, etymology and similar ... Marsh Valerian is easily distinguished from the very pale pink roadside wildflower Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis by its ... Marsh Valerian is easily distinguished from Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis, which grows much taller and has looser ... The flower heads may look rather like umbellifers, but Marsh Valerian is more closely related to the Teasel than to Wild Carrot ...
Valerian has been linked to rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury. ... Valerian is a botanical extract derived from the roots of Valeriana officinalis, which is widely used in herbal medicine for ... Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W. Bent S, et al. Am ... Valerian No authors listed In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda ( ...
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Valerian has been linked to rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury. ... Valerian is a botanical extract derived from the roots of Valeriana officinalis, which is widely used in herbal medicine for ... Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W. Bent S, et al. Am ... Valerian No authors listed In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda ( ...
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Valerian and Special Subjects - Learn about from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version. ... In vitro studies have suggested valerian to inhibit both CYP3A4 metabolism and p-glycoprotein activity (9 References Valerians ... Studies suggest that it is generally safe to give valerian at the usual doses. Adverse effects of valerian include headache, ... A few people feel drowsy in the morning after taking valerian, especially at higher doses. Possible sedation from valerian may ...
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... valerian root may be the natural sleep aid youve been searching for. ... How much valerian do I take?. When valerian is added to commercial teas, like the Traditional Medicinals Nighty Night Extra tea ... What are the health benefits of valerian?. Ancient Greeks and Romans used valerian as a medicinal herb to treat insomnia. Since ... The valerian products sold in the United States are made from the roots and stems of the plant. They come in the form of ...
Media valerian copyright Botanica. All rights reserved. ...
Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. In the Northern and Southern parts of the world outbreaks occur mainly in winter while in areas around the equator outbreaks may occur at any time of the year. Death occurs mostly in the young, the old and those with other health problems. Larger outbreaks known as pandemics are less frequent. In the 20th century three influenza pandemics occurred: Spanish influenza in 1918, Asian influenza in 1958, and Hong Kong influenza in 1968, each resulting in more than a million deaths. The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June of 2009. Influenza may also affect other animals, including pigs, horses and birds.. ...
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Valariana Officinalis Source: Foxtrot Farm, MA Part(s): root Use: sleep support, nervine sedative, antispasmodic
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Valerian root tincture has anxiolytic and antispasmodic properties, and is ideal to eliminate stress and relieve sleep ... Valerian root tincture is produced from the root of the Valeriana officinalis plant.. Formulated WITHOUT: preservatives, ... Valerian root tincture has anxiolytic and antispasmodic properties, and is ideal to eliminate stress and relieve sleep ... Valerian root tincture is excellent to eliminate tension, anxiety, insomnia, hysteria, panic, nervousness and oxidative stress ...
  • Corresponding author: Valerian E. Kagan, Ph.D., D.Sc. (cdc.gov)
  • However, St. John's wort and valerian inhibited the proliferation of primary human lymphocytes. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is now interest in studying valerian to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, and one study suggests that valerian has some effects that counteract obsessive and compulsive tendencies. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A valerian extract (530 mg) improved sleep quality in postmenopausal women with sleep disturbances (30% experienced improvement vs 4% with placebo). (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] A trial of patients with sleep disturbances while undergoing cancer chemotherapy found that valerian extract (450 mg) was no better than placebo, but a secondary analysis suggested some improvement in fatigue. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] A sleep laboratory study of older women with insomnia reported no difference between valerian extract (300 mg) and placebo in a randomized controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • 128 volunteers were given 400 mg of an aqueous extract of valerian, a commercial preparation containing 60 mg valerian and 30 mg hops, and a placebo [ 13 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with the placebo, the valerian extract resulted in a statistically significant subjective improvement in time required to fall asleep (more or less difficult than usual), sleep quality (better or worse than usual), and number of nighttime awakenings (more or less than usual).This result was more pronounced in a subgroup of 61 participants who identified themselves as poor sleepers on a questionnaire administered at the beginning of the study. (nih.gov)
  • In its 2017 clinical practice guidelines, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommended against using valerian for chronic insomnia in adults. (nih.gov)
  • Herbal infusions or "teas" containing valerian have been promoted to help with insomnia -- but is it safe and effective? (medscape.com)
  • Hippocrates described the medicinal uses of the roots and rhizomes of valerian, and Galen wrote about its use for insomnia in the second century AD. (medscape.com)
  • Valerian is a common ingredient in products promoted as mild sedatives and sleep aids for nervous tension and insomnia. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence from clinical studies of the efficacy of valerian in treating sleep disorders such as insomnia is inconclusive. (nih.gov)
  • Its therapeutic uses were described by Hippocrates, and in the 2nd century, Galen prescribed valerian for insomnia [ 5 , 7 ]. (nih.gov)
  • In a systematic review of the scientific literature, nine randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials of valerian and sleep disorders were identified and evaluated for evidence of efficacy of valerian as a treatment for insomnia [ 11 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Treating primary insomnia - the efficacy of valerian and hops. (nih.gov)
  • Valerian improves subjective experiences of sleep when taken nightly over one- to two-week periods, and it appears to be a safe sedative/hypnotic choice in patients with mild to moderate insomnia. (nih.gov)
  • The roots and rhizomes (underground stems) of valerian are used for medicinal purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Preparations of valerian marketed as dietary supplements are made from its roots, rhizomes (underground stems), and stolons (horizontal stems). (nih.gov)
  • Two small studies suggest that valerian might be helpful for menopausal symptoms, but there is not enough evidence to know for certain. (nih.gov)
  • There's not enough evidence to allow any conclusions about whether valerian is helpful for anxiety, depression, premenstrual syndrome, menstrual cramps, stress, or other conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Constituents of valerian have been shown to have sedative effects in animals, but there is no scientific agreement on valerian's mechanisms of action. (nih.gov)
  • Valerian is used as a sedative and sleep aid and is especially popular in Europe. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Valerian has been used as a medicinal herb since at least the time of ancient Greece and Rome. (nih.gov)
  • In the mid-19th century, valerian was considered a stimulant that caused some of the same complaints it is thought to treat and was generally held in low esteem as a medicinal herb [ 2 ]. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of valerian on the severity and frequency of hot flashes: a triple-blind randomized clinical trial. (nih.gov)
  • There is not enough scientific evidence to determine whether valerian works for headaches, depression, irregular heartbeat, and trembling. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Unlike true teas, which are marketed as foods, products that contain valerian are marketed in the United States as dietary supplements. (medscape.com)
  • Valerian is added to tea (ie, herbal infusion) products that are marketed to induce sleep (eg, Sleepytime® Extra Herbal Tea by Celestial Seasonings). (medscape.com)
  • Herbal infusions contain low amounts of valerian. (medscape.com)
  • Valerian is a traditional herbal sleep remedy that has been studied with a variety of methodologic designs using multiple dosages and preparations. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical studies on the effectiveness of valerian as a hypnotic have yielded mixed results. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials found that the effects of valerian were similar to those of placebo in terms of sleep onset latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep quality, or duration of wakefulness after sleep onset. (medscape.com)
  • Adverse effects associated with valerian have been similar to those of placebo in quality and frequency in clinical trials. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] In theory, valerian could be additive with other central nervous system depressants, but this has not been demonstrated in clinical research. (medscape.com)
  • Because this fact sheet focuses on valerian as a single ingredient, only clinical studies evaluating valerian as a single agent are included. (nih.gov)
  • What clinical studies have been done on valerian and sleep disorders? (nih.gov)
  • Little is known about whether it's safe to use valerian during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. (nih.gov)
  • The safety of valerian in pregnancy and lactation is also unknown. (medscape.com)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Valerian (8008-88-6). (nih.gov)
  • Valerian is also used in patients with mild anxiety, but the data supporting this indication are limited. (nih.gov)
  • Valerian has not been associated with clinically significant drug interactions. (medscape.com)
  • Valerian has been linked to rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • and National Institutes of Health (NIH): Valerian fact sheet for health professionals . (msdmanuals.com)
  • The evidence on whether valerian is helpful for sleep problems is inconsistent. (nih.gov)
  • Knowledge about valerian is limited because a relatively small amount of research has looked at valerian's effects on various conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The safety of long-term use of valerian is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • However, scientific evidence is not sufficient to support the use of valerian for these conditions [ 10 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Because it is possible (though not proven) that valerian might have a sleep-inducing effect, it should not be taken along with alcohol or sedatives. (nih.gov)
  • Research suggests that valerian is generally safe for short-term use by most adults. (nih.gov)
  • For short-term use, valerian appears to be safe. (medscape.com)
  • Like other plant products, valerian contains many chemicals, such as valerenic acid and valepotriates, that might contribute, either alone or collectively, to its pharmacologic activity. (medscape.com)
  • Whether GABA in valerian can cross the blood/brain barrier is unclear, and GABA concentrations in valerian can vary significantly depending on the time of plant harvesting. (medscape.com)
  • Bedtime® Tea by Yogi Tea contains 20 mg of valerian root plus passion flower plant ( Passiflora incarnata ) and other herbs. (medscape.com)
  • The amount of valerian and the other ingredients that are steeped into the prepared beverage is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • The genus Valerian includes over 250 species, but V. officinalis is the species most often used in the United States and Europe and is the only species discussed in this fact sheet [ 3 , 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • There is no scientific agreement as to the active constituents of valerian, and its activity may result from interactions among multiple constituents rather than any one compound or class of compounds [ 6 ]. (nih.gov)