The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing subcutaneous localized swellings in rabbits, usually on the feet.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Amino acid sequence in which two disulfide bonds (DISULFIDES) and their connecting backbone form a ring that is penetrated by a third disulfide bond. Members include CYCLOTIDES and agouti-related protein.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A viral disease infecting PRIMATES and RODENTS. Its clinical presentation in humans is similar to SMALLPOX including FEVER; HEADACHE; COUGH; and a painful RASH. It is caused by MONKEYPOX VIRUS and is usually transmitted to humans through BITES or via contact with an animal's BLOOD. Interhuman transmission is relatively low (significantly less than smallpox).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (1/3775)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (2/3775)

The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s).  (+info)

mRNA guanylyltransferase and mRNA (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase from vaccinia virions. Donor and acceptor substrate specificites. (3/3775)

Characterization of the donor and acceptor specificities of mRNA guanylyltransferase and mRNA (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase isolated from vaccinia virus cores has enabled us to discriminate between alternative reaction sequences leading to the formation of the 5'-terminal m7G(5')pppN-structure. The mRNA guanylyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a residue of GMP from GTP to acceptors which possess a 5'-terminal diphosphate. A diphosphate-terminated polyribonucleotide is preferred to a mononucleoside diphosphate as an acceptor suggesting that the guanylyltransferase reaction occurs after initiation of RNA synthesis. Although all of the homopolyribonucleotides tested (pp(A)n, pp(G)n, pp(I)n, pp(U)n, and pp(C)n) are acceptors for the mRNA guanylyltransferase indicating lack of strict sequence specificity, those containing purines are preferred. Only GTP and dGTP are donors in the reaction; 7-methylguanosine (m7G) triphosphate specifically is not a donor indicating that guanylylation must precede guanine-7-methylation. The preferred acceptor of the mRNA (guanine-7-)-methyltransferase is the product of the guanylyltransferase reaction, a polyribonucleotide with the 5'-terminal sequence G(5')pppN-. The enzyme can also catalyze, but less efficiently methylation of the following: dinucleoside triphosphates with the structure G(5')pppN, GTP, dGTP, ITP, GDP, GMP, and guanosine. The enzyme will not catalyze the transfer of methyl groups to ATP, XTP, CTP, UTP, or to guanosine-containing compounds with phosphate groups in either positions 2' or 3' or in 3'-5' phosphodiester linkages. The latter specificity provides an explanation for the absence of internal 7-methylguanosine in mRNA. In the presence of PPi, the mRNA guanylyltransferase catalyzes the pyrophosphorolysis of the dinucleoside triphosphate G(5')pppA, but not of m7G(5')pppA. Since PPi is generated in the process of RNA chain elongation, stabilization of the 5'-terminal sequences of mRNA is afforded by guanine-7-methylation.  (+info)

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (4/3775)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

Cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinia viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype. (5/3775)

Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and colleagues, records the first rigorous demonstration of both a nonresponder situation and a probable Ir-gene effect for conventional infectious viruses. Possible implications for the evolution of H-2 polymorphism and mechanisms of Ir gene function are discussed.  (+info)

In irradiation chimeras, K or D regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of antiviral cytotoxic T cells. (6/3775)

The H-2 haplotype of the chimeric host determines the responder phenotype of maturing T cells. Spleen cells of chimeric mice formed when (K(k) nonresponder to D(b) x K(b) responder to D(b) plus vaccinia)F(1) bone marrow cells were used to reconstitute K(b)D(b) (C57BL/6 D(b) responder) irradiated recipients generated high levels of D(b) plus vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. The same stem cells used to reconstitute K(k)D(b) (B10.A (2R) D(b) nonresponder) irradiated recipients resulted in spleen cells that responded well to K plus vaccinia, but responsiveness to D(b) was low. A generally low response to D(k) plus vaccinia, which seems to be regulated by D(k), was confirmed in chimeras. Thus, K(d)D(d) (D(d) plus vaccinia responder) stem cells differentiating in a K(d)D(k) chimeric host failed to generate a measurable response to D(k) plus vaccinia. In contrast, stem cells from K(d)D(k) (D(k) plus vaccinia low responders) differentiating in a K(d)D(d) (K(d) and D(d) high responders to vaccinia) host do generate responsiveness to D(d) plus vaccinia. These results indicate that in chimeras, the Ir phenotype is independent of the donor T cell's Ir genotype, and that thymic selection of a T cell's restriction specificity for a particular H-2 allele of the chimeric host also defines that T cell's/r phenotype.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (7/3775)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Complementation of P37 (F13L gene) knock-out in vaccinia virus by a cell line expressing the gene constitutively. (8/3775)

Vaccinia virus produces two different infectious forms, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). Acquisition of the EEV envelope occurs by wrapping of IMV with vesicles of the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The most abundant protein in the envelope of EEV, P37, is a 37 kDa palmitylated protein encoded by the F13L gene. P37 is located in the inner side of the EEV envelope and accumulates in the TGN during infection. Deletion of gene F13L results in a severe defect in the wrapping process, although normal levels of IMV are produced. A cell line, derived from RK-13 cells, was obtained that stably expressed P37 (RK(P37)), and the properties of the protein were studied in the absence of other viral polypeptides. P37 produced in RK(P37) cells differed from P37 produced in vaccinia-infected cells in terms of hydrophobicity and intracellular distribution. Despite these differences, RK(P37) cells partially complemented the phenotypic defect of vaccinia virus P37- mutants. EEV production and cell-to-cell virus spread by mutant viruses were increased significantly in RK(P37) cells when compared to normal RK-13 cell cultures. Infection of RK(P37) cells with P37- virus substantially altered the hydrophobicity and the intracellular distribution of P37 in those cells. These results indicate the requirement of the infection context for determination of the normal palmitylation and intracellular localization of P37.  (+info)

The vaccinia virus early transcription factor (VETF), in addition to the viral RNA polymerase, is required for efficient transcription of early genes in vitro. VETF is a heterodimeric protein that binds specifically to early gene promoters. In order to localize the VETF DNA binding domain, we have used photoreactive oligonucleotide probes with the sequence of the vaccinia virus growth factor promoter. The probes consisted of double-stranded oligonucleotides incorporating radiolabeled dAMP and 5-bromo-dUMP into sequences of the promoter known to contact VETF. Irradiation of a DNA probe having these nucleotides located upstream of the transcription start site in the presence of VETF resulted in the transfer of label to a polypeptide that comigrated with the small subunit of VETF. The label transfer reaction was shown to occur with the recombinant VETF small subunit in the absence of the large subunit. These results indicate that the small subunit comprises at least part of the VETF DNA binding ...
Using a reverse genetic approach, we have demonstrated that the product of the B5R open reading frame (ORF), which has homology with members of the family of complement control proteins, is a membrane glycoprotein present in the extracellular enveloped (EEV) form of vaccinia virus but absent from the intracellular naked (INV) form. An antibody (C-B5R) raised to a 15-amino-acid peptide from the translated B5R ORF reacted with a 42-kDa protein (gp42) found in vaccinia virus-infected cells and cesium chloride-banded EEV but not INV. Under nonreducing conditions, an 85-kDa component, possibly representing a hetero- or homodimeric form of gp42, was detected by both immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblot analysis. Metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine and [3H]palmitate revealed that the B5R product is glycosylated and acylated. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of the protein was identified by constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus that overexpressed a truncated, secreted form of the B5R ...
GL-ONC1, an oncolytic vaccinia virus, has shown the ability to preferentially locate, colonize and destroy tumor cells in more than 40 different human tumors. A First-in-Man, Phase I clinical study focusing on the safety and tolerability of GL-ONC1 intravenously administered to patients with a variety of advanced solid tumor entities has shown that GL-ONC1 is well-tolerated at therapeutic dose levels, with documented evidence of antitumor activity. Preclinical studies have further shown synergistic effects with the use of chemotherapy (Cisplatin) and viral therapy with GL-ONC, as well as favorable results when cancer cells are irradiated and then treated with GL-ONC1 in animal models. This Phase I study seeks to evaluate the safety, tolerability and early signs of efficacy of GL-ONC1 administered intravenously in combination with standard of care (SOC) radiation therapy (RT) and cisplatin (CDDP)in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer. Patients will be individually assessed ...
Listing of all Polbase results with context for Reference: Characterization of a processive form of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase., Polymerase: Vaccinia Virus Pol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of apathogenic vaccinia virus MVA expressing EHV-1 gC as basis of a combined recombinant MVA/DNA vaccination scheme. AU - Huemer, Hartwig P.. AU - Strobl, Birgit. AU - Nowotny, Norbert. PY - 2000/2/4. Y1 - 2000/2/4. N2 - The nonreplicating chicken adapted vaccinia virus strain MVA was used in a combined vaccine scheme. Using the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) encoded complement-receptor glycoprotein C as antigen, only poor antibody response was induced by exclusive vaccination with DNA plasmids. The administration of recombinant MVA followed by plasmid immunization elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses in hamster comparable to EHV-1 full virus vaccines. Our results indicate that recombinant constructs based on MVA represent a safe and efficient way to overcome problems of poor immunogenicity of certain antigens upon intramuscular DNA vaccination, thus replacing sophisticated adjuvants or application methods, which are not readily applicable in routine ...
61840DNAVaccinia virus 1tttttattat ttgtacgatg tccaggataa catttttacg gataaataaa tatgaaggtg 60gagagcgtga cgttcctgac attgttggga ataggatgcg ttctatcatg ctgtactatt 120ccgtcacgac ccattaatat gaaatttaag aatagtgtgg agactgatgc taatgctaat 180tacaacatag gagacactat agaatatcta tgtctacctg gatacagaaa gcaaaaaatg 240ggacctatat atgctaaatg tacaggtact ggatggacac tctttaatca atgtattaaa 300cggagatgcc catcgcctcg agatatcgat aatggccaac ttgatattgg tggagtagac 360tttggctcta gtataacgta ctcttgtaat agcggatatc atttgatcgg tgaatctaaa 420tcgtattgtg aattaggatc tactggatct atggtatgga atcccgaggc acctatttgt 480gaatctgtta aatgccaatc ccctccatct atatccaacg gaagacataa cggatacgag 540gatttttata ccgatgggag cgttgtaact tatagttgca atagtggata ttcgttgatt 600ggtaactctg gtgtcctgtg ttcaggagga gaatggtccg atccacccac gtgtcagatt 660gttaaatgtc cacatcctac aatatcaaac ggatacttgt ctagcgggtt taaaagatca 720tactcataca acgacaatgt agactttaag tgcaagtacg gatataaact atctggttcc 780tcatcatcta cttgctctcc aggaaataca tggaagccgg aacttccaaa atgtgtacgc 8402244PRTVaccinia virus ...
A murine model based on infection by the respiratory route has been used to study the pathogenesis of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The neurovirulent Western Reserve (WR) strain and the Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain were used as vectors. Recombinant viruses were constructed by insertion of the Epstein-Barr virus membrane glycoprotein 340 gene into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of each vaccinia virus. Intranasal inoculation of DBA/2 mice with 106 pock-forming units (pk.f.u.) of the WR strain was lethal but mice survived similar infection with the WR recombinant virus. Each virus was recovered from lung, blood and brain but, unlike wild-type virus, the recombinant virus was subsequently cleared. No deaths occurred after similar infection with the Wyeth strain or the Wyeth recombinant virus. There was limited growth of the Wyeth strain in the respiratory tract, low levels of virus in the blood and only sporadic recovery in brain extracts. The Wyeth recombinant virus was cleared rapidly with little
Comparative examination of viral and host protein homologs reveals novel mechanisms governing downstream signaling effectors of both cellular and vi- ral origin. The vaccinia virus B1 protein kinase is involved in promoting multiple facets of the virus life cycle and is a homolog of three conserved cellular enzymes called vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs). Recent evidence indicates that B1 and VRK2 mediate a com- mon pathway that is largely uncharacterized but appears independent of previous VRK substrates. Interestingly, separate studies described a novel role for B1 in inhibiting vac- cinia virus protein B12, which otherwise impedes an early event in the viral lifecycle. Herein, we characterize the B1/VRK2 signaling axis to better understand their shared functions. First, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus uniquely requires VRK2 for viral repli- cation in the absence of B1, unlike other DNA viruses. Employing loss-of-function analy- sis, we demonstrate that vaccinia viruss dependence on VRK2 is
The mechanism by which cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits vaccinia virus (VV) replication is still unclear. The present study addresses the question of whether CsA-binding proteins named cyclophilins (Cyps) are involved in the anti-VV activity of CsA. Six CsA analogues were analysed, and their affinity for Cyps in VV-infected BSC-40 cells and their potency as inhibitors of VV replication were evaluated. It was demonstrated that analogues with strong Cyp-binding activity, such as CsC, CsG and [MeAla6]CsA, also exhibit a strong antiviral effect. In contrast, drugs with low ([MeBm2t1]CsA and CsH) or no ([MeLeu11]CsA) affinity for Cyps show poor or no antiviral activity. The data obtained suggest a correlation between the ability of CsA to block VV replication and Cyp binding activity, and indicate the involvement of Cyps in the VV replicative cycle. They also suggest that the anti-VV action of CsA may occur by a pathway distinct from that involved in the immunosuppressive effect of the drug.
A major obstacle in designing effective vaccines is our limited knowledge of the mechanisms involved in eliciting a protective cell-mediated immune response. In recent years, research has focused on the development of recombinant vaccines, in which antigenic peptides derived from a specific pathogen are delivered to the cells via live vectors. For a vaccine to be effective in an out-bred population it must generate as many antigenic determinants as possible. One method that can be used to generate multiple peptide determinants is to express two or more recombinant proteins from a single live vaccine vector. To this end, we developed a recombinant vaccinia virus system that expresses two full-length influenza virus proteins; nucleoprotein (NP) and acidic polymerase (PA). In addition to the NP and PA proteins, our expression system is designed to produce yellow and red fluorescent proteins, which allow us to monitor, in a quantitative manner, recombinant protein expression both in vitro and in ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) morphogenesis commences with the formation of lipid crescents that grow into spherical immature virus (IV) and then infectious intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. Early studies proposed that the lipid crescents were synthesized de novo and matured into IMV particles that contained a single lipid bilayer (S. Dales and E. H. Mosbach, Virology 35:564-583, 1968), but a more recent study reported that the lipid crescent was derived from membranes of the intermediate compartment (IC) and contained a double lipid bilayer (B. Sodiek et al., J. Cell Biol. 121:521-541, 1993). In the present study, we used high-resolution electron microscopy to reinvestigate the structures of the lipid crescents, IV, and IMV particles in order to determine if they contain one or two membranes. Examination of thin sections of Epon-embedded, VV-infected cells by use of a high-angular-tilt series of single sections, serial-section analysis, and high-resolution digital-image analysis detected only a single,
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is associated with the emission of so-called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which trigger the immune response against dead-cell associated antigens. The secretion of the DAMP, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to be autophagy-dependent. Here, we demonstrate that Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, induces both cell death and autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), which in turn confer the (cross-)priming of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells (OT-I cells). Additionally, we show that MVA infection leads to increased extracellular ATP (eATP) as well as intracellular ATP (iATP) levels, with the latter being influenced by the autophagy. Furthermore, we show that the increased eATP supports the proliferation of OT-I cells and inhibition of the P2RX7 receptors results in an abrogation of the proliferation. These data reveal novel mechanisms on how MVA enhances adaptive immunity in ...
Oncolytic vaccinia virus has shown highly safe and innate selective for cancer, enhanced by deleting thymidine kinase (TK) or vaccinia virus growth factor (VGF) by genetic engineering. However, systemic toxicity and low tumor targeting efficiency still remain challenges for its clinical application. In the present study, we hypothesized that intratumoral delivery system for vaccinia virus would improve its tumor selectivity and antitumor efficacy further. Polyacrylamide (PAAm) based injectable hydrogel delivery system is promising strategy for enhanced localization and protection of virus from antiviral environment in tumor tissue due to its appropriate physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. T cells and cytokine levels were also upregulated by viral delivery with PAAm hydrogel. Furthermore, histological examination revealed that necrotic tumor lesion were highly increased by intratumoral virotherapy in mouse RENCA cell carcinoma syngeneic model. In addition, chondrocyte-specific ...
One of the great success stories of modern medicine is the eradication of smallpox virus that was declared in 1980 after a long vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus. A risk remains today of the resurgence of smallpox virus from a frozen source such as the melting of permafrost [1]. Another risk is the spread of an orthopoxvirus from an animal reservoir to the human population. The present work focuses on vaccinia virus, which is a safe model system to study poxviruses. The high-resolution structure that has been obtained of components of the vaccinia virus DNA replication machinery will facilitate the development of drugs and help to understand orthopoxvirus drug resistance.. The crystal structure determination of vaccinia virus polymerase was challenging due to the radiation sensitivity of the long needle-like DNA polymerase crystals obtained from low amounts of protein produced in insect cells. The use of the helical scan capability at the ESRF with a simultaneous rotation and translation ...
An inducible, mutant virus, designated vvtetO:I7L/G1L, was used to study the morphogenic proteolysis step of the vaccinia virus life cycle. The vvtetO:I7L/G1L controlled the expression of two genes, I7L, a cysteine proteinase, and G1L, a putative metalloproteinase. These proteins are involved in the maturation of viral core proteins, p4a, p4b, and p25K, to form infectious virions. DNA extraction and genomic sequencing verified the correct insertion of the tetracycline operators. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was optimized, and a MOI of 0.5 was best, with a 99.25% reduction in viral plaque formation compared to the wild type vaccinia virus. A growth curve over 12 hours was done and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the on state closely followed the growth kinetics of the wild type vaccinia virus and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the off state had significantly lower viral titers throughout the last 6 hours of the cycle. Viral core protein processing in the on and off states, and in rescue experiments ...
Two chimpanzees were vaccinated intramuscularly against malaria using plasmid DNA expressing the pre-erythrocytic antigens thrombospondin related adhesion protein (PfTRAP) and liver stage specific antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum together with GM-CSF protein. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing PfTRAP was injected intramuscularly 6 weeks later to boost the immune response. This sequence of antigen delivery induced a specific and long-lasting T cell and antibody response to PfTRAP as detected by ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Antibody responses were detected after four DNA injections, and were boosted by injection of recombinant MVA expressing PfTRAP. Interferon-gamma secreting antigen-specific T cells were detected in both animals, but only after boosting with recombinant MVA. By screening a panel of PfTRAP-derived peptides, an epitope was identified that was recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in one of the chimpanzees studied. T cells specific for this epitope were
Vaccinia virus infected cell. Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. The nucleus of the host cell is blue. Areas of virus assembly within the cell are pink. Actin protein filaments, which make up part of the cytoskeleton, are green. The cytoskeleton maintains the cells shape, allows some cellular mobility and is involved in intracellular transport. Vaccinia causes cowpox, a disease of cattle and humans, which produces skin lesions. - Stock Image C002/5930
This study evaluated vaccinia-vectored vaccines expressing glycoproteins gB, gC, or gD of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in pigs. The vaccines are based on an attenuated vaccinia virus strain, NYVAC, which has reduced virulence and replicative capacity for certain species, including swine. The recombinant vaccinia vaccines were unable to prevent replication of virulent pseudorabies virus or latency but they were able to decrease the amount of virus shed after challenge and decrease clinical signs. In particular, pigs vaccinated with the recombinants expressing either gB or gD were protected at a level comparable to an inactivated PRV virus that was given for comparison. No lesions or clinical signs were seen following vaccination in these studies and no seronegative pigs in contact with vaccinia-vaccinated pigs ever seroconverted. No significant increase in protection occurred by giving recombinants expressing multiple glycoproteins and there was no virus neutralizing antibody response or protection induced
Activation of T cells requires at least two signals: an antigen-specific signal delivered through the T-cell receptor and a costimulatory signal mediated through molecules designated B7-1 and B7-2. Previous studies have shown that introduction of B7-1 and B7-2 into tumors using retroviral vectors has led to enhanced antitumor effects. A limiting factor for potential clinical applications using this approach is the low efficiency of infection of retroviral vectors and consequent manipulations of infected cells. Vaccinia virus thus represents an alternative vector for B7 gene expression in tumor cells. In this report we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the murine B7-1 and B7-2 genes (designated rV-B7-1 and rV-B7-2). Infection of BSC-1 cells with these constructs results in rapid and efficient cell surface expression of both B7-1 and B7-2 (,97% of cells at 4 h). Infection of murine carcinoma cells with low multiplicity of infection of ...
If we mapped out the family tree of poxviruses, then vaccinia virus (the causative agent of cowpox) and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) would probably be sisters. Or at the very least, cousins. This close heritage allows the relatively benign vaccinia virus to confer variola virus-protective immune responses in vaccinated individuals. A safely…
T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may play an important role in controlling infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to study the ability of rationally designed antigens to induce cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) we replaced stretches of 30 to 50 amino acids at the p17-MA/p24-CA cleavage site, within the p24-CA moiety and within the p6-LI portion of the HIV type 1 p55gag precursor by the third variable domain (V3) of the external glycoprotein gp120. This site is known to be a target for CTL attack in mice and humans. The chimeric antigens were recombined into highly attenuated vaccinia viruses in order to investigate class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted presentation of antigenic V3 peptides. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of the group-specific antigen (p55gag)/V3 chimeric proteins demonstrated significant differences in the accessibility of the V3 domain for a monoclonal antibody or polyclonal V3-specific antisera, depending on the position of the V3 ...
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NYVAC Pf7 vaccine: a multiantigen and multistage vaccine candidate for malaria; NYVAC-Pf7 is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus with 7 P. falciparum genes inserted into its genome
The present study is an investigation of the safety and immunogenicity of DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) candidate vaccines, each encoding the malaria DNA sequence multiple epitope-thrombospondin related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP), against Plasmodium falciparum. DNA ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP are safe and immunogenic for effector and memory T cell induction. MVA ME-TRAP, with or without prior DNA ME-TRAP immunization, was more immunogenic and more cross-reactive in malaria-exposed individuals than in malaria-naive individuals, a finding suggesting that recombinant MVA vaccines are particularly promising for the development of a malaria vaccine for exposed populations. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were induced by these vaccines.
Vaccinia Virus G1 Protein, a Predicted Metalloprotease, Is Essential for Morphogenesis of Infectious Virions but Not for Cleavage of Major Core Proteins: Genes
Our group is considering using a vaccinia virus for expression of cDNAs in tissue culture cells. 1. Is such a system commercially available? 2. Is there anyone out there who is familiar with this system who can comment on its ease of use and success? 3. Are there safety issue involved with using vaccinia virus (Level 2 biosafety?). Thanks, Karen Kedzie Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Irvine CA 92715 ...
Secondary effector T-cell populations generated by cross-priming with heterologous influenza A viruses operate only in H-2K or H-2D compatible situations, when assayed on SV40-transformed target cells infected with a range of influenza A viruses. The H2-Kb allele is associated with a total failure in the generation of influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells, though this is not seen for the primary response to vaccinia virus. In both influenza and vaccinia development of effector T cells operating at H-2Db is greatly depressed in B10.A(2R) (kkkddb) and B10.A(4R) (kkbbbb), but not in B10 (bbbbbb), mice. However, there is no defect in viral antigen expression at either H-2Kk or H-2Db in B10.A(2R) target cells. This apparently reflects some inadequacy in the stimulator environment, as (A/J X B6) F1 T cells can be induced to respond at H-2Db when exposed to vaccinia virus in an irradiated B6 but not in a B10.A(4R) recipient. The present report, together with the accompanying paper by Zinkernagel and ...
The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1−/−) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. The phenotype of infected IL-1R1−/− mice was similar to eczema vaccinatum, a severe side effect of VACV vaccination that may develop in humans with atopic dermatitis. Interestingly, the impaired cutaneous response of IL-1R1−/− mice did not reflect a systemic immune deficiency, because immunized IL-1R1−/− mice survived subsequent lethal VACV intranasal challenge, or defects of T cell activation or T cell homing to the site of inoculation. Histologic evaluation revealed that VACV infection and replication after scarification were limited to the epidermal layer of wild-type mice, ...
ID DNLI_VACCW Reviewed; 552 AA. AC P16272; Q76ZM8; DT 01-AUG-1990, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-AUG-1990, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 93. DE RecName: Full=DNA ligase; DE EC= {ECO:0000255,PROSITE-ProRule:PRU10135}; DE AltName: Full=Polydeoxyribonucleotide synthase [ATP]; GN Name=LIG; OrderedLocusNames=VACWR176; ORFNames=A50R; OS Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain OS WR)). OC Viruses; dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage; Poxviridae; Chordopoxvirinae; OC Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia virus. OX NCBI_TaxID=10254; OH NCBI_TaxID=9913; Bos taurus (Bovine). RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=2045793; DOI=10.1099/0022-1317-72-6-1349; RA Smith G.L., Chan Y.S., Howard S.T.; RT Nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain WR from near RT the right inverted terminal repeat.; RL J. Gen. Virol. 72:1349-1376(1991). RN [2] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed=2555782; DOI=10.1093/nar/17.22.9051; RA Smith ...
Recombinant poxviruses expressing immuno-modulatory molecules together with specific antigens might represent powerful vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Recently, we and others have demonstrated, in vitro and in clinical trials, that co-expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) could increase the immunogenic capacity of a recombinant Vaccinia virus (rVV) also encoding different tumor associated antigens. In order to further investigate the capacity of these vectors to provide ligands for different co-stimulatory pathways relevant in the generation of CD8+ T cell responses, we designed a recombinant virus expressing CD40 ligand (CD154rVV). This co-receptor, expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, upon binding CD40 expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC) has been reported to increase their antigen presentation and immunomodulatory capacities. To investigate the potency of CD154rVV in CTL generation, different types of infection were performed in cultures containing APC and CD8+ T ...
The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human cell lines. It further describes recombinant viruses derived from this virus and the use of the virus, or its recombinants, as a medicament or vaccine. A method is provided for inducing an immune response in individuals who may be immune-compromised, receiving antiviral therapy, or have a pre-existing immunity to the vaccine virus. In addition, a method is provided for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the virus, or its recombinants, in a vaccinia virus prime/vaccinia virus boost innoculation regimen.
A factor, present in transcriptionally active extracts prepared from purified vaccinia virus particles, binds to vaccinia early promoter sequences. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using the 5-terminal segments of two early genes and related and unrelated competitor DNA fragments. DNase I footprint analysis indicated that the factor formed a complex with promoter regions of both genes and protected sequences of 10-15 nucleotides centered 21-24 nucleotides upstream of the RNA start sites. The lack of protection of a late regulatory sequence and of an early promoter with transcriptionally inactivating single-nucleotide substitutions suggested that the protein is an early transcription factor. When subjected to glycerol gradient centrifugation, the DNA-binding factor was resolved from RNA polymerase and sedimented as a 7.5S species with an estimated molecular weight of 130,000. ...
Athymic nude mice recover from an infection with recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) encoding murine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but treatment with a mAb to IL-2 accentuated infection. Administration of a mAb against interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to mice infected with the IL-2-encoding virus completely prevented the IL-2-induced mechanisms of recovery. Both asialo-GM1+ (NK) and asialo-GM1- (non-NK) cells were participants in the IFN-gamma-mediated recovery of nude mice from infection with the IL-2-encoding VV recombinant. Depletion of asialo-GM1+ cells exacerbated infection, though not as much as anti-IFN-gamma mAb. In vitro, both asialo-GM1+ and asialo-GM1- nude mouse splenocytes produced IFN-gamma in response to IL-2. ...
A vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still awaited. Although the correlates of protection remain elusive, it is likely that CD8+ T cells play an important role in the control of this infection. To firmly establish the importance of these cells in protective immunity, a means of efficient elicitation of CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of antibody is needed and, when available, might represent a crucial step towards a protective vaccine. Here, a novel vaccine candidate was constructed as a multi-cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope gene delivered and expressed using modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). The immunogen consists of 20 human, one murine and three rhesus macaque epitopes. The non-human epitopes were included so that the vaccine can be tested for immunogenicity and optimal vaccination doses, routes and regimes in experimental animals. Mice were immunized intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) using a single dose of 10(6) p.f.u. of the recombinant MVA and the
The worldwide HIV/AIDS epidemic may only be controlled through a safe and effective vaccine that will prevent HIV infection. DNA vaccines are inexpensive to construct, easily produced in large quantities, and stable for long periods of time. Recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines have been shown to be safe in humans, and immunogenicity after administration of both vaccines has been encouraging. When used together, a more robust immunologic response was associated with DNA HIV vaccine administration followed by modified vaccinia vaccine administration, compared to using either DNA or vaccinia vaccine alone. This study will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an experimental DNA HIV vaccine prime, pGA/JS7, followed by a similarly structured modified vaccinia boost, MVA/HIV62, in HIV uninfected adults. Participants in this study will be recruited only in the United States.. This study will be divided into 2 parts. Each participant will be involved with their part of study for 1 year. ...
The safety of attenuated poxviruses in HIV-1-infected individuals is an important consideration in their application as vaccine vectors, first, because new HIV-1 infections may occur in vaccine trials involving persons at high risk of infection and secondly, therapeutic vaccinations are a potential means to enhance virus-specific immune responses once infection has occurred. We administered a candidate modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored HIV-1 vaccine, MVA.HIVA, by intradermal injection to 16 chronically infected adults during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Vaccinations were well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. No breakthrough viraemia occurred after immunisations or throughout follow-up. These data confirm the safety of MVA.HIVA in HIV-1-infected individuals and provide support for further evaluation of MVA-vectored vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic immunisation strategies.
Comprehending the mechanisms behind the impact of vaccine regimens on immunity is critical for improving vaccines. Indeed, the time-interval between immunizations may influence B and T cells, as well as innate responses. We compared two vaccine schedules using cynomolgus macaques immunized with an attenuated vaccinia virus. Two subcutaneous injections 2 weeks apart led to an impaired secondary antibody response and similar innate myeloid responses to both immunizations. In contrast, a delayed boost (2 months) improved the quality of the antibody response and involved more activated/mature innate cells, induced late after the prime and responding to the recall. The magnitude and quality of the secondary antibody response correlated with the abundance of these neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells that were modified phenotypically and enriched prior to revaccination at 2 months, but not 2 weeks. These late phenotypic modifications were associated with an enhanced ex vivo cytokine production ...
Envelope protein which probably plays a role in virus entry into the host cell. Is probably involved in the virus attachment to the host cell surface and associates with the entry/fusion complex (EFC). Needed for fusion and penetration of the virus core into host cell.
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Suramin is a competitive inhibitor of heparin binding to many proteins, including viral envelope proteins, protein tyrosine phosphatases, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). It has been clinically evaluated as a potential therapeutic in treatment of cancers caused by unregulated angiogenesis, triggered by FGFs. Although it has shown clinical promise in treatment of several cancers, suramin has many undesirable side effects. There is currently no experimental structure that reveals the molecular interactions responsible for suramin inhibition of heparin binding, which could be of potential use in structure-assisted design of improved analogues of suramin. We report the structure of suramin, in complex with the heparin-binding site of vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), which interacts with heparin in a geometrically similar manner to many FGFs. The larger than anticipated flexibility of suramin manifested in this structure, and other details of VCP-suramin interactions, might ...
INDEFINITE BACKORDER*** Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor for EGF and for various members of the EGF family such as TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30 and vaccinia virus growth factor. EGFR is involved in the control of cell growth and differentation. Binding of EGF to the receptor leads to dimerization, internalization of the EGF-receptor complex, induction of the tyrosine kinase activity, stimulation of cell DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. EGFRvIII has an 801-bp in-frame deletion resulting in a shorter extracellular domain (aa 6-273 are deleted) with generation of a glycine residue at the fusion point. EGFRvIII is tumor specific and is not expressed in normal human tissues. Defects in EGFR are associated with lung cancer.. ...
EGFR a receptor tyrosine kinase. This is a receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors including TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, GP30, and vaccinia virus growth factor. EGFR is involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. It is a single-pass transmembrane tyrosine kinase. Ligand binding to this receptor results in receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation (in trans), activation of various downstream signaling molecules and lysosomal degradation. It can be phosphorylated and activated by Src. Activated EGFR binds the SH2 domain of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma), activating PLC-gamma-mediated downstream signaling. Phosphorylated EGFR binds Cbl, leading to its ubiquitination and degradation. Grb2 and SHC bind to phospho-EGFR and are involved in the activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Phosphorylation on Ser and Thr residues is thought to represent a mechanism for attenuation of EGFR kinase activity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trans-eQTLs Reveal That Independent Genetic Variants Associated with a Complex Phenotype Converge on Intermediate Genes, with a Major Role for the HLA. AU - Fehrmann, R.S.. AU - Jansen, R.C.. AU - Veldink, J H.. AU - Westra, H.J.. AU - Arends, D.. AU - Bonder, M.J.. AU - Fu, J.. AU - Deelen, P.. AU - Groen, H.J.. AU - Smolonska, A.. AU - Weersma, R.K.. AU - Hofstra, R.M.. AU - Buurman, W.A.. AU - Rensen, S.S.M.. AU - Wolfs, M.G.. AU - Platteel, M.. AU - Zhernakova, A.. AU - Elbers, C.C.. AU - Festen, E.M.. AU - Trynka, G.. AU - Hofker, M.H.. AU - Saris, C.G.. AU - Ophoff, R.A.. AU - van den Berg, L.H.. AU - van Heel, D.A.. AU - Wijmenga, C.. AU - te Meerman, G.J.. AU - Franke, L.. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - For many complex traits, genetic variants have been found associated. However, it is still mostly unclear through which downstream mechanism these variants cause these phenotypes. Knowledge of these intermediate steps is crucial to understand pathogenesis, while also ...
ID PCP1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 3600 BP. XX AC S62800; ATCC37351; XX DT 01-JUL-1993 (Rel. 7, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Vertebrate/E.coli plasmid vector pCP1 - incomplete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC plasmid from pUC9 & vaccinia virus 7.5kDa gene RC pCP1 from pCAT & plasmid RC pMM24 from pMM23 & SV40 72-bp repeats RA Cochran M.A., Mackett M., Moss B.; RT Eukaryotic transient expression system dependent on transcription RT factors and regulatory DNA sequences of vaccinia virus; RL Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:19-23(1985). XX RN [2] RC plasmid from pBR328 RC pGS8 from plasmid & vaccinia virus TK gene RC pMM1 from pUC9 & vaccinia virus TK gene RC pMM2 from pUC9 & vaccinia virus TK gene RC pMM3 from pMM1 & pMM2 RC pMM4 from pMM3 RC pMM5 from pMM4 RC pGS15 from pUC9 & pAG4 RC pGS19 from pGS15 & linker RC pGS20, pGS21 from pGS19 & pGS8 RC [pGS30 from cat gene] RC pCAT from pBR328 ...
In order to produce infectious virus progeny, vaccinia virus (VV) undergoes morphogenic proteolysis to regulate the structural rearrangements of virus particles. Several of the major structural precursor proteins of VV are cleaved at a conserved Ala-Gly-X (where X is any amino acid) motif by the VV I7L core protein proteinase at a step, which is necessary for formation of mature virus particles. VV A12L encodes a 25kDa core protein, which is cleaved at an AG/A site, yielding a 17kDa cleavage product. Both A12L precursor and the cleavage product are localized to mature virions. The open reading frame (ORF) of A12L contains two more AG/X (AG/K) sites, however, cleavage at these sites has not been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to characterize the in vivo processing of A12L proteolysis and elucidate the biological function of A12L. The result of these studies would provide more details on the regulation and participation of VV proteolysis during the morphogenic transitions. ...
Creative Biolabs provides Reporter-encoding Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Western Reserve (ΔE3L), p11k-(GFP) for immuno-oncology research.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccinia virus-mediated cell cycle alteration involves inactivation of tumour suppressors associated with Brf1 and TBP. AU - Yoo, Na Kyung. AU - Pyo, Chul Woong. AU - Kim, Youngho. AU - Ahn, Byung Yoon. AU - Choi, Sang Yun. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - The vaccinia virus (VV) replicates robustly and alters the progression of the cell cycle via an unknown mechanism. Herein, we provide evidence for the existence of a unique VV infection-induced cell cycle control mechanism. The regulation is correlated with the inactivation of p53 and Rb, which are associated with the RNA polymerase III transcription factor B (TFIIIB) subunits, TBP and Brf1 respectively. VV infection induced the expression of Mdm2 and its translocation into the nucleus, thereby resulting in a disruption of p53. VV also stimulated the expression of TFIIIB and TFIIIC, and consequently induced tRNA synthesis. On the other hand, the total level of Rb ...
Thymidine kinases form part of the salvage pathway for pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. TKs are expressed in a variety of organisms from human to bacteria as well as in a number of viruses. The reaction catalysed by TK involves the transfer of a γ-phosphoryl moiety from ATP to 2deoxy-thymidine (dThd) to produce thymidine 5-monophosphate (dTMP). Certain TKs, such as those from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) have, in addition, thymidylate kinase activity allowing the conversion of dTMP to thymidine 5-diphosphate (dTDP). TKs can be classified into two types which differ in several respects [1]. Type 1 TKs are of higher molecular weight, typically around 40 kDa, and are active as homodimers. This subfamily contains the HSV1, HSV2 and VZV TKs, and also mitochondrial TK.. TKs of type 2 include those from poxviridae such as vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus, [2], as well as from human [3] hTK, (human type II thymidine kinase 1) and mouse [4]. Type ...
© 2008 Cottingham et al. The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC) in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS 99 12415-20). The genomic BAC clone was rescued back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c
Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vaccinia immune globulin. The availability of the VACV-DUKE genome sequence permits a first time genomic comparison of a VACV isolate associated with a smallpox vaccine complication with the sequence of culture-derived clonal isolates of the Dryvax vaccine. This study showed that VACV-DUKE is most similar to VACV-ACAM2000 and CLONE3, two VACV clones isolated from the Dryvax® vaccine stock confirming VACV-DUKE as an isolate from Dryvax®. However, VACV-DUKE is unique because it is, to date, the only Dryvax® clone isolated from a patient experiencing a vaccine-associated complication. The 199,960 bp VACV-DUKE genome encodes 225 open reading frames, including 178 intact genes and 47 gene fragments. Between VACV-DUKE and the other Dryvax® isolates, the major genomic differences are in fragmentation of
Current candidate vaccines fail to protect primates against challenge with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the presence of antibody responses; this underlines the importance of studying cell-mediated immunity to HIV and identifying specific epitopes that stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Using a recombinant vaccinia virus to express the gag protein of HIV-1 we found HLA class-I-restricted gag-specific CTL in thirteen out of fifteen healthy HIV seropositive patients. We then used short synthetic peptides in the lysis assay to screen for gag CTL epitopes. In one patient we have identified a peptide in p24 that is recognized by CTL in association with HLA-B27. This peptide, and further peptide sequences defined by these methods, could be incorporated in vaccines designed to induce cell-mediated immunity against HIV.
Vaccinia virus thymidylate kinase, although similar in sequence to human TMP kinase, has broader substrate specificity and phosphorylates (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-dUMP and dGMP. Modified guanines such as glyoxal-dG, 8-oxo-dG, O(6)-methyl-dG, N(2)-ethyl-dG and N(7)-methyl-dG were found present in cancer cell DNA. Alkylated and oxidized dGMP analogs were examined as potential substrates for vaccinia TMP kinase and also for human TMP and GMP kinases. Molecular models obtained from structure-based docking rationalized the enzymatic data. All tested nucleotides are found surprisingly substrates of vaccinia TMP kinase and also of human GMP kinase. Interestingly, O(6)-methyl-dGMP is the only analog specific for the vaccinia enzyme. Thus, O(6)-Me-dGMP could be useful for designing new compounds of medical interest either in antipoxvirus therapy or in experimental combined gene/chemotherapy of cancer. These results also provide new insights regarding dGMP analog reaction with human GMP kinase and their slow ...
Three distinct chimpanzee Fabs against the A33 envelope glycoprotein of vaccinia virus were isolated and converted into complete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with human g
Vaccinia virus is the live poxvirus that was used as the. The development of this vaccine was an important step in the successful eradication of smallpox, an infection characterized by fever, rash and constitutional symptoms, with a high rate of morb
Background In urban Guinea-Bissau, adults with a vaccinia scar had better survival but also a higher prevalence of HIV-2 infection. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinia scar and survival and HIV infection in a rural area of Guinea-Bissau. Methodology/Principal Findings In connection with a study of HIV in rural Guinea-Bissau, we assessed vaccinia and BCG scars in 193 HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected and 174 uninfected participants. Mortality was assessed after 2½-3 years of follow-up. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, village, and HIV status. The prevalence of vaccinia scar was associated with age, village, and HIV-2 status but not with sex and schooling. Compared with individuals without any scar, individuals with a vaccinia scar had better survival (mortality rate ratio (MR) = 0.22 (95% CI 0.08-0.61)), the MR being 0.19 (95% CI 0.06-0.57) for women and 0.40 (95% CI 0.04-3.74) for men. Estimates were similar for HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 uninfected individuals. The HIV-2
Zechiedrich and Osheroff (1990) were the first to visualize the preferential binding of eukaryotic type I topoisomerase at intramolecular crossovers. The present study of vaccinia virus topoisomerase confirms their findings regarding the formation of DNA loops by type IB enzymes. We suggest that the loops arise through protein-protein‐mediated DNA synapsis rather than through bivalent DNA binding of a single topoisomerase monomer.. Zechiedrich and Osheroff focused on DNA molecules containing what appeared to be a single protein complex at DNA nodes. These structures were prevalent at a 3:1 molar ratio of calf thymus topoisomerase I to plasmid DNA. As pointed out by Wang (1996), an inherent problem in microscopic analysis is that one cannot gauge the number of topoisomerase monomers within the seemingly discrete protein blobs. Therefore, it is unclear if the protein‐bound nodes are formed because one topoisomerase monomer simultaneously engages two DNA duplexes or because two (or more) ...
Vaccinia virus free virus antibody [8114] for ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC. Anti-Vaccinia virus free virus mAb (GTX36668) is tested in Vaccinia virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The vaccinia virus E3L gene encodes two double-stranded RNA binding proteins that promote viral growth and pathogenesis through suppression of innate immunity. missing RNase L, PKR, and Mx1. To investigate the underlying cause, we determined the effect of E3L on interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a transcription factor required for viral induction of subtypes of type I interferons. Results showed that IRF3 activation and interferon- induction occurred after infections with E3L-deleted virus but not with MGC102953 wild-type virus. These findings demonstrate that E3L plays an essential role ACY-1215 inhibition in the pathogenesis of vaccinia virus by blocking the interferon system at multiple levels. Furthermore, our results indicate the existence of an interferon-mediated antipoxvirus pathway that operates independently of PKR, Mx1, or the 2-5A/RNase L system. Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VV), are remarkable for the wide spectrum of factors they encode to evade host defenses. Included ...
For protection from HIV-1 infection, a vaccine should elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A novel vaccine regimen and adjuvant that induce high levels of HIV-1 Env-specific T cell and antibody (Ab) responses was developed in this study. The prime-boost regimen that used combinations of replication-competent vaccinia LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) and Sendai virus (SeV) vectors expressing HIV-1 Env efficiently produced both Env-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-Env antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). These results sharply contrast with vaccine regimens that prime with an Env expressing plasmid and boost with the m8Δ or SeV vector that mainly elicited cellular immunities. Moreover, co-priming with combinations of m8Δs expressing Env or a membrane-bound human CD40 ligand mutant (CD40Lm) enhanced Env-specific CD8+ T cell production, but not anti-Env antibody production. In contrast, priming with an m8Δ that coexpresses CD40Lm and Env elicited more anti-Env Abs with higher avidity, but
Decades after smallpox was eradicated and vaccination discontinued, the level of residual immunity in todays population is largely unknown. This study describes an epidemiological assessment in Italians of antibodies against the intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular envelope virus (EEV …
In the search for effective vaccines against intracellular pathogens such as HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, recombinant viral vectors are increasingly being used to boost previously primed T cell responses. Published data have shown prime-boost vaccination with BCG-MVA85A (modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A) to be highly immunogenic in humans as measured by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT. Here, we used polychromatic flow cytometry to investigate the phenotypic and functional profile of these vaccine-induced Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen 85A-specific responses in greater detail. Promisingly, antigen 85A-specific CD4 + T cells were found to be highly polyfunctional, producing IFN-γ TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β. Surface staining showed the responding CD4 + T cells to be relatively immature (CD45RO + CD27 int CD57 - ); this observation was supported by the robust proliferative responses observed following antigenic stimulation. Furthermore, these phenotypic and functional
Icell Kealex Therapeutics is an oncology biotech startup based at JLABS at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas. We are developing oncoloytic vaccinia viruses armed with T-cell-engaging antibody fragments that boost the viruss antitumor efficacy. This modification in the virus allows the tumor cells that are not infected with the virus to be target by T-cells. Icell Kealex has a deep pipeline of T cell engager oncolytic vaccinia virus which offer an advantage over other oncolytic viruses. We plan to enter phase 1 trials with our lead product in 2018. We are looking for co-development or licensing partnerships
A significant proportion of the research in the field has concentrated, quite understandably, on candidates that can be given to individuals already vaccinated with BCG in an effort to improve outcomes. As noted in Fig. 1, the age of the individual when a vaccine is given is a factor, and this applies particularly to BCG-boosting vaccines. BCG is usually given soon after birth, and hence, finding some way to boost immunity engendered by neonatal BCG vaccination is the most practical avenue of approach, unless a highly effective vaccine can be found to replace BCG. The lead candidates in this regard are virus based; MVA85A is based on vaccinia virus, and Aeras-402 uses adenovirus type 35 to deliver the Ag85B and TB10.4 antigens.. In this regard, a very comprehensive review by Brennan and his colleagues (63) lists the growing number of studies that have tried various priming-boosting protocols, rather helpfully divided into those that seemed to work, those that provided no better effect than BCG ...
We have developed small peptide mimetics of interferon IFN gamma that bypass the receptor extracellular binding site and interact directly downstream in the IFN signaling cascade. We have synthesized these mimetics with an attached hydrophobic residue for intracellular delivery. The mimetics encompass the C-terminus of IFN gamma and unlike intact IFN gamma are species non-specific in their action. We have shown in cell culture that the IFN mimetics, like IFN, are also virus nonspecific and are highly active against the picornavirus EMC virus and the poxvirus vaccinia. Importantly, unlike IFNs that are neutralized by the decoy receptors of poxviruses, the mimetics are fully active against viruses in the presence of B8R protein that blocks IFN gamma antiviral activity. In this final report we show the progress of testing one of the IFN mimetics, IFN gamma 95-132, against lethal vaccinia virus and EMC virus infections in mice in the presence of B8R protein. We also show the mechanism of action of the IFN
Vaccination against smallpox is known as to be able to encounter a possible bioterrorist risk again, but the character and the amount of the defense response had a need to protect a person from smallpox after vaccination arent totally understood. vaccination against smallpox also to research the vector-specific immune system response in scientific trials that make use of genetically constructed vaccinia viruses. Most of all, program of the extremely attenuated MVA eliminates the basic safety concern in using the replication-competent vaccinia trojan in the typical clinical laboratory. Trojan neutralization assays are of help equipment to measure a decrease in titers of infectious trojan mediated by antibodies. They serve as diagnostic equipment as well as for preliminary research to monitor the humoral immune system response to a trojan. Conventional solutions to measure anti-vaccinia trojan neutralizing antibodies are often performed utilizing a plaque decrease neutralization check (PRNT) (7). ...
HIV-1 envelopes from two series of primary isolates (from Swedish patients 5 and 6), from JR-FL and BaL (prototypic monocyte/macrophage tropic viruses) and from HXB-2 (a prototypic T-cell-line-adapted virus), have been screened for their ability to elicit neutralizing antibody to HIV-1. Rabbits were primed by gene gun inoculation with plasmids expressing secreted monomeric (gp120) and oligomeric (gp140) forms of each Env. After four to six DNA immunizations administered over a 1-year period, rabbits were boosted with 10(8) plaque-forming units of a mixture of seven recombinant vaccinia viruses which express chimeric gp140 Envs (primary clade B sequences in a IIIb-related BH10 backbone). Neutralizing antibodies were assayed against two T-cell-line-adapted viruses (MN and IIIb), two non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and two syncytium-inducing (SI) primary isolates, and two HIV-1-NL4-3-recombinants with patients 5 or 6 Envs (NL4-3/5A, NL4-3/6C). The DNA priming and recombinant vaccinia virus boosting raised low
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Vaccinia virus (VACV), the model poxvirus, produces two types of infectious particles: mature virions (MVs) and extracellular virions (EVs). EV particles possess two membranes and therefore require an unusual cellular entry mechanism. By a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as flow cytometry, we investigated the cellular processes that EVs required to infect HeLa cells. We found that EV particles were endocytosed, and that internalization and infection depended on actin rearrangements, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signalling events typical for the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. To promote their internalization, EVs were capable of actively triggering macropinocytosis. EV infection also required vacuolar acidification, and acid exposure in endocytic vacuoles was needed to disrupt the outer EV membrane. Once exposed, the underlying MV-like particle presumably fused its single membrane with the limiting vacuolar membrane. Release of the viral core into the ...
We assessed safety and immunogenicity of HIV-DNA priming using Zetajet,sup,TM,/sup,, a needle-free device intradermally followed by intramuscular HIV-MVA boosts, in 24 healthy Mozambicans. Volunteers were randomized to receive three immunizations of 600 µg (n = 10; 2 x 0.1mL) or 1200 µg (n = 10; 2 x 0.2mL) of HIV-DNA (3 mg/mL), followed by two boosts of 10,sup,8,/sup,pfu HIV-MVA. Four subjects received placebo saline injections. Vaccines and injections were safe and well tolerated with no difference between the two priming groups. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag were detected in 9/17 (53%) vaccinees, while none responded to Env. After the first HIV-MVA, the overall response rate to Gag and/or Env increased to 14/15 (93%); 14/15 (93%) to Gag and 13/15 (87%) to Env. There were no significant differences between the immunization groups in frequency of response to Gag and Env or magnitude of Gag responses. Env responses were significantly higher in the ...
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Recombinant poxviruses encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive as candidate cancer vaccines. Their effectiveness, however, will depend upon expression of the TAA in appropriate antigen-presenting cells. We have used a murine model in which the TAA is beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) in which beta-gal was expressed under early or late promoters at levels that varied over 500-fold during productive infections in tissue culture cells. Remarkably, only those rVV employing early promoters were capable of prolonging the survival of mice bearing established tumors expressing the model TAA. Late promoters were ineffective regardless of their determined promoter strength. The best results were obtained when beta-gal was regulated by a strong early promoter coupled to a strong late promoter. When a variety of cell types were infected with the panel of viruses in vitro, dendritic cells were found to express beta-gal only under the control of ...
Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for their replication. Substantial research has focused on understanding how viruses alter host cellular metabolism in the hopes of identifying metabolic pathways that are critical for successful infection. In this thesis, we explore how two viruses important for biodefense, vaccinia virus (VACV) and dengue virus (DENV), manipulate the global cellular metabolome during infection. In Chapter III, we examine the impact VACV has on the host metabolic network and discover that VACV implements a strikingly unique carbon utilization program during infection. Specifically, we define an important role for glutamine during VACV infection and show that glucose is dispensable for replication. We show that the glutaminolytic pathway of glutamine metabolism is markedly altered in VACV-infected cells and is necessary to replenish the TCA cycle during infection. We further demonstrate ...
The first trial of an anti-HIV immunization, using a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing gp160 (rV) for priming and paraformaldehyde-fixed rV- infected PBLs and soluble gp160 for boosting, clearly showed an in vitro HIV- protective immune reaction. This result led us to carry out an additional 2 year Phase I clinical trial in 25 HIV-seronegative volunteers, using HIV gp160 antigens for immunization in four different protocols. The 2 year trial showed (a) the safety of the preparations, (b) a transient humoral immunity following each boost, and (c) a long-lasting memory T-cell response. Memory cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) induced by gp160 antigen with or without vaccinia vector lysed HLA class I restricted target cells expressing HIV-1 env antigens. These results are consistent with CTLs being an effective component of an AIDS vaccine to control cell-to-cell viral replication, dissemination in the organism, and subsequent evolution toward AIDS ...
TRIF−/− mice are more susceptible to vaccinia infection than WT.TRIF−/− and WT BL/6 mice were infected with 1×104 pfu Vac-FL. (A) Weight loss, expresse
There is more and more evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis which believes that cancers are driven by a cellular subcomponent that has stem cell properties which is self-renewal, tumorigenicity and multilineage differentiation capacity. Cancer stem cells have been connected to the initiation of tumors and are even found to be responsible for relapses after apparently curative therapies have been undertaken. This hypothesis changes our conceptual approach of oncogenesis and shall have implications in breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment, especially in metastatic breast cancer for which no curative treatment exists. Given the specific stem cell features, novel therapeutic pathways can be targeted. Since the value of vaccinia virus as a vaccination virus against smallpox was discovered by E. Jenner at 18th century, it plays an important role in human medicine and molecular biology. After smallpox was successfully eradicated, vaccinia virus is mainly used as a viral vector in ...
This trial is evaluating the safety and tolerability of single dose GL ONC1 in patients with malignant pleural effusion (including primary, metastases and
The external envelope from the extracellular type of vaccinia virus contains five virus-encoded proteins, F13, A33, A34, A56, and B5, that, apart from A56, are implicated in trojan infectivity or egress. A34. A lot of the extracellular domains of B5, which includes four brief consensus repeats homologous to check control proteins, was enough for A34 connections, indicating that both proteins interact through their ectodomains. Immunofluorescence tests on cells contaminated with A34-lacking trojan indicated that A34 is necessary for efficient concentrating on of B5, A36, and A33 into covered virions. In keeping with this observation, the envelope of A34-lacking trojan contained normal levels of F13 but reduced levels of A33 and B5 with regards to the parental WR trojan. These results indicate A34 as a significant determinant in the proteins composition from the vaccinia disease envelope. Vaccinia disease, the most-studied poxvirus, assembles and replicates in the cytoplasm from the infected cell. ...
A major challenge to developing a successful HIV vaccine is the vast diversity of viral sequences, yet it is generally assumed that an epitope conserved between different strains will be recognised by responding T-cells. We examined whether an invariant HLA-B8 restricted Nef₉₀₋₉₇ epitope FL8 shared between five high titre viruses and eight recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Nef from different viral isolates (clades A-H) could activate antiviral activity in FL8-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Surprisingly, despite epitope conservation, we found that CTL antiviral efficacy is dependent on the infecting viral isolate. Only 23% of Nef proteins, expressed by HIV-1 isolates or as recombinant vaccinia-Nef, were optimally recognised by CTL. Recognition of the HIV-1 isolates by CTL was independent of clade-grouping but correlated with virus-specific polymorphisms in the epitope flanking region, which altered immunoproteasomal cleavage resulting in enhanced or impaired epitope generation.
[BioChemistry] Vaccinia A27 Protein Structure is Revealed to Regulate Virus and Host Cell Membrane Fusion (Chinese Version) Academia Sinica Newsletter (2013/08/27) Two research teams in Academia Sinica, Dr. Andrew H.-J.
A major challenge to developing a successful HIV vaccine is the vast diversity of viral sequences, yet it is generally assumed that an epitope conserved between different strains will be recognised by responding T-cells. We examined whether an invariant HLA-B8 restricted Nef90-97epitope FL8 shared between five high titre viruses and eight recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing Nef from different viral isolates (clades A-H) could activate antiviral activity in FL8-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Surprisingly, despite epitope conservation, we found that CTL antiviral efficacy is dependent on the infecting viral isolate. Only 23% of Nef proteins, expressed by HIV-1 isolates or as recombinant vaccinia-Nef, were optimally recognised by CTL. Recognition of the HIV-1 isolates by CTL was independent of clade-grouping but correlated with virus-specific polymorphisms in the epitope flanking region, which altered immunoproteasomal cleavage resulting in enhanced or impaired epitope generation. The finding
The faithful duplication of the genetic material is arguably the most fundamental of all biological processes. For DNA viruses as for cells, a complex repertoir...
Bristol-Myers Squibb is developing a vaccine, HIVAC-1e, comprised of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the HIV-1 gp160 envelope glycoprotein. The vaccine has potential for the treatment of HIV and other viral infections and has entered phase I trials [135333]. In an initial phase I trial, 11 vaccinia-naïve volunteers were vaccinated with HIVAC-1e, followed by a booster with baculovirus-derived gp160 (VaxSyn). Two weeks after boosting, all 11 volunteers developed HIV-1 specific IgG, with titers of 1:40 to 1:1280 [195287]. Using the same strategy in 29 vaccinia-naïve volunteers, priming with HIVAC-1e was demonstrated as a key determinant of the epitope specificity and magnitude of antibody responses to gp160 [195278].
CTLs specific for high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have recently been found in the peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients. Although cell-mediated immunity is thought to be important in the control of HPV infection, the functional relevance and site of activation of HPV-specific CTLs are unclear. We identified HLA-A*0201-restricted HPV-16 E7 peptide-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood (four of five patients), draining lymph nodes (three of four patients) and tumors (one of three patients) of cervical cancer patients. In four of four cancer patients, the frequency of CTLs specific for a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HPV-16 and -18 E6/E7 gene products was found to be higher in tumors and lymph nodes compared with that of peripheral blood. HPV-specific CTLs were not identified in any of seven healthy controls, but primary responses could be generated by peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (four of four controls). In a non-HLA-A*0201 subject with invasive carcinoma, other HLA ...
Volkmer, Hansjürgen; Bertholet, Christine; Jonjic, Stipan; Wittek, Riccardo und Koszinowski, Ulrich H. (1987): Cytolytic T lymphocyte recognition of the murine cytomegalovirus nonstructural immediate-early protein pp89 expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. In: The journal of experimental medicine, Vol. 166: S. 668-677 [PDF, 650kB] ...
Mammalian nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are members of a protein family with perfectly conserved domains arranged around the cysteine residues thought to stabilize an invariant three-dimensional scaffold in addition to distinct sequence motifs that convey different neuronal functions. To study their structural and functional conservation during evolution, we have compared NGF and BDNF from a lower vertebrate, the teleost Xiphophorus, with the mammalian homlogues. Genomic clones encoding fish NGF and BDNF were isolated by cross-hybridization using probes from the cloned mammalian factors. Fish NGF and BDNF were expressed by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses, purified, and their neuronal survival specificities for different classes of neurons were found to mirror those of the mammalian factors. The half-maximal survival concentration for chick sensory neurons was 60 pg/ml for both fish and mammalian purifi.ed recombinant BDNF. However, the ...
Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology. Methods in Molecular Biology. 890. Melissa Da Silva and Chris Upton. pp. 233-258. doi:10.1007/ ... viral genomics and the global dominance of viruses Bioinformatic Approaches for Comparative Analysis of Viruses [1] Viral ... New Comparative Tools for Large Virus Genomes". Viruses. 10 (11): 637. doi:10.3390/v10110637. PMC 6265842. PMID 30445717. ... The goal of this level is to "allow for quick comparison of similar genes across a given virus family." VBRC provides ...
Transgene uses three types of vectors: Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA); Vaccinia virus and adenovirus. TG4010, a specific active ... The engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus is armed with the immunostimulatory cytokine GM-CSF and is designed to selectively ... The therapy is based on a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the MUC1 antigen and the human cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL2). ... "Advances in hepatitis C virus vaccines, part two: Advances in hepatitis C virus vaccine formulations and modalities". Expert ...
"Mass of virion - Virus Vaccinia". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-11-01. "Conversion from J to kg". The NIST Reference on Constants ...
Friesen, J. D.; Sankoff, D.; Siminovitch, L. (1963). "Radiobiological Studies of Vaccinia Virus". Virology. 21 (3): 411-424. ...
... virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia ... Others, such as ectromelia and camelpox viruses, are highly host-specific. Vaccinia virus, maintained in vaccine institutes and ... through the use of Vaccinia virus as a vaccine. The most recently described species is the Alaskapox virus, first isolated in ... Currently, 13 species are in this genus, including the type species Vaccinia virus. Diseases associated with this genus include ...
It contains live vaccinia virus, cloned from the same strain used in an earlier vaccine, Dryvax. While the Dryvax virus was ... Imvanex contains a modified form of the vaccinia virus, Modified vaccinia Ankara, which does not replicate in human cells and ... Others believed that smallpox and vaccinia shared a common ancestor. In 1939, Allan Watt Downie showed that the vaccinia virus ... Because of similarities between vaccinia and the smallpox virus, the antibodies produced against vaccinia have been shown to ...
Sodeik B, Griffiths G, Ericsson M, Moss B, Doms RW (February 1994). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the ... Charity JC, Katz E, Moss B (March 2007). "Amino acid substitutions at multiple sites within the vaccinia virus D13 scaffold ... Rifampicin has some effectiveness against vaccinia virus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin for several ...
Mass vaccination to combat a smallpox epidemic could be challenging because the only approved smallpox vaccine, Vaccinia Virus ... The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... Black ME, Hruby DE (June 1990). "Quaternary structure of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
Baxby, Derrickauthor-link = Derrick Baxby (1981). Edward Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine; the riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin ...
... the riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin. London: Heinemann Educational Books. ISBN 0-435-54057-2. Pead, Patrick P (2003). " ... the introduction of smallpox vaccine was examined in detail much later when controversy arose over the origin of vaccinia virus ... some samples of which were contaminated with smallpox virus. This caused a rift with Jenner who thought his own work was being ...
"Protein interactions among the vaccinia virus late transcription factors". Virology. 329 (2): 328-36. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ...
"Vaccinia Virus Infection & Temporal Analysis of Virus Gene Expression". JoVE. Retrieved March 17, 2013. Chancellor, Jeffery C ... Dower, Ken; Rubins, Kathleen H.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Connor, John H. (July 2011). "Development of Vaccinia Reporter Viruses for ... The researchers utilize fluorescent protein-based reporters to monitor and analyze the function of the Vaccinia virus. This ... Rubins was involved with was the life-cycle analysis of a family of viruses including the smallpox virus. ...
... an Oncolytic and Immunotherapeutic Vaccinia Virus, in Pediatric Cancer Patients Un virus contre le cancer 25 March 2012, Radio ... SOLVE™ (Selective Oncolytic Vaccinia Engineering) platform: This platform is used to optimize virus targeting to specific ... Novel oncolytic viruses in SillaJen pipeline are engineered through the Selective Oncolytic Vaccinia Engineering (SOLVE) ... JX-970 JX-970 is also derived from a Western Reserve strain vaccinia virus and utilizes the same tumor selectivity mechanisms ...
A culture of vesicular fluid will grow vaccinia virus. Skin biopsy shows necrotic epidermal cells with intranuclear inclusions ... Because of the danger of transmission of vaccinia, it also should not be given to people in close contact with anyone who has ... The boy has a history of eczema, which is a known risk factor for vaccinia infection. List of cutaneous conditions CDC guidance ... Antiviral drugs have been examined for activity in pox viruses and cidofovir is believed to display potential in this area. In ...
It is derived from the Modified vaccinia Ankara virus. MVA-BN is characterized by the inability to replicate in human cells, ... Vaccinia-fowlpox-TRICOM is a sequential prime-boost therapy based on vaccinia and fowlpox in combination with three co- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kennedy JS, Greenberg RN (9 January 2014). "IMVAMUNE: modified vaccinia Ankara strain ... contrary to other vaccinia-based vaccines, which may replicate in humans, thus potentially causing severe and life-threatening ...
D E Hruby (1990). "Vaccinia virus vectors: new strategies for producing recombinant vaccines". Clin Microbiol Rev. 3 (2): 153- ... Examples of plant virus used are the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus X, and cowpea mosaic virus. The protein may be ... In general, it is safer to use than mammalian virus as it has a limited host range and does not infect vertebrates without ... Plant viruses may be used as vectors since the Agrobacterium method does not work for all plants. ...
... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ... insertion of the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus into the DNA of infectious vaccinia virus". Proceedings of the ... biological activity of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin". Proceedings of the National ... altering the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses, namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza ...
On the basis of extensive sequence similarity, it has been proposed that Vaccinia virus protein O2L is, it seems, a ... Johnson GP, Goebel SJ, Perkus ME, Davis SW, Winslow JP, Paoletti E (March 1991). "Vaccinia virus encodes a protein with ... Glutaredoxin has been sequenced in a variety of viruses. ...
The first virus to be used as a vaccine vector was the vaccinia virus in 1984 as a way to protect chimpanzees against hepatitis ... Viruses used for gene therapy to date include retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. However ... Virus mediated gene delivery utilizes the ability of a virus to inject its DNA inside a host cell and takes advantage of the ... Moss B, Smith GL, Gerin JL, Purcell RH (September 1984). "Live recombinant vaccinia virus protects chimpanzees against ...
A future implication of these findings includes reducing Z-DNA binding of E3L in vaccines containing the vaccinia virus so ... Kwon, J.-A.; Rich, A. (2005-08-26). "Biological function of the vaccinia virus Z-DNA-binding protein E3L: Gene transactivation ... it has also been found to play a role in the level of severity of virulence in mice caused by vaccinia virus, a type of ... "A role for Z-DNA binding in vaccinia virus pathogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (12): 6974-6979 ...
A viral GAAP (vGAAP) can also be found in some strains of vaccinia virus, the live vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Golgi ... "A new inhibitor of apoptosis from vaccinia virus and eukaryotes". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (2): e17. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030017 ...
IFN-gammaR from vaccinia virus, cowpox virus and camelpox virus exist naturally as homodimers, whereas the cellular IFN-gammaR ... The vaccinia virus interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR), which is a 43 kDa soluble glycoprotein that is secreted from ... Alcami A, Smith GL (March 2002). "The vaccinia virus soluble interferon-gamma receptor is a homodimer". J. Gen. Virol. 83 (Pt 3 ... The existence of the virus protein as a dimer in the absence of ligand may provide an advantage to the virus in efficient ...
Dobson BM, Tscharke DC (November 2015). "Redundancy complicates the definition of essential genes for vaccinia virus". The ... Most of the essential genes in viruses are related to the processing and maintenance of genetic information. In contrast to ... most single-celled organisms, viruses lack many essential genes for metabolism, which forces them to hijack the host's ...
The riddle of vaccinia virus and its origin, London, Heinemann Educational Books, 1981, 8vo, pp. xiv, 214, illus.. £8.50". ... Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine: The Riddle of Vaccinia Virus and Its Origin. London: Heinemann Educational Books. 1981. Pp. xiv, 214 ... Jenners Smallpox Vaccine: The Riddle of Vaccinia Virus and Its Origin. Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1981. ISBN ...
Schormann N, Grigorian A, Samal A, Krishnan R, DeLucas L, Chattopadhyay D (2007). "Crystal structure of vaccinia virus uracil- ...
Magee, WC; Hostetler, KY; Evans, DH (August 2005). "Mechanism of Inhibition of Vaccinia Virus DNA Polymerase by Cidofovir ... It has inhibitory effects on varicella-zoster virus replication in vitro although no clinical trials have been done to date, ... Cidofovir shows anti-BK virus activity in a subgroup of transplant recipients. Cidofovir is being investigated as a ... It possesses in vitro activity against the following viruses: Human herpesviruses Adenoviruses Human poxviruses (including the ...
Oncolytic viruses developed by Jennerex are based on the vaccinia virus. Pexa-Vec is an engineered oncolytic virus that ... Because JX-594 is based on the Wyeth strain vaccinia virus that is commonly used for vaccination, it is well tolerated by rats ... Novel oncolytic viruses in Jennerex pipeline are engineered through the Selective Oncolytic Vaccinia Engineering (SOLVE) ... in the J segment of the Wyeth strain vaccinia virus. Elimination of TK from the JX-594 genome restricts viral replication to ...
Other vaccines containing live viruses include measles, mumps, rubella, polio and chickenpox. The vaccinia virus, when ... The vaccinia virus will begin to grow at the injection site. It will cause a localized infection, with a red itchy sore ... The ACAM2000 vaccine is produced from the Vaccina virus. Vaccinia is closely related to smallpox. The ACAM2000 vaccine cannot ... Both Dryvax and ACA2000 come from the New York City Board of Health strain of vaccinia. Dryvax was grown on calf skin and then ...
Hunter-Craig, I.; Newton, K.A.; Westbury, G.; Lacey, B.W. (1970). "Use of Vaccinia Virus in the Treatment of Metastatic ...
Schepis A, Stauber T, Krijnse Locker J (2008). "Kinesin-1 plays multiple roles during the vaccinia virus life cycle". Cell. ...
... where he researched vaccinia, smallpox and other viruses. He was appointed Chair of Bacteriology at the University of Aberdeen ...
... s have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... Szajner; Weisberg, AS; Wolffe, EJ; Moss, B (2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral membranes ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... The viroplasm could also prevent virus degradation by proteases and nucleases. In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus ( ...
V3 loop - vaccination - vaccine - vaccinia - vaginal candidiasis - valley fever - variable region - varicella zoster virus (VZV ... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
Following the Allied victory in Europe, Lieutenant Colonel Smadel became the Director of the Department Of Virus and ... vaccinia, and psittacosis. ...
A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing influenza A proteins and IL-15 promoted cross protection by CD4+ T cells.[31] A ... Epstein-Barr virusEdit. In humans with history of acute infectious mononucleosis (the syndrome associated with primary Epstein- ... regulation of defense response to virus by host. • positive regulation of inflammatory response. • response to nutrient levels ... Xu X, Sun Q, Yu X, Zhao L (April 2017). "Rescue of nonlytic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing IL-15 for cancer ...
Wasik, Bill; Murphy, Monica (2013). Rabid: A Cultural History of the World's Most Diabolical Virus. New York: Penguin Books. ... vaccinia) to give cross-immunity to smallpox in the late 1790s, and by the early 1800s vaccination had spread to most of Europe ... The primary cause is currently thought to be viruses.[57] The spread of flacherie could be accidental or hereditary. Hygiene ... Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected ...
B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ... Vaccinia. *(B08.1) Molluscum contagiosum. *(B08.2) Exanthema subitum (sixth disease). *(B08.3) Erythema infectiosum (fifth ... B24.) Unspecified Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease. (B25-B34) Other viral diseases[संपादित करें]. *(B25.) ... B21.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in malignant neoplasms *(B21.0) HIV disease resulting in Kaposi's ...
During the 19th century, the cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination was replaced by vaccinia virus. Vaccinia is in the same ... It contains live vaccinia virus, cloned from the same strain used in an earlier vaccine, Dryvax. While the Dryvax virus was ... The current formulation of smallpox vaccine is a live virus preparation of infectious vaccinia virus. The vaccine is given ... Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ...
Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ... Smallpox and Vaccinia. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived June 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ... Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ... Pathogenic viruses. Pathogenic bacteria Pathophysiology[edit]. There is a general chain of events that applies to infections.[ ...
MC is caused by a poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV).[1] The virus is spread either by direct contact ... Molluscum contagiosum virus spread by direct contact or contaminated objects[4]. Risk factors. Weak immune system, atopic ... Chen, X; Anstey, AV; Bugert, JJ (October 2013). "Molluscum contagiosum virus infection". Lancet Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): ... "Treatment Options - Molluscum Contagiosum - Pox viruses - CDC". 2 October 2017.. ...
Green M, Loewenstein PM (December 1988). "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus ... "Cellular uptake of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus". Cell. 55 (6): 1189-93. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90263-2 ... "Mutational analysis of the conserved basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (3): ... "Structural and functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein". Journal of Virology. 63 (1): 1-8. doi ...
This is to keep the virus in circulation thereby exposing the population to the virus at an early age, when it is less harmful ... After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus at bay, ... "Understanding Viruses (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-7637-8553-6. . Archived from the original on 1 October ... Wharton M (1996). "The epidemiology of varicella-zoster virus infections". Infect Dis Clin North Am. 10 (3): 571-81. doi: ...
MVA85A er baseret på en genetisk modificeret vaccinia-virus.[122] Det håbes, at vaccination kan spille en stor rolle i ... Den største faktor på verdensplan er HIV; 13% af alle, der får TB, har også HIV-virus.[5] Det er et udbredt problem i Afrika ...
... seperti layaknya virus vaccinia (penyakit cacar pada sapi).[5] Referensi[sunting , sunting sumber]. *^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors ... Virus cacar[sunting , sunting sumber]. Artikel utama: Virus cacar. Virus cacar termasuk dalam famili Poxvirus yaitu dikenal ... Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Poxviridae. Artikel bertopik penyakit ini adalah sebuah rintisan. Anda ... Variola atau cacar adalah penyakit menular pada manusia yang disebabkan oleh virus Variola major atau Variola minor.[1] ...
It is caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. People (or animals) who have the disease have red ... The virus is not commonly found in cows; the reservoir hosts for the virus are woodland rodents particularly voles. It is from ... Later, and still today, another vaccine was used: vaccinia. Vaccinia is similar to cowpox, but not the same.[2] ... The virus can be found mostly in late summer and autumn. Historical use[change , change source]. Cowpox was the original ...
Examples of viruses that undergo this process are herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and vaccinia virus.[44] ... Vaccines exist for viruses such as the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the influenza virus.[30] Some viruses such as ... VirusesEdit. Main article: Virus. Viruses are small particles, typically between 20 and 300 nanometers in length,[15] ... Humans can be infected with many types of pathogens including prions, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Viruses and bacteria that ...
Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ... When the virus enters into lytic replication, thousands of virus particles can be made from a single cell, which usually ... When the virus reactivates into lytic replication, it is believed that the virus genome is replicated as a continuous linear ... The mechanisms by which the virus is contracted are not well understood. Healthy individuals can be infected with the virus and ...
For the virus related to smallpox, see Vaccinia.. Genus of berry-producing shrubs in the heath family ... Vaccinium angustifolium - lowbush blueberry - also known as Vaccinium stenophyllum[13]. *Vaccinium boreale - northern blueberry ... "Vaccinium pallidum Aiton". Retrieved 13 June 2017.. *^ "Vaccinium stamineum L." ... Vaccinium calycinum Sm. - ʻōhelo kau laʻau (Hawaiʻi). *Vaccinium cereum (L.f.) Forst.f. - east Polynesian blueberry, Pacific ...
Jackson, RJ; DJ Maguire; LA Hinds; IA Ramshaw (1998). "Infertility in mice induced by a recombinant ectromelia virus expressing ... vaccinia, and canine herpesvirus, but no reduction in fertility has been achieved thus far for a variety of reasons. Initial ... Research in these countries has therefore focused on genetically modifying viruses or microorganisms that infect the unwanted ... in Australia by engineering rabbit zona pellucida glycoproteins into a recombinant myxoma virus. This approach has induced ...
"Smallpox and Vaccinia". National Center for Biotechnology Information. *↑ Riedel S (2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of ... Virus പാത്തോജൻ ഡേറ്റാബേസ് ആൻഡ് അനാലിസിസ് റിസോഴ്സ് (ViPR): പോക്സ് വൈറിഡേ. രോഗങ്ങളുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട ഈ ലേഖനം അപൂർണ്ണമാണ്‌. ഇതു ...
... cells does not require double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R or Ikappa B kinase but is blocked by Vaccinia virus E3L ... response to virus. • immunoglobulin mediated immune response. • establishment of viral latency. • cytokine-mediated signaling ... Zhang L, Pagano JS (1997). «IRF-7, a new interferon regulatory factor associated with Epstein-Barr virus latency». Mol. Cell. ... Lin R, Noyce RS, Collins SE, Everett RD, Mossman KL (2004). «The Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 RING Finger Domain Inhibits IRF3- ...
MVA85A didasarkan pada virus vaccinia yang dimodifikasi secara genetik.[120] Harapannya vaksin akan berperan secara signifikan ... Di tingkat global, faktor risiko paling penting adalah HIV; 13% dari seluruh kasus TB ternyata terinfeksi juga oleh virus HIV.[ ... Biasanya, mereka mengidap Tuberkulosis akibat terinfeksi virus HIV dan berkembang menjadi AIDS.[6] Pada tahun 1990-an Indonesia ...
VV(英语:vaccinia virus) *Vaccinia(英语:Vaccinia). *Generalized vaccinia(英语:Generalized vaccinia) ... CBV(英语:Coxsackie B virus). 甲型肝炎 (A). HCV(英语:Hepatitis C virus) (C). 丁型肝炎 (D). HEV(英语:Hepatitis E virus) (E). 庚型肝炎 (G). ... Yaba monkey tumor virus(英语:Yaba monkey tumor virus). *MCV(英语:Molluscum contagiosum virus) *Molluscum contagiosum(英语:Molluscum ... JC 病毒(英语:JC virus) 进行性多灶性白质脑病. 核糖核酸病毒
The virus attacks compromised skin through direct contact, possibly entering through tiny cuts and abrasions in the stratum ... is a new wart treatment which may trigger a host immune response to the wart virus, resulting in wart resolution. It is now ...
Viri[uredi , uredi kodo]. *. Božilov, Ivan; Gjuzelev, Vasil (1999). История на средновековна България VII-XIV век [Zgodovina ... Vaccinium arctostaphylos in Ilex colchica ter volčin vrste Daphne pontica in krčnici Hypericum androsaemum ter H. calcynum.[24] ... vakcinij vrste Vaccinium arctostaphylos, sliva vrste Prunus laurocerasus, bodika vrste Ilex colchica, jeglič vrste Primula ...
"Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery of infectious virus in ... The genomes of several large DNA viruses and RNA viruses have been cloned as BACs. These constructs are referred to as " ... The infectious property of these BACs has made the study of many viruses such as the herpesviruses, poxviruses and ... transfection with a suitable virus or microinjection. BACs can also be utilized to detect genes or large sequences of interest ...
Smallpox and Vaccinia. National Center for Biotechnology Information. *↑ Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the ... Culex mosquitos (Culex quinquefasciatus shown) are biological vectors that transmit West Nile Virus. ...
Vaccinia virus Eczema vaccinatum Gamma globulin Smallpox Vaccine: Contraindications, Administration, and Adverse Reactions CDC ... Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in humans before and after revaccination with vaccinia virus. Infect Immun. 1978;19: ... Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) is made from the pooled blood of individuals who have been inoculated with the smallpox vaccine ... DOI PubMed "Vaccinia immune globulin definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on ...
... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages.[ ... Viruses[edit]. Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after ... Many types of virus are capable of genetic recombination. When two or more individual viruses of the same type infect a cell, ... When two or more viruses, each containing lethal genomic damage infect the same host cell, the virus genomes often can pair ...
Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
... Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the live viral component of smallpox ... Alternative Text: The figure above shows the left eye and right ear of a man with laboratory acquired vaccinia virus infection ... Household transmission of vaccinia virus from contact with a military smallpox vaccinee---Illinois and Indiana, 2007. MMWR 2007 ... Secondary and tertiary transfer of vaccinia virus among U.S. military personnel---United States and worldwide, 2002--2004. MMWR ...
For a vaccinia virus control, two were vaccinated with v50, a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the G gene of vesicular ... It does not exist in nature and is distinct from cowpox virus and the variola virus of smallpox. Vaccinia virus has protected ... expressing both vaccinia virus and foreign genes. The animal thus becomes immune both to vaccinia virus and to the agent from ... 1. A schematic representation of a vaccinia virus recombinant that expresses a foreign gene - Schéma dun recombinant du virus ...
Vaccination recommended for lab staff manipulating vaccinia, monkeypox, or cowpox viruses (CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological ... Vaccinia virus ATCC ® VR-2034™ Designation: S-variant Application: ... Two major DNA variants present in serially propagated stocks of the WR strain of vaccinia virus. J. Virol. 37: 1000-1010, 1981 ... Paoletti E, Panicali D. Method for immunizing animals with synthetically modified vaccinia virus. US Patent 4,722,848 dated Feb ...
Construction of an Array of Vaccinia Virus Proteins.. Our strategy was to test each pairwise combination of vaccinia virus ORFs ... Diploids containing an ORF from the vaccinia virus activation domain array (Leu+) and a test vaccinia ORF in the DNA-binding ... Genome-wide analysis of vaccinia virus protein-protein interactions. Stephen McCraith, Ted Holtzman, Bernard Moss, Stanley ... Genome-wide analysis of vaccinia virus protein-protein interactions. Stephen McCraith, Ted Holtzman, Bernard Moss, Stanley ...
FIGURE 2. Results of serologic testing for vaccinia virus (VACV) in a VACV-immunized laboratory worker inadvertently inoculated ... FIGURE 1. Progression* of vaccinia virus (VACV) infection in VACV-immunized laboratory worker inadvertently inoculated with ... Laboratory-Acquired Vaccinia Virus Infection in a Recently Immunized Person - Massachusetts, 2013. Christopher H. Hsu, MD, PhD1 ... Alternate Text: The figure above is a bar chart showing results of serologic testing for vaccinia virus (VACV) in a VACV- ...
1. Vaccinia virus localization in the vicinity of the MTOC depends on microtubules. HeLa cells infected with vaccinia virus in ... We examined the role of the microtubule cytoskeleton during vaccinia virus infection. We found that newly assembled virus ... HeLa cells 24 h post-infection with vaccinia virus are labelled with anti-A10L (A and E) or anti-L4R (C and G) and anti-α- ... Vaccinia virus particles are visualized with the anti-A27L antibody, while the cis-Golgi and trans-Golgi network are labelled ...
... in a vaccinia virus prime/vaccinia virus boost innoculation regimen. ... It further describes recombinant viruses derived from this virus and the use of the virus, or its recombinants, as a medicament ... which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively ... In addition, a method is provided for the administration of a therapeutically effective amount of the virus, or its ...
We describe how vaccinia virus-mediated homologous recombination can be used to introduce specific mutations into the ... In this article, we describe the reverse genetic system that is based on the use of vaccinia virus cloning vectors. This system ... Reverse genetics of coronaviruses using vaccinia virus vectors.. Thiel V1, Siddell SG. ... coronavirus genomic cDNA during its propagation in vaccinia virus and how recombinant coronaviruses can be isolated. Finally, ...
Vaccinia virus (strain Tian Tan) (VACV)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,Q77TM1,Q77TM1_VACCT Sulfhydryl oxidase OS=Vaccinia virus (strain Tian Tan) OX=10253 PE=4 SV=1 ... help/virus_host target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Virus hosti. Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]. ... Viruses › Varidnaviria › Bamfordvirae › Nucleocytoviricota › Pokkesviricetes › Chitovirales › Poxviridae › Chordopoxvirinae › ...
We hypothesized that a vaccinia virus engineered to target cells with activation of the ras/MAPK signaling pathway (JX-594) ... Oncolytic vaccinia virus disrupts tumor-associated vasculature in humans Cancer Res. 2013 Feb 15;73(4):1265-75. doi: 10.1158/ ... We hypothesized that a vaccinia virus engineered to target cells with activation of the ras/MAPK signaling pathway (JX-594) ... Intravenous infusion in mice resulted in virus replication in tumor-associated endothelial cells, disruption of tumor blood ...
Validated in ICC/IF and tested in Vaccinia virus. Cited in 2 publication(s). ... Rabbit polyclonal Vaccinia Virus antibody conjugated to FITC. ... Anti-Vaccinia Virus antibody (FITC). See all Vaccinia Virus ... Microbiology Organism Virus DNA Virus double stranded DNA Virus Other dsDNA viruses Share by email ... Fusion protein plays an important role in the entry of enveloped virus into cells. As vaccinia virus has a wide host range, it ...
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Vaccinia Virus antibody (Biotin) (ab21039). Please download our general protocols ... Microbiology Organism Virus DNA Virus double stranded DNA Virus Other dsDNA viruses ...
... is a big mystery in virology. It is not known whether vaccinia virus is the product of genetic ... However, with the eradication of smallpox, routine vaccination with vaccinia virus has ceased. Recent interest in vaccinia has ... Progressive vaccinia (vaccinia necrosum)- Progressive vaccinia is a severe, potentially fatal illness characterized by ... or if it is the living representative of a now extinct virus. Vaccinia virus was used for smallpox vaccination via inoculation ...
... and could be seen as the provision of vaccinia virus formulations wherein the vaccinia virus was a partially purified vaccinia ... and could be seen as the provision of vaccinia virus formulations wherein the vaccinia virus was a partially purified vaccinia ... and could be seen as the provision of vaccinia virus formulations wherein the vaccinia virus was a partially purified vaccinia ... Document (D1) thus teaches stabilised purified virus preparations that are also suitable for poxviruses. Vaccinia virus is the ...
A comparison of the properties of vaccinia virus strains used for production in various countries / by S.S. Marennikova and N.N ... The combined use of the viruses of yellow fever and vaccinia by the scratch method for immunization against yellow fever and ... Smallpox, vaccinia and human monkeypox viruses / by James H. Nakano and Patricia G. Bingham  ... Guidelines for the development of recombinant vaccinia viruses for use as vaccines : report of a WHO informal meeting, Geneva, ...
tr,Q1M1Q6,Q1M1Q6_9POXV EV myristylated soluble protein OS=Vaccinia virus OX=10245 GN=E7R PE=4 SV=1 ... Viruses › Poxviridae › Chordopoxvirinae › Orthopoxvirus. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href=" ...
T7 RNA polymerase was ligated to a vaccinia virus transcriptional promoter and integrated within the vaccinia virus genome. The ... The vaccinia/T7 hybrid virus forms the basis of a simple, rapid, widely applicable, and efficient mammalian expression system. ... Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. T ... When cells were infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus and transfected with plasmids containing the target genes, the ...
Inhibition of Apoptosis and NF-kappaB Activation by Vaccinia Protein N1 Occur Via Distinct Binding Surfaces and Make Different ...
... ... 1973)‎. Smallpox, vaccinia and human monkeypox viruses / by James H. Nakano and Patricia G. Bingham. Geneva, Switzerland : ... The combined use of the viruses of yellow fever and vaccinia by the scratch method for immunization against yellow fever and ... The use of vaccinia hyperimmune gamma-globulin in the prophylaxis of smallpox / by C.H. Kempe  Kempe, Charles Henry; World ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Orthopoxvirus family. The viral replicative life cycle takes place ... Proteolytic maturation of vaccinia virus structural proteins Public Deposited Citeable URL:. ... Core proteins were localized to the virosomes in VV infected cells, to the viroplasm of immature virus particles, and to the ... This last modification is especially important with regard to the structural proteins of the virus in that they undergo prysis ...
Accidental infection of laboratory worker with vaccinia virus. (Dispatches). by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general ... Total DNA isolated from cells infected with the vaccinia virus-WR was used as reference. Two regions of the vaccinia virus ... Vaccinia virus could be reisolated from the pustular fluid, and no major variation from the original seed virus was detected. ... virus....-a0103563808. *APA style: Accidental infection of laboratory worker with vaccinia virus. (Dispatches).. (n.d.) >The ...
Recombinant vaccinia viruses have become important in recent years, both as protein expression vectors, and-in the age of ... Recombinant vaccinia viruses have become important in recent years, both as protein expression vectors, and-in the age of ... In Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols, internationally recognized experts and leaders in poxvirology ... Comprehensive and timely, Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols offers virologists and vaccinologists an ...
Human vaccinia immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate ... Vaccinia virus deleted in VCP, vVCPko, protected mice from a lethal intranasal challenge of vaccinia Western Reserve strain. ... Smallpox vaccines induce antibodies to the immunomodulatory, secreted vaccinia virus complement control protein J Gen Virol. ... This was identified as the vaccinia virus complement protein (VCP), which migrated more slowly in LC16m8-infected cells due to ...
Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. Host and viral DNA ( ... Vaccinia causes cowpox, a disease of cattle and humans, which produces skin lesions. - Stock Image C002/5983 ... Caption: Vaccinia virus infected cell. Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus ... Keywords: actin, assembly, biochemical, biochemistry, biological, biology, cell, confocal micrograph, cowpox virus, crk2, ...
The yellow structures are the cells golgi bodies, an organelle that the virus uses to make its envelope. Vaccinia belongs to ... Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of vaccinia virus particles replicating. The nucleocapsids (coats, green) have ... This is unusual as most other viruses replicate in the host cells nucleus. ... Caption: Vaccinia virus particles. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of vaccinia virus particles replicating. The ...
oncolytic virus. vaccinia virus. melanoma. lung cancer. renal cell carcinoma. squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. ... Safety Study of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus to Treat Refractory Solid Tumors. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of JX-594 (Thymidine Kinase-deleted Vaccinia Virus Plus GM-CSF) Administered by Intravenous ... DNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sargramostim. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...
Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Administered Intravenously in Patients With Metastatic, Refractory Colorectal Carcinoma. The safety ... A Phase 1/2a Dose-escalation Study of JX 594 (Thymidine Kinase-Deactivated Vaccinia Virus Plus GM-CSF) Administered by Multiple ... Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Administered Intravenously in Patients With Metastatic, Refractory Colorectal Carcinoma. ...
Here, we report the construction and preclinical efficacy testing of a novel recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based ... Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, was the causative agent of the West African epidemic devastating predominantly Guinea, ... 1a). VP40 and GP inserts were optimized for the codon usage of vaccinia virus and sequences encoding termination of vaccinia ... Sutter, G. & Staib, C. Vaccinia vectors as candidate vaccines: the development of modified vaccinia virus Ankara for antigen ...
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the live viral component of smallpox vaccine. (
  • In recent decades, imported in fl asks to the vaccine institute in Rio de Janeiro several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including genetically (now Oswaldo Cruz Institute) from the Chambon Institute distinct isolates within the same outbreak. (
  • This program used live vaccinia vi- determine whether BRZ-VACV represents an escaped vac- rus (VACV), a virus from the same genus, Orthopoxvirus , cine strain, an autochthonous orthopoxvirus, or both. (
  • We gence of VACV in Brazil highlight the need for continued compared molecular sequence data from 3 genes and a research into the ecology, epidemiology, origin, and evolu- variable region of the poxvirus genome (Table 1) among tion of these viruses ( 1 ). (
  • Double slashes VACV, MPXV, VARV, and camelpox virus (CMLV) assem- indicate a gap in the timeline. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) causes exan- were negative. (
  • On November 26, 2013, the CDC poxvirus laboratory was notified by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) of an inadvertent inoculation of a recently vaccinated (ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine) laboratory worker with wild type vaccinia virus (VACV) Western Reserve. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. (
  • VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. (
  • One approach for a safer smallpox vaccine is to utilize recombinant subunits rather than live vaccinia virus (VACV). (
  • It is important to develop safer alternatives to the live vaccinia virus (VACV) vaccine to immunize against smallpox (variola virus) infection. (
  • Orthopoxviruses, including VACV and variola virus, are highly complex DNA viruses that encode over 180 proteins. (
  • ATIs are composed of aggregates of the A-type inclusion protein (ATIp), which is truncated in orthopoxviruses such as vaccinia virus (VACV) that fail to form ATIs. (
  • The disease was the first (and only, until today) human infection to be eradicated by means of vaccination, and it was done so through the use of a live vaccine consisting of VACV, which is antigenically and genetically related to Variola virus. (
  • After the eradication of smallpox, interest on poxvirus-derived vaccines veered towards their use as live recombinant vectors, especially due to the identification of more attenuated VACV strains such as LC16m8 (a Vaccinia virus Lister clone) and modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • We have taken a number of approaches to improve the safety and efficacy of recombinant vaccines for use in humans and animals, including: choice of the strain of vaccinia virus (VACV) used as a vector, insertional inactivation of virulence and immunoregulatory genes of VACV, and expression of cytokine genes that attenuate the vector by more than a million-fold without reduction in immunogenicity. (
  • These strategies are illustrated by providing examples of recombinant VACV (rVACV) vaccines we have developed for rinderpest, vesicular stomatitis, simian immunodeficiency virus, and smallpox. (
  • The Vaccinia Virus (VACV) B1 and Cellular VRK2 Kinases Promote VACV Re" by Annabel T. Olson, Zhigang Wang et al. (
  • Oncolytic virotherapy using replication-competent vaccinia virus (VACV) is a promising new strategy to treat human cancers. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been implicated in infections of dairy cattle and humans, and outbreaks have substantially impacted local economies and public health in Brazil. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototype poxvirus and is frequently used as a vector for vaccine development. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic member of the family Poxviridae and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. (
  • As a poxvirus, VACV is an unusual virus that replicates its large DNA genome exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil, causing exanthematic lesions in dairy cattle and humans. (
  • The way that VACV circulates in the environment is unknown, as is the way that this virus is transferred from wildlife to farms. (
  • This work indicates long-lasting stability of VACV in murine feces and reinforces the idea that fecal matter may represent a potential source of circulating virus among rodents. (
  • In this study, we analyzed the contribution of these factors to elucidate the responsible mechanism for regression of human breast tumor xenografts upon colonization with an attenuated vaccinia virus (VACV). (
  • The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was optimized, and a MOI of 0.5 was best, with a 99.25% reduction in viral plaque formation compared to the wild type vaccinia virus. (
  • A growth curve over 12 hours was done and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the "on" state closely followed the growth kinetics of the wild type vaccinia virus and the vvtetO:I7L/G1L in the "off" state had significantly lower viral titers throughout the last 6 hours of the cycle. (
  • Infection of murine carcinoma cells with low multiplicity of infection of wild-type vaccinia virus leads to the death of the host following tumor transplantation. (
  • A recombinant vaccinia virus containing a Drosophila potassium channel (Shaker H4) cDNA was constructed by homologous recombination between wild-type vaccinia virus DNA and a transfer plasmid. (
  • By contrast, wild-type vaccinia virus fails to activate this pathway. (
  • Vaccinia virus has a genome of approximately 190 kbp and can potentially express more than 200 proteins, allowing an exceptional degree of independence from the host ( 3 ). (
  • Although 10 years have passed since the genome of vaccinia virus was sequenced ( 3 ), the roles of about half of the genes remain entirely unknown. (
  • To increase our understanding of the poxvirus life cycle and to evaluate an approach that would be generally applicable to other large viruses, we initiated a genome-wide yeast two-hybrid analysis to identify vaccinia virus protein-protein interactions. (
  • DNA coding for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase was ligated to a vaccinia virus transcriptional promoter and integrated within the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Here we describe a protocol for editing the vaccinia virus (VV) genome in the cytoplasm of VV-infected CV-1 cells using the RNA-guided Cas9. (
  • The type II CRISPR-Cas system is widely used for editing the genome of eukaryotic cells and large viruses. (
  • The CRISPR-Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient tool for genome targeting in combination with homologous recombination in the cytoplasm of VV infected CV-1 cells to generate mutant vaccinia viruses 33, 34 . (
  • A poxvirus host range protein, CP77, binds to a cellular protein, HMG20A, and regulates its dissociation from the vaccinia virus genome in CHO-K1 cells. (
  • After VV-hr virus infection of CHO-K1 cells, HMG20A was translocated from the nucleus to viral factories and bound to the viral genome via the HMG box region. (
  • Identification of the gene, rpo30, encoding the vaccinia virus protein was achieved by using antibody to the purified viral RNA polymerase for immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of in vivo-synthesized early mRNA selected by hybridization to cloned DNA fragments of the viral genome. (
  • Isle HB, Venkatesan S, Moss B. Cell-free translation of early and late mRNAs selected by hybridization to cloned DNA fragments derived from the left 14 million to 72 million daltons of the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Jones EV, Puckett C, Moss B. DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits encoded within the vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Molecular-biological study of vaccinia virus genome. (
  • Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated vaccinia strain with large deletions of the parental genome that render it non-replicative in mammalian cells. (
  • MVA has a 31-kb deletion of the parental vaccinia genome and was used successfully as a vaccine during the WHO-sponsored smallpox eradication campaign [4] - [6] . (
  • This level contains all the predicted ORFs (open reading frames) in a particular virus genome, together with their DNA and (translated) protein sequences. (
  • Vaccinia virus is an Orthopoxvirus, containing double stranded DNA. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Orthopoxvirus family. (
  • Vaccinia belongs to the orthopoxvirus group. (
  • The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. (
  • Essbauer S, Meyer H, Porsch-Ozcürümez M, Pfeffer M (2008) Long-lasting stability of vaccinia virus (orthopoxvirus) in food and environmental samples. (
  • Here we report on the potent and selective antiviral activity of S2242 against vaccinia virus (VV), an orthopoxvirus. (
  • The candidate (prototype/vaccinia vector rinderpest vaccine, HA and F genes) was developed by Prof. Yilma. (
  • Over the past two centuries, this vaccination procedure has been repeated worldwide, using a vaccine strain of poxvirus known as the vaccinia virus. (
  • One of the most promising new vaccine developments uses infectious vaccinia virus as a vector and produces recombinants through the insertion of genes as protective antigens of disease agents into the vaccinia virus DNA. (
  • With the infectious vaccinia virus recombinant system, it is possible to make a polyvalent vaccine which expresses several genes representing various serotypes of the same agent or a number of unrelated agents (see Fig. 2). (
  • Vaccinia virus, the best-characterized member of this large family, was extensively used as the smallpox vaccine, has gained popularity as a mammalian expression vector, and is being tested as a recombinant vaccine against cancer and infectious diseases ( 2 ). (
  • It further describes recombinant viruses derived from this virus and the use of the virus, or its recombinants, as a medicament or vaccine. (
  • A method is provided for inducing an immune response in individuals who may be immune-compromised, receiving antiviral therapy, or have a pre-existing immunity to the vaccine virus. (
  • 5. A vaccine comprising the vaccinia virus of claim 1 . (
  • 27. A method of affecting a specific immune response in a living animal body, comprising administering an amount of a vaccine preparation which includes an effective amount of a vaccinia virus of claim 1 . (
  • The smallpox vaccine, formulated with vaccinia virus, is a highly effective immunizing agent. (
  • Other methods cover poxvirus bioinformatics, aspects of viral pathogenesis at both a protein and an animal model level, and the study of immune responses to poxvirus-the latter critical to the important role of vaccinia virus in smallpox vaccination and its potential role as a vaccine vector directed against infectious agents and cancer. (
  • Human vaccinia immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate smallpox vaccine LC16m8 to determine whether the protective humoral response included antibodies against secreted viral proteins. (
  • Here, we report the construction and preclinical efficacy testing of a novel recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine expressing the EBOV-Makona glycoprotein GP and matrix protein VP40 (MVA-EBOV). (
  • The decision to use MVA as an EBOV vaccine platform was, in part, based on its parent, vaccinia virus, which has been successfully used in ring vaccinations to contain local outbreaks during the eradication of smallpox 13 . (
  • The Wyeth vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was incubated with varying concentrations of human (LL-37) and murine (CRAMP) cathelicidins, human α-defensin (HBD-1, HBD-2), and a control peptide. (
  • We used polychromatic flow cytometry to characterize the functional and phenotypic profile of CD8 + T cells induced by vaccinia virus immunization in a comparative vaccine trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) versus Dryvax immunization in which protection was assessed against subsequent Dryvax challenge. (
  • Vaccinia virus immunization provides protection against variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and stands as the classic example of a successful vaccine. (
  • As an alternative live virus vaccine, one group has developed a mutant vaccinia virus, strain LC16m8 (expressing a truncated B5 envelope protein), that is less virulent in an animal model but appears to retain immunogenicity ( 26 ). (
  • The purpose of this study is to follow responses to treatment with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) for safety and clinical benefit [during HIV vaccine research]. (
  • Since the first edition of Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols was published, a number of important events related to poxvirology have occurred, such as FDA approval of a culture-based live smallpox vaccine and the vaccination of large numbers of U.S. military and relatively large numbers of U.S. civilians. (
  • In this study, we analyzed the protective efficacy of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque 239 (SIVmac239) analogue of the clinically tested GOVX-B11 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus vaccine. (
  • Recombinant virus vectors represent a promising strategy for vaccine research. (
  • Among available viral vectors, members of the Poxviridae family-especially the modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-stand out as immunogenic and safe vaccine platforms. (
  • Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based recombinant viruses have been shown to be potent vaccine candidates for several infectious and neoplastic diseases. (
  • Among the most promising vaccine candidates is recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a live viral vector system for the delivery of HIV-derived antigens. (
  • Kutscher, Sarah (2010): Immunomonitoring technologies for the evaluation of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 nef as a vaccine against AIDS. (
  • Vaccinia virus in recent years, its wide host range and high expression efficiency characteristics, the foreign gene has been introduced as an expression vector for infection (HIV and SARS) have also been used as a multivalent vaccine. (
  • Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the FRT of nonhuman primates after systemic vaccination. (
  • Certain military recruits continue to receive vaccinia vaccine owing to the concern for bioterrorism. (
  • In the United States, Dryvax became the first approved vaccinia virus vaccine in 1931. (
  • Vaccinia virus is the species now characterized as the constituent of smallpox vaccine. (
  • The effectiveness of vaccinia virus as a vaccine paramount was in this effort. (
  • Of the eight virus-encoded proteins that have been implicated in DNA replication, four are directly involved in DNA polymerization, and others (such as a type I DNA topoisomerase, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a DNA ligase, and a DNA-RNA helicase) have other roles ( 5 ). (
  • Fusion protein plays an important role in the entry of enveloped virus into cells. (
  • During vaccinia virus infection, the fusion process is attributed to the action of the 14KDa protein (A27L). (
  • Therefore, antibodies that recognize this 14KDa protein are able to neutralize vaccinia virus infection and enable identification other viral and cellular proteins which participate in the vaccinia virus entry process. (
  • 1. A formulation, comprising (i) a vaccinia virus having a titer of at least 10**(6) TCID50 per mg total protein, (ii) a disaccharide, (iii) a pharmaceutically acceptable polymer and (iv) a buffer, wherein the buffer is not a phosphate buffer. (
  • 1. A formulation, comprising (i) a vaccinia virus having a titer of at least 10**(6) TCID50 per mg total protein, (ii) a disaccharide, (iii) a pharmaceutically acceptable polymer and (iv) a buffer, wherein the buffer is not a phosphate buffer, wherein the vaccinia virus is a MVA strain or strain Elstree, the disaccharide is sucrose and the polymer is dextran and wherein the formulation further comprises glutamic acid. (
  • The protein profile was indistinguishable from that of the WR strain of vaccinia virus currently used in the laboratory (Figure 2A). (
  • Recombinant vaccinia viruses have become important in recent years, both as protein expression vectors, and-in the age of bioterrorism-as powerful tools for developing new smallpox vaccines, diagnostics, and understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis. (
  • This was identified as the vaccinia virus complement protein (VCP), which migrated more slowly in LC16m8-infected cells due to post-translational glycosylation. (
  • Infection with vaccinia virus (a poxvirus) quickly and efficiently shuts off host protein synthesis in the presence of actinomycin D (refs 3--5) or cycloheximide. (
  • However, in the presence of cordycepin (3-deoxyadenosine) which blocks viral gene transcription and cytoplasmic poly(A) synthesis, cellular protein synthesis is still efficiently inhibited in vaccinia virus-infected cells. (
  • Therefore the shutoff of host protein synthesis is probably mediated by a factor associated with vaccinia virions. (
  • Vaccinia virus gene D8 encodes a virion transmembrane protein. (
  • Transcription mapping studies and DNA sequence analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment predict that gene D8 encodes a protein 304 amino acids in length, with a molecular mass of 35,426 daltons, that is expressed at late times in infection. (
  • In order to determine whether the native D8 protein is required for virus propagation, we constructed a frameshift mutation in the D8 coding sequence. (
  • Virus containing this mutation were isolated and shown to replicate in a single-step growth experiment with wild type virus growth kinetics, demonstrating that the normal-length D8 protein is not essential for virus propagation in tissue culture. (
  • In order to investigate the synthesis of the wild-type and the mutant D8 proteins in virus-infected cells, we raised polyclonal antisera to a fusion protein consisting of a portion of the D8 coding sequence linked to the Escherichia coli trpE gene. (
  • Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the time course of D8 protein synthesis in cells infected with either wild-type or mutant virus demonstrated that D8 protein was synthesized late in infection in each case and accumulated throughout the experiment. (
  • To determine whether the D8 protein was incorporated into the mutant or wild-type virus, purified virions were fractionated into Nonidet P-40-soluble, deoxycholate-soluble, and detergent-insoluble fractions. (
  • In both the wild-type and the mutant viruses, the D8 protein was an integral viral protein. (
  • The mutant protein fractionated into the detergent-insoluble component, demonstrating that although the altered protein was incorporated into the virus, it was found in a abnormal location. (
  • In order to determine whether the D8 protein was present on the virion surface, the susceptibility of the D8 protein to proteolysis was tested by analyzing the products of incubation of the wild-type and mutant viruses with either chymotrypsin or trypsin. (
  • These studies demonstrated that the wild-type D8 protein was a transmembrane protein with a major extraviral domain that was released largely intact from the virus by trypsin. (
  • The mutant D8 protein was relatively refractory to proteolysis, confirming the hypothesis that although it is associated with the virus, it is in a conformation different from that of the wild-type protein. (
  • Tryptic digestion of the wild-type virus increased plaque formation severalfold, concomitant with the removal of the extraviral domain of the D8 protein. (
  • Constructed in the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector, GEO-LM01 expresses the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and zinc-binding matrix protein (Z) from the prototype Josiah strain lineage IV. (
  • Vaccinia virus does not grow in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the absence of a viral host range factor, cowpox protein CP77. (
  • In this study, CP77 was fused to the C terminus of green fluorescence protein (GFP-CP77) and a series of nested deletion mutants of GFP-CP77 was constructed for insertion into a vaccinia virus host range mutant, VV-hr, and expressed from a viral early promoter. (
  • Finally, in cells expressing a CP77 deletion protein (amino acids 277 to 668) or a DeltaANK5 mutant that did not support vaccinia virus growth and did not contain the HMG20A binding site, HMG20A remained bound to viral DNA, demonstrating that the binding of CP77 to HMG20A is essential for its host range function. (
  • Decapping enzymes have been found in humans, plants and yeasts, and have been discovered more recently in vaccinia virus (D10 protein). (
  • In the present study, we performed a biochemical characterization of the interaction of bivalent cations with the vaccinia virus D10 protein. (
  • Two of these proteins are the vaccinia complement control protein (VCP) and A56, the vaccinia hemagglutinin. (
  • In the last section, we create a virus with a recombinant A56 protein that cannot bind VCP. (
  • This work shows that VCP is not only important as a secreted protein, and that the A56/VCP complex is important for the virus to achieve maximum pathogenesis in vivo. (
  • These results also provide insight into the contributions of the A56 protein to vaccinia virulence in an infection, and for the first time tests a site-directed A56 mutant in vivo. (
  • The vaccinia virus B1 protein kinase is involved in promoting multiple facets of the virus life cycle and is a homolog of three conserved cellular enzymes called vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs). (
  • Interestingly, separate studies described a novel role for B1 in inhibiting vac- cinia virus protein B12, which otherwise impedes an early event in the viral lifecycle. (
  • Employing execution point analysis, we reveal that virus replication proceeds normally through early protein translation and uncoating but stalls at replica- tion factory formation in the presence of B12 activity. (
  • Vaccinia virus E3L encodes a dsRNA binding protein that inhibits PKR in virus-infected cells, presumably by sequestering dsRNA activators. (
  • Mammalian PKR is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase that is transcriptionally induced by interferon and becomes activated in virus-infected cells by dsRNAs produced during the virus life cycle. (
  • The vaccinia virus E3L product is a dsRNA-binding protein capable of inhibiting PKR by sequestering dsRNA activators ( 3 , 7 , 26 , 49 ). (
  • We have identified a 30-kilodalton (kDa) vaccinia virus-encoded protein with apparent homology to SII, a 34-kDa mammalian transcriptional elongation factor. (
  • Western immunoblot analysis using antiserum made to the vaccinia rpo30 protein expressed in bacteria indicated that the 30-kDa protein remains associated with highly purified viral RNA polymerase. (
  • Thus, the vaccinia virus protein, unlike its eucaryotic homolog, is an integral RNA polymerase subunit rather than a readily separable transcription factor. (
  • The vaccinia virus A35R gene is highly conserved among poxviruses and encodes a previously uncharacterized hydrophobic acidic protein. (
  • The protein could not be detected in virus-infected cell supernatants. (
  • However, Western blot analysis showed that the levels of APOBEC3G protein were not affected by vaccinia virus infection. (
  • Vaccinia N1 is a 14-kDa cytosolic protein that contributes to virulence in murine infection models [25] , [26] . (
  • On the other hand, MVA retains the E3L gene encoding a bifunctional Z-DNA/dsRNA binding protein, a key vaccinia virulence factor [27] - [35] . (
  • As an approach to initiating a structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L core protein proteinase, a collection of conditional-lethal mutants in which the mutation had been mapped to the I7L locus were subjected to genomic sequencing and phenotypic analyses. (
  • This family contains a number of poxviral proteins, which include Vaccinia virus, A37, the function of which is unknown. (
  • To detect interactions between proteins of vaccinia virus, we carried out a comprehensive two-hybrid analysis to assay every pairwise combination. (
  • Virus-encoded proteins involved in transcription include a multicomponent DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, an assortment of transcription factors, and enzymes that cap, methylate, and polyadenylylate mRNA ( 4 ). (
  • At least 30 proteins form the core and membrane components of virus particles ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Other viral proteins interact with host components to facilitate virus dissemination, prevent apoptosis, and attenuate immune responses ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Consistent with this, we report that the vaccinia proteins A10L and L4R have MAP-like properties and mediate direct binding of viral cores to microtubules in vitro. (
  • In addition, vaccinia infection also results in severe reduction of proteins at the centrosome and loss of centrosomal microtubule nucleation efficiency. (
  • This last modification is especially important with regard to the structural proteins of the virus in that they undergo prysis for an infectious virus particle to be formed, a common theme in viral systems. (
  • Core proteins were localized to the virosomes in VV infected cells, to the viroplasm of immature virus particles, and to the center of mature virions. (
  • Vaccinia virus proteins were detected in infected cells by 12% sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by Western Blot analysis with rabbit antiserum raised against total vaccinia virus proteins as described before (7). (
  • Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses Coding Transgenes of Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins Enhance Apoptosis But Not Immunogenicity of Infected Tumor Cells," BioMed Research International , vol. 2017, Article ID 3620510, 14 pages, 2017. (
  • Vaccinia replication is complex, as it involves both producing new infectious particles as well as a myriad of proteins dedicated to combating the host's immune response. (
  • Although these proteins are often called "non-essential", they are frequently needed for the virus to achieve maximum virulence in vivo. (
  • Vaccinia virus encodes at least eight proteins that incorporate label from tritiated palmitic acid when it is added to infected cell cultures. (
  • Skern, T. 2017-05-18 00:00:00 Vaccinia virus relies on a series of proteolytic cleavage events involving two viral proteins, I7 and G1, to complete its life cycle. (
  • Genes encoding virus-specific late proteins with molecular mass 36 kDa and 12 kDa were mapped in HindIII-P DNA fragment of vaccinia virus strain L-IVP by hybrid selection of RNA to cloned DNA fragments followed by in vitro translation. (
  • Furthermore, the virus can easily be modified by inserting genes which encode therapeutic or diagnostic proteins to be expressed when a tumor is infected. (
  • For many viruses, one or two proteins allow cell attachment and entry, which occurs through the plasma membrane or following endocytosis at low pH. (
  • Taken together, these results suggested a 2-step entry model and implicated an unprecedented number of viral proteins and cellular components involved in signaling and actin rearrangement for initiation of virus-cell membrane fusion during poxvirus entry. (
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) inhibits the presentation of certain epitopes from influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP), haemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural 1 (NS1) proteins to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) by an unknown mechanism. (
  • Recombinant VVs were constructed which express influenza virus proteins HA, NP or NS1 and which lack serpin gene B13R or both B13R and B22R. (
  • The lysis of cells infected with these viruses by influenza virus-specific CD8+ CTL was compared to the lysis of cells infected with viruses expressing both the influenza proteins and the serpin genes. (
  • Vaccinia virions do not co-distribute with disrupted Golgi markers. (
  • Viral infections occur after entrance of virions into host cells by a variety of mechanisms, including endocytosis of nonenveloped viruses and fusion with the cell membrane by enveloped viruses ( 1 ). (
  • One approach is the use of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus that does not produce infectious progeny virions in human cells ( 24 , 37 ). (
  • Baroudy BM, Moss B. Purification and characterization of a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from vaccinia virions. (
  • It does not exist in nature and is distinct from cowpox virus and the variola virus of smallpox. (
  • Our goal was to variola virus (VARV). (
  • It is not known whether vaccinia virus is the product of genetic recombination, or if it is a species derived from cowpox virus or variola virus by prolonged serial passage, or if it is the living representative of a now extinct virus. (
  • Smallpox-caused by Variola virus, also a poxvirus-is considered by many as the most deadly infectious disease in the history of mankind. (
  • Variola virus is the causative agent of smallpox, and although eradicated in the early 70s, it still represents a serious threat as a possible agent for bioterrorism. (
  • Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) and monkeypox virus are important human pathogens [1] - [3] . (
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) is the prototypic member of the orthopoxviruses, a genus of large, double-stranded DNA viruses which includes the human pathogens variola virus and monkeypox virus. (
  • The variola virus causes smallpox and may have begun infecting humans approximately 10,000 years ago. (
  • This effort was successful for several reasons, including the lack of any natural reservoir for variola virus and the ease of identifying infected individuals. (
  • Two major DNA variants present in serially propagated stocks of the WR strain of vaccinia virus. (
  • Abdalrhman I, Gurt I, Katz E (2006) Protection induced in mice against a lethal orthopox virus by the Lister strain of vaccinia virus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). (
  • Identification and analysis of vaccinia virus palmitylproteins. (
  • Broyles SS, Moss B. Homology between RNA polymerases of poxviruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes: nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of vaccinia virus genes encoding 147-kDa and 22-kDa subunits. (
  • The animal thus becomes immune both to vaccinia virus and to the agent from which the foreign gene was taken (see Fig. 1). (
  • 1 virus gene (online Technical Appendix Table 1). (
  • Lastly, deletion of the v-GAAP gene from vaccinia virus did not affect virus replication in cell culture, but affected virus virulence in a murine infection model. (
  • We now report that the formation of the 40S--Met-tRNAfMet initiation complex is inhibited in cytoplasmic extracts derived from vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to cordycepin to block viral gene expression. (
  • Outcomes included quantification of viral PFU, vaccinia viral gene expression by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and changes in virion structure by transmission electron microscopy. (
  • The unique phenotype and high degree of polyfunctionality induced by vaccinia virus also extended to inserted HIV gene products of recombinant NYVAC. (
  • The gene encoding glycoprotein B (gB) of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) strain Smith was identified, sequenced, and expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus. (
  • A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the MCMV gB gene has been constructed (Vac-gB). (
  • The gene encoding bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7gene1) was placed under the control of regulatory elements from the Escherichia coli lac operon to construct an inducible vaccinia virus expression system consisting entirely of prokaryotic transcriptional machinery. (
  • This hybrid vaccinia virus system (Vac/Op/T7) has potential applications for the efficient bioproduction of a wide variety of gene products. (
  • Vaccinia virus thus represents an alternative vector for B7 gene expression in tumor cells. (
  • These studies demonstrate the utility of recombinant vaccinia viruses to deliver B7 molecules to tumor cells for potential gene therapy and recombinant approaches to cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Vaccinia virus armed with the prodrug-activator CD gene would result in augmented antitumor effects that combined the effect of vaccinia virus and 5-FU together, and particularly limited the anticancer drug to tumor regions. (
  • Deletion of the TK gene inhibits viral replication in normal non-dividing cells, however, tumor cells have an increased pool of functional nucleotides allowing vaccinia virus replication in the absence of viral TK [ 19 ]. (
  • Arming vaccinia virus with a prodrug-activator gene might result in augmented antitumor effects that combined the effect of vaccinia virus and chemotherapy together, but with less systemic toxicity [ 25 ]. (
  • Identification of rpo30, a vaccinia virus RNA polymerase gene with structural similarity to a eucaryotic transcription elongation factor. (
  • Ahn BY, Jones EV, Moss B. Identification of the vaccinia virus gene encoding an 18-kilodalton subunit of RNA polymerase and demonstration of a 5' poly(A) leader on its early transcript. (
  • Earl PL, Jones EV, Moss B. Homology between DNA polymerases of poxviruses, herpesviruses, and adenoviruses: nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene. (
  • The objective of the present invention is to provide a use for a UCA1 gene, which is a host regulation factor that enhances proliferation and propagation of the vaccinia virus, so that cancer virotherapy using the vaccinia virus can be effectively carried out. (
  • and a vaccinia virus introduced in a manner enabling UCA1 gene expression. (
  • Recombinant Vaccinia virus B18R is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding His20-Glu351 is expressed with a 6His tag at the C-terminus. (
  • So far, simian virus 40, bovine papillomavirus, adenovirus and members of the retrovirus family have been used the most extensively as expression vectors. (
  • In addition, virus vectors usually have a limited host range and are defective, requiring either a helper virus or special cell lines for replication. (
  • Reverse genetics of coronaviruses using vaccinia virus vectors. (
  • In this article, we describe the reverse genetic system that is based on the use of vaccinia virus cloning vectors. (
  • A flow cytometry-based immuno-titration assay for rapid and accurate titer determination of modified vaccinia Ankara virus vectors. (
  • Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to insert and express heterologous genes in a variety of different viruses. (
  • 1985). When these recombinant viruses are injected into an animal they replicate in the host cells, expressing both vaccinia virus and foreign genes. (
  • When cells were infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus and transfected with plasmids containing the target genes, the latter were expressed at high levels. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Regulated expression of foreign genes in vaccinia virus under the control of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the Escherichia coli lac repressor. (
  • In this report we describe the construction and characterization of recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the murine B7-1 and B7-2 genes (designated rV-B7-1 and rV-B7-2). (
  • Broyles SS, Yuen L, Shuman S, Moss B. Purification of a factor required for transcription of vaccinia virus early genes. (
  • The goal of this level is to "allow for quick comparison of similar genes across a given virus family. (
  • Vaccinia virus particles are visualized with the anti-A27L antibody, while the cis -Golgi and trans -Golgi network are labelled with the anti-gp27 and anti-TGN-46 antibodies, respectively. (
  • For instance, although vaccinia virus-induced antibody responses have been shown to be necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus ( 1 ), virus-specific T cell responses generated at the time of vaccination may still contribute to effective protection. (
  • Capturing the natural diversity of the human antibody response against vaccinia virus. (
  • Antibody in Tears Following Intranasal Vaccination With Inactivated Virus :III. (
  • 4) Tear antibody had no apparent effect on the illness or virus shedding. (
  • In 1991, an accidental infection with recombinant vaccinia virus was described after a needlestick injury on the left thumb of a laboratory worker (5). (
  • Athymic nude mice recover from an infection with recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) encoding murine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but treatment with a mAb to IL-2 accentuated infection. (
  • Vaccination recommended for lab staff manipulating vaccinia, monkeypox, or cowpox viruses (CDC/NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed, 1999 - stock no. (
  • The study of vaccinia virus thus provides important information that will help us to understand the nature of more pathogenic members of the family, such as the agents of smallpox, monkeypox, and molluscum contagiosum ( 10 ), as well as insights into many areas of molecular and cellular biology and immunology. (
  • In another study, rhesus macaques were protected against lethal monkeypox virus challenge after depletion of CD8 + T cells after vaccination but not by depletion of B cells before vaccination ( 9 ). (
  • Vaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family, is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that incorporates a complete transcription system and replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells (Moss, 1974). (
  • Vaccinia virus (VV) is an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the poxvirus family and has played a crucial role in one of the greatest achievements in medicine of the eradication of smallpox. (
  • The replication of vaccinia virus, a prototype poxvirus, was not, however, inhibited in APOBEC3G-expressing cells, nor did other members of the APOBEC3 family alter vaccinia virus replication. (
  • After receipt of diagnostic testing results, vaccinia immune globulin was not administered because the patient was improving. (
  • These data support a role for cathelicidins in the inhibition of orthopox virus (vaccinia) replication both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Noninduced natural cytotoxic cells and in vivo vaccinia-induced cytotoxic cells were compared to in vitro-generated cytotoxic effector cells with regard to the Thy 1.2 marker. (
  • Then, in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of vaccinia VG9-CD plus 5-FC administration was evaluated in colorectal cancer cells. (
  • Vaccinia viruses displayed different oncolytic potency in vitro cells, no relationship with whether they were cancer cells or normal cells. (
  • Cooper JA, Moss B. In vitro translation of immediate early, early, and late classes of RNA from vaccinia virus-infected cells. (
  • Despite normal growth and morphogenesis in vitro, the vA35 mutant virus was attenuated in intranasal challenge of mice compared to wild-type and A35R rescue virus. (
  • Furthermore, by using the Genelux Corporation vaccinia virus strain GLV-1h68, the isolated cancer stem-like cells can be targeted not only in vitro but also in vivo more efficiently. (
  • Our group is considering using a vaccinia virus for expression of cDNAs in tissue culture cells. (
  • Poxviruses are large, complex, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells ( 1 ). (
  • Virus isolation was attempted in Vero cells and chorioallantoic membrane. (
  • HeLa cells infected with vaccinia virus in the absence ( A and C ) or presence of nocodazole ( B and D ) fixed 6 h post-infection. (
  • Golgi and vaccinia localization in control ( A - C and J - L ), nocodazole- ( D - F and M - O ) and brefeldin A- ( G - I and P - R ) treated cells. (
  • We hypothesized that a vaccinia virus engineered to target cells with activation of the ras/MAPK signaling pathway (JX-594) could specifically infect and express transgenes (hGM-CSF, β-galactosidase) in tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells in humans. (
  • This platform technology opens up the possibility of multifunctional engineered vaccinia products that selectively target and infect tumor-associated endothelial cells, as well as cancer cells, resulting in transgene expression, vasculature disruption, and tumor destruction in humans systemically. (
  • The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and stably expressed T7 RNA polymerase in mammalian cells. (
  • A new apoptosis inhibitor is described from vaccinia virus, camelpox virus, and eukaryotic cells. (
  • We now report the accidental infection of a laboratory worker who manipulated vaccinia virus-infected cells. (
  • A similar inhibition is found in reticulocyte lysates incubated with purified vaccinia cores, confirming the hypothesis that the factor associated with the viral cores is responsible for the inhibition observed in vaccinia virus-infected cells exposed to inhibitors of transcription. (
  • It is known that CD8 + T cells play an important role in immunity to multiple viruses. (
  • Virus-specific CD8 + T cells contribute to viral control by directly killing virus-infected cells, secreting antiviral factors, and secreting factors that recruit other cells of the immune system ( 12 ). (
  • Although virus-specific CD8 + T cells are often measured by a limited number of parameters, such as IFN-γ and/or IL-2 secretion, the functional profile of T cells is certainly more diverse, and the combination of functions that confer protection from infection are uncertain. (
  • It has been successfully used for effective generation of genetically modified cells, viruses and animal models 22-32 . (
  • GL-ONC1, an oncolytic vaccinia virus, has shown the ability to preferentially locate, colonize and destroy tumor cells in more than 40 different human tumors. (
  • Reactive with free virus + infected cells. (
  • Deletion mapping analyses demonstrated that the N-terminal 352 amino acids of CP77 were sufficient to support vaccinia virus growth in CHO-K1 cells, whereas the C-terminal residues 353 to 668 were dispensable. (
  • A method of inducing expression of immune active cytokines in tumors in situ is provided wherein a vaccinia virus vector capable of inducing expression of a selected cytokine is generated and injected into a tumor so that cells of the tumor express the selected cytokine. (
  • The presence of a T-cell marker, Thy 1.2, on noninduced and vaccinia virus-induced hamster cytotoxic cells was studied utilizing a murine monoclonal anti-mouse Thy 1.2 antiserum ((alpha)-Thy 1.2) which detects a Thy 1.2 homologue on hamster T cells. (
  • They found that the heat-inactivated oncolytic vaccinia virus induced higher numbers of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the live virus. (
  • We have found that VCP and A56 interact on the surface of infected cells, and that this interaction is important for full vaccinia virulence in vivo. (
  • CD-armed vaccinia virus, in conjunction with subsequent 5-FC, provides direct killing of tumor cells by local production of 5-FU. (
  • The new virus was used to infect four types of mammalian cells in culture. (
  • In addition, the solubility of vaccinia virus using cancer cells, the technique used for the treatment of cancer have been reported (see patent document 1 and patent document 2). (
  • The vA35 mutant formed near-normal levels of the various morphogenic stages of infectious virus particles and supported normal acid-induced fusion of virus-infected cells. (
  • Cells express multiple molecules aimed at detecting incoming virus and infection. (
  • The results indicated that the vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 can replicate in cells with higher ALDH activity more efficiently than cells with lower ALDH activity. (
  • Moreover, viruses induce local inflammation at sites of infection leading to local remodeling of the infected tissue such as activation of the vasculature and local recruitment of immune cells. (
  • Entry of enveloped viruses into cells can be divided into three steps: (i) close apposition of viral and cellular membranes, (ii) lipid mixing of the outer membrane leaflets leading to formation of a hemifusion intermediate, and (iii) formation and expansion of a fusion pore allowing entry of the viral nucleoprotein or core into the cytoplasm [1] . (
  • The engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus is armed with the immunostimulatory cytokine GM-CSF and is designed to selectively target and destroy cancer cells through three diverse mechanisms of action: lysis of cancer cells through viral replication, the reduction of the blood supply to tumors through vascular targeting and disruption, and the stimulation of the body's immune response against cancer cells. (
  • Bovine vaccinia lesions were observed on the hand of the father (online Technical Appendix Figure, panel B). (
  • gestive of bovine vaccinia on his hands and forearms and Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus systemic symptoms (fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, Transmission, Brazil lymphadenopathy, and abdominal pain). (
  • thematous disease (bovine vaccinia) in Brazil. (
  • We found that newly assembled virus particles accumulate in the vicinity of the microtubule-organizing centre in a microtubule- and dynein-dynactin complex-dependent fashion. (
  • Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. (
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of vaccinia virus particles replicating. (
  • When expressed together, GP and Z form Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) in cell culture. (
  • GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or recombinant viruses to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) in the person being vaccinated. (
  • However, with the eradication of smallpox, routine vaccination with vaccinia virus has ceased. (
  • Four to five days following vaccination with vaccinia virus, a papule appeared at the site of vaccination. (
  • Postvaccinial encephalitis - Neurological complications were the most serious ones that occurred from vaccination with vaccinia virus. (
  • Vaccination with vaccinia virus has been directly responsible for the successful eradication of smallpox (variola). (
  • Positive for the Lister and NYCBH strains of vaccinia. (
  • Genomic sequence of a clonal isolate of the vaccinia virus Lister strain employed for smallpox vaccination in France and its comparison to other orthopoxviruses. (
  • Vaccinia virus was used for smallpox vaccination via inoculation into the superficial layers of the skin of the upper arm. (
  • Accidental infection - Accidental infection of some part of the body away from the inoculation site was the most common complication that arose from vaccination with vaccinia. (
  • We report the accidental needlestick inoculation of a laboratory worker with vaccinia virus. (
  • Thus, our data support the conclusion that i.p. inoculation of hamsters with vaccinia induced two distinctly compartmentalized phenotypes with similar cytotoxic characteristics--the T('+) CL in the peritoneum and the Thy 1.2 homologue-negative (Thy 1.2('-)) NK or NK-like cell in the spleen. (
  • BACKGROUND: Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). (
  • Inoculation with vaccina virus produces a localized skin infection. (
  • Recent interest in vaccinia has focused on its possible usage as a vector for immunization against other viruses. (
  • Possible bioterrorism with smallpox has led to the resumption of smallpox (vaccinia virus) immunization. (
  • Vaccinia virus immunization provides lifelong protection against smallpox, but the mechanisms of this exquisite protection are unknown. (
  • Further, our studies provide no evidence for the existence of a cytotoxic MP following i.p. immunization of hamsters with vaccinia or BCG. (
  • A single immunization elicited potent humoral, T-helper, and cytotoxic T-cell immune responses in mice despite the absence of any detectable virus replication in vivo. (
  • Fifteen rabbits were vaccinated with inactivated or live vaccinia virus by the intranasal or intradermal route, and then one eye was challenged with homologous lice virus. (
  • DeHaven, Brian C., "The Vaccinia Virus A56/Vcp Complex: Mechanism of Formation and Implications for Virulence" (2011). (
  • Furthermore, we show that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 play inhibitory roles in the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. (
  • The present invention provides an attenuated virus, which is derived from Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus and characterized by the loss of its capability to reproductively replicate in human cell lines. (
  • This is unusual as most other viruses replicate in the host cell's nucleus. (
  • To test this, the researchers compared the antitumor efficacy of live oncolytic vaccinia virus (which can replicate) with its heat-inactivated counterpart (which cannot replicate) in mice. (
  • Vaccinia causes cowpox, a disease of cattle and humans, which produces skin lesions. (
  • Some orthopoxviruses, e.g., cowpox virus (CPXV), form large, discrete cytoplasmic inclusions called A-type inclusion bodies (ATIs) within which MVs are embedded by a process called occlusion. (
  • Although the exact origins of vaccinia virus are uncertain, vaccinia may represent a hybrid of the variola and cowpox viruses. (
  • Such as used in the treatment of virus, adenovirus, retrovirus other, is vaccinia virus. (
  • Vaccinia virus and adenovirus. (
  • A remarkable new generation of vaccines was developed recently, including subunit, synthetic peptide and virus vector vaccines. (
  • VV has also been extensively used as a vector for cancer immunotherapy 8-14 especially for the development of tumor-targeted replicating oncolytic vaccinia virus. (
  • This is the first report showing that a single dose of a replication-deficient MVA vector can confer full protection against a lethal challenge with ML29 virus. (
  • Several vaccination trials have made use of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as delivery vector. (
  • After smallpox was successfully eradicated, vaccinia virus is mainly used as a viral vector in molecular biology and increasingly in cancer therapy. (
  • GeoVax' novel development platform builds on the proven clinical and commercial success of the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector technology, with improvements to antigen design and manufacturing capabilities. (
  • WHO smallpox eradication vaccination campaigns and that isolated from sentinel mice and recent outbreaks on dairy these viruses continue to circulate. (
  • Vaccinia virus deleted in VCP, vVCPko, protected mice from a lethal intranasal challenge of vaccinia Western Reserve strain. (
  • Mice vaccinated with purified VCP demonstrated a strong humoral response, but were not protected against a moderate lethal challenge of vaccinia virus, suggesting that the humoral response against VCP is not critical for protection. (
  • CRAMP knockout mice and control animals were inoculated by skin pricks with 2 × 10 5 PFU of vaccinia and examined daily for pox development. (
  • A single intramuscular dose of GEO-LM01 protected 100% of CBA/J mice challenged with a lethal dose of ML29, a Mopeia/Lassa reassortant virus, delivered directly into the brain. (
  • Interferon gamma is involved in the recovery of athymic nude mice from recombinant vaccinia virus/interleukin 2 infection. (
  • Administration of a mAb against interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to mice infected with the IL-2-encoding virus completely prevented the IL-2-induced mechanisms of recovery. (
  • Hepatic functions were not altered in either MVA or MVA-GFP-inoculated mice, and we observed no histopathological alterations in different tissues from virus-inoculated animals. (
  • In colorectal tumor models, mice treated with vaccinia VG9-TK − showed better tumor remission ability and prolonged survival. (
  • de Lopes S, Lacerda JP, Fonseca IE, Castro DP, Forattini OP et al (1965) Cotia Virus: a new agent isolated from sentinel mice in São Paulo, Brazil. (
  • Following treatment with H961 at 100 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days (either via oral gavage or s.c. injection) VV-inoculated SCID mice were completely protected, for at least 3 months, against virus-induced morbidity and mortality. (
  • At that time, no virus could be recovered from the organs of these mice (as assessed by titration for infectious virus, a DNA hybridization assay, and a PCR for VV-specific sequences). (
  • This level contains information about the virus species or isolate and its entire genomic sequence. (
  • Ebola and Other Filoviruses Ebola, Sudan, and Marburg viruses are the most virulent species of the Filoviridae family. (
  • Requirements for vaccinia virus specific T cell sensitization in vivo. (
  • We also begin to show that viruses that cannot form the A56/VCP complex are attenuated in vivo, using a virus V where the N-terminal cysteine of VCP is mutated. (
  • The importance of dsRNA binding for kinase activation in vivo is also shown by the fact that viruses encode negative regulators of PKR that interfere with the binding of dsRNA activators to the enzyme. (
  • We describe how vaccinia virus-mediated homologous recombination can be used to introduce specific mutations into the coronavirus genomic cDNA during its propagation in vaccinia virus and how recombinant coronaviruses can be isolated. (
  • However, this method has proven to be highly inefficient (less than 1% homologous recombination efficiency 16 ) and often results in random insertion of the selection marker into non-targeted regions and/or loss of the marker upon virus expansion. (
  • 3. The vaccinia virus of claim 2 , wherein the heterologous nucleic acid sequence codes for at least one antigen, antigenic epitope, or a therapeutic compound. (
  • Vaccinia virus serpins B13R and B22R do not inhibit antigen presentation to class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (
  • The therapy is based on a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the MUC1 antigen and the human cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL2). (
  • The vaccinia virus--specific immunoglobulin G levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Thymidine kinase (TK) in vaccinia virus, is an enzyme needed for nucleic acid metabolism. (
  • Interestingly, O(6)-methyl-dGMP is the only analog specific for the vaccinia enzyme. (
  • 10. A method of claim 6 , wherein the specific immune response is against an orthopox virus. (
  • Infection of human or murine pDCs with live WT VAC also fails to induce type I IFN production, whereas infection with heat-inactivated vaccinia (Heat-VAC, by incubating at 55°C for 1 h) induces TLR7/MyD88-dependent type I IFN production [17] , [18] . (
  • As compared to whole virus vaccines, there are a number of advantages to infectious vaccinia virus recombinant vaccines. (
  • Then using this virus, we tested the hypothesis that cellular VRKs can complement B1 function, and discovered a VRK2 role in facilitating DNA replication in the absence of B1. (
  • Our data indicate that B12 is not a global repressor, but inhibits vaccinia replication in the absence of the B1 kinase. (
  • In Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols, internationally recognized experts and leaders in poxvirology describe in step-by-step detail the successful techniques they have perfected to study and work with vaccinia virus and other poxviruses. (
  • Comprehensive and timely, Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols offers virologists and vaccinologists an unequaled source of proven techniques for understanding poxviruses and developing defenses against their use as bioterrorist agents. (
  • Authoritative and practical, Vaccinia Virus and Poxvirology: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in continuing to study poxviruses using new tools and approaches. (
  • Poxviruses are large cytoplasmic DNA viruses that cause human and veterinary diseases. (
  • The curated VBRC database contains all publicly available genomic sequences for poxviruses and African Swine Fever Viruses (ASFV). (
  • Moreover, virus can persist in household environ- PCR ( 6 ) was also performed, and all family members had ments, remain infectious, and be transmitted by fomites negative results. (
  • Subsequently, the same approach has been used to generate recombinant avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus and, recently, recombinant mouse hepatitis virus, representing group III and group II coronaviruses, respectively. (
  • These infectious agents are generally handled in infection-controlled rooms, and adverse events have been reported in patients when the viruses are administered at high doses or if the patients are immune-compromised. (
  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), now also known as Ebola virus disease, is a fast-progressing, highly lethal zoonosis that, if not contained, poses a threat to global public health. (
  • Vaccination is still recommended for particular groups, namely, healthcare workers who handle materials potentially infected with vaccinia virus or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (2). (
  • Oncolytic viruses pose many questions in their use in cancer therapy. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Oncolytic viruses" applicable to this article? (
  • Current oncolytic viruses including talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), an engineered herpes simplex virus that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced melanoma, are replication competent, said Deng. (
  • Furthermore, oncolytic viruses prevent tumor recurrence via the induction of long-term immunological memory [ 13 ]. (
  • Most of these replicating oncolytic viruses specifically target solid tumors [ 4 ], which is a significant advantage over the use of conventional chemo- and radiotherapy. (
  • 0.001), and alteration of vaccinia virion structure. (
  • Epitopes described in Vaccinia virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses target a group of epitopes without a strong immunodominance hierarchy in humans. (