The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Vagal denervation of that part of the STOMACH lined with acid-secreting mucosa (GASTRIC MUCOSA) containing the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Since the procedure leaves the vagal branches to the antrum and PYLORUS intact, it circumvents gastric drainage required with truncal vagotomy techniques.
Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus.
A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Sequelae of gastrectomy from the second week after operation on. Include recurrent or anastomotic ulcer, postprandial syndromes (DUMPING SYNDROME and late postprandial hypoglycemia), disordered bowel action, and nutritional deficiencies.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Abnormal distention of the STOMACH due to accumulation of gastric contents that may reach 10 to 15 liters. Gastric dilatation may be the result of GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION; ILEUS; GASTROPARESIS; or denervation.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
Bethanechol compounds are parasympathomimetic agents that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors, primarily used to treat urinary retention and nonobstructive bladder dysfunction by increasing bladder contractility and decreasing post-void residual volume.
The act of dilating.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
In ruminants, the stomach is a complex, multi-chambered organ consisting of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, which functions to soften and breakdown ingested plant material through microbial fermentation and mechanical churning before further digestion in the small intestine.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Stable gold atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gold, but differ in atomic weight. Au-197 is a stable isotope.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/1080)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (2/1080)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Proximal gastric vagotomy: effects of two operative techniques on clinical and gastric secretory results. (3/1080)

PGV performed in 39 patients by separating the lesser omentum from the stomach beginning 6 or 7 cm proximal to the pylorus and skeletonizing the distal 1 to 2 cm of esophagus was followed by 15.4% of proven and 10.2 of suspected recurrent ulcers. Insulin tests were done during the first 3 months postoperatively on 31 of the patients, including the 6 with proven and the 4 with suspected recurrent ulcers. The peak acid output to insulin minus tha basal acid output (PAOI-BAO) was less than 5 mEq/hr in 16 cases (52%) and from 5 to 25 mEq/hr in the remaining 15 cases. In 6 patients with proven recurrent ulcer, PAOI-BAO averaged 21.9 mEq/hr (range, 11.3 to 41.8); in the 4 patients with suspected recurrence, 9.5 (range, 4.4 to 11.8). The operative technique was changed in one respect; the distal 5 to 7.5 cm of the esophagus was skeletonized. In 14 patients, the mean PAOI-BAO +/- S.E. within 3 months of PGV was 1985 +/- 0.7 mEq/hr, and 13 of 14 values were less than 5 mEq/hr. One patient developed recurrent ulcer and required re-operation; this patient's value for PAO-BAO was 1.8 mEq/hr. The results show quantitatively that great differences in the completeness of PGV result from differences in the periesophageal dissection and emphasize its importance if optimal results are to be obtained and, especially, if the efficacy of the operation is to be judged.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute cardiovascular response to periodic apneas in sedated pigs. (4/1080)

This study was designed to evaluate the importance of sympathoadrenal activation in the acute cardiovascular response to apneas and the role of hypoxemia in this response. In addition, we evaluated the contribution of the vagus nerve to apnea responses after chemical sympathectomy. In six pigs preinstrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe and five nonpreinstrumented pigs, effects of periodic nonobstructive apneas were tested under the following six conditions: room air breathing, 100% O2 supplementation, both repeated after administration of hexamethonium (Hex), and both repeated again after bilateral vagotomy in addition to Hex. With room air apneas, during the apnea cycle, there were increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP; from baseline of 108 +/- 4 to 124 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.01), plasma norepinephrine (from 681 +/- 99 to 1,825 +/- 578 pg/ml, P < 0.05), and epinephrine (from 191 +/- 67 to 1,245 +/- 685 pg/ml, P < 0.05) but decreases in cardiac output (CO; from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 l/min, P < 0.01) and cervical sympathetic nerve activity. With O2 supplementation relative to baseline, apneas were associated with small increases in MAP (from 112 +/- 4 to 118 +/- 3 Torr, P < 0.01) and norepinephrine (from 675 +/- 97 to 861 +/- 170 pg/ml, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with room air were associated with small increases in MAP (from 103 +/- 6 to 109 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.05) and epinephrine (from 136 +/- 45 to 666 +/- 467 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and decreases in CO (from 3.6 +/- 0.4 to 3.2 +/- 0. 5 l/min, P < 0.05). After Hex, apneas with O2 supplementation were associated with decreased MAP (from 107 +/- 5 to 100 +/- 5 Torr, P < 0.05) and no other changes. After vagotomy + Hex, with room air and O2 supplementation, apneas were associated with decreased MAP (from 98 +/- 6 to 76 +/- 7 and from 103 +/- 7 to 95 +/- 6 Torr, respectively, both P < 0.01) but increased CO [from 2.7 +/- 0.3 to 3. 2 +/- 0.4 l/min (P < 0.05) and from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.2 l/min (P < 0.01), respectively]. We conclude that sympathoadrenal activation is the major pressor mechanism during apneas. Cervical sympathetic nerve activity does not reflect overall sympathoadrenal activity during apneas. Hypoxemia is an important but not the sole trigger factor for sympathoadrenal activation. There is an important vagally mediated reflex that contributes to the pressor response to apneas.  (+info)

Vagus nerve modulates secretin binding sites in the rat forestomach. (5/1080)

Secretin is well known for its inhibitory action on gastric motility. It has been reported that secretin in a physiological dose inhibits gastric motility through mediation by the vagal afferent pathway. Secretin also elicited relaxation of carbachol-stimulated rat forestomach muscle strips by binding to its receptors, suggesting a direct action on this peripheral tissue. We hypothesized that vagal input may affect the action of secretin by modulating the level of secretin receptor in the forestomach. Several treatments, including vagal ligation, vagotomy, perivagal application of capsaicin or colchicine, intravenous infusion of tetrodotoxin, and intraperitoneal injection of atropine, were performed to investigate their effects on secretin receptor binding to forestomach membranes. Specific binding of 125I-labeled secretin to forestomach membranes was significantly decreased (45%) by vagal ligation, vagotomy (50%), or perivagal colchicine treatment (40%). On the contrary, specific binding of 125I-secretin was not affected by perivagal capsaicin treatment, intravenous infusion of tetrodotoxin, or intraperitoneal injection of atropine. By Scatchard analysis of the binding data, the capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in forestomach membranes was found to decrease significantly after vagal ligation compared with membranes from the sham-operated group. However, the affinity at the high-affinity binding sites, the binding parameters of the low-affinity binding sites, and binding specificity were not changed. Vagal ligation but not perivagal capsaicin treatment reduced the inhibitory effect of secretin on bethanechol-stimulated contraction of isolated forestomach muscle strips, causing a right shift in the dose-response curve. These results suggest that vagal input through axonal transport plays a significant role on secretin action by modulating the capacity of secretin binding sites (but not affinity or specificity), at least in rat forestomach.  (+info)

Meal-synchronized CEA in rats: effects of meal size, intragastric feeding, and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. (6/1080)

Within a feeding schedule of intermittent food access, large meals have the ability to induce activity at the same time the next day [circadian ensuing activity (CEA)]. In these experiments, we evaluated the minimum meal size necessary to induce CEA and whether oral-pharyngeal factors and afferent vagal activity played necessary roles in the induction of the underlying process. In experiment 1, every 33 h rats were given two meals separated by a 2-h interval. The size of the first meal was varied, while total intake every feeding cycle was held constant. When the initial meal was <10 g (34 kcal) CEA occurred later, indicating that such a meal size was subthreshold for inducing CEA. In experiment 2, rats were given intragastric (IG) meals every 33 h, before and after complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. IG nutrient meals induced CEA, indicating that extensive oral-pharyngeal experience was not necessary for CEA induction. CEA occurred in vagotomized rats but, compared with intact rats, appeared to occur later relative to nutrient infusion, indicating that afferent vagal activity may be sufficient but not necessary to induce CEA.  (+info)

Mechano- and chemoreceptor modulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity at birth in fetal sheep. (7/1080)

Physiological responses at birth include increases in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, and circulating vasoactive peptides. The factors mediating these responses are not known. To test the hypothesis that afferent input from peripheral mechanoreceptors (arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors) and chemoreceptors contribute to the sympathoexcitatory and hormonal responses at birth, we studied the effects of sinoaortic denervation (SAD) and SAD with vagotomy (Vx) on changes in HR, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and catecholamine, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and ANG II levels at birth in term sheep. One hour after delivery by cesarean section, RSNA increased by 168 +/- 49 and 192 +/- 32% (relative to fetal values) in SAD and SAD-Vx animals, respectively. Significant increases in HR (18 +/- 5 and 20 +/- 6%) and MABP (24 +/- 4 and 20 +/- 5%) were also observed 1 h after delivery in SAD and SAD-Vx lambs, respectively. These responses are similar to those seen in intact sheep delivered at the same gestational age. AVP levels markedly increased after birth (19.8 +/- 6.7 to 136.1 +/- 75.9 pg/ml) in SAD-Vx lambs, whereas SAD animals displayed no change in AVP concentrations. Plasma ANG II also did not change after birth in either group, although levels were consistently higher (P < 0.01) in SAD compared with SAD-Vx animals. In the presence of SAD, Vx resulted in significantly greater plasma levels of norepinephrine, although levels did not change after birth in either group. The epinephrine responses at birth were similar in both groups of animals. The present data suggest that afferent input from peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors contributes little to the hemodynamic and sympathetic responses after delivery by cesarean section. On the other hand, these peripheral mechanisms appear to be involved in modulating endocrine responses at birth.  (+info)

Vagal afferents and active upper airway closure during pulmonary edema in lambs. (8/1080)

The present study was undertaken to gain further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the sustained active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during high-permeability pulmonary edema in lambs. The experiments were conducted in nonsedated lambs, in which airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activity were recorded. We first studied the consequences of hemodynamic pulmonary edema (induced by impeding pulmonary venous return) on upper airway dynamics in five lambs; under this condition, a sustained expiratory upper airway closure consistently appeared. We then tested whether expiratory upper airway closure was related to vagal afferent activity from bronchopulmonary receptors. Five bivagotomized lambs underwent high-permeability pulmonary edema: no sustained expiratory upper airway closure was observed. Finally, we studied whether a sustained decrease in lung volume induced a sustained expiratory upper airway closure. Five lambs underwent a 250-ml pleural infusion: no sustained expiratory upper airway closure was observed. We conclude that 1) the sustained expiratory upper airway closure observed during pulmonary edema in nonsedated lambs is related to stimulation of vagal afferents by an increase in lung water and 2) a decrease in lung volume does not seem to be the causal factor.  (+info)

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

A proximal gastric vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves selectively cutting the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) close to its origin in the stomach. The vagus nerve plays an important role in controlling the motor functions and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach.

In a proximal gastric vagotomy, the nerve branches that innervate the proximal part of the stomach are selectively cut, which reduces acid secretion from the stomach. This type of vagotomy is often performed as part of a surgical treatment for peptic ulcers, particularly those located in the upper part of the stomach or in the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine).

It's worth noting that there are different types of vagotomies, and the specific type used depends on the individual patient's needs and medical history. Other types of vagotomy include truncal vagotomy, selective vagotomy, and highly selective vagotomy. Each of these procedures has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of procedure depends on various factors such as the location and severity of the ulcer, the patient's overall health, and the risk of complications.

A truncal vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves the selective or complete division of the trunks of the vagus nerves. The vagus nerves are pairs of nerves that originate in the brainstem and extend down to the abdomen, providing parasympathetic nerve supply to various organs. In a truncal vagotomy, the vagus nerves are cut above the level of the diaphragm, which results in denervation of the stomach and parts of the digestive tract.

This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it reduces acid secretion in the stomach by interrupting the nerve supply that stimulates acid production. However, truncal vagotomy can also have side effects such as altered gastric motility and decreased intestinal secretions, which may lead to symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, or dumping syndrome.

It's important to note that there are different types of vagotomy procedures, including selective vagotomy and highly selective vagotomy, which aim to preserve some of the nerve supply to the stomach and minimize side effects. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the location and severity of the ulcer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

The pylorus is the lower, narrow part of the stomach that connects to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It consists of the pyloric canal, which is a short muscular tube, and the pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. The pylorus regulates the entry of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine by adjusting the size and frequency of the muscular contractions that push the chyme through the pyloric sphincter. This process helps in further digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

Dumping syndrome, also known as rapid gastric emptying, is a condition that typically occurs in people who have had surgery to remove all or part of their stomach (gastrectomy) or have had a procedure called a gastrojejunostomy. These surgeries can lead to the stomach's contents entering the small intestine too quickly, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, dizziness, and sweating.

There are two types of dumping syndrome: early and late. Early dumping syndrome occurs within 30 minutes after eating, while late dumping syndrome occurs 1-3 hours after eating. Symptoms of early dumping syndrome may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, bloating, dizziness, and fatigue. Late dumping syndrome symptoms may include hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which can cause sweating, weakness, confusion, and rapid heartbeat.

Treatment for dumping syndrome typically involves dietary modifications, such as eating smaller, more frequent meals that are low in simple sugars, and avoiding fluids during meals. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help slow down gastric emptying or manage symptoms. If these treatments are not effective, surgery may be necessary to correct the problem.

Gastroenterostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an anastomosis (a connection or junction) between the stomach and the small intestine, usually between the stomach's lesser curvature and the jejunum (the second part of the small intestine). This procedure is often performed to bypass a diseased or obstructed portion of the gastrointestinal tract, such as in the case of gastric ulcers, tumors, or other conditions that prevent normal digestion and absorption.

There are different types of gastroenterostomy procedures, including:
1. Billroth I (or "gastroduodenostomy"): The stomach is connected directly to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).
2. Billroth II (or "gastrojejunostomy"): The stomach is connected to the jejunum, bypassing the duodenum.
3. Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy: A more complex procedure in which a portion of the jejunum is separated and reconnected further down the small intestine, creating a Y-shaped configuration. This type of gastroenterostomy is often used in bariatric surgery for weight loss.

The choice of gastroenterostomy technique depends on the specific medical condition being treated and the patient's overall health status.

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Postgastrectomy syndromes refer to a group of clinical manifestations that can occur as complications or sequelae following a gastrectomy, which is the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach. These syndromes are relatively common and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life.

There are several types of postgastrectomy syndromes, including:

1. Dumping syndrome: This occurs when the remaining portion of the stomach is unable to adequately regulate the passage of food into the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dizziness, and sweating.
2. Gastroparesis: This is a condition where the stomach is unable to empty properly due to decreased motility, leading to symptoms such as bloating, nausea, vomiting, and early satiety.
3. Nutritional deficiencies: Following gastrectomy, there can be malabsorption of certain nutrients, including vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and folate, leading to anemia, osteoporosis, and other health problems.
4. Afferent loop syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the afferent loop, which carries digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver to the small intestine, becomes obstructed or narrowed, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice.
5. Alkaline reflux gastritis: This occurs when the alkaline contents of the small intestine reflux into the remnant stomach, causing inflammation and ulceration.
6. Bile reflux: This is a condition where bile from the small intestine flows back into the stomach, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and heartburn.

Treatment of postgastrectomy syndromes depends on the specific type and severity of the syndrome, and may include dietary modifications, medication, or surgical intervention.

Pentagastrin is a synthetic polypeptide hormone that stimulates the release of gastrin and hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It is used diagnostically to test for conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disorder in which tumors in the pancreas or duodenum produce excessive amounts of gastrin, leading to severe ulcers and other digestive problems.

Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously, and its effects are monitored through blood tests that measure gastric acid secretion. It is a potent stimulant of gastric acid production, and its use is limited to diagnostic purposes due to the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, flushing, and increased heart rate.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Gastric emptying is the process by which the stomach empties its contents into the small intestine. In medical terms, it refers to the rate and amount of food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This process is regulated by several factors, including the volume and composition of the meal, hormonal signals, and neural mechanisms. Abnormalities in gastric emptying can lead to various gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders, such as gastroparesis, where the stomach's ability to empty food is delayed.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Gastric dilatation, also known as stomach dilation or distention, refers to the abnormal enlargement or expansion of the stomach. This condition often occurs when the stomach fills with gas, food, or fluids and is unable to empty properly. Gastric dilatation can be caused by various factors such as overeating, swallowing excessive air, gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying), intestinal obstruction, or certain medical conditions like hiatal hernia or pregnancy.

In severe cases, gastric dilatation may lead to gastric volvulus, where the stomach twists on itself, cutting off its blood supply and leading to ischemia and necrosis of the stomach tissue. This is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of gastric dilatation include abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty breathing.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Cesium is a chemical element with the atomic number 55 and the symbol Cs. There are several isotopes of cesium, which are variants of the element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most stable and naturally occurring cesium isotope is cesium-133, which has 78 neutrons and a half-life of more than 3 x 10^20 years (effectively stable).

However, there are also radioactive isotopes of cesium, including cesium-134 and cesium-137. Cesium-134 has a half-life of about 2 years, while cesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years. These isotopes are produced naturally in trace amounts by the decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth's crust, but they can also be produced artificially in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons tests.

Cesium isotopes are commonly used in medical research and industrial applications. For example, cesium-137 is used as a radiation source in cancer therapy and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radioactive cesium can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potentially more serious effects such as damage to the central nervous system and an increased risk of cancer.

Peptic ulcer perforation is a serious and sightful gastrointestinal complication characterized by the penetration or erosion of an acid-peptic ulcer through the full thickness of the stomach or duodenal wall, resulting in spillage of gastric or duodenal contents into the peritoneal cavity. This leads to chemical irritation and/or bacterial infection of the abdominal cavity, causing symptoms such as sudden severe abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, and potentially life-threatening sepsis if not promptly diagnosed and treated with surgical intervention, antibiotics, and supportive care.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach chamber in ruminant animals, such as cows, sheep, and goats. It is often referred to as the "true" stomach because its structure and function are most similar to the stomachs of non-ruminant animals, including humans.

In the abomasum, gastric juices containing hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes are secreted, which help to break down proteins and fats in the ingested feed. The abomasum also serves as a site for nutrient absorption and further mechanical breakdown of food particles before they enter the small intestine.

The term "abomasum" is derived from Latin, where "ab-" means "away from," and "omassum" refers to the "stomach." This name reflects its location away from the other three stomach chambers in ruminants.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

In anatomical terms, the reticulum is the second chamber in the ruminant stomach, located between the rumen and the omasum. It is responsible for the continued breakdown of cellulose through microbial fermentation.

However, I believe you may be referring to a term used in pathology or histology. In these contexts, "reticulum" refers to a network of fine fibers, often composed of collagen, that surround cells or organize tissue. It is an important component of the extracellular matrix and provides structural support.

For example, within the liver, the reticulin fibers are part of the hepatic sinusoids' walls and help maintain the liver's architecture. In some disease processes like cirrhosis, these reticulin fibers can become abnormally thickened and contribute to the distortion of the liver's normal structure.

Please let me know if you were looking for information in a different context, and I would be happy to help further!

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

Bethanechol compounds are a type of cholinergic agent used in medical treatment. They are parasympathomimetic drugs, which means they mimic the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Specifically, bethanechol compounds stimulate the muscarinic receptors in the smooth muscle of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract, increasing tone and promoting contractions.

Bethanechol is primarily used to treat urinary retention and associated symptoms, such as those that can occur after certain types of surgery or with conditions like spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. It works by helping the bladder muscle contract, which can promote urination.

It's important to note that bethanechol should be used with caution, as it can have various side effects, including sweating, increased salivation, flushed skin, and gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's crucial to discuss any potential risks with a healthcare provider before starting this treatment.

Dilation, also known as dilatation, refers to the process of expanding or enlarging a body passage or cavity. In medical terms, it typically refers to the widening of a bodily opening or hollow organ, allowing for increased flow or access. This can occur naturally, such as during childbirth when the cervix dilates to allow for the passage of a baby, or it can be induced through medical procedures or interventions.

For example, dilation of the pupils is a natural response to darkness or certain medications, while dilation of blood vessels is a common side effect of some drugs and can also occur in response to changes in temperature or emotional state. Dilation of the stomach or intestines may be necessary for medical procedures such as endoscopies or surgeries.

It's important to note that dilation can also refer to the abnormal enlargement of a body part, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, which refers to an enlarged and weakened heart muscle.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

Denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss or removal of nerve supply to an organ or body part. This can occur as a result of surgical intervention, injury, or disease processes that damage the nerves leading to the affected area. The consequences of denervation depend on the specific organ or tissue involved, but generally, it can lead to changes in function, sensation, and muscle tone. For example, denervation of a skeletal muscle can cause weakness, atrophy, and altered reflexes. Similarly, denervation of an organ such as the heart can lead to abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. In some cases, denervation may be intentional, such as during surgical procedures aimed at treating chronic pain or spasticity.

Gastric acidity determination is a medical test used to measure the amount of acid in the stomach. This test is often performed to diagnose or monitor conditions such as gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The test involves measuring the pH level of the stomach contents using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is passed through the nose and down into the stomach. In some cases, a small sample of stomach fluid may also be collected for further testing.

The normal range for gastric acidity is typically considered to be a pH level below 4. A higher pH level may indicate that the stomach is producing too little acid, while a lower pH level may suggest that it is producing too much. Based on the results of the test, healthcare providers can develop an appropriate treatment plan for the underlying condition causing abnormal gastric acidity.

A ruminant stomach is not a term that is typically used in human medicine, but it is a key feature of the digestive system in animals that are classified as ruminants. Ruminants are hoofed mammals that chew their cud, such as cattle, deer, sheep, and goats.

The ruminant stomach is actually composed of four distinct compartments: the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. These compartments work together to break down plant material through a process of fermentation by microbes.

The rumen is the largest of the compartments and functions as a fermentation vat where plant material is broken down by microbes into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the animal. The reticulum is connected to the rumen and helps sort and move the partially digested food particles.

The omasum is a smaller compartment that absorbs water and some nutrients from the digesta before it passes into the abomasum, which is the final compartment and functions similarly to the human stomach, where digestive enzymes are secreted to further break down the food and absorb nutrients.

Therefore, a ruminant stomach refers to the complex and specialized digestive system found in animals that chew their cud, allowing them to efficiently extract nutrients from plant material.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Cholecystography is a medical procedure that involves the use of X-rays to examine the gallbladder and bile ducts. It is also known as an oral cholecystogram (OCG).

The procedure involves administering a contrast agent, typically a iodine-based dye, which is absorbed by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder. The dye makes the bile ducts and gallbladder visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystography is not commonly used today due to the development of more advanced imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, which are non-invasive and do not require the use of contrast agents. However, it may still be used in certain cases where other imaging tests are inconclusive or unavailable.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a medical condition characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract due to a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. They are usually caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

When a peptic ulcer bleeds, it can cause symptoms such as vomiting blood or passing black, tarry stools. In severe cases, the bleeding can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by a rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment may include medications to reduce stomach acid, antibiotics to eliminate H. pylori infection, and endoscopic procedures to stop the bleeding. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove damaged tissue.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gold Isotopes" doesn't seem to have a specific medical definition. Isotopes are generally a term used in physics and chemistry. They refer to variants of a particular chemical element which have the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus, but different numbers of neutrons.

Gold, with the atomic number 79, has only one stable isotope, gold-197. The other isotopes are unstable and undergo radioactive decay. These isotopes aren't typically used in a medical context, although some may be used in research or scientific applications.

If you have any questions about a specific medical context or use of isotopes, I'd be happy to try to help further!

The transverse colon is the section of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen, located between the ascending colon and the descending colon. It receives digested food material from the left side of the cecum via the transverse mesocolon, a double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches it to the posterior abdominal wall.

The transverse colon is responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes, and vitamins from the digested food material before it moves into the distal sections of the large intestine. It also contains a large number of bacteria that help in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of certain vitamins, such as vitamin K and biotin.

The transverse colon is highly mobile and can change its position within the abdomen depending on factors such as respiration, digestion, and posture. It is also prone to various pathological conditions, including inflammation (colitis), diverticulosis, and cancer.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Famotidine is a type of medication called an H2 blocker, or histamine-2 receptor antagonist. It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Famotidine is commonly used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn.

Famotidine is available by prescription and over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid. It is important to take famotidine exactly as directed by a healthcare professional, and to talk to them about any potential risks or side effects.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that work to reduce gastric acid production by blocking the action of proton pumps in the parietal cells of the stomach. These drugs are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions where excessive stomach acid is a problem.

PPIs include several different medications such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole. They are usually taken orally, but some PPIs are also available in intravenous (IV) form for hospital use.

By inhibiting the action of proton pumps, PPIs reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but long-term use may increase the risk of certain side effects, including bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection.

Rabeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The medical definition of Rabeprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that acts as a prodrug, being selectively converted to the active form in the acidic environment of gastric parietal cells. It suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Rabeprazole is used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets and sodium salt for oral administration.

In simpler terms, Rabeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to prevent and heal damage to the esophagus and stomach caused by excessive acid production.

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

A skin cream is not a medical term per se, but it generally refers to a topical emollient preparation intended for application to the skin. It contains a mixture of water, oil, and active ingredients, which are formulated to provide various benefits such as moisturizing, protecting, soothing, or treating specific skin conditions. The exact definition and composition may vary depending on the product's intended use and formulation.

Examples of active ingredients in skin creams include:

1. Moisturizers (e.g., glycerin, hyaluronic acid) - help to retain water in the skin, making it feel softer and smoother.
2. Emollients (e.g., shea butter, coconut oil, petrolatum) - provide a protective barrier that helps prevent moisture loss and soften the skin.
3. Humectants (e.g., urea, lactic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids) - attract water from the environment or deeper layers of the skin to hydrate the surface.
4. Anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., hydrocortisone, aloe vera) - help reduce redness, swelling, and itching associated with various skin conditions.
5. Antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, green tea extract) - protect the skin from free radical damage and environmental stressors that can lead to premature aging.
6. Sunscreen agents (e.g., zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, chemical filters) - provide broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays.
7. Skin lighteners (e.g., hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin) - help reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation and even out skin tone.
8. Acne treatments (e.g., benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, retinoids) - target acne-causing bacteria, unclog pores, and regulate cell turnover to prevent breakouts.

It is essential to choose a skin cream based on your specific skin type and concerns, as well as any medical conditions or allergies you may have. Always consult with a dermatologist or healthcare provider before starting a new skincare regimen.

Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and gastric) ulcer disease (PUD). Vagotomy was ... The basic types of vagotomy are: Truncal vagotomy (TV) includes division of the main trunk of the vagus (including its celiac/ ... This procedure is also called proximal gastric vagotomy. All types of vagotomy can be performed at open surgery (laparotomy) or ... One potential side effect of vagotomy is a vitamin B12 deficiency. As vagotomy decreases gastric secretion, intrinsic factor ...
Drainage operations for vagotomy. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Clinical evaluation of vagotomy in peptic ulcer].. *Gastric stasis and gastric ulcer after selective vagotomy without a ... Vagotomy with pyloroplasty in treating duodenal ulcer].. *[Errors, hazards and complications of vagotomy, associated with ... Tanner, N C.. "Drainage Operations for Vagotomy." Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 60, no. 3, 1967, pp. 221-3 ...
Learn about Vagotomy at ... Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic ...
Copyright © 2023 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons ...
Lithium fluxes across the gastric mucosa after truncal vagotomy and drainage--an objective assessment of mucosal injury. ... Lithium fluxes across the gastric mucosa after truncal vagotomy and drainage--an objective assessment of mucosal injury. ... or a recurrent ulcer after truncal vagotomy and drainage (0.169 +/- 0.022 mmol Li+/15 min) (SEM). By comparison the mean ... eight patients who were asymptomatic for more than one year after truncal vagotomy and drainage, 14 patients with an ...
Vagotomy was once commonly performed to treat and prevent peptic ulcer disease. ... Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and gastric) ulcer disease (PUD). ... Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and gastric) ulcer disease (PUD). Vagotomy was ... encoded search term (Vagotomy) and Vagotomy What to Read Next on Medscape ...
This may include a highly selective vagotomy, a truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty, or vagotomy and antrectomy for a perforated ... Highly selective vagotomy. Patient positioning and incision are the same as for truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty. The key step ... Truncal vagotomy and drainage. The esophagus is retracted to the patients left, and the left hemiliver is retracted to the ... Vagotomy and antrectomy with gastroduodenal reconstruction (Billroth I) or gastrojejunal reconstruction (Billroth II) ...
Alterations of the gastric stump and not resected stomach mucosa after truncal vagotomy in rats. Author(s): *Rodrigues, Paulo ... Truncal vagotomy is a safe and non-carcinogenic method in not resected and partially resected stomach.. Issue Date: 1-Feb-2014 ... To evaluate morphological changes of the gastric stump and not resected stomach mucosa after the completion of truncal vagotomy ...
... vagotomy/drainage, or vagotomy/gastric resection) and 30-day postoperative outcomes. Multivariable regression analysis was used ... "Vagotomy/drainage is superior to local oversew in patients who require emergency surgery for bleeding peptic ulcers." Ann Surg ... "Vagotomy/drainage is superior to local oversew in patients who require emergency surgery for bleeding peptic ulcers." Ann Surg ... Vagotomy/drainage is superior to local oversew in patients who require emergency surgery for bleeding peptic ulcers.. ...
A vagotomy is a surgery that removes all or part of your vagus nerve. Vagotomy is focused on helping people with stomach ulcers ... Some people who contact us have a history of or have been recommended for a vagotomy to help ease the symptoms and look for a ... What if the vagus nerve is suspected of causing problems of gastroparesis? Is Vagotomy warranted?. ...
Vagotomy. 7348 Valvular heart disease. 7000 Varicocele/Hydrocele. 7543 Varicose veins. 7120 ...
Parietal cell vagotomy: Surgical excision of the nerve responsible for acid stimulation ...
One child with gastric outlet obstruction underwent vagotomy and antrectomy and 1 had vagotomy and pyloroplasty. Preoperative ... 2 had oversew with vagotomy and pyloroplasty, and 1 required vagotomy and antrectomy. All patients with perforation (n = 16) ...
Right Thoracoscopic (VATS) Truncal Vagotomy for Marginal Ulcers after Gastric Bypass Surgery. ...
Adequacy of vagotomy. Phenol red (phenolsulfonephthalein). Color change from yellow to red in ...
1b). Supporting this notion, longitudinal analysis of people that have undergone bilateral vagotomy suggested a decreased risk ... Vagotomy and subsequent risk of Parkinsons disease. Ann Neurol. 2015;78:522-9. ...
Vagotomy in duodenal ulcer disease : a study of gastric acidity, serum pepsinogen I, gastric mucosal histology and Helicobacter ...
An ultrastructural study of the submucous plexus of guinea pig intestine after unilateral vagotomy.在哪里下载?这篇文献在哪里可以阅读?:This ... An ultrastructural study of the submucous plexus of guinea pig intestine after unilateral vagotomy.. Abstract: ... In the animals killed 7 d after vagotomy, besides the above changes, the degenerating axon terminals also showed an ... By 30 d after vagotomy, all the terminals presynaptic to the submucous neurons appeared normal. There was no significant
Vagotomy. To cut into the vagus nerve. Ventriculoscopy. Visual examination of the ventricles of the brain ...
Post vagotomy. Coeliac disease. BAM may be a more appropriate diagnosis in at least 25% of patients with IBS-D, and treatment ...
Endoscopic vagotomy?. Endoscopic thoracoscopy?. Endoscopic retroperitoneoscopy?. Endoscopic peritoneoscopy?. Endoscopic ...
Control heart rate was restored by vagotomy or atropinization of the animals. Bradycardia is also produced by Δ 9-THC in cats, ...
Changes in gastric secretion with time after vagotomy and the relationship to recurrent duodenal ulcer. Butterfield DJ, ... Relationship between insulin- and histamine-stimulated gastric secretion before and after vagotomy. Boulos PB, Faber RG, ...
For example, vagotomy in both rodent models [9] and clinical cohorts [10] mitigates alpha-synuclein propagation and reduces PD ... Svensson, E.; Horvath-Puho, E.; Thomsen, R.W.; Djurhuus, J.C.; Pedersen, L.; Borghammer, P.; Sorensen, H.T. Vagotomy and ...
Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilmans, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
These effects are abolished by vagotomy or anticholinergic drugs [124,125]. This mechanism may also be of relevance, as vagal ...
  • Truncal vagotomy is a treatment option for chronic duodenal ulcers. (
  • Lithium fluxes across the gastric mucosa after truncal vagotomy and drainage--an objective assessment of mucosal injury. (
  • Gastric mucosal permeability to lithium has been measured in 20 patients with an untreated duodenal ulcer, eight patients who were asymptomatic for more than one year after truncal vagotomy and drainage, 14 patients with an endoscopically proven recurrent ulcer, and 21 patients with an unsatisfactory result from truncal vagotomy and drainage for other reasons. (
  • Lithium fluxes were lowest in the asymptomatic postoperative patients (0.149 +/- 0.028 mmol Li+/15 min), but were not significantly different to the measured fluxes in patients with a duodenal ulcer before treatment (0.160 +/- 0.020 mmol Li+/15 min) or a recurrent ulcer after truncal vagotomy and drainage (0.169 +/- 0.022 mmol Li+/15 min) (SEM). (
  • PURPOSE:To evaluate morphological changes of the gastric stump and not resected stomach mucosa after the completion of truncal vagotomy.METHODS:Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: CT, TV, RY and RYTV. (
  • Neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were not diagnosed in all groups.CONCLUSION:Truncal vagotomy is a safe and non-carcinogenic method in not resected and partially resected stomach. (
  • 2 Moreover, epidemiologic studies found a protective effect of truncal vagotomy against PD, and thus findings suggest the contribution of the vagal nerve to PD pathogenesis in human subjects. (
  • When the researchers analyzed the results for the two different types of vagotomy surgery, they found that people who had a truncal vagotomy at least five years earlier were less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than those who had not had the surgery and had been followed for at least five years. (
  • In a truncal vagotomy, the nerve trunk is fully resected. (
  • After adjusting for factors such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, arthritis and other conditions, the researchers found that people who had a truncal vagotomy at least five years before were 40 percent less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than those who had not had the surgery and had been followed for at least five years. (
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Vagotomy/drainage is superior to local oversew in patients who require emergency surgery for bleeding peptic ulcers. (
  • For patients with perforated ulcers, vagotomy/drainage produced similar outcomes as local procedures but required a significantly greater length of postoperative hospitalization. (
  • Conversely, vagotomy/drainage was associated with a significantly lower postoperative mortality rate than local ulcer oversew when performed for bleeding ulcers. (
  • The surgery, called vagotomy, is used for people with ulcers. (
  • Multiple studies [ 8 , 9 ] now show that patients who underwent vagotomy for ulcers of the stomach 20-50 years ago have a lower risk of developing PD than do patients who did not have vagotomy. (
  • All types of vagotomy can be performed at open surgery (laparotomy) or using minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopy). (
  • A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vagus nerve. (
  • The right vagus gives rise to a posterior gastric branch called the criminal nerve of Grassi-so called because it is often missed during vagotomy and is then responsible for recurrence of peptic ulcer-which traverses to the left and supplies the cardia and fundus. (
  • Vagotomy, surgery to remove part of your vagus nerve . (
  • One method for treating stomach cancer is to sever the branches of the vagus nerve that innervate the stomach, a procedure known as a vagotomy. (
  • Highly selective vagotomy includes denervation of only the fundus and body (parietal cell-containing areas) of the stomach (also called parietal cell vagotomy). (
  • One child with gastric outlet obstruction underwent vagotomy and antrectomy and 1 had vagotomy and pyloroplasty. (
  • This procedure is also called proximal gastric vagotomy. (
  • Tanner, N C.. "Drainage Operations for Vagotomy. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Drainage operations for vagotomy. (
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for patients from the 2005-2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database who underwent emergency operation for bleeding or perforated peptic ulcer disease was performed to determine the association between surgical approach (local procedure alone, vagotomy/drainage, or vagotomy/gastric resection) and 30-day postoperative outcomes. (
  • For patients requiring emergency operation for intractable ulcer bleeding, vagotomy/drainage is associated with lower postoperative mortality than with simple ulcer oversew. (
  • For the management of PUD, vagotomy is sometimes combined with antrectomy (removal of the distal half of the stomach) to reduce the rate of recurrence. (
  • For those children with bleeding, 8 had simple oversew of the bleeding ulcer(s), 2 had oversew with vagotomy and pyloroplasty, and 1 required vagotomy and antrectomy. (
  • Highly selective vagotomy refers to denervation of only those branches supplying the lower esophagus and stomach (leaving the nerve of Latarjet in place to ensure the emptying function of the stomach remains intact). (
  • It is left intact in highly selective vagotomy so the function of gastric emptying remains intact. (
  • Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and gastric) ulcer disease (PUD). (
  • A plain vagotomy eliminates the parasympathetic supply from the stomach to the left side of the transverse colon. (
  • Vagotomy was a way to reduce the acidity of the stomach, by denervating the parietal cells that produce acid. (
  • In CT group, abdominal viscera were manipulated and the abdominal cavity was closed, in TV vagal trunks were isolated and sectioned, in RY a partial Roux-en-Y gastrectomy was performed and in RYTV the vagal trunks were sectioned and a partial Roux-en-Y gastrectomy was performed. (
  • Phytobezoars can occur in adult patients as a postoperative complication after gastric bypass or partial gastrectomy, especially when partial gastrectomy is accompanied by vagotomy. (
  • That's because the nervous system influences how certain cells behave, in some cases encouraging tumour growth But a vagotomy is a very invasive procedure. (
  • Compared with patients undergoing local procedures alone, vagotomy/gastric resection was associated with significantly greater postoperative morbidity when performed for either ulcer perforation or bleeding. (
  • The present quantitative studies also showed that the number of degenerating axon terminals in the submucous ganglia of duodenum after left vagotomy was higher than right vagotomy (P (
  • This study describes the degenerative changes of the axon terminals making synaptic contacts with the neurons in the submucous ganglia of guinea pig small and large intestines following left or right cervical vagotomy. (
  • The larger number of degenerating terminals in the submucous ganglia of duodenum after left vagotomy suggests that the presynaptic axon terminals in the submucous ganglia of different gut regions are not evenly distributed. (
  • Intermediate master presentation: Is vagotomy associated with an increeased risk of developing psychiatric disorders? (
  • Highly selective vagotomy includes denervation of only the fundus and body (parietal cell-containing areas) of the stomach (also called parietal cell vagotomy). (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term cancer incidence and mortality after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV), a surgical method with a low rate of side effects, but creating hypochlorhydria in the stomach mimicking long-term treatment with antisecretory drugs. (
  • Truncal vagotomy is a treatment option for chronic duodenal ulcers. (
  • BERLIN - Truncal vagotomy is associated with a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) at more than 5 years after the procedure, a study reports. (
  • At more than 5 years after vagotomy, truncal vagotomy was associated with a lower risk of developing PD, but selective vagotomy was not. (
  • At greater than 10 years, the association of truncal vagotomy and lower PD risk showed the same trend but was not significant. (
  • The authors concluded that an inverse association of truncal vagotomy and PD risk existed after 5 years but that larger samples should be used or pooled analyses should be done to verify these findings because only a limited number of vagotomies were included in this study. (
  • Basically, what we found is that a full truncal vagotomy protects you against Parkinson's disease and more or less decreases your risk by 50% whereas a more selective vagotomy only of the stomach has no benefit," he told Medscape Medical News . (
  • Because truncal vagotomy is only about 50% protective against PD, there may be other mechanisms or pathways for α-synuclein to accumulate in the central nervous system, or it may have already traveled up the vagus before vagotomy occurred. (
  • Since the procedure leaves the vagal branches to the antrum and PYLORUS intact, it circumvents gastric drainage required with truncal vagotomy techniques. (
  • Vagotomy is an essential component of surgical management of peptic (duodenal and gastric) ulcer disease (PUD). (
  • This procedure is also called proximal gastric vagotomy. (
  • It is left intact in highly selective vagotomy so the function of gastric emptying remains intact. (
  • Some have suggested that thoracoscopic TV may be useful for management of recalcitrant marginal ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (
  • The right (posterior) vagus gives rise to a posterior gastric branch called the criminal nerve of Grassi-so called because it is often missed during vagotomy and is then responsible for the recurrence of PUD-which traverses to the left and supplies the cardia and the fundus. (
  • Has been used for the symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic postsurgical gastric stasis † [off-label] following vagotomy and gastric resection or vagotomy and pyloroplasty. (
  • First, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery involves formation of a 15- to 30-mL fundal pouch. (
  • History of strictures in the small bowel or stomach (e.g., pyloric stenosis) or gastric surgeries or procedures such as pyloromyotomy, pyloric dilation, pyloric resection, vagotomy, bariatric surgery. (
  • This suggests that nicotinic synapses and the intramural NO pathway in the gastric myenteric plexus are involved in the mediation of gastric relaxation following chronic vagotomy. (
  • Download Vagotomy and Pyloroplasty: Advances 1975-1980 PDF by Dr. Fritz Holle, Dr. med. (
  • 18. Late hypoglycemia in patients following vagotomy and pyloroplasty. (
  • Acute bilateral vagotomy prevented luminal ileal STa from inducing jejunal fluid secretion but not from activating ileal fluid secretion. (
  • The inhibitory effects of IL-1 beta on acid secretion could be completely inhibited by preincubation with an antibody directed against IL-1 beta but not by pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg/kg sc) or by bilateral vagotomy. (
  • This inhibitory response was not blocked by bilateral vagotomy, spinal transection, splanchnicectomy, or the intravenous administration of tetraethylammonium-chloride (56348). (
  • Bilateral cervical vagotomy abolished all LES and esophageal body responses induced by pharyngeal stroking and SLN stimulation, and rendered the esophageal body and LES less responsive to small volumes of distention. (
  • Highly selective vagotomy refers to denervation of only those branches supplying the lower esophagus and stomach (leaving the nerve of Latarjet in place to ensure the emptying function of the stomach remains intact). (
  • Selective vagotomy showed no such association. (
  • He explained the different findings with full truncal vs selective vagotomy. (
  • This study describes the degenerative changes of the axon terminals making synaptic contacts with the neurons in the submucous ganglia of guinea pig small and large intestines following left or right cervical vagotomy. (
  • Subphrenic vagotomy plus gastro-enterostomy for duodenal ulcer. (
  • Administration of rabbit VIP antiserum also had no effect on the accommodation reflex in rats with a chronic vagotomy (i.e. (
  • By 30 d after vagotomy, all the terminals presynaptic to the submucous neurons appeared normal. (
  • All types of vagotomy can be performed at open surgery (laparotomy) or using minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopy). (
  • All types of vagotomy can be performed at open surgery (laparotomy) or by using a minimally invasive approach (laparoscopic or robotic). (
  • In a presentation here at the 20th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, researchers led by PhD student Bojing Liu of the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm drew upon the Swedish National Patient Register to conduct a matched cohort study comparing 9840 patients who underwent vagotomy between 1970 and 2010 with reference patients who did not have vagotomy (n = 378,840). (
  • Peterson et al have done a nice job of using the NIS database to test this hypothesis, identifying trauma patients who had a vagotomy and matching them as best as possible to a similar cohort who did not have a vagotomy but had similar demographics and injury severity pattern. (
  • Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes. (
  • Patients were followed from the date of vagotomy to PD diagnosis, death, emigration, or the end of 2010, whichever occurred first. (
  • As far as I know, this is a novel look at the role of vagotomy and outcome in injured patients. (
  • Perform additional surgical procedures, such as gastroduodenostomy and vagotomy. (
  • They did not see a clear association of vagotomy and PD risk overall. (
  • An ultrastructural study of the submucous plexus of guinea pig intestine after unilateral vagotomy. (