Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.ItalyMeasles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Community Integration: Policies and programs which ensure that DISPLACED PERSONS and chronic illnesses receive the support and SOCIAL SERVICES needed to live in their communities.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.United StatesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Mice, Inbred BALB CMumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Tetanus ToxoidImmunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.RomeShigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.SqualeneLeishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.EuropeWhooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.SicilyJapanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Mice, Inbred C57BLRickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Parainfluenza Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Exanthema: Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Pseudorabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Rubella Syndrome, Congenital: Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measles is fifteenth at 23.11 million.[12][26][27]. Some commentators have expressed doubt over whether the disease burden ... Schizophrenia has a 0.53 weighting and a broken femur a 0.37 weighting in the latest WHO weightings.[18][19] ... Italy and the UK.[39][40][41] The researchers asked the subjects to respond to 14 questions concerning their preferences for ... provision of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine costs $670 per DALY saved.[17] This number can then be compared to other ...
The latest State of the Climate report confirms that 2014 was the hottest year on record globally. 16 July Scientists report ... 31 July An ebola vaccine developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada is found to be 100% successful in an initial trial. By ... "Rubella (German measles) eradicated from Americas". BBC. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015. "Americas region is declared ... "Ancient Teeth Of Modern Human Species Discovered In Italy". International Business Times. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April ...
In Italy the public system has the unique feature of paying general practitioners a fee per capita per year, a salary system, ... As of 1999, children up to one year of age were vaccinated against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (99%) and measles (92%). ... While equipment and medicines may not always be the latest available, staffing levels are high and the country has one of the ... Most childhood deaths are caused by illnesses for which vaccines exist or that are otherwise preventable. According to the ...
Latest HPV coverage data on the Immunise Australia website show that by 15 years of age, over 70% of Australian females have ... Mandates have been effective at increasing uptake of other vaccines, such as mumps, measles, rubella, and hepatitis B (which is ... Italy[96] 26 March 2007 F 12 Latvia 2009 12 Fully financed by national health authorities ... Y (what is this?). (verify). Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human ...
Italy 1656 plague Thirteen Colonies 1657 measles 24,148[22]. Netherlands 1663-1664 plague ... Koh, B. K.; Ng, L. C.; Kita, Y.; Tang, C. S.; Ang, L. W.; Wong, K. Y.; James, L.; Goh, K. T. (2008). "The 2005 dengue epidemic ... Latest research suggests epidemic(s) of leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic ... Vaccine-linked polio hits Nigeria, BBC News *^ Dengue fever epidemic hits Caribbean, Latin America, Reuters ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Ebola virus ... Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. Many Ebola vaccine candidates had been developed in the decade prior to 2014,[102] but ... "19 dead in latest Congo Ebola outbreak: WHO". Retrieved 14 May 2018.. ... and Italy,[243] where the virus had infected pigs.[244] According to the WHO, routine cleaning and disinfection of pig (or ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Ebola virus ... Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. An Ebola vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, was approved in the United States in December 2019.[8] It ... "19 dead in latest Congo Ebola outbreak: WHO". Retrieved 14 May 2018.. ... and Italy,[252] where the virus had infected pigs.[253] According to the WHO, routine cleaning and disinfection of pig (or ...
An estimated 169 million children worldwide have missed out on getting the first dose of a measles vaccine, including more than ... Latest. Video. Free. * The parenting myth: How kids are raised matters less than you think ... Read more: Italy bans unvaccinated children from schools after measles outbreaks. More on these topics: * infections ... 21 million children miss first dose of measles vaccine every year. Health 25 April 2019 Two doses of vaccine are required for ...
Measles Outbreak Claims 35th European Victim This Year A six year-old boy in Italy is the latest to die of measles in the ... The makers of flu shots say they may be having a hard time producing new swine flu vaccine, but the U.S. has a nasal-spray ... Every year about three million Muslims from around the world take the travel to Mecca taking part in the pilgrimage. It is the ... This year, the traditional pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca in Saudi Arabia, falls in November. Also there is Umrah, which can be ...
BRITS jetting out for their summer holidays have been told to get a measles jab immediately, as Europe is hit by the viral ... There have been 729 confirmed cases in England so far this year - more than a 100% increase in the full year of 2017. ... Latest News More UK weather MAPPED: Snow to hit Britain as Beast from the East brings -10C FREEZE SNOW is set to fall across ... "The MMR vaccine is free and will help prevent the spread" RCNs Helen Donovan. Concerned doctors are worried sun-seekers could ...
Also Italy* has seen data risen up and recorded nearly three times more measles cases so far this year than for all of 2016, ... Measles cases rise up all over Europe, with already 504 measles cases in Germnay according to the latest figures by the ... Talking about measles, the WHO reported that since the introduction of the two doses of anti-measles vaccine across Europe the ... Italy, Poland, Romania, Switzerland and Ukraine. The largest outbreaks are in Italy and Romania, the WHO says. ...
... according to an analysis of international measles data ... The UK should make measles vaccinations compulsory before ... 21 million children miss first dose of measles vaccine every year. "Vaccine rejection is a serious and growing public health ... according to a team of researchers in Italy. Their analysis of international measles data suggests that current vaccination ... Latest. Video. Free. * Our current food system can feed only 3.4 billion people sustainably ...
... government needs a national campaign to counter false information about vaccines, much like the anti-smoking campaigns launched ... Top official overseeing Washington states worst measles outbreak in two decades says U.S. ... In recent years, there have been several large sustained measles outbreaks in Britain, Germany, France and Italy, all popular ... The latest evidence unequivocally denying any link between autism and the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella came Monday in ...
... double check that your kids are fully vaccinated as measles cases surge across the continent. ... The latest fatality was a six-year-old boy in Italy. Romania dealt with the bulk of the deaths - 31 - while single fatalities ... measles vaccinemeasles in europecalifornia measles outbreakdisneyland measles outbreakhow long does the measles vaccine last ... measles meaningmeasles outbreak 2013measles outbreak 2014measles outbreak 2015measles outbreak in california ...
The latest homework assignment in Italy involves rolling up your sleeve and getting a vaccine. ... In recent years, Italys vaccination rates dropped to around 80% of the population, allowing measles, a disease that was once ... TopicsCurrent eventsHealthVaccineMeaslesVaccinesItalyInfectious diseasesPublic healthUnvaccinatedMeasles outbreakVaccinated ... Although cases of measles seemed to be declining toward the end of last year as public health campaigns escalated, they more ...
An estimated 169 million children missed out on the first dose of the measles vaccine between 2010 and 2017, or 21.1 million... ... according to the latest data. ... Negotiating vaccine prices: the cost of the measles vaccine is ... Show Media Item - Over 20 million children worldwide missed out on measles vaccine annually in past 8 years, creating a pathway ... Over 20 million children worldwide missed out on measles vaccine annually in past 8 years, creating a pathway to current global ...
2018 The video showed 13-year-old Marquel Brumley bundled up in a hooded coat, sluggish and slumped in his seat. He was holding ... Combating vaccine hesitancy and other 21st century social determinants in the global fight against measles ... Patients became infected while visiting Italy and Tenerife Related items fromOnMedica Going Viral Measles claims 140,000 lives ... Source: OnMedica Latest News - February 27, 2020. Category: UK Health Source Type: news ...
There were 372 last year.The numbers are preliminary...... ... measles cases through the first three months of the year have ... Combating vaccine hesitancy and other 21st century social determinants in the global fight against measles ... Patients became infected while visiting Italy and Tenerife Related items fromOnMedica Going Viral Measles claims 140,000 lives ... Source: OnMedica Latest News - February 27, 2020. Category: UK Health Source Type: news ...
Italy mandates vaccines and implements fines as vaccine manufacturer Glaxo promises more than a Billion Euro investment. ... 1500 so far this year, but look at the latest data in March 2016, 75 cases of measles were reported compared to 727 in March ... measles has periodic outbreaks every 3 to 5 years.. Comparing the cases of this year with those of last year makes no sense.. ... In short, measles vaccine is useless. There is no evidence that measles virus has ever killed or injured a single person in ...
... people who opposed vaccine mandates in Italy (which incidentally we do not have in the United Kingdom) have caused measles to ... This was what last year the tens of thousands of people who filled the streets in Italy knew about, unreported by the Italian ... In his latest article Conspiracy theorists make monkeys of us all (The Times 5 July 2018) Aaronovitch employs all the old bad ... of ASD for 1 dose of MMR vaccine vs no vaccine was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.48-1.22; P = .25), and at age 5, the RR of ASD for 2 doses ...
None of those countries have recorded an outbreak of measles in 24 years. Kids in Marin County are more at risk. ... For more of Mother Jones reporting on unaccompanied child migrants, see all of our latest coverage here. ... a far-right medical group that opposes all mandatory vaccines. The organization touts access to Gingrey as one of its ... A similar allegation was leveled in Italy last spring, with activists warning that migrants from Guinea were bringing Ebola ...
The measles deaths of 35 children in Europe over the last year is an "unacceptable tragedy" because it is a vaccine preventable ... Here are some of the latest health and medical news developments, compiled by the editors of HealthDay:. Blue Whale Online ... There have been more than 3,300 cases and two deaths in Italy since last June, and there have been 31 deaths in Romania. ... Measles cases in the United States have also increased this year, with 108 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and ...
The outbreak that occurred latest in the year primarily involved adult members (nine cases in 1995, 18 in 1996) of a group in ... measles-containing vaccine (MCV) less than 14 days before onset of symptoms; and four (6%) had received one dose of MCV before ... Importations originated from or occurred among persons who had traveled in Germany (10), Canada (three), Italy (three), ... measles patients were aged 5-19 years, and 112 (39%) were aged greater than or equal to 20 years. Of the 33 measles patients ...
Five years on, Pope Francis under fire over sex abuse scandals. Threefold rise in measles cases as Italys anti-vaccine ... Latest headlines. Breakthrough in Italy parliament as speakers chosen. Italys parliamentary vote deadlocked as most ballots ... Italys parliamentary vote deadlocked as most ballots filed blank. *Italys Carolina Kostner leads world figure skating ... Sign up for our free This week in Italy newsletter Other editions. *Austria ...
Measles outbreaks continue to occur in a number of EU/EEA countries, and there is a risk of spread and sustained transmission ... ECDC monitors measles and rubella transmission in the EU/EEA and publishes a comprehensive monitoring report twice a year. Case ... Vaccination with at least two doses of measles-containing vaccine remains the most effective measure to prevent the further ... and Italy (164). Seven deaths have been reported from these 4 countries - Romania (3), Italy (2), Greece (1) and France (1). ...
A six-year-old boy in Italy was the latest to die from the infection. More than 3,300 measles cases have been recorded in the ... Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, the WHO regional director for Europe, said: "Every death or disability caused by this vaccine-preventable ... Thirty-five people have died in the past year from measles outbreaks across Europe, the World Health Organization has warned. ...
League leader Matteo Salvini, Italys interior minister, lifted all vaccine requirements last year, arguing that immunization ... latest. Lebanese Government Resigns Under Mounting Pressure. In the aftermath of last weeks deadly explosions in Beirut, ... As a result, last year Europe recorded more cases of measles than at any time in the last 20 years, with nearly 83,000 ... Last year, Ukraine had more than 54,000 diagnosed cases of measles, with 16 deaths; by Feb. 1, another 15,000 cases and seven ...
League leader Matteo Salvini, Italys interior minister, lifted all vaccine requirements last year, arguing that immunization ... The United States has mounted a wide-ranging response to the latest deadly outbreak, as only it can. ... As a result, last year Europe recorded more cases of measles than at any time in the last 20 years, with nearly 83,000 ... Last year, Ukraine had more than 54,000 diagnosed cases of measles, with 16 deaths; by Feb. 1, another 15,000 cases and seven ...
But the doctor, who had never seen measles, misdiagnosed the mans fever and cough as bronchitis. ... Now, with 555 measles cases in 20 states - the highest in five years - other localities are looking at that model. Hatzalah ... Get Breaking news, live coverage, and Latest News from India and around the world on Catch all the Live TV action on ... Vaccine refusal does not appear to be a major factor in the Oakland County cluster, officials said. ...
Check out the latest health and safety alerts for Kenya. To learn more, schedule an appointment with your local Passport Health ... MEASLES Worldwide. Sept. 18 - Health officials in Italy, the Ukraine, New Zealand, Romania, Indonesia, England, Greece and the ... Latest Health Alerts for International Travelers. INFLUENZA Worldwide. Sept. 18 - According to the CDC, annual vaccination ... According to WHO, incidence of dengue has increased 30 fold in the past 50 years. WHO estimates over 2.5 billion people are now ...
Measles cases triple in Italy as parents shun vaccine. The number of measles cases in Italy has tripled this year, largely ... the latest blow to an invention once heralded as less harmful than smoking. ... Cases of dengue have soared in Brazil where the disease has caused 229 fatalities this year, the Health Ministry said Monday, ... with a nearly eightfold increase that saw 24 people die in Brazils most populous state so far this year, the health ministry ...
A six-year-old boy in Italy was the latest to die from the infection. More than 3,300 measles cases have been recorded in the ... "We are very concerned that although a safe, effective and affordable vaccine is available, measles remains a leading cause of ... Thirty-five people have died in the past year from measles outbreaks across Europe, the World Health Organization has warned. ... What is measles?. *Unvaccinated young children are at highest risk of measles and its complications, including death ...
  • I urge all endemic countries to take urgent measures to stop transmission of measles within their borders, and all countries that have already achieved this to keep up their guard and sustain high immunisation coverage. (
  • Low levels of public confidence in vaccines in the European Union are pushing immunisation rates down and the number of disease outbreaks up, according to an expert report on Tuesday. (
  • Geneva, 10 July 2013 - Two life-saving vaccines are now permanent fixtures on the immunisation cards of Zambia's children thanks to support from the GAVI Alliance and its partners. (
  • Dr Mary Ramsay, head of immunisation at PHE, said: 'We have seen a number of measles outbreaks in England which are linked to ongoing large outbreaks in Europe. (
  • In response to recent measles outbreaks, calls have mounted in several countries to make immunisation mandatory. (
  • The United Kingdom (UK) Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) has reviewed the epidemiology of group C infection in the population aged 20 years and over and recommended that immunisation should be made available for individuals aged 20-24 years (born after 7 January 1977) (1). (
  • Dr Stefano Merler, from the Bruno Kessler Foundation, Italy, said: "Our results suggest that most of the countries we have studied would strongly benefit from the introduction of compulsory vaccination at school entry in addition to current immunisation programmes. (
  • As infants reach eligibility for the vaccine only at 12 months old, it is extremely important to have an extremely high immunisation rate to protect those most susceptible to the virus. (
  • The correlation between the decrease in vaccination and severity of the contagion is clear, and measles, due to its very high infectivity rate, is considered the first among the epidemic disease to react to a low immunisation rate. (
  • If you think you have been exposed to measles, you should watch for symptoms of measles for up to 21 days (three weeks) after exposure. (
  • Symptoms of measles include cold-like symptoms, sore red eyes, a high temperature and a blotchy rash. (
  • The symptoms of measles usually show up 10 to 14 days after exposure. (
  • We'd also encourage people to ensure they are up to date with their MMR vaccine before travelling to countries with ongoing measles outbreaks. (
  • We would encourage people to ensure they are up to date with their MMR vaccine before travelling to countries with ongoing measles outbreaks, heading to large gatherings such as festivals, or before starting university. (
  • The public trusts that the government will provide vaccines, render them affordable to the entire population, ensure their safety and efficacy, and promote their use. (
  • The programme began with a disclaimer saying it was not questioning the efficacy of the vaccine, which has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, a disease that kills more than 250,000 women annually around the world. (
  • This case is about Merck's efforts for more than a decade to defraud the United States with respect to the efficacy of Merck's mumps vaccine. (
  • Investigators in Italy recently completed an updated review of the safety, efficacy and adverse events associated with the MMR vaccine, with the finding supporting the continued use of the vaccines for mass immunizations. (
  • Pre-qualification of any vaccine includes the rigorous review and assessment of all the required safety and efficacy data," he said. (
  • In Berlin, a spokesman for the German health ministry told newspaper group RND that "there is no known data on the quality, efficacy and safety of the Russian vaccine," adding that "patient safety is of the highest priority. (
  • A Senate panel warned lawmakers Tuesday about the dangers of false information about vaccines and called for a national campaign, similar to the one against smoking, to counter the public health threat posed by anti-vaccine groups. (
  • I do not favor giving up on liberty for a false sense of security," he said, prompting applause from the anti-vaccine activists in the hearing room. (
  • The hearing witness who attracted the most attention was Ethan Lindenberger , an 18-year-old Ohio high school student who got himself vaccinated after questioning his mother's anti-vaccine stance. (
  • He fought a losing battle because his mother relied on false information from anti-vaccine groups rather than health officials. (
  • The Ohio teen said public health officials need to use the same strategy that makes inaccurate anti-vaccine messaging so powerful: anecdotes and personal stories. (
  • Several anti-vaccine activists who were in the hearing room vehemently shook their heads in response while he spoke. (
  • This is partly due to the rising influence of diverse anti-vaccine groups that spread misleading information through the internet or in political fora," he said. (
  • Anti-vaccine folks , whether they push articles like this, or talk about the Brady Bunch episode , dolls with measles , or children's books about measles, also don't mention that during a " measles year ," like they had in Minneapolis in 1963, a lot of people died . (
  • Folks who push this kind of anti-vaccine propaganda . (
  • The UN children's agency has warned that conflict, complacency and the growing anti-vaccine movement threatened to undo decades of work to tame the disease. (
  • In tracking the anti-vaccine movement, we tend to focus on the role of a small but vocal contingent of anti-vaxxers. (
  • Within days, the couple's 5-year-old son had a high fever, and his body was covered in a rash of red splotches characteristic of measles. (
  • Individuals can carry and spread measles without showing any symptoms of illness, and most people don't develop a rash, run a fever or cough, or have a sore throat until they've been infected for two weeks, thanks to a long measles incubation period. (
  • Measles symptoms include high fever, rash all over the body, stuffy nose and reddened eyes. (
  • Measles typically begins with a high fever and also causes a rash on the face and neck. (
  • Measles in most people causes fever, runny nose, cough and a rash all over the body. (
  • Measles usually begins with a high fever, runny nose, cough and sore red eyes, followed by a rash starting behind the ears and spreading to the body a few days later. (
  • Measles starts with fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat followed by a rash that spreads over the body. (
  • A: Measles typically begins with a high fever, and several days later a characteristic rash appears on the face and then spreads over the body. (
  • A child infected with measles should not go back to school until at least five days after the appearance of the rash. (
  • On Sunday, Egypt reported the first fatality from the virus, specifically a woman who began to notice the symptoms while making "Umrah in Mecca, a smaller pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. (
  • Last year, the headlines were everywhere warning us of the dangers of Zika Virus. (
  • Their analysis of international measles data suggests that current vaccination policies are not enough to keep the virus under control. (
  • Its potency lies in one of its characteristics - it's an airborne virus, which means that somebody with measles is expelling the virus when they speak, cough, and sneeze. (
  • He continued that within the HIV virus there is a protein called TAT protein that has been found in research conducted in Italy to be important in facilitating the duplication or multiplication of the virus in the body. (
  • He also clarified that because HIV changes shape quickly, mutating into different strains in different parts of the world it was crucial to try and see if the results of the studies done in Italy would be consistent with the findings here in rural Mthatha because the virus in Italy is definitely not the same in South Africa. (
  • According to Professor Chandia If they are able to prove that ANTI-TAT reduces the multiplication of the HIV virus, the ANTI-TAT protein may well be on its way to becoming the sought after vaccine. (
  • Since the start of the year, Washington State's Clark County Public Health has had 50 reported cases of the measles virus. (
  • As a result, only about 85% of Italy's pediatric population is now vaccinated against measles, well below the 95% needed to keep the virus from spreading and becoming dangerous for the overall population. (
  • The number of confirmed cases of the measles virus in the United States is now officially the highest it has been since the disease was declared "eliminated" in the year 2000 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • The virus that causes measles can be transmitted through contact with the secretions of or breathing airborne droplets from an infected person. (
  • Researchers at the National Institutes of Health are working to deliver what is referred to as The Holy Grail in the fight: a universal flu vaccine that could protect against all strains of the virus. (
  • We conclude our series on the fight against influenza examining what many people believe is the best potential weapon against the disease: a universal vaccine that would protect against not just a few strains of the virus, but possibly all of them. (
  • The saying goes, know your enemy, so, when it comes to an enemy like influenza, researchers at the Vaccine Research Center are getting up close and personal with the virus. (
  • The Holy Grail is what's called the universal influenza vaccine, a shot that would protect against all known and unknown strains of the virus. (
  • As it stands now, every year, public health officials manufacture a flu vaccine to target what they predict will be the next seasonal flu virus strains to spread around the world. (
  • The reason that it must be given every year is that the virus itself mutates, and it's unrecognizable often from one year to the next. (
  • Measles spreads when a person infected with measles virus breathes, coughs, or sneezes. (
  • Last year, biotech giant Amgen was the first to win FDA approval for an oncolytic virus, Imlygic (T-Vec), an engineered form of the herpesvirus used to treat some patients with melanoma. (
  • A group of scientists from France will present their research on using the measles virus to treat multiple myeloma. (
  • The team took multiple myeloma cells that have a mutated form of the cancer-associated gene p53 and infected them with the attenuated measles virus that's used in a vaccine called Schwarz. (
  • While measles is typically transmitted when the infected person sneezes or coughs fine virus-containing droplets into the air, they don't have to be sneezing or coughing. (
  • And, just like flu, the measles virus can also live for up to 2 hours on hard surfaces like fold-down tables, arm rests and toilet fixtures. (
  • With consideration to Bulgaria, in the year 2009, in the month of April, a sudden and dense outbreak of the measles virus was recorded. (
  • Also, in four of the young adults, the measles virus RNA was detected one to 13 days after receiving the MMR vaccination. (
  • Pacific region were increased from enous measles virus. (
  • The situation doesn't change for the countries most affected by the Corona Virus and already in national lockdown for many days as China, South Corea, Italy, Iran, and Japan. (
  • The discovery of the genetic structure of the virus was the first step in the drive for a vaccine. (
  • Live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine virus (MV) Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) strain was evaluated as a viral vector to express the ectodomains of fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F) or glycoprotein 350 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV gp350) as candidate vaccines for prophylaxis of RSV and EBV. (
  • The glycoprotein gene was inserted at the 1st or the 3rd position of the measles virus genome and the recombinant viruses were generated. (
  • Thus, the immunogenicity of the foreign antigens delivered by measles vaccine virus is dependent on the nature of the insert and the animal models used for vaccine evaluation. (
  • Measles is a highly infective virus that can lead to serious complications like pneumonia, blindness, deafness and swelling of the brain. (
  • Researchers are also trying to develop a vaccine against the virus. (
  • Dr. Jeremy Brown studies emergency medicine at the National Institutes of Health, and wrote the book "Influenza: The Hundred-Year Hunt to Cure the Deadliest Disease in History. (
  • Chiron faced another problem in 2004, when it failed to deliver nearly 50 million doses of influenza vaccine to the U.S. market after British regulators found contamination at a Chiron plant in England. (
  • As with influenza, it's easy to get measles in any confined space, such as on a plane, train, bus or cruise ship. (
  • Influenza Vaccines. (
  • The latest WHO Influenza Update (with data to Sept 1) notes that flu activity in New Zealand was 'below seasonal baseline threshold' while Chile has recorded a second wave of influenza (mostly B viruses). (
  • But the doctor, who had never seen measles, misdiagnosed the man's fever and cough as bronchitis. (
  • Cases of dengue fever are on the rise in Sao Paulo, with a nearly eightfold increase that saw 24 people die in Brazil's most populous state so far this year, the health ministry said Friday. (
  • An anti-vaxx movement of sorts also took root in the Philippines in recent years, sparked by concern over a vaccine for dengue fever. (
  • A spokeswoman for the California company said adverse responses were rare, but occurred in higher numbers than with similar vaccines, and included fever, allergic reactions, and the swelling of glands. (
  • It should be clear that the article is only talking about the convalescent stage of measles, when you are starting to feel better and your fever has broken. (
  • If you become ill with any of the above symptoms and fever, and suspect you may have measles, call your doctor and inform them that you may have been exposed to measles. (
  • Early signs of measles include cold-like symptoms, sore eyes that may be sensitive to light, fever and small greyish-white spots on the inside of the cheeks. (