Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Mice, Inbred BALB CEbola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Tetanus ToxoidHerpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.SqualeneRespiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Parainfluenza Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Mice, Inbred C57BLInfluenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Pseudorabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Vaccines, Marker: Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lyme Disease Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Pseudomonas Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat PSEUDOMONAS INFECTIONS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.United StatesImmunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Adenovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family ADENOVIRIDAE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Alzheimer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Interrupting the transmission of respiratory tract infections: theory and practice. (1/1781)

Interruption of transmission has always been one of the most attractive approaches for infection control. The technologies available were severely limited before the development of appropriate vaccines. Mathematically, the proportion of those who need to be immune to interrupt transmission can be derived from the Ro, which represents the number of new cases infected by a single case when all contacts are susceptible. Purely respiratory infections have critical characteristics affecting transmission that are different from key childhood vaccine-preventable diseases spread by the respiratory route. They include frequent reinfections and antigenic changes of the agents. Pragmatic approaches to understanding their potential effect can be found in experimental and programmatic use of vaccines such as those for Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus infections. Results of these experiences can in turn strengthen the development of transmission theory.  (+info)

Home delivery of heat-stable vaccines in Indonesia: outreach immunization with a prefilled, single-use injection device. (2/1781)

Extending immunization coverage to underserved populations will require innovative immunization strategies. This study evaluated one such strategy: the use of a prefilled, single-use injection device for outreach immunization by village midwives. The device, UniJect, is designed to prevent refilling or reuse. Stored at ambient temperatures for up to 1 month in midwives' homes, vaccine-filled UniJect devices were immediately available for outreach. Between July 1995 and April 1996, 110 midwives on the Indonesia islands of Lombok and Bali visited the homes of newborn infants to deliver hepatitis B vaccine to the infants and tetanus toxoid to their mothers. Observations and interviews showed that the midwives used the device properly and safely to administer approximately 10,000 sterile injections in home settings. There were no problems with excessive heat exposure during the storage or delivery of vaccine. Injection recipients and midwives expressed a strong preference for the UniJect device over a standard syringe. Use of the prefilled device outside the cold chain simplified the logistics and facilitated the speed and efficiency of home visits, while the single-dose format minimized vaccine wastage.  (+info)

A contraceptive peptide vaccine targeting sulfated glycoprotein ZP2 of the mouse zona pellucida. (3/1781)

In this study, we have mapped and characterized a B cell epitope of sulfated glycoprotein ZP2 (ZP2) as a step toward the development of a multi-epitope zona pellucida (ZP) vaccine. Recombinant polypeptides expressed by random deoxyribonuclease-digested fragments of ZP2 cDNA were screened for binding to IE-3, a monoclonal antibody to murine ZP2. Positive clones contained cDNA inserts encoding polypeptide corresponding to ZP2(103-134). When normal or ovariectomized female mice were immunized with three overlapping peptides that span this region of ZP2 (101-120, 111-130, 121-140), only ZP2(121-140) elicited IgG antibodies that reacted with mouse ovarian ZP, indicative of the presence of native B epitope and helper T cell epitope in ZP2(121-140). To more finely map the ZP2 B cell epitope, a random peptide display library was screened with the IE-3 antibody, and a consensus tetramer sequence VxYK that matched the ZP2(123-126) sequence VRYK was located. Competitive immunofluorescence analysis with single alanine-substituted VxYK peptides ranked the relative contribution of the three critical B cell epitope residues as Y > V > K. A chimeric peptide was constructed that contained the YRYK motif of ZP2 and a bovine RNase T cell epitope. Although (C57BL/6xA/J) F1 (B6AF1) female mice immunized with the chimeric peptide developed ZP antibody response, this peptide elicited antibody only in mice of the histocompatibility complex (MHC) H-2(k or b) haplotype. In contrast, ZP2(121-140) peptide elicited antibody in inbred mice with three additional mouse MHC haplotypes. Moreover, although ZP2(121-140) contained a T cell epitope, no oophoritis was observed after immunization of B6AF1 mice with ZP2(121-140) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In a preliminary trial, female B6AF1 mice immunized with ZP2(121-140) in CFA had reduced litter sizes as compared with mice injected with CFA alone.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a Haemaphysalis longicornis tick salivary gland-associated 29-kilodalton protein and its effect as a vaccine against tick infestation in rabbits. (4/1781)

The use of tick vaccines in mammalian hosts has been shown to be the most promising alternative tick control method to current use of acaricides, which suffers from a number of limitations. However, the success of this method is dependent on the identification, cloning, and in vitro expression of tick molecules involved in the mediation of key physiological roles with respect to the biological success of a tick as a vector and pest. We have sequenced and characterized a Haemaphysalis longicornis tick salivary gland-associated cDNA coding for a 29-kDa extracellular matrix-like protein. This protein is expressed in both unfed and fed immature and mature H. longicornis ticks. The predicted amino acid sequence of p29 shows high homology to sequences of some known extracellular matrix like-proteins with the structural conservation similar to all known collagen proteins. Immunization with the recombinant p29 conferred a significant protective immunity in rabbits, resulting in reduced engorgement weight for adult ticks and up to 40 and 56% mortality in larvae and nymphs that fed on the immunized rabbits. We speculate that this protein is associated with formation of tick cement, a chemical compound that enables the tick to remain attached to the host, and suggest a role for p29 as a candidate tick vaccine molecule for the control of ticks. We have discussed our findings with respect to the search of tick molecules for vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Impact of vaccines universally recommended for children--United States, 1990-1998. (5/1781)

At the beginning of the 20th century, infectious diseases were widely prevalent in the United States and exacted an enormous toll on the population. For example, in 1900, 21,064 smallpox cases were reported, and 894 patients died. In 1920, 469,924 measles cases were reported, and 7575 patients died; 147,991 diphtheria cases were reported, and 13,170 patients died. In 1922, 107,473 pertussis cases were reported, and 5099 patients died.  (+info)

Interleukin-12 as an adjuvant for an antischistosome vaccine consisting of adult worm antigens: protection of rats from cercarial challenge. (6/1781)

Our group previously demonstrated that a detergent extract (fraction S3) prepared from immature (4-week) Schistosoma mansoni parasites can induce partial, serum-transferable immunity to challenge infection in rats when administered as an alum precipitate. In the present study, we examined whether S3 prepared from adult (7-week) worms could similarly induce protection and whether immunity could be positively influenced by treatment with interleukin-12 (IL-12). IL-12 coadministered to Fischer rats and C57BL/6 mice at the time of S3 vaccination altered the prechallenge kinetics of S3-specific antibody titers in both species, ultimately leading to a stable enhancement of titers (relative to those in animals vaccinated without IL-12) in mice but not rats. Immunoblot analysis of prechallenge immune sera demonstrated that IL-12 treatment was associated with changes in the S3 antigen recognition profile in each species. Isotyping of specific antibodies in S3- plus IL-12-vaccinated mice prior to challenge infection revealed a moderate elevation in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) responses, strongly enhanced IgG2a and IgG2b responses, as well as diminished total serum IgE responses compared to those in mice given S3 only. In vaccinated rats, IL-12 profoundly suppressed specific IgG1 and enhanced IgG2b responses but did not affect IgG2a responses. S3- plus IL-12-vaccinated rats also produced less total IgE upon challenge infection. Enumeration of worm burdens revealed that vaccination with S3 plus IL-12 conferred 50% protection from cercarial challenge to rats, whereas rats given S3 only were not protected; mice were not protected by S3 vaccination regardless of IL-12 coadministration. The protection observed in S3- plus IL-12-vaccinated rats could not be transferred with serum, suggesting participation of an activated cellular component in the expression of immunity.  (+info)

Single-dose mucosal immunization with biodegradable microparticles containing a Schistosoma mansoni antigen. (7/1781)

The purpose of this work was to assess the immunogenicity of a single nasal or oral administration of recombinant 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma mansoni (rSm28GST) entrapped by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG)- or polycaprolactone (PCL)-biodegradable microparticles. Whatever the polymer and the route of administration used, the equivalent of 100 microg of entrapped rSm28GST induced a long-lasting and stable antigen-specific serum antibody response, with a peak at 9 to 10 weeks following immunization. Isotype profiles were comparable, with immunoglobulin G1 being the predominant isotype produced. The abilities of specific antisera to neutralize the rSm28GST enzymatic activity have been used as criteria of immune response quality. Pooled 10-week sera from mice receiving PLG microparticles by the nasal or oral route neutralized the rSm28GST enzymatic activity, whereas sera of mice receiving either PCL microparticles, free rSm28GST, or empty microparticles inefficiently neutralized this enzymatic activity. Finally, this study shows that a single administration of these microparticles could provide distinct and timely release pulses of microencapsulated antigen, which might greatly facilitate future vaccine development.  (+info)

Heat shock protein-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. (8/1781)

Heat shock proteins (hsps) and cyclophilins (CypA) are intracellular chaperone molecules that facilitate protein folding and assembly. These proteins are selectively expressed in cells following exposure to a range of stress stimuli, including viral infection. Hsp species are highly immunogenic, eliciting humoral, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cell responses against viruses, tumours, and infectious diseases. This review discusses the roles of stress proteins in immunity and viral life cycles, vis-a-vis the development of Hsp-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Cumulative findings are cited implicating the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  (+info)

  • Pneumonia vaccines are primarily given to the children less than 2 years and to the adults of 65 years and older. (giiresearch.com)
  • At the end of that same year, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analysis 2 of flu vaccine effectiveness revealed that, between 2005 and 2015, the influenza vaccine was actually less than 50 percent effective more than half of the time. (mercola.com)
  • There are many other examples of the influenza vaccine not protecting people as promised. (mercola.com)
  • For example, influenza vaccine is prepared in multidose vials that contain thimerosal and is also available in single syringes without thimerosal. (aap.org)
  • In a similar study of the viral influenza vaccine, caregivers and former caregivers both exhibited a weaker immune status than did the control group almost immediately after innoculation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • At Acambis he oversaw the licensure of the smallpox vaccine ACAM2000®, the R&D of Chimerivax® based vaccines against Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile Fever, an M2e universal Influenza vaccine, ACAM-FLU-A™, and the worlds most advanced C. difficile vaccine, as well as a number of pre-clinical stage projects including an HSV-2 vaccine and a number of innovative new vaccine delivery platforms. (terrapinn.com)
  • The recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule is available at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent.html . (cdc.gov)
  • The immunization schedules for infants and children in the United States do not provide specific guidelines for those traveling internationally before the age when specific vaccines are routinely recommended. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) hasn't confirmed whether the vaccine is safe for people who have a weakened immune system because of a disease or medicine. (webmd.com)
  • 4 Its failure was so epic, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended FluMist be taken off the list of recommended flu vaccines for the 2016 to 2017 season, a recommendation CDC officials ended up heeding. (mercola.com)
  • Samoan authorities warned Friday that anti-vaccine propaganda would not be tolerated, after a social media campaigner was arrested for opposing a mass immunization drive aimed at containing the Pacific nation's deadly measles epidemic. (courthousenews.com)
  • The Ministry of Health and Social Protection in Albania funds 100 per cent of the National Immunization Program vaccine procurement and expansion of the immunization schedule with new vaccines on a continuous basis. (unicef.org)
  • They noted that while overall childhood vaccine rates remain high in the U.S., there are areas where nonmedical exemption policies are materializing into declining immunization coverage. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Industry involvement is growing, says Michel Zaffran, deputy executive secretary of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, 'but it's still not at the level one would like to see. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The World Health Organization says making vaccines mandatory is one of the best ways to boost immunization rates. (reuters.com)
  • Have you ever used Combined vaccine -Viral 3 + Rabies? (medhelp.org)
  • This Review examines prophylactic HPV subunit vaccines based on the ability of the viral L1 capsid protein to form virus-like particles (VLPs) that induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The news is based on research on using two special membranes to dry the viral particles used in vaccines in order to keep them stable when stored at warm temperatures. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Many scientists are trying to develop new viral vector-based vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, HIV-AIDs and influenza. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Theoretically, combining the viral molecules with sugars immobilises them and prevents any chemical reaction that might break down the vaccine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers used two viral vaccine vectors, called AdHu5 and MVA, both of which are unstable at warm temperatures. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Preventive (prophylactic) vaccines are used to prevent viral infections that cause cancer or contribute to cancer development. (cancer.ca)
  • What about contracting paralytic polio or vaccine-strain polio viral infection from a polio live virus-containing vaccine, or intussusception (prolapsed intestine) from vaccines containing live, oral, rhesus-based rotavirus? (wnd.com)
  • 4 In a national telephone survey of 1500 parents of children 6 to 23 months of age conducted in 2010 with a response rate of 46%, approximately 3% of respondents had refused all vaccines and 19.4% had refused or delayed at least 1 of the recommended childhood vaccines. (aappublications.org)
  • Coverage for the basic package of childhood vaccines is now the highest it's ever been, at 86 percent. (kottke.org)
  • Vaccines are the biggest reason for the drop in childhood deaths. (kottke.org)
  • Most safety studies on childhood vaccines have not been conducted thoroughly enough to tell whether the jabs cause side effects, a leading authority on vaccine research has warned. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • 1 By comparison, rates for most recommended early childhood vaccines are at or above 90 percent. (hhs.gov)
  • We were very close to a situation where we simply wouldn't have childhood vaccines in this country. (forbes.com)
  • Then, remarkably, the federal government passed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986.This set up a special fund to compensate anyone damaged by vaccines, covered by a tax on all vaccines.It also created a special Vaccine Court to hear cases, and required that vaccine cases go through this court. (forbes.com)
  • One of five children in a Christian homeschooling family I know well, the child suffered an extreme and life-altering reaction to the common childhood vaccine. (wnd.com)
  • Childhood Tuberculosis: Old And New Vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nov. 13, 2019 -- Unlike some vaccines , there's been so much demand for the new shingles vaccine Shingrix that it's not always easy to find. (webmd.com)
  • A 2019 Cochrane review concluded that RV1, RV5, and Rotavac vaccines are safe and are effective at preventing diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 24-30 April 2019, we celebrate the vaccine heroes: countless individuals - from scientists to parents, from nurses to bloggers - who each play a part in helping to immunize the people. (unicef.org)
  • A vaccine for the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) isn't currently available. (healthline.com)
  • Rotavirus vaccine is the best way to protect your child against rotavirus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Most children (about 9 out of 10) who get the vaccine will be protected from severe rotavirus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Administration of varicella vaccine before the age of 15 months, and the prescription of oral steroids, may be associated with a slightly increased risk of breakthrough disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Live vaccines use a weakened (or attenuated) form of the germ that causes a disease. (vaccines.gov)
  • Inactivated vaccines use the killed version of the germ that causes a disease. (vaccines.gov)
  • Toxoid vaccines use a toxin (harmful product) made by the germ that causes a disease. (vaccines.gov)
  • Natural News ) Despite Big Pharma's attempts at slandering science that sheds light on the toxic reality of vaccine ingredients and their potential to cause harm, scientists around the world have continued to study vaccine adjuvants and their relationship to autoimmune disease . (naturalnews.com)
  • Immunologists from Israel have recently confirmed what past research has long suggested: Vaccine-induced disease is an increasingly common, yet unrecognized, phenomenon - and vaccine adjuvants like aluminum are indeed a threat to human health. (naturalnews.com)
  • The ASIA model ultimately explains that adverse vaccine reactions have been occurring since the practice began - and that the adjuvants used to stoke the immune system into action are a major vector for disease. (naturalnews.com)
  • In other words, vaccines likely start making people sick years before a disease actually manifests. (naturalnews.com)
  • By the end of 2017, 58 countries had immunised more than 143 million children against pneumococcal disease with support from the Vaccine Alliance. (gavi.org)
  • A parent can not make fully informed vaccine choices without first being familiar with each vaccine and each disease. (lulu.com)
  • There are suggested topics of research for each disease/vaccine to help parents come to a better understanding of how each disease is contracted, what the symptoms are, treatment options, which vaccines are available, and more. (lulu.com)
  • Some groups are at particular risk of vaccine complications: infants, pregnant women, cancer survivors, AIDS patients, organ-transplant recipients, anyone who has ever had the skin disease eczema and some others. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Scientists said Tuesday they are closing in on a new game-changing vaccine for tuberculosis, the world's deadliest infectious disease that claimed some 1.5 million lives last year. (courthousenews.com)
  • But only about half of pregnant women received these vaccines during the very severe 2017 to 2018 flu season, according to a survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . (yahoo.com)
  • Safety and efficacy trials in Africa and Asia found that the vaccines dramatically reduced severe disease among infants in developing countries, where a majority of rotavirus-related deaths occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Mexico, which in 2006 was among the first countries in the world to introduce rotavirus vaccine, the diarrheal disease death rates from rotavirus dropped by more than 65% among children age two and under during the 2009 rotavirus season. (wikipedia.org)
  • The harm from vaccines has seriously exceeded the non-existent benefit of disease prevention. (statnews.com)
  • Whenever I hear the term "vaccine-preventable" disease, I automatically think "magic-bean preventable" disease. (statnews.com)
  • Vaccines protect children against disease and death, saving up to three million lives every year or more than five lives saved every minute. (unicef.org)
  • Despite clear evidence around the power of vaccines to save lives and control disease, millions of young children around the world are missing out, putting them and their communities at risk of disease and deadly outbreaks. (unicef.org)
  • No vaccine is perfect, and some people who receive a vaccine can still get the disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Institute of Medicine all conclude that the benefits of vaccines outweigh their risks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hopefully GlaxoSmithKline's vaccine will be just the first generation of a series of improving vaccines that will one day relieve the world of a dangerous disease. (gadling.com)
  • Vaccines take advantage of the body's natural ability to learn how to eliminate almost any disease-causing germ, or microbe, that attacks it. (news-medical.net)
  • Traditional vaccines contain either parts of microbes or whole microbes that have been killed or weakened so that they don't cause disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Before vaccines, the only way to become immune to a disease was to actually get it and, with luck, survive it. (news-medical.net)
  • Vaccines can prevent a disease from occurring in the first place and also decrease the risk of complications and risk of transmission. (news-medical.net)
  • The vaccine is associated with serious adverse reactions including permanent nervous system damage and thrombocytopenia (a decrease in blood platelets responsible for blood clotting with accompanying spontaneous bleeding) all resulting from autoimmune disease triggered by the vaccine. (healthy.net)
  • The meningococcal vaccine helps prevent the meningococcal disease caused by a bacterium called meningococcus. (sheknows.com)
  • Smallpox -- a disease estimated to have killed 500 million people -- was eradicated from the face of the earth by vaccines. (google.com)
  • Their false premise is that vaccines cause more disease than they prevent. (google.com)
  • In the 1990's, he wanted to show that the measles vaccine (MMR) caused Crohn's disease (a chronic bowel condition). (google.com)
  • When someone immunised with this vaccine is infected with the mutant whooping cough bacterium, they lose only part of their ability to fight the disease. (newscientist.com)
  • This vaccine and others in development offer the potential to broaden population protection against meningococcal disease. (nih.gov)
  • Young children get a large number of vaccines, which help protect them from disease as they grow. (hhs.gov)
  • Vaccines as tools to reduce AMR have historically been under-recognized in these discussions, even though their effectiveness in reducing disease and AMR is well documented 10 . (nature.com)
  • But many pharmaceutical companies are developing vaccines in the hopes of protecting against the COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus. (healthline.com)
  • With the exception of some forms of premalignant disease, the proportion of patients benefiting from treatment with cancer vaccines, in addition to the mean survival advantages, leaves much to be desired. (jci.org)
  • In many phase I/II studies, these vaccines have shown clinical benefit, in particular extended overall or disease-free survival, while objective durable regressions of the type associated with targeted or immunomodulatory mAb therapy ( 2 - 6 ) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) ( 7 - 10 ) or adoptive T cell ( 11 , 12 ) therapy were rarely seen. (jci.org)
  • Between 1993 and 1997 they adapted their hypothesis to include the claim that not just the measles virus, but perhaps also the measles vaccine, could play a role in the onset of Crohn's disease. (jhu.edu)
  • It's especially important for people with certain medical conditions (like kidney disease, diabetes, HIV, heart problems, or asthma) to get a flu vaccine. (kidshealth.org)
  • There is a nasal spray form of the flu vaccine, but it is no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), for teens or adults. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some parents' groups and doctors particularly objected because the vaccine protects against a sexually transmitted disease, human papilloma virus, which causes cervical cancer. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe , its toxins , or one of its surface proteins . (wikiquote.org)
  • His first foray into financial incentives for disease treatment was in 1998, when he studied the idea that the public sector could buy out the patents of working vaccines. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A vaccine stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies to fight a disease. (cancer.ca)
  • When we vaccinate children, it stimulates their immune system to make antibodies that protect them against the bacteria or virus targeted by the vaccine,' says Kristen Feemster, M.D., an infectious - disease specialist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (parents.com)
  • On one side you have the medical establishment, including the federal government's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which endlessly repeats the mantra that vaccines are safe and effective and everybody should get them. (wnd.com)
  • Once approved by the government, will there be another push like the current one to immunize schoolgirls against a sexually transmitted disease, only this time to mandate the AIDS vaccine for everybody? (wnd.com)
  • Based on a number of these factors, scientists decide which type of vaccine they will make. (vaccines.gov)
  • The authors' examination of the type of vaccine produced is also a significant achievement. (pnas.org)
  • The likelihood of the mutation causing an epidemic in other European countries depends on the type of vaccine used locally. (newscientist.com)
  • Side effects of cancer vaccines will depend mainly on the type of vaccine and usually last for only a short time. (cancer.ca)
  • Attempts to publicize the overwhelming body of evidence about the benefits/ safety of vaccines are downplayed. (google.com)
  • The French have emerged in a large global survey as the biggest skeptics in the world about the safety of vaccines. (reuters.com)
  • Thimerosal is a mercury-based preservative that has been used to prevent contamination of vaccines with bacteria and fungi. (aap.org)
  • MMR vaccine has never contained thimerosal. (aap.org)
  • Thimerosal is a preservative that was found in most vaccines in the past. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are infant and child flu vaccines that have no thimerosal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NO other vaccines commonly used for children or adults contain thimerosal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As with Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s criticisms of officials' attitude toward thimerosal, Wakefield argues that if we want to maintain high levels of vaccine compliance, we need to be especially careful about maintaining the public's confidence in their safety. (jhu.edu)
  • I've been doing research about vaccines and vaccine safety because I recently caught a mild case of pertussis (whooping cough). (mattcutts.com)
  • A STRAIN of whooping cough that is resistant to a leading vaccine is causing an epidemic among children in the Netherlands and is spreading across Europe. (newscientist.com)
  • A recent study finds vaccine refusals have, indeed, accelerated the resurgence of whooping cough and measles here in the U.S. The findings are making headlines around the country - and comment sections are filling up with vitriol from anti-vaxxers - but it would feel amiss not to highlight the study on a blog dedicated to public health. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Could A Malaria Vaccine Be On The Way? (gadling.com)
  • The UK drug company GlaxoSmithKline is applying for regulatory approval of the world's first malaria vaccine, the BBC reports . (gadling.com)
  • GlaxoSmithKline's research was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the company says it will make the vaccine affordable for poorer nations.Ninety percent of the world's malaria cases are in the poorer regions of sub-Saharan Africa where the vaccine was tested. (gadling.com)
  • This will be of particular importance for the distribution of any HIV and malaria vaccines that may be developed, as these illnesses are very common in some hot, remote parts of Africa. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Gates rattles off milestones in the history of global health and the prices of vaccines down to the penny, but blanks on the name of one of his favorite vaccine heroes, John Enders, the late Nobel laureate, or Joe Cohen, a key inventor of the new malaria vaccine Gates helped bankroll. (forbes.com)
  • He has championed the idea that governments and other donors should try to make a malaria or tuberculosis vaccine as attractive to industry as the average drug market is. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Malaria or Tuberculosis vaccines should be as attractive to industry as the average drug market is. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Children 12 months through 12 years of age might receive MMR vaccine together with varicella vaccine in a single shot, known as MMRV. (cdc.gov)
  • In Handbook of Cancer Vaccines, leading scientific investigators and clinicians distill the vast body of literature on cancer vaccines to create an authoritative survey of the scientific background for such therapeutic vaccines, the challenges to their development, and their current uses in treating cancer. (springer.com)
  • Some vaccines however may also be therapeutic for example cancer vaccines that are being developed against cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • The clinical benefit of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been established. (jci.org)
  • Effective cancer vaccines deliver concentrated antigen to both HLA class I and II molecules of DCs, promoting both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. (jci.org)
  • Tell your healthcare team if you have these side effects or others you think might be from cancer vaccines. (cancer.ca)
  • The College of Physicians of Philadelphia has launched a site on The History of Vaccines . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Chinese Smallpox Inoculation , History of vaccines.org , College of Physicians of Philadelphia . (wikiquote.org)
  • 1 month behind can be accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/catchup.html . (cdc.gov)
  • 9 Although the majority of parents accept vaccines, the increasing frequency of refusal and the requests for alternative vaccine schedules indicate that there are still significant barriers to overcome. (aappublications.org)
  • Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/teen/parent-version-schedule-7-18yrs.pdf . (hhs.gov)
  • Human clinical studies of the vaccine began in September followed by a Phase 3 study in December 2020. (thesun.co.uk)
  • 2 Overall, in 2017 about 53 percent of girls and 44 percent of boys ages 13-17 were up to date with the HPV vaccine, 1 well under the Healthy People 2020 target of 80 percent . (hhs.gov)
  • In the European H2020 funded project MycoSynVac (2015-2020), CRG together with INRA, the global healthcare leader MSD Animal Health , and other partners across Europe, are now working on the first synthetic biology-derived animal vaccine. (nature.com)
  • Initially, participants in all three groups showed a positive response to the vaccine, including high levels of immunoglobin-G (IgG), an antibody the body produces to fight pneumococcal bacteria. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Rabies Pre-Exposure Vaccine: Will Not Getting One Come Back To Bite You In The Butt? (gadling.com)
  • In 1885, Pasteur produced his celebrated first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists think they've figured out how to make a century-old tuberculosis vaccine far more protective: Simply give the shot a different way. (courthousenews.com)
  • Today, the only effective tuberculosis vaccine in common use is bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), first used in 1921. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other tuberculosis vaccines are at various stages of development, including: MVA85A rBCG30 72F fusion protein ESAT6-Ag85b fusion protein New vaccines are being developed by the Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, including TBVI and Aeras. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine, MVA85A, Delivered by Aerosol to the Lungs of Macaques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside you will find each component of the CDC recommended vaccine schedule laid out in an easy-to-read fashion, allowing parents to keep track of their personal research directly in the book. (lulu.com)
  • When Katie Shutters's 13-month-old daughter, Averie, was born, she followed the recommended vaccine schedule for two months. (cnn.com)
  • The medical community wrongly believes the anti-vaccine movement began with Jenny McCarthy and Andrew Wakefield, when in fact, the movement began long before that. (statnews.com)
  • The anti-vaccine movement began the same day Edward Jenner created his worthless invention and damaged his own son with it, creating the very first recorded vaccine injury in history. (statnews.com)
  • In fact, there have been resurgences of preventable illnesses due to anti-vaccine propaganda. (google.com)
  • A lot of the anti-vaccine pseudoscience and propaganda started in England with Dr. Andrew Wakefield. (google.com)
  • There are several different types of vaccines. (vaccines.gov)
  • Did you know that scientists are still working to create new types of vaccines? (vaccines.gov)
  • There are two types of vaccines: MPSV4 and MCV4. (sheknows.com)
  • Another day, another study that underscores the societal benefits of vaccines and the consequences we'd face without them. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Get answers to common questions about babies and vaccines. (healthfinder.gov)
  • And had this sort of information been available years ago when vaccine development using aborted babies began, the practice would have come to a grinding halt through public outrage. (archive.org)
  • Babies are exposed to many more antigens every day than what they will get in the vaccines. (aap.org)
  • In fact, research suggests that babies can theoretically make antibodies to 100,000 vaccines at one time. (parents.com)
  • France decided last year to up the number of compulsory vaccines to 11 from three for babies under two years old. (reuters.com)