Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.IndiaNeutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical stability has been attained in patients with a prior history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. Clinical features include new muscular weakness and atrophy of the limbs, bulbar innervated musculature, and muscles of respiration, combined with excessive fatigue, joint pain, and reduced stamina. The process is marked by slow progression and periods of stabilization. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 25;753:68-80)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Mice, Inbred BALB CSimian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Parainfluenza Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Tetanus ToxoidTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Staphylococcal VaccinesCytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Hygiene Hypothesis: The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.United StatesCross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Mice, Inbred C57BLVirus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).SqualeneEncephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.AfghanistanCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
... refusal to vaccinate their children after sufficient advising and provided the child does not face a significant risk of ... Vaccines are very effective on stable viruses, but are of limited use in treating a patient who has already been infected. They ... Gross L. A broken trust: lessons from the vaccine-autism wars. PLoS Biol. 2009;7(5):e1000114. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000114 ... polio, and more. Private institutions might require annual influenza vaccination. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention ...
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, nearly twice as many children died from measles as from polio. The vaccine Enders developed ... Mumps Measles Rubella and varicella virus vaccine (Proquad) Measles mumps rubella vaccine (MMR-II); MMR vaccine is a live ... Numerous studies have shown that the MMR vaccine does not cause autism. Pregnancy: MMR vaccine and its components should not be ... The successful results led to 2,000 children in the area being vaccinated. Maurice Hilleman at Merck & Co., a pioneer in the ...
... never the vaccine virus. Thusly, there is no evidence to show that the measles vaccine can cause SSPE For every 1,000 children ... CDC Polio Polio vaccine Polio Vaccine Side Effects Polio Transmission Polio Symptoms CDC Flu FDA Thimerosal Flu Vaccine Flu ... Mumps is a contagious disease caused by the virus by the same name. Since most people in the United States have been vaccinated ... a study was published by Andrew Wakefield that showed that the Thimerosal in the routine children's MMR vaccine caused Autism. ...
... vaccinated and unvaccinated children have the same immune response to non-vaccine-related infections, and autism is not an ... 120,000 doses of the Salk polio vaccine that inadvertently contained some live polio virus along with inactivated virus. This ... Vaccine court and autism: "Vaccine didn't cause autism, court rules". CNN. 2009-02-12. Retrieved 2009-02-12. Theresa Cedillo ... advised their followers not to have their children vaccinated with oral polio vaccine. The boycott was endorsed by the governor ...
... or who refuse the vaccine or choose not to have their children vaccinated. Humans are the only natural host of measles virus. ... In 2005, human T lymphotropic viruses 3 and 4 were discovered. In 2008 the WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative was re- ... Andrew Wakefield and his colleagues published a fraudulent research paper and he claimed to link the MMR vaccine with autism. ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ...
A child is vaccinated against poliomyelitis. This vaccine can be given orally, such as a few drops of liquid on a piece of ... Vaccines often contain other things besides the active vaccine (the weakened or dead virus or bacteria). For example, vaccines ... In the 1950s, Jonas Salk created the polio vaccine. However, vaccines still do not exist for many important diseases, like ... Some people have argued that thimerosal contributes to autism. However, no convincing scientific evidence says this is true.[17 ...
This phenomenon was first noted in the trivalent Sabin polio vaccine, where the amount of serotype 2 virus in the vaccine had ... a 10-11 year study of 657,461 children found that the MMR vaccine does not cause autism and actually reduced the risk of autism ... "Salmonella Typhimurium LPS mutations for use in vaccines allowing differentiation of infected and vaccinated pigs". Vaccine. 29 ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[34] ...
They have demanded medical monitoring for vaccinated children who do not show signs of autism and have filed class-action suits ... The vaccines given were DTaP, Hib, MMR, varicella, and inactivated polio. Poling was diagnosed months later with encephalopathy ... contended that thiomersal seriously weakened Michelle's immune system and prevented her body from clearing the measles virus ... Although many parents view this ruling as confirming that vaccines cause regressive autism, most children with autism do not ...
This phenomenon was first noted in the trivalent Sabin polio vaccine, where the amount of serotype 2 virus in the vaccine had ... Vaccine development has several trends: Until recently,[when?] most vaccines were aimed at infants and children, but ... vaccines make it possible to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. DIVA vaccines carry at least one epitope ... Although controversial claims have been made that thiomersal contributes to autism, no convincing scientific evidence supports ...
In 2003 imams in northern Nigeria advised their followers not to have their children vaccinated with oral polio vaccine, ... The cell culture media of some viral vaccines, and the virus of the rubella vaccine, are derived from tissues taken from ... "that African American males who received the MMR vaccine before age 36 months were at increased risk for autism." They also ... A genuine polio vaccinator had previously vaccinated Osama bin Laden's children and grandchildren in his compound in Abbottabad ...
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559.. *^ a b "Author royalties from autism book donated to autism research" (Press ... he was sent to a polio ward to recover from clubfoot surgery; this experience caused him to see children as vulnerable and ... "Effect of microencapsulation on immunogenicity of a bovine herpes virus glycoprotein and inactivated influenza virus in mice". ... Offit, Paul A. (2007). Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases. Smithsonian Books/Collins. ISBN ...
All the children in a given school year are vaccinated as a cohort. For example, children may receive the oral polio vaccine in ... "U.S. Media Blackout: Italian Courts Rule Vaccines Cause Autism". Global Research. Centre for Research on Globalization. Missing ... Funded vaccinations include tuberculosis, diphtheria, measles, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus for 12-year-old girls, and ... vaccines are required for measles, mumps and rubella, and finally, before a child starts school, the child must be vaccinated ...
Child receiving an oral polio vaccine. ICD-9-CM. 99.3-99.5. [edit on Wikidata] ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.008. PMID 19515467.. *^ Liesegang TJ (August 2009). "Varicella zoster virus vaccines: effective, ... Vaccination-autism controversyEdit. Main article: MMR vaccine controversy. In the MMR vaccine controversy, a fraudulent 1998 ... Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated ...
Polio virus. Poliomyelitis. Polio vaccine. Kinrix, Quadracel, Pediarix, Pentacel, Pediacel, Ipol Rabies virus. Rabies. Rabies ... "Immunogenicity and safety of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children and infants: A randomised, double-blind, ... Rotavirus vaccine. Rotateq, Rotarix Rubella virus. Rubella. Rubella vaccine, MMR vaccine, MMRV vaccine. Priorix, MMR II, ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Ixiaro, Jespect, Imojev Measles virus. Measles. Measles vaccine, MMR vaccine, MMRV vaccine. ...
Additionally, the vaccines may also prevent illness in non-vaccinated children by limiting exposure through the number of ... DNA vaccines, and killed virus. These novel approaches are being pursued using animal models and, in the case of the NRRV P2- ... Lancet MMR autism fraud. *Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services ... 2014). "Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India". Vaccine. 32 (11): A124-A128. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03. ...
... vaccinating men as well as women decreases the virus pool within the population, but is only cost-effective if the uptake in ... The cost of the HPV vaccines for females under 18 who are uninsured is covered under the federal Vaccines for Children Program. ... Lancet MMR autism fraud. *Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services ... Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus.[1] Available ...
In 1960, it was determined that the rhesus monkey kidney cells used to prepare the poliovirus vaccines were infected with the SV40 virus (Simian Virus-40).[৩০] SV40 was also discovered in 1960 and is a naturally occurring virus that infects monkeys. In 1961, SV40 was found to cause tumors in rodents.[৩১] More recently, the virus was found in certain forms of cancer in humans, for instance brain and bone tumors, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and some types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.[৩২][৩৩] However, it has not been determined that SV40 causes these cancers.[৩৪] SV40 was found to be present in stocks of the injected form of the polio vaccine (IPV) in use between 1955 to 1963.[৩০] It is not found in the OPV form.[৩০] Over 98 million Americans received one or more doses of polio vaccine between 1955 to 1963 when a proportion of vaccine ...
Dr. Rajeev Venkayya is the President of the Global Vaccine Business Unit at Takeda Pharmaceuticals. In this capacity, he is responsible for Takeda's longstanding vaccine business in Japan, and the global expansion of this business through R&D and commercial partnerships, including the recent acquisitions of LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals and Inviragen and their candidate vaccines targeting norovirus and dengue. Dr. Venkayya was previously the Director for Global Health Delivery at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where he oversaw the foundation's top two priorities of polio eradication and new vaccine introduction. This included the foundation's engagement and investments in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and GAVI, and an investment portfolio of approximately $500 million/year. He served as a member of the GAVI Board. He reported to the President of Global Health, Dr. Tachi Yamada. Previously, Dr. Venkayya was the ...
Gu matriculated at Peking University for a MBBS degree in 1944. He went to the Soviet Union to study virology from 1951 to 1955. He was engaged in poliovirus from 1957. Gu conducted the trials and production of the polio vaccine, especially "sugar cube". He succeeded in developing first domestic inactivated polio vaccine in 1960, and trivalent oral polio vaccine later. He served as president of Peking Union Medical College from 1984 to 1993.[3] He was also the first president of the Chinese Society for Immunology.[4]. On 2 January 2019, Gu died in Beijing, at the age of 92.[5]. ...
Albert Bruce Sabin (born Albert Saperstein; August 26, 1906 - March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease. Sabin was born in Białystok, Poland, then part of the Russian Empire, to Polish-Jewish parents, Jacob Saperstein and Tillie Krugman. In 1921, he emigrated with his family to America. In 1930, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and changed his name to Sabin, as well as assuming the middle name Bruce. Sabin received a medical degree from New York University in 1931. He trained in internal medicine, pathology, and surgery at Bellevue Hospital in New York City from 1931-1933. In 1934, he conducted research at The Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine in England, then joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University). During this time, he developed an intense interest in research, especially in the area of infectious ...
The development of new delivery systems raises the hope of vaccines that are safer and more efficient to deliver and administer. Lines of research include liposomes and ISCOM (immune stimulating complex).[92]. Notable developments in vaccine delivery technologies have included oral vaccines. Early attempts to apply oral vaccines showed varying degrees of promise, beginning early in the 20th century, at a time when the very possibility of an effective oral antibacterial vaccine was controversial.[93] By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example.[94]. An oral polio vaccine turned out to be effective when vaccinations were administered by volunteer staff without formal training; the results also demonstrated increased ease and efficiency of administering the vaccines. Effective oral ...
The Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election followed as a result the expiration of the five-year term of the previous legislature elected in Uttar Pradesh, India. The election to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly was held in seven phases from 8 February through 3 March 2012. Uttar Pradesh has the world's largest population for a sub-national democracy. The incumbent chief minister Mayawati's Bahujan Samaj Party, which previously won an absolute majority of seats, was defeated by Mulayam Singh Yadav's Samajwadi Party, which gained an absolute majority in the election. Mulayam's son and Samajwadi party president Akhilesh Yadav was nominated as chief minister by the party. Uttar Pradesh is the largest province in India in terms of population, but the fourth largest in terms of landmass after the bifurcation to create Uttarakhand. It is also considered politically important because of the number of seats it returns to the Lok Sabha and as including the constituencies of such nationally ...
... is a combination vaccine whose generic name is diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine or DTaP-IPV-Hep B.[1] It protects against the infectious diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B.[2][3][4] A branded formulation is marketed in the U.S. as Pediarix by GlaxoSmithKline.[5] ...
The primary determinant of infection for any virus is its ability to enter a cell and produce additional infectious particles. The presence of CD155 is thought to define the animals and tissues that can be infected by poliovirus. CD155 is found (outside of laboratories) only on the cells of humans, higher primates, and Old World monkeys. Poliovirus is, however, strictly a human pathogen, and does not naturally infect any other species (although chimpanzees and Old World monkeys can be experimentally infected).[35] The CD155 gene appears to have been subject to positive selection.[36] The protein has several domains of which domain D1 contains the polio virus binding site. Within this domain, 37 amino acids are responsible for binding the virus. Poliovirus is an enterovirus. Infection occurs via the fecal-oral route, meaning ...
脊髓灰質炎(英語:poliomyelitis,简称polio),俗称小兒麻痺症(中文名稱譯自日語「小児麻痺」;后者则译自英语infantile paralysis),又譯急性灰白髓炎。是由脊髓灰質炎病毒引起,可感染人類之病症。大約有90%到95%的感染並沒有任何症狀(英语:asymptomatic)[1]。剩下5%到10%有發燒、頭痛、嘔吐、腹瀉、頸部僵硬以及四肢疼痛等輕微症狀[1][2]。這些有症狀的患者往往在一到兩周內就會完全復原。只有約0.5%的患者會發生肌力變弱(英语:muscle weakness)而導致行動困難(英语:flaccid ...
Agassiz L. 1855. Art. XXII.--Synopsis of the ichthyological fauna of the Pacific slope of North America, chiefly from the collections made by the U. S. Expl. Exped. under the command of Capt. C. Wilkes, with recent additions and comparisons with eastern types. Am. J. Sci. Arts (Ser. 2) v. 19 (no. 56). 215-231 (con't from p. 99). ...
Bleeker P., 1875. Poissons de Madagascar et de l'Ile la Réunion des collections de MM. Pollen et Van Dam. A Recherches sur la faune de Madagascar et de ses dépendances d'après les découvertes de François P. L. Pollen et D. C. van Dam. Leide. Poiss. Madagascar Part 4. 1-104 + 2 p. index. ...
... is an activity that mostly takes place in the northern states of India, where the Himalayas are situated. Skiing is administered by the Indian Mountaineering Foundation in India. The Himalayas provide an excellent skiing experience owing to their great height which makes for long descents. Heliskiing is also gaining popularity in places like Manali and Gulmarg.[1] However skiing in India suffers from lack of infrastructure. There are also security concerns in Gulmarg which is 20 km (12 mi) from the Line of Control, however since 2002, it has been peaceful, which has led to an increase in skiing activity in the region.[2] Some of the most popular skiing locations in India are Gulmarg in Jammu and Kashmir, Solang in Himachal Pradesh and Auli in Uttarakhand. The skiing season in India is from January to March. ...
నోటిద్వారా తీసుకునే వ్యాధినిరోధక టీకా (OPV) సజీవయుత శక్తివిహీన టీకా, మానవేతర కణాల నుండి తీసుకున్న వైరస్ ను, ఉప-శారీరక ధర్మం కలిగిన ఉష్ణోగ్రతలో ఉంచడం వలన దీన్ని తయారు చేస్తారు. ఇలా చేయడం వలన తక్షణమే వాటి జన్యు సమూహంలో ఉత్పరివర్తనాలు ఏర్పడతాయి.[31] నోటిద్వారా తీసుకునే పోలియో వ్యాధినిరోధక టీకాను అనేక బృందాలు తయారుచేసాయి. వీటిలో ఒక బృందానికి నాయకుడు ఆల్ బర్ట్ సాబిన్. మరో బృందానికి ...
... the media swung into hysteria after the vaccine-strain of the polio virus was found in the stools of four Amish children. The ... Many of the viruses which children are vaccinated against are no longer circulating. However, fear tactics by the media have ... led frightened parents to vaccinate their children against these viruses anyway. One of those viruses is polio. Dr. Sherri ... and two of those children were vaccinated. No information is available for the third child, who was likely vaccinated himself. ...
By Dan Olmsted As someone who believes there is an autism epidemic and that excessive vaccination is the cause (see Bernie ... of polio if given the live virus vaccine. Force non typical kids to be vaccinated? Oh yes. Take any responsibility for the ... Healthy young child goes to doctor, gets pumped with massive shot of many vaccines, doesnt feel good and changes - AUTISM. ... Beleaguered Autism Mom on Autism Caption Contest * Bob Moffit on Time To Demand Services for Our Special Needs Children and ...
If a doctor sticks six vaccines into a child while the child is taking antibiotics for an ear infection and Tylenol for a cold ... but always knew the risks of exposure to others who were vaccinated, ie. live polio virus. My brother had extreme allergies as ... the real crime would be not vaccinating your child. The facts are there that vaccines and autism are in no way related, and to ... If youd rather a dead child than one with autism you CLAIM came vaccines then just do it. Good luck to all of you! ...
I was vaccinated for polio when I was a child and so were all my friends. Guess what? None of us got polio and we all had a ... The main problem with the polio vaccine is that the original vaccine was created with a live virus and was causing ... What about the parent that doesnt subject their child to the polio vaccine, and the child gets polio? Is that irresponsible? ... Research the polio vaccine, which is problematic. The only cases of polio in tge U,S, come from the vaccine itself The article ...
Excerpt: Liberian health authorities have reported that the recent polio, measles and deworming campaign across the country was ... According to Adolphus Clarke, an estimated 900,000 children... ... Nearly 900,000 Children Vaccinated Against Polio in Liberia. ... Seth Mnookin: The Panic Virus: The True Story Behind the Vaccine-Autism Controversy. ... Nearly 900,000 children vaccinated against polio. Via The Bush Chicken: Nearly 900,000 Children Vaccinated Against Polio in ...
The newly proposed legislation to study the autism rate in never-vaccinated American kids could settle the debate over vaccines ... The newly proposed legislation to study the autism rate in never-vaccinated American kids could settle the debate over vaccines ... After all, the CDC switched to an inactivated polio vaccine in 2000 when it became clear that the live polio virus was causing ... And kids today are still protected from polio -- only now with zero chance of actually contracting it from the vaccine. ...
According to Barbara Loe Fisher of the National Vaccine Information Center:. 1 highly vaccinated child in 45 develops autism in ... Cancer risk associated with simian virus 40 contaminated polio vaccine. (Fisher SG1, Weber L, Carbone M, Anticancer Res.1999 ... Children vaccinated with DPT or MMR had 14 times more asthma and 9.4 times more eczema than non-vaccinated children. McKeever ... in unvaccinated children and 15.0% (13.6%-16.4%) in vaccinated children. In older children, atopy was more common, but its ...
32. The live polio viruses used in the Oral Polio Vaccine has caused Vaccine Attributed Paralytic Polio (500 to 600 cases a ... vaccines cause autism) has been admitted by the US Vaccine Court. About 83 suspected cases of vaccines causing autism have been ... 6. Children are vaccinated simply because parents can be frightened to forcefully vaccinate their children. Vaccinating infants ... Vaccine, Vaccine Scam, Vaccines, Video, Virus, Viruses, war on terror, Warner Bros, Weather Modification, Weather War, weather ...
Most children are vaccinated three times by the time they enter grade school, the first in infancy, the second before ... Toxins In Vaccinations Documented Research On Toxic Effects Of Vaccines Most children are vaccinated three times by the time ... Simian monkey virus No. 40 in polio vaccines. These are the major base ingredients that are used to formulate every vaccine. ... These people dont vaccinate their children. They dont take flu vaccines. They dont run to the doctor and the hospital every ...
... since producing vaccines against viral threats is a potentially hazardous business. ... Thus far scientists have been using killed or disabled viruses for vaccinating billions worldwide against smallpox, polio, ... the fears of about one third of American parents that giving a series of vaccines to kids may be associated with autism. ... Vaccination for Children. Vaccines are biological products that impart immunity to the recipient. Vaccines may be live ...
Smallpox vaccine was known to have such complications, and still people vaccinated until the virus was eradicated.. Live polio ... Autism Speaks Blog: Seizures are indeed more common in both children and adults on the autism spectrum. Independently, autism ... There have been other cases (12 that we now know of) in which the childs autism was determined to be vaccine-induced.. Besides ... The ugly side of the autism and vaccines debate is showing its dangerous face in the San Diego area where 12 children have ...
Kurt: Why I Will Never Choose to Vaccinate my Own Son and Any Future Kids my Wife and I ... Autism Epidemic Linked to Epidemic of Vaccine Induced Diabetes. It Only Took 50 Years: CDC Admits Polio Vaccine Tainted with ... Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Prima - PubMed Mobile. CDC Removes Webpage About Polio Vaccine Contamination: Further ... Vaccines - Vaccines - flu vaccines - Vaccines - Vaccines - autism-vaccines project - vaccines - vaccines , sterilisation - ...
The first place to go is your childs healthcare provider. ... Where can you as a parent turn to for the facts about vaccine ... Scientists say that the tiny amount of virus or bacteria in vaccines is not enough to harm a child. What can be harmful, ... Rumors persist that an increase in autism in children is caused by thimerosal, a preservative added to vaccines. Thimerosal, ... Diseases like polio and mumps are rare, so why are vaccines necessary?. Many of these diseases still thrive in other parts of ...
Straightforward experiment: test the blood from autistic kids, developmentally delayed kids and healthy controls. Check if ... a group from NIH reports on Lack of serum antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in children with autism. ... Oral Polio Virus Vaccine (OPV) which can revert to wild-type and has not been used in the Western Hemisphere for decades. ... This parallels what is happening to children who are vaccinated while immunosuppressed, or who receive mycoplasmally ("LYME"rix ...
When you and your children get vaccinated, youre not only protecting yourselves. Youre also doing your part to prevent the ... Some people cant receive vaccines due to their age or health conditions, and they rely on the rest of us for protection. ... Vaccines are the best defense against several diseases that can be dangerous or lead to serious complications. ... Do Vaccines Cause Autism?. One in 68 kids in the U.S. has autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition that affects how people ...
... putting children at risk of serious, preventable diseases. ... My child was fine. My child got vaccinated and now my child is ... If you get a high enough population of people immunized, then the virus or bacteria will no longer be able to spread. That ... We started to eliminate polio in this country once we got to about 70 percent. The percentage needed depends on the ... You look at large numbers of children who did or didnt get vaccinated and look at rates of autism. And when weve done those ...
Despite the fact that the Center for Disease Control found no link between vaccinations and autism, the debate goes on. To be ... Yet others have taken it further, steering clear of all vaccines. I cant imagine putting my child at risk for polio, ... diphtheria, meningitis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, whooping cough, roto virus, small pox, tetanus. Penns questions sum it up ... Do you vaccinate your kids? Why or why not?. Image via Corbis ... Health & Safety vaccines autism Share this Story. * SHARE on ...
The reference states not vaccinating your child may be fatal. This is in line with the vaccine status of infants who die from ... When it comes to vaccines containing live viruses, however, (measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, rotavirus, oral polio and ... In 2014, a head CDC scientist, Dr William Thompson, co-author of a seminal study purporting to prove that vaccines and autism ... whats the big deal.. my kids are vaccinated. I have nothing to fear from an un-vaccinated kid ...
I am convinced that people who choose not to vaccinate are doing so because they genuinely believe that injecting something ... Every parent wants the best for their child. No doubt. ... the chickenpox and Rota-virus vaccines. These vaccines contain ... Autism is not yet fully understood, it may be scary but one thing is certain - it isnt caused by a vaccine. Deadly viruses ... polio, pertussis and haemophilus) or 6 in 1 (same as 5 in 1 + Hepatitis B), the Pneumococcal vaccine, ALL meningitis vaccines ...
Why Should I or my Child Get Vaccinated?. *Vaccines protect you from deadly or debilitating diseases without having to ... Did you know we are within a few years of eradicating the polio virus from the earth? ... Immunizations do not cause autism. Numerous clinical studies have disproved the idea that vaccinations can cause autism. ... And, dont think vaccines are only for children! The elderly and pregnant women are at high risk for preventable diseases also ...
... media was was absolutely hysterical after the vaccine-strain of the polio virus was found in the stools of four Amish children ... Additionally, the Amish are vaccine free and autism free. Coincidence? I think not. Vaccines have known carcinogenic and toxic ... We need to prove that non vaccinated people are healthier than the vaccinated. The Amish refrain from vaccines, but are ... The Amish Dont Get Autism, But they Also Dont Vaccinated. Shelby March 7, 2017. 0 0 ...
Autism caused by a monkey virus. (This is not the SV40 monkey virus which caused every person who was vaccinated for polio in ... The autism pandemic is not genetic but due to the vaccine assault on our children. Denying the science wont make it go away. ... Autism caused indirectly by the rubella component which causes autism in children whose mothers have been vaccinated before ... Influenza vaccine. Autism caused by the mercury preservative.. dT. Adult diphtheria-tetanus vaccine.. Autism caused by the ...
... if they were vaccinated as a child. However, a different vaccine must be administered for influenza every year. These vaccines ... Vaccines.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 28 May 2016.. "Vaccines Do Not Cause Autism." Centers for ... It is able to mutate much faster than diseases such as mumps and polio ("Influenza, an Ever-Evolving Target for Vaccine ... However, through natural selection, some particles of the virus have mutations that allow them to disguise themselves from ...
... children completed the vaccinal cycle, receiving the booster for anti-polio foreseen in their 3rd year and for anti-dyphteria, ... which means that the single vaccine, as opposed to the combined MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) was still being used in the period ... In Bologna the frequency of children aged 12 and 24 months who have achieved compulsory vaccination varied, in 2002, between 95 ... The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B,) ...
The stories of other parents who are convinced that their childs autism was caused by a vaccine are not seen as anecdotes or ... Even polio hasnt been eradicated. Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It invades the nervous system, and ... vaccinated) kids travel with their parents to foreign countries where there are even more unvaccinated kids and when they ... vaccines and autism are linked. In the last 30 years, the childhood vaccine schedule has tripled - while the U.S. autism rate ...
  • for the first 18 months of life alone, public health authorities across Canada now recommend 32-41 (average 36) doses of thirteen to sixteen different vaccines. (pearltrees.com)
  • If, for any reason, your child receives additional doses of a vaccine, this is also not a concern. (ahealthyme.com)
  • But your child will still need any future doses according to the recommended schedule. (ahealthyme.com)
  • It shows how many doses your baby gets of each vaccine and when she gets them. (marchofdimes.org)
  • Six million doses of a new type of vaccine that should immunize more efficiently are being shipped now, he said. (typepad.com)
  • The Age newspaper said it had uncovered evidence that almost three million doses of the Salk polio vaccine made then were contaminated by a monkey virus linked to a range of cancers. (curezone.org)
  • Serious side effects, such as severe allergic reactions, are extremely rare, and occur in Canada less often than once per million doses of vaccine. (familiprix.com)
  • While India recorded its last case of wild poliovirus in 2011 after 20 years of giving the country's children multiple doses of OPV, there has been huge surge of cases of Non-Polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis (NPAFP). (thevaccinereaction.org)
  • While some attribute this rise to increased awareness and diagnosis, Thomas Cowan, MD, argues for a direct causal relationship to a corresponding increase in the number of vaccines American children typically receive―approximately 70 vaccine doses by age eighteen. (oneradionetwork.com)
  • Regular check- ups with pap smears are a much more cost-effective prevention than paying Merck and HPV vaccine patent holders $360 for 3 doses of HPV vaccine to inject into every American teenager (Merck and the CDC are making noises that they want all pre- adolescent boys to get it too). (whale.to)
  • How is it that in some of our most highly vaccinated towns -- for example, Bombay and Calcutta -- smallpox is rife, whilst in some of our most poorly vaccinated towns, such as Leicester, it is almost unknown? (digitaljournal.com)
  • And what if disease breaks out in a highly vaccinated population, with no unvaccinated person to finger? (harvard.edu)
  • And the highly vaccinated children living in poverty without enough to eat continue to get sicker and sicker. (whale.to)
  • If everybody is forced to get vaccinated, then there can be no comparison of the long term health of those highly vaccinated to those who receive fewer or no vaccines. (whale.to)
  • Public health officials inside and outside of government, along with their colleagues in the pharmaceutical industry, have a lot of prestige, power and money to lose if the health differences between the highly vaccinated and unvaccinated ever become widely known. (whale.to)
  • Recently, the AAP has begun advocating "firing" parents who don't conform to the CDC's overloaded vaccine schedule, the schedule with 36 vaccines on it, almost double the average of 30 other first world countries. (ageofautism.com)
  • Thompson claimed this manipulation was intentional because of top-down pressure to promote a pro-vaccine agenda, and because of the CDC's reluctance to address the vaccine-autism connection. (anh-usa.org)
  • Even when the CDC's own immunologist, Dr. William Thompson, whistle-blows and provides thousands of pages of scientific data and research proving a vaccine-autism connection, the matter is rapidly swept under the rug. (prn.fm)
  • We have also known for over fifteen years, thanks to a Freedom of Information Act filing, that CDC officials, scientists on the CDC's vaccine advisory panel, the WHO and private pharmaceutical executives met secretly for two days at the Simpsonwood retreat center near Atlanta to deliberate on the Verstraeten research's findings proving thimerosal's role in the rise of autism. (prn.fm)
  • The hoax of the CDC's interest in children's lives has been exposed by its refusal to respond to a doctor's FOIAs around its knowledge of vaccine dangers. (abundanthope.net)
  • A large-scale study with completely-unvaccinated controls has never been performed to assess the long-term safety of the CDC's recommended vaccine schedule. (12160.info)
  • There is also a rumor that a class-action lawsuit is being readied by the parents of autistic children who received the vaccine. (anh-usa.org)
  • Freedom of Information Act filed in the US with the CDC by a doctor with an autistic son, seeking information on what the CDC knows about the dangers of vaccines, had by law to be responded to in 20 days. (abundanthope.net)
  • In a further study, led by Professor John O'Leary, the measles virus was found in the intestines of 24 out of 25 children who developed 'autistic enterocolitis. (psychicchildren.co.uk)
  • The study (based on a review of 12 case studies of vaccinated autistic children with bowel problems) fueled the fears of many parents. (familiprix.com)
  • Because carers of autistic children struggle to find reference points with other parents - a mother tells Mnookin that she'd ask friends for advice and be told 'I don't know - I don't know and that has nothing to do with my son' - they gravitate to web forums, single issue groups and conferences: it's there they find the only people who know what it's like and will listen. (wordpress.com)
  • Incidentally these children also had a psychological diagnosis and all were developmentally delayed with the majority being autistic. (reelrundown.com)
  • A subsequent paper published four years later claimed to have isolated the strain of attenuated measles virus used in the MMR vaccine in the colons of autistic children through a polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification). (scriptphd.com)
  • By 2015, having gone through various iterations, the pneumococcal vaccine had been introduced in 129 countries, and global coverage was estimated to be 37% among children under the age of two. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Manufacturers choose to operate under strict controls to ensure that no pathogens escape to the outside world, since producing vaccines against viral threats is a potentially hazardous business. (medindia.net)
  • Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the major difficulty in developing vaccines and anti-viral drugs is due to viral variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They then introduced into the cultures chemicals which they thought might inhibit viral activity, and observed whether the level of virus in the cultures rose or fell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral life cycles vary in their precise details depending on the type of virus, but they all share a general pattern: Attachment to a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinated for flu, gets sick (with type A and B flu, both of which are in the toxic vaccine), is given ibuprofen (a usual prelude to these types of deaths-- as in shoot the attack dog), then given 'IV' in hospital (yes antibiotics would be there, which are pro-viral folks in case you don't know). (vaccine-injury.info)
  • Before genetic engineering opened a Pandora's Box, this vaccine "was an uncontrolled experiment in interspecies viral transmission. (wordpress.com)
  • Dr. Jonas Salk, who developed the first polio vaccine, admitted under oath that since 1961, most cases of polio in the States were actually caused by the vaccine. (bodyecology.com)
  • More than 40 new cases of polio have been confirmed in Yemen, the World Health Organization said yesterday, more new cases than in any other nation. (typepad.com)
  • These are eradicable diseases we are talking about, devastating in their consequence and highly infectious to the point that a single case, as in Nigeria, can lead to more cases of polio around the world. (typepad.com)
  • Involvement of these economic leaders in the vaccine industry is most revealing and even shocking as the following facts evidence: Gates is infamous for causing 47,500 cases of polio in Indian in 2011 alone, and as a major funder of the WHO, getting it to file those cases under 'non-polio' paralysis, though they occurred in the same areas as and after his vaccine campaign there. (blogs.com)
  • Sanofi Pasteur, the world's largest manufacturer of vaccines, is currently facing serious troubles, as countries around the world are scrutinizing Sanofi's products and practices. (pearltrees.com)
  • One damning case of government-industry knowledge about a vaccine-autism connection is a leaked December 16, 2011 document from GlaxoSmithKline, one of the world's largest vaccine manufacturers. (prn.fm)
  • This despite the fact that the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (formed by the founder of Microsoft, which is headquartered in Seattle) is one of the world's leading sponsors of vaccine research . (blogspot.ro)
  • The actual vaccine-the world's first-was invented by Edward Jenner, a British country doctor, at the end of the eighteenth century. (newyorker.com)
  • I have charts and graphs which show that the many of the infectious diseases we're dealing with today were basically dead in the world until vaccines were re-introduced in the twenties, and vaccines have reawakened many of these diseases and brought them back with a vengeance. (consumerhealth.org)
  • Now, scientists from the UK have developed a new method to create an entirely synthetic vaccine that doesn't rely on using live infectious virus, which means it is much safer, the BBC reported. (medindia.net)
  • Dave Stuart, Life Sciences Director at Diamond, and MRC Professor of Structural Biology at the University of Oxford, said that unlike traditional vaccines, there is no chance that an empty shell vaccine will revert to infectious form. (medindia.net)
  • This study has been used for the past decade by the those seeking to say there is no link between autism and vaccines. (anh-usa.org)
  • Tragically, the US Government agency theoretically entrusted with guarding public health, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as with the case of health dangers of GMO foods, as well with the dramatic evidence of the link between autism and adjuvants used in typical vaccines, is accepting the argument of big and politically powerful Pharmaceutical companies. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The investigation revealed aluminum and sodium chloride, the usual component of saline, as was expected, because they are named ingredients of most vaccines. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Using a Field Emission Gun Environmental Electron Scanning Microscope, the researchers produced photos of this aluminum salt which formed white crystalline branches similar to frost on a windowpane on the top of the droplets of vaccine liquid. (globalresearch.ca)
  • The most brain toxic vaccine ingredient in this era since the year 2000 is aluminum , which is increasingly in many infant vaccines. (naturalnews.com)
  • Aluminum is put into vaccines as an adjuvant to help them "work better" or to "enhance" them. (westonaprice.org)
  • With a religious zeal not seen since the Crusades, these public health officials bearing live polio viruses capable of being causing vaccine strain polio and transmitting it to others through the open sewage pits of poor communities in India, apparently have no idea what they are doing. (whale.to)
  • The study, in which vaccine data was gathered on 2,583 children in metropolitan Atlanta born between 1986 and 1993, concluded that there were "no significant associations" between the age at which the vaccine is administered and the incidence of "developmental regression" such as autism. (anh-usa.org)
  • A 1986 federal law preempted state and local subject matter jurisdiction regarding vaccine liability, creating "vaccine courts" to hear lawsuits against vaccine makers. (americanfreepress.net)
  • This all began in 1986 under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. (bodyecology.com)
  • Industry considered its liability for vaccine injury so significant that it lobbied Congress for the 1986 National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act , providing doctors and vaccine manufacturers almost blanket liability protection for injuries caused by federally recommended vaccines. (harvard.edu)
  • The liability risk was so serious that the federal government created a special tribunal under the 1986 Act, the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, to pay the injured. (harvard.edu)
  • The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (NCVIA) shields vaccine manufacturers from liability for the death and disability caused by their vaccines. (12160.info)