Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Vagus Nerve Stimulation: An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Parathyroidectomy: Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Vagus Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the VAGUS NERVE. Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Para-Aortic Bodies: Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Esophagectomy: Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles receive are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve. The posterior ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve Hydman, Jonas (2008). Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Stockholm. ISBN 978-91-7409-123-6. The ... Paralysis of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles may lead to asphyxiation as they are the only laryngeal muscles to open the ...
A branch of the vagus nerve, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, passes underneath the arch of aorta. The nerve is seen here. This ... Innervated by barometric nerve terminals, the aortic arch is responsible for sensing changes in the dilation of the vascular ...
... a branch of the left vagus nerve. After splitting from the left vagus nerve, the left recurrent laryngeal loops around the ... The ligamentum arteriosum is closely related to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, ...
Most commonly associated nerve is the vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) or in some cases its distal branch, the recurrent ... Bilateral vocal fold paralysis is basically a result of abnormal nerve input to the laryngeal muscles, resulting in weak or ... laryngeal nerve. Paralysis of the vocal fold may also result from mechanical breakdown of the cricoarytenoid joint. It was ... total loss of movement of the laryngeal muscles. ...
Its innervation is by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (from vagus) just like all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the ...
The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles receive innervation from the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X). Muscles ...
At the lower part of the neck, on the right side of the body, the right recurrent laryngeal nerve crosses obliquely behind the ... Lateral to the artery, inside the carotid sheath with the common carotid, are the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve. ... left recurrent laryngeal nerve, and thoracic duct. To its right side below is the brachiocephalic trunk, and above, the trachea ... the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve being interposed; higher up, with the larynx and pharynx. ...
... recurrent laryngeal nerve of vagus) contracts, causing the arytenoids to appose each other (closes the laryngeal aditus by ... all recurrent laryngeal nerve of vagus). Since the true vocal folds adduct during the swallow, a finite period of apnea ( ... The bolus enters the esophagus and is propelled downwards first by striated muscle (recurrent laryngeal, X) then by the smooth ... This phase is passively controlled reflexively and involves cranial nerves V, X (vagus), XI (accessory) and XII (hypoglossal). ...
One nerve is the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which becomes the inferior laryngeal nerve. From the left vagus nerve the recurrent ... specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and vagus nerve. Three spinal nerves in the sacrum (S2 ... The vagus nerve, named after the Latin word vagus (because the nerve controls such a broad range of target tissues - vagus in ... from the right vagus nerve, the recurrent laryngeal nerve hooks around the right subclavian artery to travel back up to the ...
... and the cardiac branches of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. The only cardiac nerves which do not enter into the ... and the lower of the two superior cervical cardiac branches from the left vagus nerve, which pass to the superficial part of ... The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart. The cardiac plexus is ... Sympathetic trunk Splanchnic nerves Autonomic nervous system This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th ...
... the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is longer than the right; in the giraffe it is over 30 cm (12 in) longer. These nerves are ... Each nerve cell in this path begins in the brainstem and passes down the neck along the vagus nerve, then branches off into the ... recurrent laryngeal nerve which passes back up the neck to the larynx. Thus, these nerve cells have a length of nearly 5 m (16 ... PMC 5037354 . Wedel, M. J. (2012). "A monument of inefficiency: the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in ...
Nerves Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve - "ramus pharyngeus nervi vagi" Pharyngeal branches of recurrent laryngeal nerve - " ... Pharyngeal nerve of pterygopalatine ganglion Arteries Pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery - "rami pharyngeales ... "rami pharyngei nervi laryngei recurrentis" Pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal nerve - "rami pharyngei nervi ...
... cranial nerve X), specifically, by branches from the pharyngeal plexus and by neuronal branches from the recurrent laryngeal ... Similarly to the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscles, it is innervated by the vagus nerve ( ... insertion and nerve supply of the muscle at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine This article incorporates text ... nerve. The muscle is composed of two parts. The first (and more superior) arising from the thyroid cartilage (thyropharyngeal ...
... recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion (the superior cervical ... The tumour can also compress the recurrent laryngeal nerve and from this a hoarse voice and bovine cough may occur. In superior ... Its position and close proximity to vital structures (such as nerves and spine) may make surgery difficult. As a result, and ... The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, ...
... petrosal nerve Vagus nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Recurrent laryngeal nerve Accessory nerve Hypoglossal nerve Spinal nerves ... nerve Medial cutaneous nerve of arm Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm Median nerve Ulnar nerve Radial nerve Axillary nerve ... nerve Deep fibular nerve Tibial nerve Interosseous nerve of leg Medial sural cutaneous nerve Sural nerve Medial plantar nerve ... nerve Pudendal nerve Inferior anal nerves Perineal nerves Posterior labial nerves Posterior scrotal nerves Dorsal nerve of ...
The left vagus nerve, which passes anterior to the aortic arch, gives off a major branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which ... Between the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk is a network of autonomic nerve fibers, the cardiac plexus or aortic plexus. ... The aorta consists of a heterogeneous mixture of smooth muscle, nerves, intimal cells, endothelial cells, fibroblast-like cells ...
... trachea oesophagus thoracic duct apexes of the lungs nerves phrenic nerve vagus nerve recurrent laryngeal nerves sympathetic ... There are several other minor, but important, vessels and nerves passing through, and an abnormally large thyroid gland may ... and is separated from them by the other vessels and nerves listed above. Furthermore, they extend slightly superior past the ...
... the recurrent laryngeal nerve.[1] ... Vagus nerve (X)[edit]. Loss of function of the vagus nerve (X) ... Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and ... They are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), ...
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve ... the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is a bit longer than the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, there is no discernible ... the external laryngeal nerve and the internal laryngeal nerve. The external laryngeal nerve is the smaller, external branch. It ... By comparison with the recurrent laryngeal nerves, the superior laryngeal nerve takes a more direct route on the way to the ...
... and the cardiac branches of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. The only cardiac nerves which do not enter into the ... The parasympathetic component of the cardiac plexus originates from the cardiac branches of the vagus nerve. ... and the lower of the two superior cervical cardiac branches from the left vagus nerve, which pass to the superficial part of ... by the superior cervical cardiac branch of the left sympathetic trunk and the inferior cardiac branch of the left vagus nerve. ...
Parasympathetic cardiopulmonary nerves arise from the recurrent laryngeal nerves and the thoracic vagi immediately distal to ... Cardiopulmonary nerves are splanchnic nerves that are postsynaptic and sympathetic. They originate in cervical and upper ... All major sympathetic cardiopulmonary nerves arise from the stellate ganglia and the caudal halves of the cervical sympathetic ... These interconnects with the sympathetic cardiopulmonary nerves to form the ventral and dorsal cardiopulmonary plexuses. Moore ...
... laryngeal nerve Superior cervical cardiac branches of vagus nerve Inferior cervical cardiac branch Recurrent laryngeal nerve ... The right vagus nerve gives rise to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, which hooks around the right subclavian artery and ... The vagus nerve includes axons which emerge from or converge onto four nuclei of the medulla: The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve ... The vagus nerve (/ˈveɪɡəs/ VAY-gəs), historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and ...
This muscle is the only laryngeal muscle innervated by the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve known as the external ... branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (rather than the recurrent laryngeal nerve). The veins of the thyroid gland. The fascia ...
... a common sign is a hoarse voice from stretching of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve that winds ... Compression of nerve roots may cause leg pain or numbness. Untreated, aneurysms tend to become progressively larger, although ...
... one or two twigs from the vagus; and as it enters the thorax it is joined by a filament from the recurrent laryngeal nerve. ... and recurrent nerve. The course of the nerves on the two sides then differs. The right nerve, at the root of the neck, passes ... Filaments from the nerve communicate with the thyroid branches from the middle cervical ganglion. The left nerve, in the thorax ... about the middle of the neck it receives filaments from the external laryngeal nerve; lower down, ...
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. All intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroids are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The cricothyroid muscles are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. The superior laryngeal nerve consists of two branches: the internal laryngeal nerve (sensory), which supplies sensory fibers to the laryngeal mucosa, and the external laryngeal ...
... is a rare cardiovocal syndrome and refers to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy from cardiovascular disease. It was first described by Norbert Ortner (1865-1935), an Austrian physician, in 1897. The most common historical cause is a dilated left atrium due to mitral stenosis, but other causes, including pulmonary hypertension, thoracic aortic aneurysms, an enlarged pulmonary artery and aberrant subclavian artery syndrome have been reported compressing the nerve. Dysphagia caused by a similar mechanism is referred to as dysphagia aortica, or, in the case of subclavian artery aberrancy, as dysphagia lusoria. Due to compression of recurrent laryngeal nerve it can cause the hoarseness of the voice which is also one of the sign of the mitral stenosis. A second Ortner's syndrome, Ortner's syndrome II, refers to abdominal angina. Bickle IC, Kelly ...
On either side of the laryngeal orifice in humans is a recess, termed the piriform sinus (also piriform recess, pyriform sinus, piriform fossa, or smuggler's fossa), which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and thyrohyoid membrane. The fossae are involved in speech. The term "piriform," which means "pear-shaped," is also sometimes spelled "pyriform" (as in the diagram on this page.) Deep to the mucous membrane of the piriform fossa lie the recurrent laryngeal nerve as well as the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. The internal laryngeal nerve supplies sensation to the area, and it may become damaged if the mucous membrane is inadvertently punctured. The piriform sinus is a subsite of the ...
... is a surgical procedure used to treat vocal cord paralysis. A suture is used to emulate the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and position the paralyzed vocal cord closer to the midline. This allows the two vocal cords to meet and can improve speaking and swallowing ability for affected patients. Arytenoid adduction is often performed in conjunction with medialization thyroplasty. One of the key functions of the larynx is phonation, the production of sound. Phonation requires the vocal cords to be adducted (positioned towards the midline) so that they can meet and vibrate together as air is expelled between them. Physiologically, the glottis is closed by intrinsic laryngeal muscles such as the lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles. These muscles act on the arytenoid cartilages at the posterior ends of the vocal cords and are innervated by the left and right recurrent laryngeal ...
The pharyngeal plexus is a network of nerve fibers innervating most of the palate and pharynx. (Larynx, which is innervated by superior and recurrent laryngeal nerve from vagus nerve (CN X), is not included) It is located on the surface of the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Although the Terminologia Anatomica name of the plexus has "vagus nerve" in the title, other nerves make contributions to the plexus. It has the following sources: CN IX - pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal nerve - sensory CN X - pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve - motor superior cervical ganglion sympathetic fibers - vasomotor Because the cranial part of accessory nerve (CN ...
The deep part of the cardiac plexus is situated in front of the bifurcation of the trachea (known as the carina), above the point of division of the pulmonary artery, and behind the aortic arch. It is formed by the cardiac nerves derived from the cervical ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, and the cardiac branches of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. The only cardiac nerves which do not enter into the formation of the deep part of the cardiac plexus are the superior cardiac nerve of the left sympathetic trunk, and the lower of the two superior cervical cardiac branches from the left vagus nerve, which pass to the superficial part of the plexus. ...
The adductor muscles are the main muscular system in bivalve mollusks, i.e. in clams, scallops, mussels, oysters, etc. In many parts of the world, when people eat scallops, the adductor muscles are the only part of the soft parts of the animal which are eaten. Adductor muscles leave noticeable scars or marks on the interior of the shell's valves. Those marks (known as adductor muscle scars) are often used by scientists who are in the process of identifying empty shells to determine their correct taxonomic placement. Bivalve mollusks generally have either one or two adductor muscles. The muscles are strong enough to close the valves of the shell when they contract, and they are what enable the animal to close its valves tightly when necessary, such as when the bivalve is exposed to the air by low water levels, or when it is attacked by a predator. Most bivalve species have two adductor muscles, which are located on the anterior and posterior sides of the body.[1] Some families of bivalves have ...
The cough receptors or rapidly adapting irritant receptors are located mainly on the posterior wall of the trachea, pharynx, and at the carina of trachea, the point where the trachea branches into the main bronchi. The receptors are less abundant in the distal airways, and absent beyond the respiratory bronchioles. When triggered, impulses travel via the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which stems from the vagus nerve (CN X), to the medulla of the brain. This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no definitive area that has been identified as the cough center in the brain. The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the vagus and superior ...
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. All intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroids are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The cricothyroid muscles are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. The superior laryngeal nerve consists of two branches: the internal laryngeal nerve (sensory), which supplies sensory fibers to the laryngeal mucosa, and the external laryngeal ...
... is a rare cardiovocal syndrome and refers to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy from cardiovascular disease. It was first described by Norbert Ortner (1865-1935), an Austrian physician, in 1897. The most common historical cause is a dilated left atrium due to mitral stenosis, but other causes, including pulmonary hypertension, thoracic aortic aneurysms, an enlarged pulmonary artery and aberrant subclavian artery syndrome have been reported compressing the nerve. Dysphagia caused by a similar mechanism is referred to as dysphagia aortica, or, in the case of subclavian artery aberrancy, as dysphagia lusoria. Due to compression of recurrent laryngeal nerve it can cause the hoarseness of the voice which is also one of the sign of the mitral stenosis. A second Ortner's syndrome, Ortner's syndrome II, refers to abdominal angina. Bickle IC, Kelly ...
On either side of the laryngeal orifice in humans is a recess, termed the piriform sinus (also piriform recess, pyriform sinus, piriform fossa, or smuggler's fossa), which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and thyrohyoid membrane. The fossae are involved in speech. The term "piriform," which means "pear-shaped," is also sometimes spelled "pyriform" (as in the diagram on this page.) Deep to the mucous membrane of the piriform fossa lie the recurrent laryngeal nerve as well as the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. The internal laryngeal nerve supplies sensation to the area, and it may become damaged if the mucous membrane is inadvertently punctured. The piriform sinus is a subsite of the ...
Der er indtil nu identificeret 117 virusfamilier, hvoraf der i 24 virusfamilier kendes virus, der inficerer mennesket.[9] Vira har ikke et traditionelt, taksonomisk slægtskab, de er nærmest beslægtet med deres værtsorganismer, et genetisk slægtsskab, der fremkommer fordi virus og tidligere værter har har efterladt spor i hinanden igennem udveksling af gener og genstumper, jf. endogen retrovirus. Tobaksmosaikvirus er tættere beslægtet med tobaksplanten end den er beslægtet med influenzavirus, der igen er tættere beslægtet med mennesket[10]. Dog kan nært beslægtede vira (efter Baltimore-klassifikationen) inficere forskellige værter. 2/3 af alle kendte vira inficerer planter, resten inficerer dyr og bakterier (bakteriofag). Virus synes at være utroligt mangfoldige og synes at være overalt i et overordentligt stort antal, således er der i havvand fundet næsten 200.000 slags virus.[11] Det anslås at der blandt pattedyr og fugle cirkulerer o. 1.670.000 ukendte virus, hvoraf op til ...
The deep part of the cardiac plexus is situated in front of the bifurcation of the trachea (known as the carina), above the point of division of the pulmonary artery, and behind the aortic arch. It is formed by the cardiac nerves derived from the cervical ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, and the cardiac branches of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. The only cardiac nerves which do not enter into the formation of the deep part of the cardiac plexus are the superior cardiac nerve of the left sympathetic trunk, and the lower of the two superior cervical cardiac branches from the left vagus nerve, which pass to the superficial part of the plexus. ...
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve ... the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is a bit longer than the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, there is no discernible ... the external laryngeal nerve and the internal laryngeal nerve. The external laryngeal nerve is the smaller, external branch. It ... By comparison with the recurrent laryngeal nerves, the superior laryngeal nerve takes a more direct route on the way to the ...
... it is important to understand the pathways of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. The course of the vagi in both sides of ... distinguishing between recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and vocal cord paralysis secondary to disruption of the vagus nerve ... which is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The ... Disruption of innervation may occur along the length of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and the vagi and may include damage to ...
In continuous recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring, the vagus nerve is stimulated to monitor and protect the recurrent ... the recurrent laryngeal nerve. If the recurrent laryngeal nerve is impaired or damaged, this can have serious consequences for ... The surgeon can thus immediately see if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is at risk and can act before a reduction in nerve ... The ultimate goal of recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring is to minimize nerve impairment and to avoid bilateral vocal cord ...
This muscle is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus nerve, the same nerve that innervates the ... Paralysis may be due to intrinsic lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve or vagus nerve, extrinsic lesions that compress and ... it is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve but rather by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. This ... muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. As such, recurrent laryngeal ...
... paresis and paralysis result from abnormal nerve input to the voice box muscles (laryngeal muscles). ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) carries signals to different voice box muscles responsible for opening vocal folds (as in ... Viral infections: Inflammation from infections may directly involve and injure the vagus nerve or its nerve branches to the ... paralysis or paresis might be due to a viral infection affecting the voice box nerves (RLN or SLN), or the vagus nerve, but ...
Blockade of the recurrent laryngeal nerve with its attendant vocal cord paralysis, combined with paralysis of the diaphragm, ... The afferent limb of the hiccup reflex consists of the vagus and phrenic nerve with contributions of the sympathetic chain ... The three nerves join at the upper lateral portion of the anterior scalene, forming the phrenic nerve. The nerve descends ... TECHNIQUE FOR PHRENIC NERVE BLOCK. Phrenic nerve block guided by ultrasound is known to be safer than the one solely depending ...
Laryngeal Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases. Vagus Nerve Diseases. Cranial Nerve Diseases. ... Indeed, the anatomy of the thyroid and its close location with the recurrent laryngeal nerve (responsible for the vocal cord ... movement) involves a possible lesion or inflammation of the nerve during the surgical procedure. This complication is common, ...
Carotid-Jugular-Vagus-Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Surgical Dissection - Sanjoy Sanyal Educational Video created by Dr. Sanjoy ... Carotid-Jugular-Va... Carotid-Jugular-Vagus-Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Surgical Dissection - Sanjoy Sanyal ... Demonstrating Median Nerve Release in... Demonstrating Median Nerve Release in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome And Parona Space ... Demonstrating Median Nerve Release in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome And Parona Space Dissection-Sanjoy Sany ...
Carotid-Jugular-Vagus-Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Surgical Dissection - Sanjoy Sanyal Educational Video created by Dr. Sanjoy ... Carotid-Jugular-Va... Carotid-Jugular-Vagus-Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Surgical Dissection - Sanjoy Sanyal ... Long Saphenous Vein Nerve and Pes... Long Saphenous Vein Nerve and Pes Anserinus with Clinical Aspects - Sanjoy Sanyal ... Demonstrating Median Nerve Release in... Demonstrating Median Nerve Release in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome And Parona Space ...
Two months later, another vagus nerve stimulator was implanted by the same surgeon, who damaged my recurrent laryngeal nerve, ... After a vagus nerve stimulator had been implanted in (b)(6) 2015 and removed on (b)(6) 2015, a second vagus nerve stimulator ... During the surgery, my left recurrent laryngeal nerve was damaged. I was unable to speak for an entire year. The surgeon ... I have also submitted a report concerning damage to my recurrent laryngeal nerve when the second device was implanted, leaving ...
Vagus nerve. Cervical. sympathetic. trunk. Left. recurrent. laryngeal. nerve. 3rd intercostal nerve ...
1) Phrenic Nerve. 2) Vagus Nerve. 3) Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve. 4) Sympathetic Trunk ...
Network of nerve fibers innervating larynx, pharynx, palate. Contributed to by vagus nerve ... Gives rise to reccurent laryngeal, cardiac branches, superior laryngeal, and contributes to pharyngeal plexus. ... Contains vagus nerve posteriorly, common carotid/internal carotid arteries medially, and internal jugular vein laterally ... Loop of nerves, part of the cervical plexus. Innervate infrahyoid, including sternothyroid, sternohyoid, and omohyoid. Motor ...
Hoarseness may signify vagus or recurrent laryngeal nerve compression.. * Wheezing, dyspnea, or cough suggests tracheal ...
Patient has contralateral lateral recurrent, laryngeal or vagus nerve injury.. *Patient is otherwise unsuitable for ...
Aka: Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury from birth trauma *Pathophysiology. *Vagus Nerve injury at recurrent laryngeal ... Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury from birth trauma. ... Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma *Recurrent Laryngeal ... Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury from birth trauma. ... Trauma to both recurrent laryngeal nerves. *Central nervous ...
What nerves are contained in the superior mediastinum?. Vagus/Phrenic/left recurrent laryngeal nerve. ... inferior gluteal nerve, pudendal nerve, sciatic nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, Nerve to obturator internus, Nerve to ... What are the nerves of the posterior mediastinum?. Vagus, Esophageal plexus (of vagus) anterior vagal trunk (of left vagus), ... right recurrent laryngeal nerve?. left = under arch of the aorta, right = under right subclavian. ...
The recurrent laryngeal branches of the vagus nerves ascend into the larynx within the groove between the esophagus and the ... They are the only laryngeal muscles supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, a branch of vagus nerve ( ... The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles receive innervation from the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X). ... The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles receive innervation from the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X). ...
... after giving rise to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all the organs ... The vagus nerve and the heart. Parasympathetic innervation of the heart is mediated by the vagus nerve. The right vagus ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the ... Medical treatment involving the vagus nerve. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy using a pacemaker-like device implanted in ...
Early complications included bleeding that necessitated reexploration (five patients); damage to the vagus, recurrent laryngeal ... or phrenic nerves (three patients); and failure of the donor lungs (one patient). Modifications of technique that have ... Four weeks after this initial presentation, a repeat TTE was done to evaluate for recurrent pericardial effusion due to ... We report a case of progressive dyspnea and recurrent pneumonia after uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery caused by ...
The RRLN branches off the Vagus Nerve (Seikel, King, & Drumwright, 2010).. The recurrent laryngeal nerve has two sections: the ... The Normal Anatomy of the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RRLN).. Case 4: Damage to the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve ... Changes to Normal Phonation due to Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Damage. Damage to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve causes ... Figure 2: Right lateral view of the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. From Laryngeal nerve anatomy by Yau, A, 2013 ...
This textbook is designed to deliver a comprehensive up-to-date review of all aspects of recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior ... laryngeal nerve anatomy including surgically important anatomy, key st ... Micro-neuroanatomy of the Vagus, Superior Laryngeal, and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves Noah P. Parker, Rita Patel, Stacey L. Halum ... relationship of the nerve and the inferior thyroid artery and the non-recurrent recurrent laryngeal nerve. A new classification ...
We follow the vagus and left recurrent laryngeal nerves. Discussion turns to the causes of a widened mediastinum and the hoarse ... Attention is paid to the phrenic nerve as the pericardium is opened and saline tamponade is released. While learners stand out ... Peripherally along limbs, they practice nerve blocks, arthrocentesis, and wound repair.. With the thumb and middle finger ...
Left vagus nerve 13 . Recurrent laryngeal nerve 14 . Ligamentum arteriosum (cut off) ... Intercostal nerve V 19 . Upper pointer: Intercostal lymph node Lower pointer: Lymph vessel (a considerable plexus of lymphatic ...
Continuous intraoperative vagus nerve stimulation for identification of imminent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Head and ... Studies indicate that intraoperative nerve monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is recommended as a risk-minimizing tool ... Why monitor the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery? J Endocrinal Invest. 2010; 33: 819-822. ... It is a serious complication of thyroid surgery, yet the rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage is underestimated.1-6 ...
  • The phrenic nerve should appear as a 2- to 3-mm hypoechoic oval monofascicular structure with a hyperechoic perineurium lying on top of the anterior scalene muscle as it exits beneath the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. (painspa.co.uk)
  • Local anaesthetic and steroid can be injected under real-time ultrasound guidance targeting the phrenic nerve on top of the anterior scalene muscle as it exits beneath the posterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The relation of the phrenic nerve to hiccup was recognized at least as early as 1833 by Shortt who recommended blistering the surface of the neck over the origin and course of the phrenic nerves for intractable hiccups. (painspa.co.uk)
  • A phrenic nerve block is mainly used in the treatment of persistent and intractable hiccups. (painspa.co.uk)
  • It is also useful as both a diagnostic and therapeutic manoeuvre to determine whether pain from subdiaphragmatic processes, including abscess and malignancy, is being mediated via the phrenic nerve. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The use of phrenic nerve block for intractable hiccups can be of great value to patients with this distressing problem for whom pharmacologic management has failed. (painspa.co.uk)
  • A number of reports of freezing, transecting, crushing, and injecting lidocaine into the phrenic nerve to relieve intractable hiccups were published in the 1920s and 1930s. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The three nerves join at the upper lateral portion of the anterior scalene, forming the phrenic nerve. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The phrenic nerve is sonographically visualized as a solitary round hypoechoic structure of about 0.76 mm. (painspa.co.uk)
  • However, visualization of the phrenic nerve can be considered as time-consuming even in expert hands. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The afferent limb of the hiccup reflex consists of the vagus and phrenic nerve with contributions of the sympathetic chain arising from the 6th to the 12th thoracic segments, whereas the efferent limb consists mainly from the phrenic nerve. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The proposed mechanism attributable for persistent relief from hiccups after resolution of the phrenic nerve block is a neural pathway interruption. (painspa.co.uk)
  • The phrenic nerve is part of the afferent pathway and the main efferent part of the hiccup reflex. (painspa.co.uk)
  • A phrenic nerve block with local anesthetic is also used in a prognostic manner before ablation of the phrenic nerve for treatment of intractable hiccups. (painspa.co.uk)
  • Phrenic nerve block guided by ultrasound is known to be safer than the one solely depending on surface anatomy. (painspa.co.uk)
  • Pulsed radiofrequency ablation can be applied to the phrenic nerve for patients who get a positive response to local anaesthetic block. (painspa.co.uk)
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