The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing subcutaneous localized swellings in rabbits, usually on the feet.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (1/3775)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (2/3775)

The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s).  (+info)

mRNA guanylyltransferase and mRNA (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase from vaccinia virions. Donor and acceptor substrate specificites. (3/3775)

Characterization of the donor and acceptor specificities of mRNA guanylyltransferase and mRNA (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase isolated from vaccinia virus cores has enabled us to discriminate between alternative reaction sequences leading to the formation of the 5'-terminal m7G(5')pppN-structure. The mRNA guanylyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a residue of GMP from GTP to acceptors which possess a 5'-terminal diphosphate. A diphosphate-terminated polyribonucleotide is preferred to a mononucleoside diphosphate as an acceptor suggesting that the guanylyltransferase reaction occurs after initiation of RNA synthesis. Although all of the homopolyribonucleotides tested (pp(A)n, pp(G)n, pp(I)n, pp(U)n, and pp(C)n) are acceptors for the mRNA guanylyltransferase indicating lack of strict sequence specificity, those containing purines are preferred. Only GTP and dGTP are donors in the reaction; 7-methylguanosine (m7G) triphosphate specifically is not a donor indicating that guanylylation must precede guanine-7-methylation. The preferred acceptor of the mRNA (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase is the product of the guanylyltransferase reaction, a polyribonucleotide with the 5'-terminal sequence G(5')pppN-. The enzyme can also catalyze, but less efficiently methylation of the following: dinucleoside triphosphates with the structure G(5')pppN, GTP, dGTP, ITP, GDP, GMP, and guanosine. The enzyme will not catalyze the transfer of methyl groups to ATP, XTP, CTP, UTP, or to guanosine-containing compounds with phosphate groups in either positions 2' or 3' or in 3'-5' phosphodiester linkages. The latter specificity provides an explanation for the absence of internal 7-methylguanosine in mRNA. In the presence of PPi, the mRNA guanylyltransferase catalyzes the pyrophosphorolysis of the dinucleoside triphosphate G(5')pppA, but not of m7G(5')pppA. Since PPi is generated in the process of RNA chain elongation, stabilization of the 5'-terminal sequences of mRNA is afforded by guanine-7-methylation.  (+info)

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (4/3775)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

Cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype. (5/3775)

Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and colleagues, records the first rigorous demonstration of both a nonresponder situation and a probable Ir-gene effect for conventional infectious viruses. Possible implications for the evolution of H-2 polymorphism and mechanisms of Ir gene function are discussed.  (+info)

In irradiation chimeras, K or D regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of antiviral cytotoxic T cells. (6/3775)

The H-2 haplotype of the chimeric host determines the responder phenotype of maturing T cells. Spleen cells of chimeric mice formed when (K(k) nonresponder to D(b) x K(b) responder to D(b) plus vaccinia)F(1) bone marrow cells were used to reconstitute K(b)D(b) (C57BL/6 D(b) responder) irradiated recipients generated high levels of D(b) plus vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. The same stem cells used to reconstitute K(k)D(b) (B10.A (2R) D(b) nonresponder) irradiated recipients resulted in spleen cells that responded well to K plus vaccinia, but responsiveness to D(b) was low. A generally low response to D(k) plus vaccinia, which seems to be regulated by D(k), was confirmed in chimeras. Thus, K(d)D(d) (D(d) plus vaccinia responder) stem cells differentiating in a K(d)D(k) chimeric host failed to generate a measurable response to D(k) plus vaccinia. In contrast, stem cells from K(d)D(k) (D(k) plus vaccinia low responders) differentiating in a K(d)D(d) (K(d) and D(d) high responders to vaccinia) host do generate responsiveness to D(d) plus vaccinia. These results indicate that in chimeras, the Ir phenotype is independent of the donor T cell's Ir genotype, and that thymic selection of a T cell's restriction specificity for a particular H-2 allele of the chimeric host also defines that T cell's/r phenotype.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (7/3775)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Complementation of P37 (F13L gene) knock-out in vaccinia virus by a cell line expressing the gene constitutively. (8/3775)

Vaccinia virus produces two different infectious forms, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Acquisition of the EEV envelope occurs by wrapping of IMV with vesicles of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The most abundant protein in the envelope of EEV, P37, is a 37 kDa palmitylated protein encoded by the F13L gene. P37 is located in the inner side of the EEV envelope and accumulates in the TGN during infection. Deletion of gene F13L results in a severe defect in the wrapping process, although normal levels of IMV are produced. A cell line, derived from RK-13 cells, was obtained that stably expressed P37 (RK(P37)), and the properties of the protein were studied in the absence of other viral polypeptides. P37 produced in RK(P37) cells differed from P37 produced in vaccinia-infected cells in terms of hydrophobicity and intracellular distribution. Despite these differences, RK(P37) cells partially complemented the phenotypic defect of vaccinia virus P37- mutants. EEV production and cell-to-cell virus spread by mutant viruses were increased significantly in RK(P37) cells when compared to normal RK-13 cell cultures. Infection of RK(P37) cells with P37- virus substantially altered the hydrophobicity and the intracellular distribution of P37 in those cells. These results indicate the requirement of the infection context for determination of the normal palmitylation and intracellular localization of P37.  (+info)

The vaccinia virus early transcription factor (VETF), in addition to the viral RNA polymerase, is required for efficient transcription of early genes in vitro. VETF is a heterodimeric protein that binds specifically to early gene promoters. In order to localize the VETF DNA binding domain, we have used photoreactive oligonucleotide probes with the sequence of the vaccinia virus growth factor promoter. The probes consisted of double-stranded oligonucleotides incorporating radiolabeled dAMP and 5-bromo-dUMP into sequences of the promoter known to contact VETF. Irradiation of a DNA probe having these nucleotides located upstream of the transcription start site in the presence of VETF resulted in the transfer of label to a polypeptide that comigrated with the small subunit of VETF. The label transfer reaction was shown to occur with the recombinant VETF small subunit in the absence of the large subunit. These results indicate that the small subunit comprises at least part of the VETF DNA binding ...
Using a reverse genetic approach, we have demonstrated that the product of the B5R open reading frame (ORF), which has homology with members of the family of complement control proteins, is a membrane glycoprotein present in the extracellular enveloped (EEV) form of vaccinia virus but absent from the intracellular naked (INV) form. An antibody (C-B5R) raised to a 15-amino-acid peptide from the translated B5R ORF reacted with a 42-kDa protein (gp42) found in vaccinia virus-infected cells and cesium chloride-banded EEV but not INV. Under nonreducing conditions, an 85-kDa component, possibly representing a hetero- or homodimeric form of gp42, was detected by both immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblot analysis. Metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine and [3H]palmitate revealed that the B5R product is glycosylated and acylated. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of the protein was identified by constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus that overexpressed a truncated, secreted form of the B5R ...
GL-ONC1, an oncolytic vaccinia virus, has shown the ability to preferentially locate, colonize and destroy tumor cells in more than 40 different human tumors. A First-in-Man, Phase I clinical study focusing on the safety and tolerability of GL-ONC1 intravenously administered to patients with a variety of advanced solid tumor entities has shown that GL-ONC1 is well-tolerated at therapeutic dose levels, with documented evidence of antitumor activity. Preclinical studies have further shown synergistic effects with the use of chemotherapy (Cisplatin) and viral therapy with GL-ONC, as well as favorable results when cancer cells are irradiated and then treated with GL-ONC1 in animal models. This Phase I study seeks to evaluate the safety, tolerability and early signs of efficacy of GL-ONC1 administered intravenously in combination with standard of care (SOC) radiation therapy (RT) and cisplatin (CDDP)in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer. Patients will be individually assessed ...
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Characterization of a processive form of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase., Polymerase: Vaccinia Virus Pol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of apathogenic vaccinia virus MVA expressing EHV-1 gC as basis of a combined recombinant MVA/DNA vaccination scheme. AU - Huemer, Hartwig P.. AU - Strobl, Birgit. AU - Nowotny, Norbert. PY - 2000/2/4. Y1 - 2000/2/4. N2 - The nonreplicating chicken adapted vaccinia virus strain MVA was used in a combined vaccine scheme. Using the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) encoded complement-receptor glycoprotein C as antigen, only poor antibody response was induced by exclusive vaccination with DNA plasmids. The administration of recombinant MVA followed by plasmid immunization elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses in hamster comparable to EHV-1 full virus vaccines. Our results indicate that recombinant constructs based on MVA represent a safe and efficient way to overcome problems of poor immunogenicity of certain antigens upon intramuscular DNA vaccination, thus replacing sophisticated adjuvants or application methods, which are not readily applicable in routine ...
61840DNAVaccinia virus 1tttttattat ttgtacgatg tccaggataa catttttacg gataaataaa tatgaaggtg 60gagagcgtga cgttcctgac attgttggga ataggatgcg ttctatcatg ctgtactatt 120ccgtcacgac ccattaatat gaaatttaag aatagtgtgg agactgatgc taatgctaat 180tacaacatag gagacactat agaatatcta tgtctacctg gatacagaaa gcaaaaaatg 240ggacctatat atgctaaatg tacaggtact ggatggacac tctttaatca atgtattaaa 300cggagatgcc catcgcctcg agatatcgat aatggccaac ttgatattgg tggagtagac 360tttggctcta gtataacgta ctcttgtaat agcggatatc atttgatcgg tgaatctaaa 420tcgtattgtg aattaggatc tactggatct atggtatgga atcccgaggc acctatttgt 480gaatctgtta aatgccaatc ccctccatct atatccaacg gaagacataa cggatacgag 540gatttttata ccgatgggag cgttgtaact tatagttgca atagtggata ttcgttgatt 600ggtaactctg gtgtcctgtg ttcaggagga gaatggtccg atccacccac gtgtcagatt 660gttaaatgtc cacatcctac aatatcaaac ggatacttgt ctagcgggtt taaaagatca 720tactcataca acgacaatgt agactttaag tgcaagtacg gatataaact atctggttcc 780tcatcatcta cttgctctcc aggaaataca tggaagccgg aacttccaaa atgtgtacgc 8402244PRTVaccinia virus ...
A murine model based on infection by the respiratory route has been used to study the pathogenesis of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The neurovirulent Western Reserve (WR) strain and the Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain were used as vectors. Recombinant viruses were constructed by insertion of the Epstein-Barr virus membrane glycoprotein 340 gene into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of each vaccinia virus. Intranasal inoculation of DBA/2 mice with 106 pock-forming units (pk.f.u.) of the WR strain was lethal but mice survived similar infection with the WR recombinant virus. Each virus was recovered from lung, blood and brain but, unlike wild-type virus, the recombinant virus was subsequently cleared. No deaths occurred after similar infection with the Wyeth strain or the Wyeth recombinant virus. There was limited growth of the Wyeth strain in the respiratory tract, low levels of virus in the blood and only sporadic recovery in brain extracts. The Wyeth recombinant virus was cleared rapidly with little
Comparative examination of viral and host protein homologs reveals novel mechanisms governing downstream signaling effectors of both cellular and vi- ral origin. The vaccinia virus B1 protein kinase is involved in promoting multiple facets of the virus life cycle and is a homolog of three conserved cellular enzymes called vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs). Recent evidence indicates that B1 and VRK2 mediate a com- mon pathway that is largely uncharacterized but appears independent of previous VRK substrates. Interestingly, separate studies described a novel role for B1 in inhibiting vac- cinia virus protein B12, which otherwise impedes an early event in the viral lifecycle. Herein, we characterize the B1/VRK2 signaling axis to better understand their shared functions. First, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus uniquely requires VRK2 for viral repli- cation in the absence of B1, unlike other DNA viruses. Employing loss-of-function analy- sis, we demonstrate that vaccinia viruss dependence on VRK2 is
The mechanism by which cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits vaccinia virus (VV) replication is still unclear. The present study addresses the question of whether CsA-binding proteins named cyclophilins (Cyps) are involved in the anti-VV activity of CsA. Six CsA analogues were analysed, and their affinity for Cyps in VV-infected BSC-40 cells and their potency as inhibitors of VV replication were evaluated. It was demonstrated that analogues with strong Cyp-binding activity, such as CsC, CsG and [MeAla6]CsA, also exhibit a strong antiviral effect. In contrast, drugs with low ([MeBm2t1]CsA and CsH) or no ([MeLeu11]CsA) affinity for Cyps show poor or no antiviral activity. The data obtained suggest a correlation between the ability of CsA to block VV replication and Cyp binding activity, and indicate the involvement of Cyps in the VV replicative cycle. They also suggest that the anti-VV action of CsA may occur by a pathway distinct from that involved in the immunosuppressive effect of the drug.
A major obstacle in designing effective vaccines is our limited knowledge of the mechanisms involved in eliciting a protective cell-mediated immune response. In recent years, research has focused on the development of recombinant vaccines, in which antigenic peptides derived from a specific pathogen are delivered to the cells via live vectors. For a vaccine to be effective in an out-bred population it must generate as many antigenic determinants as possible. One method that can be used to generate multiple peptide determinants is to express two or more recombinant proteins from a single live vaccine vector. To this end, we developed a recombinant vaccinia virus system that expresses two full-length influenza virus proteins; nucleoprotein (NP) and acidic polymerase (PA). In addition to the NP and PA proteins, our expression system is designed to produce yellow and red fluorescent proteins, which allow us to monitor, in a quantitative manner, recombinant protein expression both in vitro and in ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al., J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993). In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. Examination of thin sections of Epon-embedded, VV-infected cells by use of a high-angular-tilt series of single sections, serial-section analysis, and high-resolution digital-image analysis detected only a single,
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is associated with the emission of so-called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which trigger the immune response against dead-cell associated antigens. The secretion of the DAMP, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to be autophagy-dependent. Here, we demonstrate that Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, induces both cell death and autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), which in turn confer the (cross-)priming of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells (OT-I cells). Additionally, we show that MVA infection leads to increased extracellular ATP (eATP) as well as intracellular ATP (iATP) levels, with the latter being influenced by the autophagy. Furthermore, we show that the increased eATP supports the proliferation of OT-I cells and inhibition of the P2RX7 receptors results in an abrogation of the proliferation. These data reveal novel mechanisms on how MVA enhances adaptive immunity in ...
Oncolytic vaccinia virus has shown highly safe and innate selective for cancer, enhanced by deleting thymidine kinase (TK) or vaccinia virus growth factor (VGF) by genetic engineering. However, systemic toxicity and low tumor targeting efficiency still remain challenges for its clinical application. In the present study, we hypothesized that intratumoral delivery system for vaccinia virus would improve its tumor selectivity and antitumor efficacy further. Polyacrylamide (PAAm) based injectable hydrogel delivery system is promising strategy for enhanced localization and protection of virus from antiviral environment in tumor tissue due to its appropriate physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. T cells and cytokine levels were also upregulated by viral delivery with PAAm hydrogel. Furthermore, histological examination revealed that necrotic tumor lesion were highly increased by intratumoral virotherapy in mouse RENCA cell carcinoma syngeneic model. In addition, chondrocyte-specific ...
One of the great success stories of modern medicine is the eradication of smallpox virus that was declared in 1980 after a long vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus. A risk remains today of the resurgence of smallpox virus from a frozen source such as the melting of permafrost [1]. Another risk is the spread of an orthopoxvirus from an animal reservoir to the human population. The present work focuses on vaccinia virus, which is a safe model system to study poxviruses. The high-resolution structure that has been obtained of components of the vaccinia virus DNA replication machinery will facilitate the development of drugs and help to understand orthopoxvirus drug resistance.. The crystal structure determination of vaccinia virus polymerase was challenging due to the radiation sensitivity of the long needle-like DNA polymerase crystals obtained from low amounts of protein produced in insect cells. The use of the helical scan capability at the ESRF with a simultaneous rotation and translation ...
An inducible, mutant virus, designated vvtetO:I7L/G1L, was used to study the morphogenic proteolysis step of the vaccinia virus life cycle. The vvtetO:I7L/G1L controlled the expression of two genes, I7L, a cysteine proteinase, and G1L, a putative metalloproteinase. These proteins are involved in the maturation of viral core proteins, p4a, p4b, and p25K, to form infectious virions. DNA extraction and genomic sequencing verified the correct insertion of the tetracycline operators. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was optimized, and a MOI of 0.5 was best, with a 99.25% reduction in viral plaque formation compared to the wild type vaccinia virus. A growth curve over 12 hours was done and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the on state closely followed the growth kinetics of the wild type vaccinia virus and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the off state had significantly lower viral titers throughout the last 6 hours of the cycle. Viral core protein processing in the on and off states, and in rescue experiments ...
Two chimpanzees were vaccinated intramuscularly against malaria using plasmid DNA expressing the pre-erythrocytic antigens thrombospondin related adhesion protein (PfTRAP) and liver stage specific antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum together with GM-CSF protein. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing PfTRAP was injected intramuscularly 6 weeks later to boost the immune response. This sequence of antigen delivery induced a specific and long-lasting T cell and antibody response to PfTRAP as detected by ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Antibody responses were detected after four DNA injections, and were boosted by injection of recombinant MVA expressing PfTRAP. Interferon-gamma secreting antigen-specific T cells were detected in both animals, but only after boosting with recombinant MVA. By screening a panel of PfTRAP-derived peptides, an epitope was identified that was recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in one of the chimpanzees studied. T cells specific for this epitope were
Vaccinia virus infected cell. Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. The nucleus of the host cell is blue. Areas of virus assembly within the cell are pink. Actin protein filaments, which make up part of the cytoskeleton, are green. The cytoskeleton maintains the cells shape, allows some cellular mobility and is involved in intracellular transport. Vaccinia causes cowpox, a disease of cattle and humans, which produces skin lesions. - Stock Image C002/5930
This study evaluated vaccinia-vectored vaccines expressing glycoproteins gB, gC, or gD of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in pigs. The vaccines are based on an attenuated vaccinia virus strain, NYVAC, which has reduced virulence and replicative capacity for certain species, including swine. The recombinant vaccinia vaccines were unable to prevent replication of virulent pseudorabies virus or latency but they were able to decrease the amount of virus shed after challenge and decrease clinical signs. In particular, pigs vaccinated with the recombinants expressing either gB or gD were protected at a level comparable to an inactivated PRV virus that was given for comparison. No lesions or clinical signs were seen following vaccination in these studies and no seronegative pigs in contact with vaccinia-vaccinated pigs ever seroconverted. No significant increase in protection occurred by giving recombinants expressing multiple glycoproteins and there was no virus neutralizing antibody response or protection induced
Activation of T cells requires at least two signals: an antigen-specific signal delivered through the T-cell receptor and a costimulatory signal mediated through molecules designated B7-1 and B7-2. Previous studies have shown that introduction of B7-1 and B7-2 into tumors using retroviral vectors has led to enhanced antitumor effects. A limiting factor for potential clinical applications using this approach is the low efficiency of infection of retroviral vectors and consequent manipulations of infected cells. Vaccinia virus thus represents an alternative vector for B7 gene expression in tumor cells. In this report we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the murine B7-1 and B7-2 genes (designated rV-B7-1 and rV-B7-2). Infection of BSC-1 cells with these constructs results in rapid and efficient cell surface expression of both B7-1 and B7-2 (,97% of cells at 4 h). Infection of murine carcinoma cells with low multiplicity of infection of ...
If we mapped out the family tree of poxviruses, then vaccinia virus (the causative agent of cowpox) and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) would probably be sisters. Or at the very least, cousins. This close heritage allows the relatively benign vaccinia virus to confer variola virus-protective immune responses in vaccinated individuals. A safely…
T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may play an important role in controlling infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to study the ability of rationally designed antigens to induce cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) we replaced stretches of 30 to 50 amino acids at the p17-MA/p24-CA cleavage site, within the p24-CA moiety and within the p6-LI portion of the HIV type 1 p55gag precursor by the third variable domain (V3) of the external glycoprotein gp120. This site is known to be a target for CTL attack in mice and humans. The chimeric antigens were recombined into highly attenuated vaccinia viruses in order to investigate class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted presentation of antigenic V3 peptides. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of the group-specific antigen (p55gag)/V3 chimeric proteins demonstrated significant differences in the accessibility of the V3 domain for a monoclonal antibody or polyclonal V3-specific antisera, depending on the position of the V3 ...
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NYVAC Pf7 vaccine: a multiantigen and multistage vaccine candidate for malaria; NYVAC-Pf7 is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus with 7 P. falciparum genes inserted into its genome
The present study is an investigation of the safety and immunogenicity of DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) candidate vaccines, each encoding the malaria DNA sequence multiple epitope-thrombospondin related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP), against Plasmodium falciparum. DNA ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP are safe and immunogenic for effector and memory T cell induction. MVA ME-TRAP, with or without prior DNA ME-TRAP immunization, was more immunogenic and more cross-reactive in malaria-exposed individuals than in malaria-naive individuals, a finding suggesting that recombinant MVA vaccines are particularly promising for the development of a malaria vaccine for exposed populations. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were induced by these vaccines.
Vaccinia Virus G1 Protein, a Predicted Metalloprotease, Is Essential for Morphogenesis of Infectious Virions but Not for Cleavage of Major Core Proteins: Genes
Our group is considering using a vaccinia virus for expression of cDNAs in tissue culture cells. 1. Is such a system commercially available? 2. Is there anyone out there who is familiar with this system who can comment on its ease of use and success? 3. Are there safety issue involved with using vaccinia virus (Level 2 biosafety?). Thanks, Karen Kedzie Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Irvine CA 92715 ...
Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and ...
The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1−/−) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. The phenotype of infected IL-1R1−/− mice was similar to eczema vaccinatum, a severe side effect of VACV vaccination that may develop in humans with atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the impaired cutaneous response of IL-1R1−/− mice did not reflect a systemic immune deficiency, because immunized IL-1R1−/− mice survived subsequent lethal VACV intranasal challenge, or defects of T cell activation or T cell homing to the site of inoculation. Histologic evaluation revealed that VACV infection and replication after scarification were limited to the epidermal layer of wild-type mice, ...
ID DNLI_VACCW Reviewed; 552 AA. AC P16272; Q76ZM8; DT 01-AUG-1990, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-AUG-1990, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 93. DE RecName: Full=DNA ligase; DE EC= {ECO:0000255,PROSITE-ProRule:PRU10135}; DE AltName: Full=Polydeoxyribonucleotide synthase [ATP]; GN Name=LIG; OrderedLocusNames=VACWR176; ORFNames=A50R; OS Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain OS WR)). OC Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Poxviridae; Chordopoxvirinae; OC Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia virus. OX NCBI_TaxID=10254; OH NCBI_TaxID=9913; Bos taurus (Bovine). RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=2045793; DOI=10.1099/0022-1317-72-6-1349; RA Smith G.L., Chan Y.S., Howard S.T.; RT Nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain WR from near RT the right inverted terminal repeat.; RL J. Gen. Virol. 72:1349-1376(1991). RN [2] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=2555782; DOI=10.1093/nar/17.22.9051; RA Smith ...
Recombinant poxviruses expressing immuno-modulatory molecules together with specific antigens might represent powerful vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Recently, we and others have demonstrated, in vitro and in clinical trials, that co-expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) could increase the immunogenic capacity of a recombinant Vaccinia virus (rVV) also encoding different tumor associated antigens. In order to further investigate the capacity of these vectors to provide ligands for different co-stimulatory pathways relevant in the generation of CD8+ T cell responses, we designed a recombinant virus expressing CD40 ligand (CD154rVV). This co-receptor, expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, upon binding CD40 expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC) has been reported to increase their antigen presentation and immunomodulatory capacities. To investigate the potency of CD154rVV in CTL generation, different types of infection were performed in cultures containing APC and CD8+ T ...
The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human cell lines. It further describes recombinant viruses derived from this virus and the use of the virus, or its recombinants, as a medicament or vaccine. A method is provided for inducing an immune response in individuals who may be immune-compromised, receiving antiviral therapy, or have a pre-existing immunity to the vaccine virus. In addition, a method is provided for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the virus, or its recombinants, in a vaccinia virus prime/vaccinia virus boost innoculation regimen.
A factor, present in transcriptionally active extracts prepared from purified vaccinia virus particles, binds to vaccinia early promoter sequences. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the 5-terminal segments of two early genes and related and unrelated competitor DNA fragments. DNase I footprint analysis indicated that the factor formed a complex with promoter regions of both genes and protected sequences of 10-15 nucleotides centered 21-24 nucleotides upstream of the RNA start sites. The lack of protection of a late regulatory sequence and of an early promoter with transcriptionally inactivating single-nucleotide substitutions suggested that the protein is an early transcription factor. When subjected to glycerol gradient centrifugation, the DNA-binding factor was resolved from RNA polymerase and sedimented as a 7.5S species with an estimated molecular weight of 130,000. ...
Athymic nude mice recover from an infection with recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) encoding murine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but treatment with a mAb to IL-2 accentuated infection. Administration of a mAb against interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to mice infected with the IL-2-encoding virus completely prevented the IL-2-induced mechanisms of recovery. Both asialo-GM1+ (NK) and asialo-GM1- (non-NK) cells were participants in the IFN-gamma-mediated recovery of nude mice from infection with the IL-2-encoding VV recombinant. Depletion of asialo-GM1+ cells exacerbated infection, though not as much as anti-IFN-gamma mAb. In vitro, both asialo-GM1+ and asialo-GM1- nude mouse splenocytes produced IFN-gamma in response to IL-2. ...
A vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still awaited. Although the correlates of protection remain elusive, it is likely that CD8+ T cells play an important role in the control of this infection. To firmly establish the importance of these cells in protective immunity, a means of efficient elicitation of CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of antibody is needed and, when available, might represent a crucial step towards a protective vaccine. Here, a novel vaccine candidate was constructed as a multi-cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope gene delivered and expressed using modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). The immunogen consists of 20 human, one murine and three rhesus macaque epitopes. The non-human epitopes were included so that the vaccine can be tested for immunogenicity and optimal vaccination doses, routes and regimes in experimental animals. Mice were immunized intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) using a single dose of 10(6) p.f.u. of the recombinant MVA and the
The worldwide HIV/AIDS epidemic may only be controlled through a safe and effective vaccine that will prevent HIV infection. DNA vaccines are inexpensive to construct, easily produced in large quantities, and stable for long periods of time. Recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines have been shown to be safe in humans, and immunogenicity after administration of both vaccines has been encouraging. When used together, a more robust immunologic response was associated with DNA HIV vaccine administration followed by modified vaccinia vaccine administration, compared to using either DNA or vaccinia vaccine alone. This study will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an experimental DNA HIV vaccine prime, pGA/JS7, followed by a similarly structured modified vaccinia boost, MVA/HIV62, in HIV uninfected adults. Participants in this study will be recruited only in the United States.. This study will be divided into 2 parts. Each participant will be involved with their part of study for 1 year. ...
The safety of attenuated poxviruses in HIV-1-infected individuals is an important consideration in their application as vaccine vectors, first, because new HIV-1 infections may occur in vaccine trials involving persons at high risk of infection and secondly, therapeutic vaccinations are a potential means to enhance virus-specific immune responses once infection has occurred. We administered a candidate modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored HIV-1 vaccine, MVA.HIVA, by intradermal injection to 16 chronically infected adults during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Vaccinations were well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. No breakthrough viraemia occurred after immunisations or throughout follow-up. These data confirm the safety of MVA.HIVA in HIV-1-infected individuals and provide support for further evaluation of MVA-vectored vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic immunisation strategies.
Comprehending the mechanisms behind the impact of vaccine regimens on immunity is critical for improving vaccines. Indeed, the time-interval between immunizations may influence B and T cells, as well as innate responses. We compared two vaccine schedules using cynomolgus macaques immunized with an attenuated vaccinia virus. Two subcutaneous injections 2 weeks apart led to an impaired secondary antibody response and similar innate myeloid responses to both immunizations. In contrast, a delayed boost (2 months) improved the quality of the antibody response and involved more activated/mature innate cells, induced late after the prime and responding to the recall. The magnitude and quality of the secondary antibody response correlated with the abundance of these neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells that were modified phenotypically and enriched prior to revaccination at 2 months, but not 2 weeks. These late phenotypic modifications were associated with an enhanced ex vivo cytokine production ...
Envelope protein which probably plays a role in virus entry into the host cell. Is probably involved in the virus attachment to the host cell surface and associates with the entry/fusion complex (EFC). Needed for fusion and penetration of the virus core into host cell.
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Suramin is a competitive inhibitor of heparin binding to many proteins, including viral envelope proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). It has been clinically evaluated as a potential therapeutic in treatment of cancers caused by unregulated angiogenesis, triggered by FGFs. Although it has shown clinical promise in treatment of several cancers, suramin has many undesirable side effects. There is currently no experimental structure that reveals the molecular interactions responsible for suramin inhibition of heparin binding, which could be of potential use in structure-assisted design of improved analogues of suramin. We report the structure of suramin, in complex with the heparin-binding site of vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which interacts with heparin in a geometrically similar manner to many FGFs. The larger than anticipated flexibility of suramin manifested in this structure, and other details of VCP-suramin interactions, might ...
INDEFINITE BACKORDER*** Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor for EGF and for various members of the EGF family such as TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30 and vaccinia virus growth factor. EGFR is involved in the control of cell growth and differentation. Binding of EGF to the receptor leads to dimerization, internalization of the EGF-receptor complex, induction of the tyrosine kinase activity, stimulation of cell DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. EGFRvIII has an 801-bp in-frame deletion resulting in a shorter extracellular domain (aa 6-273 are deleted) with generation of a glycine residue at the fusion point. EGFRvIII is tumor specific and is not expressed in normal human tissues. Defects in EGFR are associated with lung cancer.. ...
EGFR a receptor tyrosine kinase. This is a receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30, and vaccinia virus growth factor. EGFR is involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. It is a single-pass transmembrane tyrosine kinase. Ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation (in trans), activation of various downstream signaling molecules and lysosomal degradation. It can be phosphorylated and activated by Src. Activated EGFR binds the SH2 domain of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma), activating PLC-gamma-mediated downstream signaling. Phosphorylated EGFR binds Cbl, leading to its ubiquitination and degradation. Grb2 and SHC bind to phospho-EGFR and are involved in the activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Phosphorylation on Ser and Thr residues is thought to represent a mechanism for attenuation of EGFR kinase activity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trans-eQTLs Reveal That Independent Genetic Variants Associated with a Complex Phenotype Converge on Intermediate Genes, with a Major Role for the HLA. AU - Fehrmann, R.S.. AU - Jansen, R.C.. AU - Veldink, J H.. AU - Westra, H.J.. AU - Arends, D.. AU - Bonder, M.J.. AU - Fu, J.. AU - Deelen, P.. AU - Groen, H.J.. AU - Smolonska, A.. AU - Weersma, R.K.. AU - Hofstra, R.M.. AU - Buurman, W.A.. AU - Rensen, S.S.M.. AU - Wolfs, M.G.. AU - Platteel, M.. AU - Zhernakova, A.. AU - Elbers, C.C.. AU - Festen, E.M.. AU - Trynka, G.. AU - Hofker, M.H.. AU - Saris, C.G.. AU - Ophoff, R.A.. AU - van den Berg, L.H.. AU - van Heel, D.A.. AU - Wijmenga, C.. AU - te Meerman, G.J.. AU - Franke, L.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - For many complex traits, genetic variants have been found associated. However, it is still mostly unclear through which downstream mechanism these variants cause these phenotypes. Knowledge of these intermediate steps is crucial to understand pathogenesis, while also ...
ID PCP1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 3600 BP. XX AC S62800; ATCC37351; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Vertebrate/E.coli plasmid vector pCP1 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC plasmid from pUC9 & vaccinia virus 7.5kDa gene RC pCP1 from pCAT & plasmid RC pMM24 from pMM23 & SV40 72-bp repeats RA Cochran M.A., Mackett M., Moss B.; RT Eukaryotic transient expression system dependent on transcription RT factors and regulatory DNA sequences of vaccinia virus; RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:19-23(1985). XX RN [2] RC plasmid from pBR328 RC pGS8 from plasmid & vaccinia virus TK gene RC pMM1 from pUC9 & vaccinia virus TK gene RC pMM2 from pUC9 & vaccinia virus TK gene RC pMM3 from pMM1 & pMM2 RC pMM4 from pMM3 RC pMM5 from pMM4 RC pGS15 from pUC9 & pAG4 RC pGS19 from pGS15 & linker RC pGS20, pGS21 from pGS19 & pGS8 RC [pGS30 from cat gene] RC pCAT from pBR328 ...
In order to produce infectious virus progeny, vaccinia virus (VV) undergoes morphogenic proteolysis to regulate the structural rearrangements of virus particles. Several of the major structural precursor proteins of VV are cleaved at a conserved Ala-Gly-X (where X is any amino acid) motif by the VV I7L core protein proteinase at a step, which is necessary for formation of mature virus particles. VV A12L encodes a 25kDa core protein, which is cleaved at an AG/A site, yielding a 17kDa cleavage product. Both A12L precursor and the cleavage product are localized to mature virions. The open reading frame (ORF) of A12L contains two more AG/X (AG/K) sites, however, cleavage at these sites has not been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the in vivo processing of A12L proteolysis and elucidate the biological function of A12L. The result of these studies would provide more details on the regulation and participation of VV proteolysis during the morphogenic transitions. ...
Creative Biolabs provides Reporter-encoding Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Western Reserve (ΔE3L), p11k-(GFP) for immuno-oncology research.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccinia virus-mediated cell cycle alteration involves inactivation of tumour suppressors associated with Brf1 and TBP. AU - Yoo, Na Kyung. AU - Pyo, Chul Woong. AU - Kim, Youngho. AU - Ahn, Byung Yoon. AU - Choi, Sang Yun. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - The vaccinia virus (VV) replicates robustly and alters the progression of the cell cycle via an unknown mechanism. Herein, we provide evidence for the existence of a unique VV infection-induced cell cycle control mechanism. The regulation is correlated with the inactivation of p53 and Rb, which are associated with the RNA polymerase III transcription factor B (TFIIIB) subunits, TBP and Brf1 respectively. VV infection induced the expression of Mdm2 and its translocation into the nucleus, thereby resulting in a disruption of p53. VV also stimulated the expression of TFIIIB and TFIIIC, and consequently induced tRNA synthesis. On the other hand, the total level of Rb ...
Thymidine kinases form part of the salvage pathway for pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. TKs are expressed in a variety of organisms from human to bacteria as well as in a number of viruses. The reaction catalysed by TK involves the transfer of a γ-phosphoryl moiety from ATP to 2deoxy-thymidine (dThd) to produce thymidine 5-monophosphate (dTMP). Certain TKs, such as those from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) have, in addition, thymidylate kinase activity allowing the conversion of dTMP to thymidine 5-diphosphate (dTDP). TKs can be classified into two types which differ in several respects [1]. Type 1 TKs are of higher molecular weight, typically around 40 kDa, and are active as homodimers. This subfamily contains the HSV1, HSV2 and VZV TKs, and also mitochondrial TK.. TKs of type 2 include those from poxviridae such as vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus, [2], as well as from human [3] hTK, (human type II thymidine kinase 1) and mouse [4]. Type ...
© 2008 Cottingham et al. The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC) in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS 99 12415-20). The genomic BAC clone was rescued back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c
Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin. The availability of the VACV-DUKE genome sequence permits a first time genomic comparison of a VACV isolate associated with a smallpox vaccine complication with the sequence of culture-derived clonal isolates of the Dryvax vaccine. This study showed that VACV-DUKE is most similar to VACV-ACAM2000 and CLONE3, two VACV clones isolated from the Dryvax® vaccine stock confirming VACV-DUKE as an isolate from Dryvax®. However, VACV-DUKE is unique because it is, to date, the only Dryvax® clone isolated from a patient experiencing a vaccine-associated complication. The 199,960 bp VACV-DUKE genome encodes 225 open reading frames, including 178 intact genes and 47 gene fragments. Between VACV-DUKE and the other Dryvax® isolates, the major genomic differences are in fragmentation of
Current candidate vaccines fail to protect primates against challenge with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the presence of antibody responses; this underlines the importance of studying cell-mediated immunity to HIV and identifying specific epitopes that stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Using a recombinant vaccinia virus to express the gag protein of HIV-1 we found HLA class-I-restricted gag-specific CTL in thirteen out of fifteen healthy HIV seropositive patients. We then used short synthetic peptides in the lysis assay to screen for gag CTL epitopes. In one patient we have identified a peptide in p24 that is recognized by CTL in association with HLA-B27. This peptide, and further peptide sequences defined by these methods, could be incorporated in vaccines designed to induce cell-mediated immunity against HIV.
Vaccinia virus thymidylate kinase, although similar in sequence to human TMP kinase, has broader substrate specificity and phosphorylates (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-dUMP and dGMP. Modified guanines such as glyoxal-dG, 8-oxo-dG, O(6)-methyl-dG, N(2)-ethyl-dG and N(7)-methyl-dG were found present in cancer cell DNA. Alkylated and oxidized dGMP analogs were examined as potential substrates for vaccinia TMP kinase and also for human TMP and GMP kinases. Molecular models obtained from structure-based docking rationalized the enzymatic data. All tested nucleotides are found surprisingly substrates of vaccinia TMP kinase and also of human GMP kinase. Interestingly, O(6)-methyl-dGMP is the only analog specific for the vaccinia enzyme. Thus, O(6)-Me-dGMP could be useful for designing new compounds of medical interest either in antipoxvirus therapy or in experimental combined gene/chemotherapy of cancer. These results also provide new insights regarding dGMP analog reaction with human GMP kinase and their slow ...
Three distinct chimpanzee Fabs against the A33 envelope glycoprotein of vaccinia virus were isolated and converted into complete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with human g
Vaccinia virus is the live poxvirus that was used as the. The development of this vaccine was an important step in the successful eradication of smallpox, an infection characterized by fever, rash and constitutional symptoms, with a high rate of morb
Background In urban Guinea-Bissau, adults with a vaccinia scar had better survival but also a higher prevalence of HIV-2 infection. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinia scar and survival and HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. Methodology/Principal Findings In connection with a study of HIV in rural Guinea-Bissau, we assessed vaccinia and BCG scars in 193 HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected and 174 uninfected participants. Mortality was assessed after 2½-3 years of follow-up. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, village, and HIV status. The prevalence of vaccinia scar was associated with age, village, and HIV-2 status but not with sex and schooling. Compared with individuals without any scar, individuals with a vaccinia scar had better survival (mortality rate ratio (MR) = 0.22 (95% CI 0.08-0.61)), the MR being 0.19 (95% CI 0.06-0.57) for women and 0.40 (95% CI 0.04-3.74) for men. Estimates were similar for HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 uninfected individuals. The HIV-2
Zechiedrich and Osheroff (1990) were the first to visualize the preferential binding of eukaryotic type I topoisomerase at intramolecular crossovers. The present study of vaccinia virus topoisomerase confirms their findings regarding the formation of DNA loops by type IB enzymes. We suggest that the loops arise through protein-protein‐mediated DNA synapsis rather than through bivalent DNA binding of a single topoisomerase monomer.. Zechiedrich and Osheroff focused on DNA molecules containing what appeared to be a single protein complex at DNA nodes. These structures were prevalent at a 3:1 molar ratio of calf thymus topoisomerase I to plasmid DNA. As pointed out by Wang (1996), an inherent problem in microscopic analysis is that one cannot gauge the number of topoisomerase monomers within the seemingly discrete protein blobs. Therefore, it is unclear if the protein‐bound nodes are formed because one topoisomerase monomer simultaneously engages two DNA duplexes or because two (or more) ...
Vaccinia virus free virus antibody [8114] for ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC. Anti-Vaccinia virus free virus mAb (GTX36668) is tested in Vaccinia virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The vaccinia virus E3L gene encodes two double-stranded RNA binding proteins that promote viral growth and pathogenesis through suppression of innate immunity. missing RNase L, PKR, and Mx1. To investigate the underlying cause, we determined the effect of E3L on interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a transcription factor required for viral induction of subtypes of type I interferons. Results showed that IRF3 activation and interferon- induction occurred after infections with E3L-deleted virus but not with MGC102953 wild-type virus. These findings demonstrate that E3L plays an essential role ACY-1215 inhibition in the pathogenesis of vaccinia virus by blocking the interferon system at multiple levels. Furthermore, our results indicate the existence of an interferon-mediated antipoxvirus pathway that operates independently of PKR, Mx1, or the 2-5A/RNase L system. Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VV), are remarkable for the wide spectrum of factors they encode to evade host defenses. Included ...
For protection from HIV-1 infection, a vaccine should elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A novel vaccine regimen and adjuvant that induce high levels of HIV-1 Env-specific T cell and antibody (Ab) responses was developed in this study. The prime-boost regimen that used combinations of replication-competent vaccinia LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) and Sendai virus (SeV) vectors expressing HIV-1 Env efficiently produced both Env-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-Env antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). These results sharply contrast with vaccine regimens that prime with an Env expressing plasmid and boost with the m8Δ or SeV vector that mainly elicited cellular immunities. Moreover, co-priming with combinations of m8Δs expressing Env or a membrane-bound human CD40 ligand mutant (CD40Lm) enhanced Env-specific CD8+ T cell production, but not anti-Env antibody production. In contrast, priming with an m8Δ that coexpresses CD40Lm and Env elicited more anti-Env Abs with higher avidity, but
Decades after smallpox was eradicated and vaccination discontinued, the level of residual immunity in todays population is largely unknown. This study describes an epidemiological assessment in Italians of antibodies against the intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular envelope virus (EEV …
In the search for effective vaccines against intracellular pathogens such as HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, recombinant viral vectors are increasingly being used to boost previously primed T cell responses. Published data have shown prime-boost vaccination with BCG-MVA85A (modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A) to be highly immunogenic in humans as measured by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT. Here, we used polychromatic flow cytometry to investigate the phenotypic and functional profile of these vaccine-induced Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen 85A-specific responses in greater detail. Promisingly, antigen 85A-specific CD4 + T cells were found to be highly polyfunctional, producing IFN-γ TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β. Surface staining showed the responding CD4 + T cells to be relatively immature (CD45RO + CD27 int CD57 - ); this observation was supported by the robust proliferative responses observed following antigenic stimulation. Furthermore, these phenotypic and functional
Icell Kealex Therapeutics is an oncology biotech startup based at JLABS at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas. We are developing oncoloytic vaccinia viruses armed with T-cell-engaging antibody fragments that boost the viruss antitumor efficacy. This modification in the virus allows the tumor cells that are not infected with the virus to be target by T-cells. Icell Kealex has a deep pipeline of T cell engager oncolytic vaccinia virus which offer an advantage over other oncolytic viruses. We plan to enter phase 1 trials with our lead product in 2018. We are looking for co-development or licensing partnerships
A significant proportion of the research in the field has concentrated, quite understandably, on candidates that can be given to individuals already vaccinated with BCG in an effort to improve outcomes. As noted in Fig. 1, the age of the individual when a vaccine is given is a factor, and this applies particularly to BCG-boosting vaccines. BCG is usually given soon after birth, and hence, finding some way to boost immunity engendered by neonatal BCG vaccination is the most practical avenue of approach, unless a highly effective vaccine can be found to replace BCG. The lead candidates in this regard are virus based; MVA85A is based on vaccinia virus, and Aeras-402 uses adenovirus type 35 to deliver the Ag85B and TB10.4 antigens.. In this regard, a very comprehensive review by Brennan and his colleagues (63) lists the growing number of studies that have tried various priming-boosting protocols, rather helpfully divided into those that seemed to work, those that provided no better effect than BCG ...
We have developed small peptide mimetics of interferon IFN gamma that bypass the receptor extracellular binding site and interact directly downstream in the IFN signaling cascade. We have synthesized these mimetics with an attached hydrophobic residue for intracellular delivery. The mimetics encompass the C-terminus of IFN gamma and unlike intact IFN gamma are species non-specific in their action. We have shown in cell culture that the IFN mimetics, like IFN, are also virus nonspecific and are highly active against the picornavirus EMC virus and the poxvirus vaccinia. Importantly, unlike IFNs that are neutralized by the decoy receptors of poxviruses, the mimetics are fully active against viruses in the presence of B8R protein that blocks IFN gamma antiviral activity. In this final report we show the progress of testing one of the IFN mimetics, IFN gamma 95-132, against lethal vaccinia virus and EMC virus infections in mice in the presence of B8R protein. We also show the mechanism of action of the IFN
Vaccination against smallpox is known as to be able to encounter a possible bioterrorist risk again, but the character and the amount of the defense response had a need to protect a person from smallpox after vaccination arent totally understood. vaccination against smallpox also to research the vector-specific immune system response in scientific trials that make use of genetically constructed vaccinia viruses. Most of all, program of the extremely attenuated MVA eliminates the basic safety concern in using the replication-competent vaccinia trojan in the typical clinical laboratory. Trojan neutralization assays are of help equipment to measure a decrease in titers of infectious trojan mediated by antibodies. They serve as diagnostic equipment as well as for preliminary research to monitor the humoral immune system response to a trojan. Conventional solutions to measure anti-vaccinia trojan neutralizing antibodies are often performed utilizing a plaque decrease neutralization check (PRNT) (7). ...
HIV-1 envelopes from two series of primary isolates (from Swedish patients 5 and 6), from JR-FL and BaL (prototypic monocyte/macrophage tropic viruses) and from HXB-2 (a prototypic T-cell-line-adapted virus), have been screened for their ability to elicit neutralizing antibody to HIV-1. Rabbits were primed by gene gun inoculation with plasmids expressing secreted monomeric (gp120) and oligomeric (gp140) forms of each Env. After four to six DNA immunizations administered over a 1-year period, rabbits were boosted with 10(8) plaque-forming units of a mixture of seven recombinant vaccinia viruses which express chimeric gp140 Envs (primary clade B sequences in a IIIb-related BH10 backbone). Neutralizing antibodies were assayed against two T-cell-line-adapted viruses (MN and IIIb), two non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and two syncytium-inducing (SI) primary isolates, and two HIV-1-NL4-3-recombinants with patients 5 or 6 Envs (NL4-3/5A, NL4-3/6C). The DNA priming and recombinant vaccinia virus boosting raised low
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Vaccinia virus (VACV), the model poxvirus, produces two types of infectious particles: mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). EV particles possess two membranes and therefore require an unusual cellular entry mechanism. By a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as flow cytometry, we investigated the cellular processes that EVs required to infect HeLa cells. We found that EV particles were endocytosed, and that internalization and infection depended on actin rearrangements, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signalling events typical for the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. To promote their internalization, EVs were capable of actively triggering macropinocytosis. EV infection also required vacuolar acidification, and acid exposure in endocytic vacuoles was needed to disrupt the outer EV membrane. Once exposed, the underlying MV-like particle presumably fused its single membrane with the limiting vacuolar membrane. Release of the viral core into the ...
We assessed safety and immunogenicity of HIV-DNA priming using Zetajet,sup,TM,/sup,, a needle-free device intradermally followed by intramuscular HIV-MVA boosts, in 24 healthy Mozambicans. Volunteers were randomized to receive three immunizations of 600 µg (n = 10; 2 x 0.1mL) or 1200 µg (n = 10; 2 x 0.2mL) of HIV-DNA (3 mg/mL), followed by two boosts of 10,sup,8,/sup,pfu HIV-MVA. Four subjects received placebo saline injections. Vaccines and injections were safe and well tolerated with no difference between the two priming groups. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag were detected in 9/17 (53%) vaccinees, while none responded to Env. After the first HIV-MVA, the overall response rate to Gag and/or Env increased to 14/15 (93%); 14/15 (93%) to Gag and 13/15 (87%) to Env. There were no significant differences between the immunization groups in frequency of response to Gag and Env or magnitude of Gag responses. Env responses were significantly higher in the ...
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Recombinant poxviruses encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive as candidate cancer vaccines. Their effectiveness, however, will depend upon expression of the TAA in appropriate antigen-presenting cells. We have used a murine model in which the TAA is beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) in which beta-gal was expressed under early or late promoters at levels that varied over 500-fold during productive infections in tissue culture cells. Remarkably, only those rVV employing early promoters were capable of prolonging the survival of mice bearing established tumors expressing the model TAA. Late promoters were ineffective regardless of their determined promoter strength. The best results were obtained when beta-gal was regulated by a strong early promoter coupled to a strong late promoter. When a variety of cell types were infected with the panel of viruses in vitro, dendritic cells were found to express beta-gal only under the control of ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
The first trial of an anti-HIV immunization, using a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing gp160 (rV) for priming and paraformaldehyde-fixed rV- infected PBLs and soluble gp160 for boosting, clearly showed an in vitro HIV- protective immune reaction. This result led us to carry out an additional 2 year Phase I clinical trial in 25 HIV-seronegative volunteers, using HIV gp160 antigens for immunization in four different protocols. The 2 year trial showed (a) the safety of the preparations, (b) a transient humoral immunity following each boost, and (c) a long-lasting memory T-cell response. Memory cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) induced by gp160 antigen with or without vaccinia vector lysed HLA class I restricted target cells expressing HIV-1 env antigens. These results are consistent with CTLs being an effective component of an AIDS vaccine to control cell-to-cell viral replication, dissemination in the organism, and subsequent evolution toward AIDS ...
TRIF−/− mice are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than WT.TRIF−/− and WT BL/6 mice were infected with 1×104 pfu Vac-FL. (A) Weight loss, expresse
There is more and more evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis which believes that cancers are driven by a cellular subcomponent that has stem cell properties which is self-renewal, tumorigenicity and multilineage differentiation capacity. Cancer stem cells have been connected to the initiation of tumors and are even found to be responsible for relapses after apparently curative therapies have been undertaken. This hypothesis changes our conceptual approach of oncogenesis and shall have implications in breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment, especially in metastatic breast cancer for which no curative treatment exists. Given the specific stem cell features, novel therapeutic pathways can be targeted. Since the value of vaccinia virus as a vaccination virus against smallpox was discovered by E. Jenner at 18th century, it plays an important role in human medicine and molecular biology. After smallpox was successfully eradicated, vaccinia virus is mainly used as a viral vector in ...
This trial is evaluating the safety and tolerability of single dose GL ONC1 in patients with malignant pleural effusion (including primary, metastases and
The external envelope from the extracellular type of vaccinia virus contains five virus-encoded proteins, F13, A33, A34, A56, and B5, that, apart from A56, are implicated in trojan infectivity or egress. A34. A lot of the extracellular domains of B5, which includes four brief consensus repeats homologous to check control proteins, was enough for A34 connections, indicating that both proteins interact through their ectodomains. Immunofluorescence tests on cells contaminated with A34-lacking trojan indicated that A34 is necessary for efficient concentrating on of B5, A36, and A33 into covered virions. In keeping with this observation, the envelope of A34-lacking trojan contained normal levels of F13 but reduced levels of A33 and B5 with regards to the parental WR trojan. These results indicate A34 as a significant determinant in the proteins composition from the vaccinia disease envelope. Vaccinia disease, the most-studied poxvirus, assembles and replicates in the cytoplasm from the infected cell. ...
Ev nakliye sinde uzman şirket Ankara taşımacılık şirketleri arasında en iyi evden eve nakliyat şirketi fiyat teklifi al Ankara nakliyat şirketi Ankara nakliye firmaları Ankara nakliyat şirketleri Ankara asansörlü nakliye firmaları Ankara nakliyat firmaları Nakliye firmaları ankara Ankara içi nakliye Ankarada evden eve nakliyat firmaları Ankara nakliye Nakliyat firmaları ankara Ankaradaki nakliye şirketleri Ankara nakliyat Ankara nakliyat firması Ankarada evden eve Nakliyat şirketi Ankara nakliyeci Ankara taşımacılık firmaları Ankara nakliye fiyatları Ankarada nakliyat şirketi Ankara nakliye Ankara asansörlü nakliye İlden ile nakliyat ankara Ankarada nakliyatcı Ankara nakliye Ankara şehir içi nakliyat En kaliteli nakliyat şirketi Ev taşıma Ankara nakliye şirketi Ankarada nakliye firması şirketimiz Ankara taşımacılık firmaları olarak Ankara nakliye firmaları arasında lider şirket Evden eve nakliyat ankara, Ankarada nakliyat şirketi ankara nakliyat, ...
A major challenge to developing a successful HIV vaccine is the vast diversity of viral sequences, yet it is generally assumed that an epitope conserved between different strains will be recognised by responding T-cells. We examined whether an invariant HLA-B8 restricted Nef₉₀₋₉₇ epitope FL8 shared between five high titre viruses and eight recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Nef from different viral isolates (clades A-H) could activate antiviral activity in FL8-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Surprisingly, despite epitope conservation, we found that CTL antiviral efficacy is dependent on the infecting viral isolate. Only 23% of Nef proteins, expressed by HIV-1 isolates or as recombinant vaccinia-Nef, were optimally recognised by CTL. Recognition of the HIV-1 isolates by CTL was independent of clade-grouping but correlated with virus-specific polymorphisms in the epitope flanking region, which altered immunoproteasomal cleavage resulting in enhanced or impaired epitope generation.
[BioChemistry] Vaccinia A27 Protein Structure is Revealed to Regulate Virus and Host Cell Membrane Fusion (Chinese Version) Academia Sinica Newsletter (2013/08/27) Two research teams in Academia Sinica, Dr. Andrew H.-J.
A major challenge to developing a successful HIV vaccine is the vast diversity of viral sequences, yet it is generally assumed that an epitope conserved between different strains will be recognised by responding T-cells. We examined whether an invariant HLA-B8 restricted Nef90-97epitope FL8 shared between five high titre viruses and eight recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Nef from different viral isolates (clades A-H) could activate antiviral activity in FL8-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Surprisingly, despite epitope conservation, we found that CTL antiviral efficacy is dependent on the infecting viral isolate. Only 23% of Nef proteins, expressed by HIV-1 isolates or as recombinant vaccinia-Nef, were optimally recognised by CTL. Recognition of the HIV-1 isolates by CTL was independent of clade-grouping but correlated with virus-specific polymorphisms in the epitope flanking region, which altered immunoproteasomal cleavage resulting in enhanced or impaired epitope generation. The finding
The faithful duplication of the genetic material is arguably the most fundamental of all biological processes. For DNA viruses as for cells, a complex repertoir...
Bristol-Myers Squibb is developing a vaccine, HIVAC-1e, comprised of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the HIV-1 gp160 envelope glycoprotein. The vaccine has potential for the treatment of HIV and other viral infections and has entered phase I trials [135333]. In an initial phase I trial, 11 vaccinia-naïve volunteers were vaccinated with HIVAC-1e, followed by a booster with baculovirus-derived gp160 (VaxSyn). Two weeks after boosting, all 11 volunteers developed HIV-1 specific IgG, with titers of 1:40 to 1:1280 [195287]. Using the same strategy in 29 vaccinia-naïve volunteers, priming with HIVAC-1e was demonstrated as a key determinant of the epitope specificity and magnitude of antibody responses to gp160 [195278].
CTLs specific for high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have recently been found in the peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients. Although cell-mediated immunity is thought to be important in the control of HPV infection, the functional relevance and site of activation of HPV-specific CTLs are unclear. We identified HLA-A*0201-restricted HPV-16 E7 peptide-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood (four of five patients), draining lymph nodes (three of four patients) and tumors (one of three patients) of cervical cancer patients. In four of four cancer patients, the frequency of CTLs specific for a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HPV-16 and -18 E6/E7 gene products was found to be higher in tumors and lymph nodes compared with that of peripheral blood. HPV-specific CTLs were not identified in any of seven healthy controls, but primary responses could be generated by peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (four of four controls). In a non-HLA-A*0201 subject with invasive carcinoma, other HLA ...
Volkmer, Hansjürgen; Bertholet, Christine; Jonjic, Stipan; Wittek, Riccardo und Koszinowski, Ulrich H. (1987): Cytolytic T lymphocyte recognition of the murine cytomegalovirus nonstructural immediate-early protein pp89 expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. In: The journal of experimental medicine, Vol. 166: S. 668-677 [PDF, 650kB] ...
Mammalian nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are members of a protein family with perfectly conserved domains arranged around the cysteine residues thought to stabilize an invariant three-dimensional scaffold in addition to distinct sequence motifs that convey different neuronal functions. To study their structural and functional conservation during evolution, we have compared NGF and BDNF from a lower vertebrate, the teleost Xiphophorus, with the mammalian homlogues. Genomic clones encoding fish NGF and BDNF were isolated by cross-hybridization using probes from the cloned mammalian factors. Fish NGF and BDNF were expressed by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses, purified, and their neuronal survival specificities for different classes of neurons were found to mirror those of the mammalian factors. The half-maximal survival concentration for chick sensory neurons was 60 pg/ml for both fish and mammalian purifi.ed recombinant BDNF. However, the ...
Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 890. Melissa Da Silva and Chris Upton. pp. 233-258. doi: ... viral genomics and the global dominance of viruses Bioinformatic Approaches for Comparative Analysis of Viruses [1] Viral ... New Comparative Tools for Large Virus Genomes". Viruses. 10 (11): 637. doi:10.3390/v10110637. PMC 6265842. PMID 30445717. ... The goal of this level is to "allow for quick comparison of similar genes across a given virus family."[self-published source ...
"Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara provides durable protection against disease caused by an immunodeficiency virus as ... "Medical Management of Adverse Reactions to Vaccinia Virus Vaccination , Smallpox , CDC". 2 November 2021. "Progressive Vaccinia ... Vaccinia virus Eczema vaccinatum Gamma globulin Immunoglobulin therapy an overview of this topic. Cangene Maurer, Douglas M; ... These (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE, IgG) previously have been researched for use with Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara®, more so ...
"Mass of virion - Virus Vaccinia". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01. "Conversion from J to kg". The NIST Reference on Constants ...
Dales, Samuel (1963-07-01). "The uptake and development of vaccinia virus in strain L cells followed with labeled viral ... Wickramasekera, Nadi T.; Traktman, Paula (July 2010). "Structure/Function Analysis of the Vaccinia Virus F18 Phosphoprotein, an ... Peters, D. (1956-12-29). "Morphology of resting vaccinia virus". Nature. 178 (4548): 1453-1455. doi:10.1038/1781453a0. ISSN ... "Vaccinia virus entry is followed by core activation and proteasome-mediated release of the immunomodulatory effector VH1 from ...
Friesen, J. D.; Sankoff, D.; Siminovitch, L. (1963). "Radiobiological Studies of Vaccinia Virus". Virology. 21 (3): 411-424. ...
... virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia ... Others, such as ectromelia and camelpox viruses, are highly host-specific. Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and ... through the use of Vaccinia virus as a vaccine. The most recently described species is the Alaskapox virus, first isolated in ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021. ...
Sodeik B; Griffiths G; Ericsson M; Moss B; Doms RW (February 1994). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the ... Charity JC, Katz E, Moss B (March 2007). "Amino acid substitutions at multiple sites within the vaccinia virus D13 scaffold ... Rifampicin has some effectiveness against vaccinia virus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin for several ...
... is a protein expressed by vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus is member of Orthopoxvirus family. These viruses contain approximately ... The Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus only has a truncated version of this protein. Vaccinia virus encodes two more serpin - ... "Vaccinia virus serpin B13R (SPI-2) inhibits interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme and protects virus-infected cells from TNF- and ... Kettle S, Blake NW, Law KM, Smith GL (January 1995). "Vaccinia virus serpins B13R (SPI-2) and B22R (SPI-1) encode M(r) 38.5 and ...
Mass vaccination to combat a smallpox epidemic could be challenging because the only approved smallpox vaccine, Vaccinia Virus ... The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... Black ME, Hruby DE (June 1990). "Quaternary structure of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
A number of viruses including adenovirus, reovirus, measles, herpes simplex, Newcastle disease virus, and vaccinia have been ... This approach has been used successfully preclinically with adenovirus, measles virus and vaccinia virus. Talimogene ... an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus, became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in ... Vaccinia virus GL-ONC1 was studied in a trial combined with chemo- and radiotherapy as Standard of Care for patients newly ...
Baxby, Derrickauthor-link = Derrick Baxby (1981). Edward Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine; the riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin ...
The riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin". Medical History. 26 (1): 94-95. doi:10.1017/S0025727300040825. "Derrick Baxby's ... He proposed that a presumed horsepox virus could be the long-sought ancestor of vaccinia. In 1977, he reported 12 cases of ... Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine: The Riddle of Vaccinia Virus and Its Origin". The American Historical Review. 87 (4). doi:10.1086/ ... Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine: The Riddle of Vaccinia Virus and Its Origin. Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1981. ISBN ...
... the riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin. London: Heinemann Educational Books. ISBN 0-435-54057-2. Pead, Patrick P (2003). " ... the introduction of smallpox vaccine was examined in detail much later when controversy arose over the origin of vaccinia virus ... some samples of which were contaminated with smallpox virus. This caused a rift with Jenner who thought his own work was being ...
Examples include K3L produced by vaccinia virus, which prevents the immune system from phosphorylating the substrate eIF-2 by ... the vaccinia virus avoids the immune system. In protein folding simulations, a decoy is a computer-generated protein structure ...
Die Zellbiologie komplexer DNA-Viren die Reifung des Vaccinia-Virus ; der Zelleintritt von Herpes-Simplex-Virus (Thesis) (in ... Sodeik has explored the cell biology of Herpes simplex virus. She is interested in virus-host interactions, virus assembly and ... Schmelz M; Sodeik B; Ericsson M; Wolffe EJ; Shida H; Hiller G; Griffiths G (1 January 1994). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: the ... She completed her habilitation in the cell biology of DNA viruses and the maturation of Vaccinia. She was eventually promoted ...
... virus is a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus that was developed in Munich, Germany between ... Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated (weakened) strain of the vaccinia virus. It is being used as a vaccine (called ... It was later found that through the passaging, modified vaccinia virus Ankara had lost about 10% of the ancestral vaccinia ... "Generation and Production of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) as a Vaccine Vector". Recombinant Virus Vaccines. Methods in ...
Chang HW, Watson JC, Jacobs BL (June 1992). "The E3L gene of vaccinia virus encodes an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... Alcamí A, Symons JA, Smith GL (December 2000). "The vaccinia virus soluble alpha/beta interferon (IFN) receptor binds to the ... p. 1. ISBN 978-3-7091-3432-0. Nagano Y, Kojima Y (October 1954). "[Immunizing property of vaccinia virus inactivated by ...
In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue. In 1996, ... Steinhardt, Edna; Israeli, C.; Lambert, R. A. (1913). "Studies on the Cultivation of the Virus of Vaccinia". The Journal of ...
"Protein interactions among the vaccinia virus late transcription factors". Virology. 329 (2): 328-36. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ...
In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue. In 1996, ... fungal or bacterial origin as hosts for the growth and replication of the virus. Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert RA (1913). "Studies on the Cultivation of the Virus of Vaccinia". The Journal of Infectious ... Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The injectable polio ...
... and vaccinia viruses". The American Journal of Pathology. 30 (6): 1057-1073. PMC 1942564. PMID 13207312. Kennedy, Donald R.; ... Syverton did research on polio, cancer, rheumatic fever, adenoviruses, filterable viruses, interepidemic survival of viruses, ... Fischer, R. G.; Syverton, J. T. (1951). "The cockroach as an experimental vector of Coxsackie virus". The American Journal of ... Ross, John D.; Syverton, Jerome T. (1957). "Use of Tissue Cultures in Virus Research". Annual Review of Microbiology. 11: 459- ...
Yen, Judy; Golan, Ron; Rubins, Kathleen (April 8, 2009). "Vaccinia Virus Infection & Temporal Analysis of Virus Gene Expression ... Dower, Ken; Rubins, Kathleen H.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Connor, John H. (July 2011). "Development of Vaccinia Reporter Viruses for ... The researchers utilize fluorescent protein-based reporters to monitor and analyze the function of the Vaccinia virus. This ... Rubins was involved with was the life-cycle analysis of a family of viruses including the smallpox virus. ...
Novel oncolytic viruses in SillaJen pipeline are engineered through the Selective Oncolytic Vaccinia Engineering (SOLVE) ... JX-929 is derived from Western Reserve strain vaccinia virus. JX-929's tumor selectivity has been optimized through deletion of ... The virus also has the LacZ gene insertion under control of the p7.5 promoter. The virus kills the infected/cancer cells by ... The experimental therapy, Pexa-Vec, is an attenuated vaccinia virus engineered to stimulate anti-tumor immunity and directly ...
In 1939, Allan Watt Downie showed that the vaccinia virus was serologically distinct from the "spontaneous" cowpox virus. This ... Vaccines that only contain attenuated vaccinia viruses (an attenuated virus is one in which the pathogenicity has been ... Volz, A.; Sutter, G. (2017). "Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara". Advances in Virus Research. 97: 187-243. doi:10.1016/bs.aivir. ... so he named the virus vaccinia, after the Latin word for cow. Jenner believed that both cowpox and smallpox were viruses that ...
It is derived from the Modified vaccinia Ankara virus. MVA-BN is characterized by the inability to replicate in human cells, ... Vaccinia-fowlpox-TRICOM is a sequential prime-boost therapy based on vaccinia and fowlpox in combination with three co- ... "Bavarian Nordic Announces Topline Results from Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine". Bavarian Nordic. ... Kennedy JS, Greenberg RN (9 January 2014). "IMVAMUNE: modified vaccinia Ankara strain as an attenuated smallpox vaccine". ...
Hruby, DE (1990). "Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines". Clin Microbiol Rev. 3 (2): 153- ... Examples of plant virus used are the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus X, and cowpea mosaic virus. The protein may be ... In general, it is safer to use than mammalian virus as it has a limited host range and does not infect vertebrates without ... Plant viruses may be used as vectors since the Agrobacterium method does not work for all plants. ...
Attenuated vaccine strains of rabies virus such as SAG2 and SAD B19 Recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rabies glycoprotein: ... Rupprecht, Charles E. (23 August 2001). "Human Infection Due to Recombinant Vaccinia-Rabies Glycoprotein Virus". New England ... This is a strain of the vaccinia virus (originally a smallpox vaccine) that has been engineed to encode the gene for the rabies ... it can only prevent the development of rabies in a person if given before the virus reaches the brain. Because the rabies virus ...
... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ... insertion of the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus into the DNA of infectious vaccinia virus". Proceedings of the ... biological activity of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin". Proceedings of the National ... altering the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses, namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza ...
On the basis of extensive sequence similarity, it has been proposed that Vaccinia virus protein O2L is, it seems, a ... Johnson GP, Goebel SJ, Perkus ME, Davis SW, Winslow JP, Paoletti E (March 1991). "Vaccinia virus encodes a protein with ... Glutaredoxin has been sequenced in a variety of viruses. ...
... is a rare cutaneous condition caused by the vaccinia virus, characterized by painless but progressive ... 2019). "Progressive Vaccinia (Vaccinia Necrosum, Vaccinia Gangrenosum)". Andrews' Diseases of the Skin E-Book: Clinical ... a virus closely related to the vaccinia virus and belongs to the same genus Orthopoxvirus. Immunosuppressed individuals tend to ... Although some vaccinia viruses commonly disseminate through the bloodstream, the NYCBOH strain reportedly causes only limited ...
"Phase 1 Safety and Immunogenicity Testing of DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-like ... Zika Virus Zika virus infection has been linked to an increase in microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barre syndrome (a ... GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or recombinant viruses to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) in the person ... The MVA expresses the HIV virus-like-particles, but does not express GM-CSF. The regimen builds on the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine ...
The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... A newer smallpox and monkeypox vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara has been approved, but with limited availability. ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ... People can spread the virus from the onset of symptoms until all the lesions have scabbed and fallen off; with some evidence of ...
The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... Smallpox vaccines containing vaccinia such as Imvanex (Jynneos) and ACAM2000 can provide around 85% effectiveness against ... The BBC also made it clear that the genetic sequences of the virus, as far as is known, date back to a West African strain. On ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ...
... an immunoprofiling technology Mitral valve area Modified vaccinia Ankara, a virus modified to carry vaccines Microsoft Virtual ...
The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... A newer smallpox and monkeypox vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara has been approved, but with limited availability. ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ... People can spread the virus from the onset of symptoms until all the lesions have scabbed and fallen off; with some evidence of ...
The first virus to be used as a vaccine vector was the vaccinia virus in 1984 as a way to protect chimpanzees against hepatitis ... Viruses used for gene therapy to date include retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. However ... Virus mediated gene delivery utilizes the ability of a virus to inject its DNA inside a host cell and takes advantage of the ... Moss B, Smith GL, Gerin JL, Purcell RH (September 1984). "Live recombinant vaccinia virus protects chimpanzees against ...
... where he researched vaccinia, smallpox and other viruses. He was appointed Chair of Bacteriology at the University of Aberdeen ...
Katsafanas GC, Moss B (December 2004). "Vaccinia virus intermediate stage transcription is complemented by Ras-GTPase- ...
Tobacco Mosaic Virus Ustilago maydis 521 (corn smut) Vaccinia Virus Vitis vinifera (common grape vine) Xenopus laevis (African ... Hepatitis C Virus Homo sapiens (human) Human Herpesvirus (1,2,3,4,5,6A,6B,7,8) Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) Human ... Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) Solanum tuberosum (potato) Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) Streptococcus ... Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) Human Papillomavirus (HPV, 10, 16, 32, 5, 6B, 7, 9) Leishmania major Macaca mulatta (rhesus ...
... s have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... Szajner P, Weisberg AS, Wolffe EJ, Moss B (July 2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral ... May 1993). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: role of the intermediate compartment between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ...
In humans, the viruses HIV-1, influenza, and vaccinia encode such RNAi suppressing proteins. Inhibition of dicer is beneficial ... Infection by RNA viruses can trigger the RNAi cascade. It is likely dicer is involved in viral immunity as viruses that infect ... Similarly to humans, insect viruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid the RNAi pathway. As an example, Drosophila C virus ... While mosquitoes, more specifically the Aedes aegypti species, serve as the vectors for these viruses, they are not the ...
... terminus of mRNA by soluble guanylyl and methyl transferases from vaccinia virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72 (7): 2525-9 ... methyltransferase from vaccinia virions". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (24): 9330-5. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)40647-9. PMID 1194287. ... methyltransferase from vaccinia virions". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (24): 9322-9. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)40646-7. PMID 1194286. ...
2013). "Vaccinia virus-mediated melanin production allows MR and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging and laser-induced ... The dogs are treated with V-VET1, a non-genetically modified vaccinia virus isolate (laboratory name LIVP6.1.1) with an ... "Phase I clinical trial of a genetically modified and oncolytic vaccinia virus GL-ONC1 with green fluorescent protein imaging ... 2011). "Enhanced tumor therapy using vaccinia virus strain GLV-1h68 in combination with a β-galactosidase-activatable prodrug ...
"Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein B from Herpes Simplex Virus 1" "A protein-based smallpox vaccine protects mice from vaccinia ... "A protein-based smallpox vaccine protects mice from vaccinia and ectromelia virus challenges when given as a prime and single ... "The Myristate Moiety and Amino Terminus of Vaccinia Virus L1 Constitute a Bipartite Functional Region Needed for Entry" " ... "The myristate moiety and amino terminus of vaccinia virus l1 constitute a bipartite functional region needed for entry". ...
Post-vaccination follicular eruption Progressive vaccinia (vaccinia gangrenosum, vaccinia necrosum) Pseudocowpox Recurrent ... Viscerotropic leishmaniasis Wheat warehouse itch Virus-related cutaneous conditions are caused by two main groups of viruses- ... Alphavirus infection Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood (unilateral laterothoracic exanthem) B virus infection ... viruses, or parasites. Bacterium-related cutaneous conditions often have distinct morphologic characteristics that may be an ...
"Hepatocellular Carcinoma Study Comparing Vaccinia Virus Based Immunotherapy Plus Sorafenib vs Sorafenib Alone - Full Text View ... "First-in-man Study of Western Reserve Strain Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus: Safety, Systemic Spread, and Antitumor Activity". ... This platform may be used to optimize virus targeting to specific cancer types, to select transgenes to include into the viral ... Pexa-Vec (JX-594) was developed using the SOLVE (Selective Oncolytic Vaccinia Engineering) platform. ...
... has significant amino-acid sequence similarity to a Tyr/Ser-protein phosphatase encoded by the late gene H1 of vaccinia virus. ...
The vaccine is based on the Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus used during the 1970s to help eradicate the smallpox virus. ... In order to create the vaccine, researchers took the prior Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and added four genes from the HIV ... February 6, 2020). "Deletion of Vaccinia Virus A40R Gene Improves the Immunogenicity of the HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate MVA-B". ... Lacking Vaccinia Virus Gene C6L Enhances Memory HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses". PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 6 (8): ...
A future implication of these findings includes reducing Z-DNA binding of E3L in vaccines containing the vaccinia virus so ... Kwon, J.-A.; Rich, A. (2005-08-26). "Biological function of the vaccinia virus Z-DNA-binding protein E3L: Gene transactivation ... it has also been found to play a role in the level of severity of virulence in mice caused by vaccinia virus, a type of ... "A role for Z-DNA binding in vaccinia virus pathogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (12): 6974-6979 ...
The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... The United States spent $119 million to purchase doses of the Modified vaccinia Ankara-based two-shot Jynneos vaccine from ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ... People can spread the virus from the onset of symptoms until all the lesions have scabbed and fallen off; with some evidence of ...
"Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the intracellular distribution of viral protein p65". J. Virol. 68 (2): 1103 ... the hepatitis B and C viruses, and influenza A and B viruses. Viruses use the host's cells to replicate and this makes it ... other viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus and adenoviruses can cause them too. Rhinoviruses also ... DNA viruses are therefore less error prone, are generally less diverse, and are more slowly evolving than RNA viruses. In both ...
The virus may be isolated or the infection diagnosed serologically by methods appropriate to vaccinia. Rabbitpox virus is ... Adams MM, Rice AD, Moyer RW (October 2007). "Rabbitpox virus and vaccinia virus infection of rabbits as a model for human ... vaccinia virus) vaccine have immunity against rabbitpox. Rabbitpox virus does not infect humans. "Medical Dictionary - ' ... and closely related to vaccinia virus. Rabbitpox was first isolated at the Rockefeller Institute in New York in 1933, following ...
"Vaccinia virus-based multivalent H5N1 avian influenza vaccines adjuvanted with IL-15 confer sterile cross-clade protection in ... "Therapy of patients with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus I-induced adult T-cell leukemia with anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody ... studied adult T-cell leukemia that develops in individuals infected with the retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV ...
These viruses appeared identical to smallpox. A number of further discoveries of the smallpox-like virus were later isolated ... vaccinia and monkeypox. Rijk Gispen was born in 1910 to Willem Hendrik Gispen, a minister, and Anna Maria Catharina van der ... Fifteen years later, he isolated monkeypox virus from healthy monkey kidneys in the Netherlands, "silent monkeypox virus ... "Silent monkeypox virus infections" were observed on three separate occasions during the 1964 and 1965 outbreaks in cynomolgus ...
Serological characterization can easily distinguish human ERPV from ectromelia virus and vaccinia virus by cross-neutralization ... The genome of this virus has been sequenced and it appears that this virus is related to a strain of mousepox. ... Subsequently, a virus - erythromelalgia-related poxvirus (ERPV) - was repeatedly isolated from throat swabs of six separate ... Zhang JH, Zheng ZM, Zhu WP, Cai AM (1990). "Investigation and virus isolation of reappeared epidemic erythromelalgia in Wuhan ...
... Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the live viral component of smallpox ... Alternative Text: The figure above shows the left eye and right ear of a man with laboratory acquired vaccinia virus infection ... Household transmission of vaccinia virus from contact with a military smallpox vaccinee---Illinois and Indiana, 2007. MMWR 2007 ... Secondary and tertiary transfer of vaccinia virus among U.S. military personnel---United States and worldwide, 2002--2004. MMWR ...
Case report of laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection in India - Cas dinfection en laboratoire par le virus de la ... Smallpox, vaccinia and human monkeypox viruses  Nakano, James H.; Bingham, Patricia G.; World Health Organization (‎World ... A comparison of the properties of vaccinia virus strains used for production in various countries / by S.S. Marennikova and N.N ... The combined use of the viruses of yellow fever and vaccinia by the scratch method for immunization against yellow fever and ...
Case report of laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection in India - Cas dinfection en laboratoire par le virus de la ... Smallpox, vaccinia and human monkeypox viruses  Nakano, James H.; Bingham, Patricia G.; World Health Organization (‎World ... A comparison of the properties of vaccinia virus strains used for production in various countries / by S.S. Marennikova and N.N ... The combined use of the viruses of yellow fever and vaccinia by the scratch method for immunization against yellow fever and ...
Tertiary Vaccinia Case The patient with the secondary vaccinia virus infection reported having experienced the perianal rash at ... Unintended transmission of vaccinia virus can occur through contact with civilian and military personnel vaccinated under the U ... Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact with a military smallpox vaccinee-Washington, 2010. MMWR 2010;59:773-5. ... Vaccinia virus infections in martial arts gym, Maryland, USA, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17:730-3. ...
Timeline for Species Vaccinia virus [TaxId:10245] from d.163.1.2 Eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I, catalytic core: *Species ... PDB entry in Species: Vaccinia virus [TaxId: 10245]:. *Domain(s) for 1a41: *. Domain d1a41a_: 1a41 A: [42174]. complexed with ... Lineage for Species: Vaccinia virus [TaxId: 10245]. *Root: SCOPe 2.03 *. Class d: Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) [53931] (376 ... Species Vaccinia virus [TaxId:10245] from d.163.1.2 Eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I, catalytic core appears in SCOPe 2.02. * ...
Recombinant Vaccinia virus Protein A33 (A33R), partial from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-EP300755VAA1. USA, UK & Europe ... Cusabio Vaccinia virus Recombinants Recombinant Vaccinia virus Protein A33 (A33R), partial , CSB-EP300755VAA1. (No reviews yet ... Recombinant Vaccinia virus Cell surface-binding protein (D8L) , CSB-EP322653VAA Cusabio Vaccinia virus Recombinants ... Cusabio Vaccinia virus Recombinants. Recombinant Vaccinia virus Protein A33 (A33R), partial , CSB-EP300755VAA1. ...
Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member Gregory E. Young. , Christina M. Hidalgo ... Cases of laboratory-confirmed secondary and tertiary transmission of vaccinia virus from US military service member, New York, ... Medical management of smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine adverse reactions: vaccinia immune globulin and cidofovir [cited 2010 Nov 29 ... Casey C, Vellozzi C, Mootrey GT, Chapman LE, McCauley M, Roper MH, Surveillance guidelines for smallpox vaccine (vaccinia) ...
... on the course of fatal disseminated vaccinia virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. Treatment with ARA-A begun as late as 7 ... days after virus infection was significantly effective in preventing death; no antiviral effect of the other two drugs was ... Treatment of Fatal Disseminated Vaccinia Virus Infection in Immunosuppressed Mice * M. Worthington1, M. Conliffe2 ... Worthington M. 1973; Mechanism of recovery from systemic infection with vaccinia virus. III. Effects of antithymocyte serum. ...
To facilitate viral genome replication, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been reported to alter cell cycle regulation and trigger the ... Modulation of the host cell cycle is a common strategy used by viruses to create a proreplicative environment. ... Martin, C.K.; Samolej, J.; Olson, A.T.; Bertoli, C.;Wiebe, M.S.; de Bruin, R.A.M.; Mercer, J. Vaccinia Virus Arrests and Shifts ... To facilitate viral genome replication, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been reported to alter cell cycle regulation and trigger the ...
We constructed a recombinant oncolytic vaccinia viruse (VG9-IL-24) based on vaccinia virus Guang9 (VG9) harboring the IL-24 ... The vaccinia virus is a promising strategy for cancer therapy, owing to its direct viral lytic effects, as well as a vehicle to ... Vaccinia virus VG9-mediated gene therapy might be an innovative treatment for cancer with tumor-specific lysis and apoptosis- ... Recombinant vaccinia viruses. The vaccinia VG9 strain was obtained from National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC, ...
Gao, C., Croll, T., & Graham, S. (2018). Crystallographic diffraction data for the structure of vaccinia virus A55 in complex ... Crystallographic diffraction data for the structure of vaccinia virus A55 in complex with human cullin 3. ...
Publication : Virus research Protein A33 responsible for antibody-resistant spread of Vaccinia virus is homologous to C-type ... Published in Virus research - 17 Mar 2010. Krupovic M, Cvirkaite-Krupovic V, Bamford DH. Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 20302896 ... Virus Res. 2010 Jul;151(1):97-101. Protein A33 is a type II membrane protein present in the outer envelope of extracellular as ... well as cell-associated Vaccinia virus particles. A33 has been implicated in mediating cell-to-cell virus spread in an antibody ...
Vaccinia virus, Viral Proteins, Virulence Factors, Virus Replication ... Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7. ... Here the vaccinia virus (VACV) protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen ... Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in ...
The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ... The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ... The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ... The immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally or parenterally administered replication-deficient vaccinia-parainfluenza virus ...
Previously, intracellular-enveloped virus (IEV) particles were propo ... Vaccinia virus (VV) egress has been studied using confocal, video, and electron microscopy. ... The vaccinia virus 42-kDa envelope protein is required for the envelopment and egress of extracellular virus and for virus ... The vaccinia virus 42-kDa envelope protein is required for the envelopment and egress of extracellular virus and for virus ...
Title : Lack of Transmission of Vaccinia Virus Personal Author(s) : Stark, James H.;Frey, Sharon E.;Blum, Paul S.;Monath, ... Title : Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member Personal Author(s) : Young, ... Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member Cite ... During February and March 2010, the New York State Department of Health investigated secondary and tertiary vaccinia contact ...
Antibodies cell Efficacy genetic Genome Genomic Global Health immunity Monkeypox protein Smallpox vaccine Vaccinia Virus virus ... Impression of vaccinia virus-based vaccines on the 2022 monkeypox virus outbreak. ... Impression of vaccinia virus-based vaccines on the 2022 monkeypox virus outbreak. ... Vaccinia-Virus-Based mostly Vaccines Are Anticipated to Elicit Extremely Cross-Reactive Immunity to the 2022 Monkeypox Virus. ...
Clinical experience with plasmid DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A ... Clinical experience with plasmid DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A ...
A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes (2007) ... A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes PLoS Pathogens (2007) - Comment pubmed: 17319741 doi: 10.1371/ ...
The potential use of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain as a live recombinant vector to deliver antigens and ...
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 ... Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: ... "Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: ... Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation. ...
Vaccinia viruses as vectors for vaccine antigens : proceedings of the Workshop on Vaccinia Viruses as Vectors for Vaccine ... Jenners smallpox vaccine : the riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin / Derrick Baxby. by Baxby, Derrick , Jenner, Edward. ... by Workshop on Vaccinia Viruses as Vectors for Vaccine Antigens (1984: Chevy Chase, Md.) , Quinnan, Gerald V. ...
The vaccinia virus vaccines (smallpox vaccine) are generally safe and effective, but some people do experience side effects and ... Available Treatments for Adverse Reactions to Vaccinia Virus Vaccine (Smallpox Vaccine). Drug. FDA approved for adverse ... If it is determined that treatment of vaccinia virus vaccine adverse reactions requires VIGIV or antivirals, the CDC Smallpox ... Aberrant infections induced by vaccinia virus that include its accidental implantation in eyes (except in cases of isolated ...
This feature of cancer cells has been used to advantage to develop oncolytic DNA viruses. DNA viruses employ many different ... because the low concentration of dNTPs found in non-cycling cells can inhibit virus replication. By disrupting the virus- ... because the low concentration of dNTPs found in non-cycling cells can inhibit virus replication. By disrupting the virus- ... We limit our review to the large DNA viruses that naturally encode homologs of the cellular enzymes that catalyze dNTP ...
Detection and isolation of vaccinia virus in milk samples",. abstract = "The vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes exanthemous ... Bovine vaccinia outbreaks: Detection and isolation of vaccinia virus in milk samples. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2009 Nov ... Bovine vaccinia outbreaks : Detection and isolation of vaccinia virus in milk samples. In: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. ... Bovine vaccinia outbreaks : Detection and isolation of vaccinia virus in milk samples. / Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Oliveira, Tércia ...
Vaccinia virus is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus. It undergoes a complex replication process where a key step ... Structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L proteinase. Hruby, Dennis; Lowry, Malcolm; Rohrmann, George; Wheeler, ...
HomeStomach CancerExamine of pure killer lymphocytes transcriptionally reprogrammed by vaccinia virus ... Examine: Transcriptional reprogramming of pure killer cells by vaccinia virus reveals each distinct and conserved options with ... vaccinia virus) infections in vivo.. Research have reported that NK lymphocytes play an important function in controlling ... Comparability with NK transcriptional responses to MVA vaccinations in people and response to numerous viruses, together with ...
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the live viral component of smallpox vaccine. (
  • Throughout most of Brazil, vaccinia virus (VACV), fam- were placed in Vero cells for virus isolation as described ily Poxviridae , is the etiologic agent of bovine vaccinia ( 2 ) and then purifi ed in a sucrose gradient ( 11 ). (
  • The isolates were examined by PCR for the A56R gene between these outbreaks of bovine vaccinia and the VACV (hemagglutinin [HA]), and the fragments obtained (950 strains used during the World Health Organization small- bp) were sequenced and analyzed as described ( 2,12,13 ). (
  • Timeline of 2011 vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in cow with ulcerative lesions on the teats and udder. (
  • To facilitate viral genome replication, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been reported to alter cell cycle regulation and trigger the host cell DNA damage response. (
  • Here the vaccinia virus (VACV) protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. (
  • Vaccines primarily based on the vaccinia virus (VACV), which had been initially developed towards smallpox, can be utilized to stop and management monkeypox. (
  • A brand new research printed within the Viruses journal aimed to analyze the cross-reactivity of VACV-based vaccines towards the MPXV viruses chargeable for the 2022 outbreak. (
  • The vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes exanthemous lesions in dairy cattle and humans, has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. (
  • In a current examine posted to the bioRxiv * preprint server, researchers evaluated responses of pure killer (NK) lymphocytes to VACV (vaccinia virus) infections in vivo . (
  • The Vaccinia Virus (VACV) is a linear, double stranded DNA virus that is a member of the Poxviridae family. (
  • VACV normally has no serious health effects in humans, although it can cause disease of the skin when used to inoculate against the smallpox virus. (
  • A hypothetical model developed to visualize the role of domestic animals and wildlife in the natural cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV). (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV), a member of the Poxviridae family of large double-stranded DNA viruses, is being used as a smallpox vaccine as well as an expression vector for immunization against other infectious diseases and cancer. (
  • C7L is a host range gene identified in VACV and is well conserved in mammalian poxviruses except for parapoxviruses and molluscum contagiosum virus. (
  • Neutrophils are antigen -transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. (
  • The first report of the use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV) in the induction of protection against Leishmania infection was made in 1993. (
  • Casey C , Vellozzi C , Mootrey GT , Chapman LE , McCauley M , Roper MH , Surveillance guidelines for smallpox vaccine (vaccinia) adverse reactions. (
  • Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001. (
  • Medical management of smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine adverse reactions: vaccinia immune globulin and cidofovir [cited 2010 Nov 29]. (
  • Immunization of rhesus monkeys with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinants expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) was compared with an intranasallyadministered live, attenuated HPIV3 vaccine candidate, the cp45 derivative of the JS strain of wildtype HPIV3. (
  • The live, attenuated virus vaccine candidate induced almost complete resistance in both the upper and lower tracts. (
  • Presently, one third-generation vaccine, Bavarian Nordic's modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-BN), is really helpful by the US Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) in addition to WHO, primarily for high-risk teams. (
  • Vaccinia viruses as vectors for vaccine antigens : proceedings of the Workshop on Vaccinia Viruses as Vectors for Vaccine Antigens, held November 13-14, 1984, in Chevy Chase, Maryland, U.S.A. / editor, Gerald V. Quinnan. (
  • by Workshop on Vaccinia Viruses as Vectors for Vaccine Antigens (1984: Chevy Chase, Md. (
  • Jenner's smallpox vaccine : the riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin / Derrick Baxby. (
  • The vaccinia virus vaccines ( smallpox vaccine ) are generally safe and effective, but some people do experience side effects and adverse reactions . (
  • In this study, we tried to induce a rapid antitumor effect via chemoimmunotherapy using a vaccinia viral vaccine as an immunotherapeutic agent with anticancer agents including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and conventional anticancer drugs. (
  • As more smallpox vaccine becomes available, the safety of the live vaccine and the transmissibility of vaccina virus from recently vaccinated person to susceptible host are the central issues debated. (
  • Expansion and diversification of virus-specific T cells following immunisation of HIV-1-infected individuals with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara / HIV-1 gag vaccine. (
  • Recently, we focus on highly attenuated vaccinia virus (VV) which was used for smallpox vaccine without serious side effects in human. (
  • Regardless, the recognition of vaccinia virus as an animal and human pathogen in Brazil and other parts of the world is important as we consider the possibility of renewed widespread use of smallpox vaccine, which could be needed in the future as the result of bioterrorism. (
  • Smallpox vaccine is made from a live virus called "vaccinia. (
  • When you receive smallpox vaccine, the smallpox vaccination site contains a very small amount of vaccinia, which can be spread to other people. (
  • Among the most attractive and efficient viral vectors in inducing a cellular immune response, vaccinia virus has been the most used in leishmaniases vaccine trials. (
  • The basic recommendation is unchanged--smallpox vaccine is only indicated for civilians who are laboratory workers occupationally exposed to smallpox or other closely related orthopox viruses. (
  • Smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) is a highly effective immunizing agent against smallpox. (
  • CDC provides smallpox vaccine to protect laboratory workers occupationally exposed to smallpox virus and other closely related orthopox viruses (14). (
  • You'll also see that this document includes a row for a Smallpox vaccine known as "Vaccinia - ACAM2000. (
  • ACAM2000, Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live, is a live vaccinia virus derived from plaque purification cloning from Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta, PA, calf lymph vaccine, New York City Board of Health Strain) and grown in African Green Monkey kidney (Vero) cells and tested to be free of adventitious agents. (
  • The discovery of the vaccinia virus and its subsequent use to develop a vaccine enabled aggressive immunization by the WHO, which led to variola eradication in 1977. (
  • The Orthopoxvirus genus also includes variola virus (which causes smallpox), vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine), and cowpox virus. (
  • The apparent changing epidemiology of the disease, the current reliance on the public health system for testing and access to vaccine, and the need for prompt public health response to identified cases for the purposes of reducing spread all support the need for a standardized case definition and national notifiability for mpox virus infection. (
  • We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a candidate tuberculosis vaccine, modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), in adults infected with HIV-1. (
  • The monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, a charming group that also includes the variola virus which causes smallpox and vaccinia virus used in the smallpox vaccine, and cowpox virus. (
  • Of the patient's 102 possible contacts, seven had underlying risk factors for developing serious vaccinia infection. (
  • On March 7, 2007, the Chicago Department of Public Health and the University of Chicago Pediatric Infectious Disease Service and Infection Control Program notified CDC of a child with presumed eczema vaccinatum (EV), a life-threatening complication of vaccinia virus infection ( 1 ). (
  • This report summarizes the epidemiologic and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health authorities in Illinois and Indiana to determine the source of exposure and to identify and monitor other persons at risk for vaccinia virus infection. (
  • On June 24, 2012, CDC notified Public Health Services, County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, of a suspected case of vaccinia virus infection transmitted by sexual contact. (
  • Atopic dermatitis (i.e., eczema) can be a risk factor for adverse reactions to vaccinia infection ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The patient with the secondary vaccinia virus infection reported having experienced the perianal rash at the time he had sexual intercourse with a different male partner on June 22. (
  • On physical examination, eight raised papular lesions were noted on his penis, and one was observed on the right forearm, all suspicious for vaccinia virus infection. (
  • Studies were performed to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of three antiviral drugs (ARA-A, ARA-C and IDU) on the course of fatal disseminated vaccinia virus infection in immunosuppressed mice. (
  • HerpeS-simpleX-virus infection after renal transplantation. (
  • Mechanism of recovery from systemic infection with vaccinia virus. (
  • Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. (
  • Microarray analysis reveals characteristic changes of host cell gene expression in response to attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara infection of human HeLa cells. (
  • In a natural infection, viruses are most likely to encounter host cells in G0 or G1, since that is most common state of cells in vivo . (
  • Accidental infection with the virus can occur through contact between the vaccination lesion and broken skin. (
  • Eczema vaccinatum occurs in patients with a history of eczema, who are unusually susceptible to infection with both the herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus. (
  • Culture assays of the virus are necessary to differentiate eczema vaccinatum from herpes infection. (
  • Accidental/inadvertent vaccinia infection occurs when the vaccinia virus spreads from one part of the body to another. (
  • After virus infection of mice , NFκB pathway activation led to expression of several cytokines / chemokines that increased the migration of neutrophil populations (Nα and Nß) to the infection site. (
  • We're discussing an article in the July 2007 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases about the history and extent of vaccinia virus infection in Brazil. (
  • In humans, the disease follows infection by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and begins as flu-like symptoms that can rapidly progress to hemorrhaging and death. (
  • There is no evidence that smallpox vaccination has any value in the treatment or prevention of recurrent herpes simplex infection, warts, or any disease other than those caused by orthopox viruses (8). (
  • Poxviruses shed during the course of infection therefore tend to be more resistant to the effects of drying compared to other enveloped viruses (e.g., influenza viruses, rubella virus). (
  • Variola virus could hypothetically be used as a weapon either through airborne dispersion or through intentionally infecting one or more persons and encouraging them to circulate among groups of people, thereby exposing these contacts to variola virus infection. (
  • Because of the ease of production and aerosolization of the virus (only 10-100 virus particles are needed for infection), smallpox is a potential biological weapon. (
  • Alzhanova, D & Früh, K 2010, ' Modulation of the host immune response by cowpox virus ', Microbes and Infection , vol. 12, no. 12-13, pp. 900-909. (
  • Mpox (previously named monkeypox) is a zoonotic disease that is caused by infection with mpox virus. (
  • Serum samples from those afflicted demonstrated evidence of Hantavirus infection and within 10 weeks of the original outbreak, researchers had successfully developed a diagnostic test for the virus. (
  • 2. Any history of monkeypox, cowpox, or vaccinia infection. (
  • Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic infection caused by monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that also contain smallpox, cowpox, Orf, and vaccinia viruses. (
  • This antiviral is FDA-approved for the treatment of variola virus infections (smallpox) and could be used under an expanded access investigational new drug (IND) protocol for the treatment of adverse reactions secondary to continued vaccinia virus replication after smallpox vaccination. (
  • This antiviral is FDA-approved for the treatment of variola virus infections (smallpox). (
  • Monkeypox is a rare zoonotic disease that is caused by the MPXV from the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox 1 , 2 , 3 . (
  • Inger Damon] Vaccinia viruses are a part of the orthopoxvirus genus, the same genus as variola virus, which causes smallpox. (
  • Smallpox vaccination of civilians is now indicated only for laboratory workers directly involved with smallpox (variola virus) or closely related orthopox viruses (e.g., monkeypox, vaccinia, and others). (
  • Of the four orthopoxviruses known to infect humans, variola virus (major and minor) produces the most significant clinical disease (smallpox). (
  • Smallpox is transmitted routinely person-to-person (a form of direct contact) via inhalation of variola virus present in droplets generated from the respiratory tract of infected, symptomatic patients. (
  • There are limited reports of airborne spread of variola virus in healthcare facilities and laboratories3, 4 and reaerosolized transmission from fabric or bedding fomites.5, 6 The mechanisms of virus spread as described in these reports, however, may represent potentially important exceptions to the usual mode of transmission. (
  • A properly engineered heating, ventilation, and air-condition (HVAC) system can minimize the possibility of airborne spread of variola virus in facilities providing care for smallpox patients. (
  • The variola virus no longer exists outside of a few laboratories around the world. (
  • Currently, the populace in the United States is considered immuno-naive to the variola virus. (
  • Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA). (
  • Similar immune responses have also been reported in clinical studies that evaluated immunogenicity of mixed schedules with the adenovirus and Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara ( MVA ) Ebola vaccines Footnote 2 , Footnote 3 . (
  • The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) recombinant expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol proteins (MVA-gag-pol) was explored in rhesus monkeys expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele, MamuA*01. (
  • We generated recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying deletion mutants of the C7L gene using NYVAC as a parental strain and found that the N-terminus is essential for host range function of C7L, which is consistent with a previous report that showed that homology among C7L homologs are greater near the N-terminus than the C-terminus. (
  • The case had been reported to CDC by an infectious disease specialist who had requested vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) (Cangene Corporation, Berwyn, Pennsylvania) for a patient with lesions suspicious for vaccinia. (
  • Vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) is recommended as the first line of therapy for treatment of adverse reactions resulting from continued vaccinia virus replication after vaccination using ACAM2000® or APSV . (
  • The vectors were introduced into human thymidine kinase-negative (TK^-) 143B cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus (WR strain). (
  • an attenuated vaccinia virus) vectors. (
  • We now assess this strategy in humans, using chimpanzee adenovirus 3 and modified vaccinia Ankara vectors encoding human Ii fused to the nonstructural (NS) antigens of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a heterologous prime/boost regimen. (
  • Research: Vaccinia-Virus-Based mostly Vaccines Are Anticipated to Elicit Extremely Cross-Reactive Immunity to the 2022 Monkeypox Virus. (
  • All currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines in Canada use the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as the antigen. (
  • Inger Damon] Well, during the smallpox eradication campaign, it was not a pressing concern that the vaccinia virus used in human vaccines could establish itself in nature. (
  • One explanation is that the vaccinia viruses used as human smallpox vaccines have managed to establish themselves in the domestic and wild animal populations in regions of Brazil, are now infecting humans, and are more severely affecting humans that didn't receive smallpox vaccines before the program ended. (
  • More importantly, they identified which areas are indispensable for the virus life cycle, and have the potential to be simultaneously targeted by new super vaccines to prevent the emergence of escape mutations. (
  • Transcription of CETP cDNA in CV-1 cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus was monitored by Northern blot analysis using the CETP cDNA as a probe. (
  • During hospitalization from May 5 to May 15, she received vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), oral thiosemicarbazone, and intravenous acyclovir. (
  • In contrast, intravenous injection of cisplatin (CDDP) or cyclophosphamide (CTX) after vaccinia virus vaccination led to complete regression of the established tumors. (
  • Many herpes viruses and poxviruses encode enzymes that can directly catalyze dNTP biogenesis. (
  • Poxviruses are large, brick-shaped, enveloped viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. (
  • Poxviruses are the largest animal viruses, larger than some bacteria. (
  • Poxviruses are the only viruses that can replicate in cell cytoplasm without the need of a nucleus. (
  • The majority of persons with such complications are likely to be recently vaccinated military personnel or their contacts infected through person-to-person spread of vaccinia virus (15-17). (
  • With the replication of vaccinia virus, the copies of genes harbored by virus are also increased, leading to higher expression levels in tumor tissues. (
  • DNA viruses employ many different mechanisms to increase dNTP levels in infected cells, because the low concentration of dNTPs found in non-cycling cells can inhibit virus replication. (
  • One pathway exploited in the development of oncolytic DNA viruses is that controlling the level of nucleotides available for DNA replication. (
  • The low level of dNTPs present at that time is a significant barrier to virus replication. (
  • Other small viruses, including human parvovirus ( 4 , 5 ) and human papilloma viruses ( 6 ), encode proteins that can cause already dividing cells to arrest at stages of the cell cycle more favorable for virus replication (i.e. (
  • Numerous research groups including our own have engineered viral genomes to alter expression of viral proteins involved in dNTP synthesis in order to target virus replication specifically to tumors. (
  • VIGIV [PDF - 18 pages] has been used safely and effectively in smallpox vaccinated individuals to treat adverse reactions that are secondary to continued vaccinia virus replication after vaccination. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. (
  • number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • Now, a team of scientists at the University of California have taken a good hard look at influenza virus, and mapped out which genetic areas are absolutely critical for virus replication and survival. (
  • The team tested two viruses, vaccinia, a member of the poxvirus family used to protect people against smallpox and also to deliver antigens from other infectious diseases including TB, and adenovirus 5, a cause of the common cold which is also used as a viral vector to deliver foreign antigens. (
  • Cowpox virus, a zoonotic poxvirus endemic to Eurasia, infects a large number of host species which makes its eradication impossible. (
  • Vaccinia virus is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus. (
  • It is not FDA-approved for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections, but could be used under an expanded access IND protocol for the treatment of complications which might arise from vaccinia virus vaccination. (
  • It's caused by Monkeypox virus which is an orthopoxvirus but the specific animal reservoir is unknown but probably small mammals that occur in some part of Africa. (
  • Especie tipo de ORTHOPOXVIRUS, relacionada con el VIRUS DE LA VIRUELA VACUNA, pero cuyo verdadero origen es desconocido. (
  • The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS , related to COWPOX VIRUS , but whose true origin is unknown. (
  • Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae . (
  • In fact, live vaccinia virus was used in vaccinations for smallpox, which the World Health Organization declared in 1980 had been eradicated. (
  • This case of vaccinia necrosum demonstrates the risk of using smallpox vaccination, a treatment with no proven effectiveness, for herpes disease (1). (
  • Clinicians who need assistance with the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected complications of vaccinia virus vaccination should consult with their state/local public health department . (
  • No antivirals are currently approved by the FDA for treatment of complications which might arise from vaccinia vaccination, but some may be used under expanded access investigational new drug (IND) protocols. (
  • Tecovirimat has been used in a small number of individuals to date for the treatment of severe adverse events resulting from vaccinia virus vaccination, and effectiveness data in humans is limited. (
  • Although a combination of vaccinia-mediated vaccination and chemotherapy led to a strong inhibition of tumor growth, monotherapy alone failed to completely cure tumors. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that combining vaccinia virus-based immunotherapy with anticancer drugs is particularly effective against established tumors by increasing the tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell immune response, which is primed by vaccinia virus-mediated vaccination. (
  • Recent vaccination with vaccinia virus or exposure to a vaccinated person helps to make the diagnosis. (
  • This typical pustular lesion following vaccinia immunization usually appears within 5 days of vaccination and forms a scab by 10-14 days. (
  • The virus can spread by touching yourself after touching the vaccination site or touching items that have touched the vaccination site, such as bandages, clothes, sheets or towels. (
  • The neutralizing MAb product might also be used as a replacement for VIG (vaccinia immune globulin) in the treatment of complications of smallpox vaccination. (
  • Other viruses in this genus, including vaccinia, but also monkeypox and cowpox, continue to cause outbreaks of human illness. (
  • he subcutaneously inoculated patients with the milder cowpox virus. (
  • In this study, 47 milk samples were collected during bovine vaccinia outbreaks and submitted to viral isolation, DNA detection, and nucleotide sequencing of the conserved tk gene. (
  • In our article, we looked at the recognition of vaccinia virus outbreaks in Brazil and their public health importance. (
  • In 2011, a bovine vaccinia outbreak occurred in Serro County, Minas Gerais state, in southeastern Brazil, one of the largest milk-producing regions in Brazil. (
  • Immunization with a modified vaccinia virus expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol primes for an anamnestic Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and is associated with reduction of viremia after SIV challenge. (
  • Preexposure, active prophylaxis or immunization is recommended for individuals who are exposed to rabies virus or who handle specimens considered high risk for rabies and persons who visit countries where rabies is a significant problem. (
  • Protein A33 is a type II membrane protein present in the outer envelope of extracellular as well as cell-associated Vaccinia virus particles. (
  • Previously, intracellular-enveloped virus (IEV) particles were proposed to induce the polymerization of actin tails, which propel IEV particles to the cell surface. (
  • However, data presented support an alternative model in which microtubules transport virions to the cell surface and actin tails form beneath cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) particles at the cell surface. (
  • Live vaccinia particles can be isolated easily from any of the lesions. (
  • Infections resulting from secondary transmission of vaccinia virus from the smallpox vaccinee to the patient and subsequent tertiary transmission of the virus from the patient to the unvaccinated partner were confirmed by the County of San Diego Public Health Laboratory. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections were ruled out during his hospitalization. (
  • V. Activity against intracerebral vaccinia virus infections in mice. (
  • Activity against intracerebral herpes simplex virus infections in mice. (
  • The severe course of her herpes and vaccinia infections suggest underlying immunosuppression or deficiency, but no specific immunologic defect has been identified. (
  • By using vaccinia viruses to vaccinate people against smallpox before it was eradicated, we ran the risk of creating new infections in animal populations. (
  • This can help us to come up with innovative new ways to protect against serious pathogens like influenza virus, which can cause debilitating and even fatal infections. (
  • Monkeypox virus infections in children and adolescents in the United States are rare, and young patients with known infections have all recovered, according to a study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • During March 8--28, the child was treated with a combination of immunotherapy and antivirals targeting vaccinia virus. (
  • Interestingly, anticancer drugs appear to augment the antitumor effect of the vaccinia virus-mediated immunotherapy. (
  • Vaccinia necrosum is due to the accidental or inadvertent administration of vaccinia virus to immunocompromised individuals. (
  • Accidental spread of vaccinia from the vaccinated person to an unvaccinated person (contact) is known as contact transmission. (
  • The initial site of entry results in a typical-appearing vaccinia lesion (see image below) that progresses because of the lack of local or systemic immunity. (
  • In the study, we are developing novel technologies for 1) stronger oncolytic potency, 2) optimized induction of antitumor immunity, 3) predictive biomarkers of therapeutic responses and 4) simple, rapid, and efficient virus production (Fig. 2). (
  • This live virus helps the body develop immunity to smallpox disease. (
  • To identify the etiologic agent responsible for the out- the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circu- break, on day 27 we collected swab samples from lesions late in Brazil. (
  • In 1980, the Soviet Union commenced large-scale production of the smallpox virus and genetic recombination of strains that are more virulent. (
  • A history of eczema, CNS disease, or immunosuppression places the patient at high risk for developing a serious complication if exposed to the virus. (
  • Vaccinia necrosum (gangrenosa), also known as progressive vaccinia, is the most severe complication of vaccinia inoculation. (
  • Tecovirimat (also referred to as ST-246 or its brand name Tpoxx) has demonstrated in vitro activity against various orthopoxviruses (e.g., variola, vaccinia, and monkeypox viruses) and shown effectiveness in animal challenge studies using related orthopoxviruses. (
  • Brincidofovir (TEMBEXA) has demonstrated in vitro activity against various orthopoxviruses (e.g., variola, vaccinia, and monkeypox viruses) and shown effectiveness in animal challenge studies using related orthopoxviruses. (
  • On day 26, patient C returned to work although lesions vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. (
  • Lesions begin to appear at distant sites as the virus spreads throughout the body. (
  • The virus can be transmitted from human to human by close contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated materials 1 , 3 , but the current epidemiological context poses some degree of uncertainty about the viral transmission dynamics and outbreak magnitude. (
  • About 20 viruses have been identified within the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, but only 11 have been shown to cause human disease. (
  • We constructed a recombinant oncolytic vaccinia viruse (VG9-IL-24) based on vaccinia virus Guang9 (VG9) harboring the IL-24 gene. (
  • Vaccinia virus VG9-mediated gene therapy might be an innovative treatment for cancer with tumor-specific lysis and apoptosis-inducing effects. (
  • By disrupting the virus-encoded gene(s) that normally promote dNTP biosynthesis, one can assemble oncolytic versions of these agents that replicate selectively in cancer cells. (
  • The few known examples from prokaryotes and viruses may be the result of horizontal gene transfers. (
  • Viruses 2022, 14, 431. (
  • The rapid integration of the first sequence into the global MPXV genetic diversity (Fig. 1 ) confirmed that the 2022 outbreak virus belongs to the MPXV clade 3 (within the formerly designated 'West African' clade, which also includes clade 2) 9 . (
  • Virus Genes. (
  • Furthermore, expression of two genes IL-7 and IL-12 augmented anti-tumor activity of oncolytic vaccinia virus via inducing potent and durable anti-tumor immune responses following viral oncolysis. (
  • Both the rate and route of vaccinia transmission remain unknown. (
  • Our findings also indicate that genome sequencing may provide resolution to track the spread and transmission of this presumably slow-evolving double-stranded DNA virus. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Une analyse documentaire des informations publiques disponibles a été entreprise afin de passer en revue les connaissances et les lacunes actuelles sur le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS-CoV), notamment sur son origine, la transmission, les mesures de lutte efficaces et la prise en charge. (
  • In particular, we compare and contrast the ways that the different types of oncolytic virus candidates can directly modulate these processes. (
  • Oncolytic virus (OV) are promising therapeutic agents for cancer and are currently under clinical investigation. (
  • We have genetically engineered different kinds of viruses and used as an oncolytic virus for cancer virotherapy. (
  • This novel therapy involves using an oncolytic virus, a type of virus that can infect and kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue. (
  • This clinical trial conducted by City of Hope , a cancer research and treatment institute in the United States, in collaboration with Imugene , a biotech company in Australia, will test the novel oncolytic virus in cancer patients with advanced solid tumors. (
  • When, on May 5, she was hospitalized for the first time for treatment of the vaccinia necrosum, the ulcer measured 5x5 cm and yielded vaccinia virus on culture. (
  • however, there are limited data on the effectiveness in the treatment of vaccinia-related complications in humans. (
  • Although the natural reservoir of MPXV remains unknown, animals such as rodents and non-human primates may harbor the virus, leading to occasional spill-over events to humans 1 , 2 , 3 . (
  • So now you're studying this in Brazil to see if there are indeed new vaccinia viruses that are infecting humans? (
  • Marine foodwebs as vector and possibly source of viruses and bacteria patogenic to humans shall be investigated in a compartive north-south study. (
  • VIGIV is not indicated for the treatment of isolated vaccinia keratitis or postvaccinial encephalitis. (
  • Nß cells displayed features of antigen-presenting cells and activated virus -specific CD8 T cells . (
  • Subsequently, the adjustments had been in comparison with equivalent NK lymphocyte transcriptomic information from modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-infected people and cytomegalovirus (mCMV)-infected C57BL/6 mice. (
  • The first aim i s selection of the MAb cocktail that provides the greatest neutralizing activity in mice (vaccinia virus challenge) and in non-human primates (monkeypox virus challenge). (
  • On last examination, the site of the leg lesion was still positive for vaccinia virus, and the arm lesion has shown no signs of improvement. (
  • Virus, Brazil 2 became sick. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) can confirm the presence of mpox virus and determine the clade (West African (Clade II) or Congo Basin clade (Clade I)) by mpox virus species-specific RT-PCR. (
  • cDNA for human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), a potent atherogenic plasma protein that redistributes the neutral lipids among lipoproteins, was expressed in recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells (CV-1). (
  • Inger Damon] These viruses are causing both human and animal disease. (
  • ACAM2000 is provided as a lyophilized preparation of purified live virus containing the following non-active excipients: 6-8 mM HEPES (pH 6.5-7.5), 2% human serum albumin USP, 0.5 - 0.7% sodium chloride USP, 5% mannitol USP, and trace amounts of neomycin and polymyxin B. (
  • In addition, the modified vaccinia virus also expresses a protein called human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), which transports iodide ions into the cells. (
  • The Realtime Corona Virus reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Extraction of vaccinia virus and purification of vaccinia elementary body suspension with Mafron 11. (