Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Communicable DiseasesVaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Mice, Inbred BALB CPoliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Animal DiseasesInjections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.United StatesBioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Tetanus ToxoidHerpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.SqualeneSentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Mice, Inbred C57BLInfluenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Parainfluenza Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Pseudorabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; Vol. 31 Issue 4 (10/1/2000), p1079. *^ DuPont, H (2007). "Therapy for and Prevention of ... The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for prevention of cholera, is of questionable use for prevention of TD.[6] A 2008 ... Steffen, R (Dec 1, 2005). "Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 Suppl 8: S536-40. doi:10.1086 ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 45 (45 (Suppl 1)): S78-S84. doi:10.1086/518155. PMID 17582576.. ...
Baker CJ (2013). "The spectrum of perinatal group B streptococcal disease". Vaccine. 31s: D3-D6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02. ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 33: 556-561. doi:10.1086/322696.. *^ Jordan HT, Farley MM, Craig A, Mohle-Boetani J, Harrison LH ... "Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for GBS" (PDF). Vaccine. 34: 2876-2879. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.12. ... Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant (7th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 419-469. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.. ...
Pahud, BA; Ault, KA (December 2015). "The Expanded Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine". Infectious Disease Clinics of North ... Vaccines[edit]. Main article: HPV vaccine. Three vaccines are available to prevent infection by some HPV types: Gardasil, ... "Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2006: 1-5. doi:10.1155/IDOG/2006/40470. PMC 1581465 . PMID 16967912.. ... "The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196 (8): 1146-1152. doi:10.1086/521629. PMC 3904649 . PMID 17955432.. ...
... which makes the body more prone to a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. T-cell components associated with ... Vaccine. 21 (11-12): 1180-1186. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00481-4. PMID 12559796. Ginaldi, L.; M.F. Loreto; M.P. Corsi; M. ... "Immunosenescence and infectious diseases". Microbes and Infection. 3 (10): 851-857. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01443-5. PMID ... This has been implicated in the increasing frequency and severity of diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory disorders, ...
Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ... Roos Robert (2007-12-20). "New swine flu virus supports 'mixing vessel' theory". Center for Infectious Disease Research and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009). "Update on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines" (PDF). MMWR ... Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provide no protection. Vaccines were released in North America in late October. ...
Metzger, Wolfram; Mordmueller, Benjamin G (18 July 2007). Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (ed.). "Vaccines for preventing ... The current formulation of smallpox vaccine is a live virus preparation of infectious vaccinia virus. The vaccine is given ... "Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy. Retrieved 27 December 2007.. *^ LeDuc JW, Jahrling PB (2001). "Strengthening ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.080. PMID 22188929.. *^ Henderson, D (2009). Smallpox : the death of a disease. Prometheus Books ...
... vaccine development; cancer immuno-therapy; emerging and infectious zoonotic diseases; and diseases of the lung, respiratory ... will focus on identifying and making available to consumers bioactive compounds in plants that prevent and treat disease." In ...
"Role of Herd Immunity in Determining the Effect of Vaccines against Sexually Transmitted Disease". The Journal of Infectious ... Mathematical modelling of infectious disease. Individuals who are immune to a disease act as a barrier in the spread of disease ... Estimated R0 and HITs of well-known infectious diseases[51] Disease. Transmission. R0. HIT ... Wicker, S; Maltezou, H. C. (2014). "Vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe: Where do we stand?". Expert Review of Vaccines. 13 ...
"Ebola/Marburg Vaccine Development" (Press release). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2008-09-15. Archived ... Jacob, H.; Solcher, H. (1968). "An infectious disease transmitted by Cercopithecus aethiops ("marbury disease") with glial ... "Journal of Infectious Diseases. 204 (Suppl 3): S796-S799. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir312. PMC 3203392 . PMID 21987753.. ... "The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201 (12): 1909-1918. doi:10.1086/652748. PMC 3407405 . PMID 20441515.. ...
"Infectious Diseases Vaccination" (PDF). Hansard of the NSW Legislative Council: 13600. Retrieved 31 May 2010. Official Website ... Vaccine. 25 (26): 4875-4879. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.02.077. PMID 17400342. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ... She claims that the only reason children die or suffer permanent disability from these diseases is due to medical mismanagement ... Scheibner has stated that infection with diseases such as polio, measles, whooping Cough and rubella are best managed through ...
"Hepatitis E, a Vaccine-Preventable Cause of Maternal Deaths". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18 (9): 1401-1404. doi:10.3201/ ... "International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (4): e228-e233. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2012.11.026. ISSN 1201-9712. PMID 23313154. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (2): 173-179. doi:10.3201/eid1702.100856. ISSN 1080-6059. PMC 3298379. PMID 21291585.. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16 (9): 1452-1455. doi:10.3201/eid1609.100444. ISSN 1080-6059. PMC 3294985. PMID 20735931.. ...
Park K, Kim CS, Moon KT (2004). "Protective Effectiveness of Hantavirus Vaccine". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (12): 2218- ... Schmaljohn C, Hjelle B (1997). "Hantaviruses: a global disease problem". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 (2): 95-104. doi: ... The development of hantavirus vaccines is hampered by the lack of adequate animal models of hantavirus-associated disease. No ... Lee HW (1989). "Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Korea". Reviews of infectious diseases. 11 (Suppl 4): S864-76. PMID ...
"Awards". National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Retrieved September 29, 2009 ... "Gold Medal Award". Sabin Vaccine Institute. Retrieved September 28, 2009. Kabak V (November 1, 2006). "Public health school ... National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, 2007 Chosen as one of "America's Best Leaders" by U.S. News & World Report, 2007 ... He is a strong proponent of disease eradication and control and has taken an active role in the eradication of Guinea Worm ...
Manual of Clinical Problems in Infectious Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 443. "hookworm disease". ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Diemert, D. J., Bethony, J. M., & Hotez, P. J. (2008). "Hookworm vaccines". Clinical ... Infectious Diseases. 46 (2): 282-288. doi:10.1086/524070. PMID 18171264. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Gantz, Nelson ... This hookworm infection is a type of helminthiasis (infection) which is a type of neglected tropical disease. When adult worms ...
"WHO recommends new B strain for next season's flu vaccine". Center for infectious Disease Research and Policy. 21 Feb 2013. ... "Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. Retrieved 30 December 2014.. *^ "WHO - Recommended composition of influenza ... Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 29 January 2018.. ...
Binder RJ (April 2008). "Heat-shock protein-based vaccines for cancer and infectious disease". Expert Review of Vaccines. 7 (3 ... Cancer vaccines[edit]. Given their role in antigen presentation,[35] HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants (DAMPS) in ... Also isolated HSPs from tumour cells are able to act as a specific anti-tumour vaccine by themselves.[28][26] Tumour cells ... Acting as DAMPs, HSPs can extracellulary promote autoimmune reactions leading to diseases as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic ...
... many vaccines prevent infectious diseases. salvage therapy (rescue therapy) A therapy tried after others have failed; it may be ... when it is possible to eliminate the disease) or palliative intent (when eliminating the disease is impossible and the focus ... Accordingly, they can be used in both noncount and count senses (for example, therapy for chronic kidney disease can involve ... A medication taken at the earliest signs of a disease, such as an analgesic taken at the very first symptoms of a migraine ...
... many vaccines prevent infectious diseases. salvage therapy (rescue therapy) A therapy tried after others have failed; it may be ... Accordingly, they can be used in both noncount and count senses (for example, therapy for chronic kidney disease can involve ... A medication taken at the earliest signs of a disease, such as an analgesic taken at the very first symptoms of a migraine ... A therapy taken during disease remission to prevent relapse. palliative therapy See supportive therapy for connotative ...
Vaccine[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal vaccine. Due to the importance of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, several vaccines ... The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 184 (5): 582-90. doi:10.1086/322803. ISSN 0022-1899. JSTOR 30137322. PMID 11474432.. ... 16: Pneumococcal Disease". In Atkinson W; Wolfe S; Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ( ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. *^ "Pneumococcal vaccines WHO position paper--2012" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 87 ...
Infectious Diseases. 15 (2): 181-9. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)71052-7. PMC 4526270 . PMID 25578825. Morrison CS, Chen PL, Kwok ... AVAC (January 27, 2015). "News from the HC-HIV front: it's raining meta (analyses)!". New York: AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition ... Lancet Infectious Diseases (January 8, 2015). "End of the debate on hormonal contraception and HIV risk? (editorial)". Lancet ... Infectious Diseases. 15 (2): 135-6. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)71076-X. PMC 4580273 . PMID 25578824. Dahlberg K (February 1982 ...
Siber GR; Orenstein, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. (2008). "Non-infectious Disease Vaccines". In Stanley A. Plotkin. Vaccines (5th ... HbOC vaccine". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 12 (10): 812-5. doi:10.1097/00006454-199310000-00003. PMID 8284116. ... Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 19 (3): 187-95. ... and vaccine effectiveness". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 169 (6): 1297-305. doi:10.1093/infdis/169.6.1297. ISSN 0022- ...
"Diarrhoeal Diseases: Shigellosis". Initiative for Vaccine Research. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 15 ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 21 (Supplement 1): S84-S93. doi:10.1093/clinids/21.supplement_1.s84. Todar, Kenneth. "Shigella ... Currently, no licensed vaccine targeting Shigella exists. Several vaccine candidates for Shigella are in various stages of ... "Vaccine Research And Development: New strategies for accelerating Shigella vaccine development" (PDF). Weekly Epidemiological ...
Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. Many Ebola vaccine candidates had been developed in the decade prior to 2014,[102] but ... 2007). Emerging infectious diseases trends and issues (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 141. ISBN 9780826103505. . Archived ... prevented by rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine, making it the first proven vaccine against the disease.[106][107][7] More than 100,000 people ... Magill, Alan (2013). Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases (9th ed.). New York: Saunders. p. 332. ISBN ...
Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (7): 444-49. doi:10.1056/NEJM199102143240703. ... Unsuccessful clinical trials have been conducted for some glycoprotein subunit vaccines.[citation needed] As of 2017, the ... Alzheimer's disease. HSV-1 has been proposed as a possible cause of Alzheimer's disease.[26][27] In the presence of a certain ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ...
Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009;48(4):456-461. doi:10.1086/596476. PMID ... MMR vaccine[edit]. Main article: MMR vaccine controversy. The MMR vaccine as a cause of autism is one of the most extensively ... a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 2008-12-23 [Retrieved 2009-02-14]. ... parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and 'immune-vulnerability'. Vaccine. 2006;24(20):4321-4327. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ...
It significantly increased life expectancies and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of ... Impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men and may accelerate atherosclerotic disease.[10] ... but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression of the disease. The type that is ...
Petersburg General Hospital What Is Yellow Fever?What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?What... ... Learn more about Yellow Fever Vaccine at St. ... consult an infectious disease specialist to find out if ... What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?. The vaccine is a weakened, live form of the yellow fever virus. The vaccine is created by ... The yellow fever vaccine is advised for those who are traveling to or living in areas where the disease is present. Ask your ...
Handling potentially infectious materials (e.g. laboratory personnel). References:. 1. ... It works by stimulating the bodys immune response to this virus, without causing the disease. The yellow fever vaccine ... Here are some quick facts about the ONLY approved Yellow Fever vaccine available in India.. Stamaril is a yellow fever vaccine ... The yellow fever vaccine is not given routinely in India, but is recommended for people travelling to countries where the ...
Description of the drug Yellow Fever Vaccine. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Yellow Fever ... Travelers guide to avoiding infectious diseases. Acute pancreatitis. Hepatitis. Bronchitis. Pneumonia. Advertise with Us ... Viscerotropic disease (multiple organ system failure). Yellow fever vaccine is a possible, but rare, cause of vaccine- ... Vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (postvaccinal encephalitis). Is a known but rare adverse reaction associated with yellow ...
Description of the drug Yellow Fever Vaccine. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Yellow Fever ... Travelers guide to avoiding infectious diseases. Acute pancreatitis. Hepatitis. Bronchitis. Pneumonia. Advertise with Us ... Yellow Fever Vaccine Generic Name: Yellow Fever Vaccine (YEL-oh FEEV-er)Brand Name: YF-Vax. Yellow Fever Vaccine is used for:. ... Proper storage of Yellow Fever Vaccine :. Store Yellow Fever Vaccine at a constant temperature in the freezer, at 32 to 41 ...
... as from vaccination or an attack of an infectious disease, or from ... An example of active immunity is the oral polio vaccine because its a live attenuated vaccine. This can happen in many natural ... An example of active immunity is the oral polio vaccine because its a live attenuated vaccine., Immunity definition: the ... An example of active immunity is the oral polio vaccine because its a live attenuated vaccine. ...
Clinical Infectious Diseases, the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2008.. *^ a b c Pollak, L; Dovrat, S; Book, M; ... Hamborsky J (2015). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (PDF) (13 ed.). Washington D.C. Public Health ... "International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (7): e529-34. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2013.01.031. PMID 23566589.. ... The shingles vaccine reduces the risk of shingles by 50 to 90% depending on the vaccine used.[1][11] It also decreases rates of ...
... whereas particulate vaccine delivery systems - which utilize nano- or micro-particulate carriers to protect and deliver ... Most traditional vaccines have safety and efficacy issues, ... Lyme disease: Why does joint pain persist? Lyme disease can ... "Particulate vaccine delivery systems may help protect against infectious disease outbreaks and bioterror threats." Medical News ... Particulate vaccine delivery systems may help protect against infectious disease outbreaks and bioterror threats. ...
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. 7201 Wisconsin Avenue. Suite 750. Bethesda, MD 20814. 301.656.0003 ... and treatment of infectious diseases across the lifespan. All information on this site is for general purposes only and is not ... Waiting or delaying vaccines just doesnt make sense. There is no reduced risk; leaving them unvaccinated just leaves your baby ... Tips for Having Positive Conversations with Parents About the Flu Vaccine As pediatricians, family doctors, public health ...
Efforts to develop safe and effective vaccines increasingly involve the use of adjuvants - substances formulated as part of a ... Adjuvant discovery and development play critical roles in NIAID vaccine development efforts. ... yet there remains a need for new and improved vaccines against existing and emerging infections. ... vaccine to enhance its ability to induce protection against infection. ...
A pre-hatching prototype vaccine virus which provides immunity to IBV ...IBV is the worst infectious disease in terms of ... vaccine,for,chick,disease,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes losses of £23.6M a year to th... ... In-shell vaccine for chick disease. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes losses of £23.6M a year to th...A pre-hatching ...
... everyone who needs to know the facts about vaccines and immunization. ... We were created as a partnership among the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases ... Vaccines and Infectious Diseases: Putting Risk into Perspective American Medical Association Briefing on Microbial Threats, ... In addition to being unfamiliar with the diseases that vaccines prevent, they want to know more about the vaccines. Among their ...
While an array of techniques are available for preventing HIV infection, the development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine ... vaccination has been the best method for protecting people from infectious diseases. ... Historically, vaccination has been the best method for protecting people from infectious diseases. While an array of techniques ... Historical and Current HIV Vaccine Research. See a timeline that tracks the history of HIV vaccine research. ...
... not only ones that prevent diseases, but also ones that treat ... big potential in high-speed technology for discovering vaccines ... Vaccines that prevent disease, like flu, are notoriously difficult to develop because of the huge numbers of patients that ... Genocea Biosciences sees a big potential in high-speed technology for discovering vaccines-not only ones that prevent diseases ... While Genocea still sees preventive vaccines as a core part of its strategy, it has picked a therapeutic vaccine for herpes ...
... and vaccines to help treat and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. ...
Many vaccines are recommended to protect adolescents against serious infectious diseases. Included in the current Centers for ... National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. 7201 Wisconsin Avenue. Suite 750. Bethesda, MD 20814. 301.656.0003 ... All HPV vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18, which cause the majority of HPV-related cancers. One HPV vaccine also ... Cases and deaths from most vaccine-preventable diseases targeted since 1980, such as varicella (chickenpox), have declined by ...
An expert review identifies state-of-the-art of self-disseminating vaccines as a new and potentially powerful strategy to ... circumvent diseases such as Ebola at the animal source before their establishment as the next human pandemic ... Expert Review of Vaccines Self-disseminating vaccines for merging infectious diseases Aisling A. Murphy, Alec J. Redwood, ... Could self-disseminating vaccines cut off emerging infectious diseases at source?. University of Plymouth ...
At the Webster Centre for Infectious Diseases we study vaccine design for infectious diseases. Read an overview of the field ... treatments and vaccines against the increasing problem of Infectious disease.. Read the full article at:. A little look at the ... Webster Centre for Infectious Diseases. Te Pokapū Webster mō ngā Mate Hōrapa. *About us ... Professor Kurt Krause works to understand the molecular structures involved in infectious diseases. By using X-ray ...
The Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre is a research organization of the University of ... In March 2003, VIDOs name was changed to the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization. In October 2003 a 50,000 sq ft ( ... "Combatting Infectious Disease Through Vaccine Research: VIDO/InterVac at the U of S" (PDF). University of Saskatchewan. 2009. ... Originally named the Veterinary Infectious Disease Organization, VIDO was established with funding from the Devonian Group of ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(7):1347-1348. doi:10.3201/eid1007.030910.. APA. Weniger, B. G. (2004). The Vaccine Book. ... Lambert is a vaccine immunologist at the University of Geneva.. The Vaccine Book first covers the impact of disease, including ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Stanley Plotkins thoughtful overview of the 11 disease-specific chapters annotates new vaccine technologies as well as current ...
... the challenges facing vaccine and maternal immunization development, and the next era of vaccine technologies. ... The worlds leaders in vaccine development review the latest findings on the potential and limits of the human immune system, ... Emerging infectious diseases can be treated quickly with a passive vaccine containing human monoclonal antibodies isolated from ... While the development of vaccines against infectious diseases has had a profound impact on life expectancy, there remain many ...
The inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine may be the first one available for clinical use because it is easy to generate; however, ... proteins containing RBD and vectors encoding the RBD sequence can be used to develop safe and effective SARS vaccines. ... Developing effective and safe vaccines is urgently needed to prevent infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- ... Jiang S, He Y, Liu S. SARS Vaccine Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(7):1016-1020. doi:10.3201/eid1107.050219. ...
We anticipate 3D vaccines could be broadly useful for many settings, and their injectable nature would also make them easy to ... The vaccines are easily and rapidly manufactured so that they could potentially be widely available very quickly in the face of ... Since the vaccine works by triggering an immune response, the method could even be used preventatively by building the bodys ... These injectable 3D vaccines offer a minimally invasive and scalable way to deliver therapies that work by mimicking the bodys ...
Special use of vaccines: Occupational exposure, pregnancy, & immunocompromised states. Take Quiz. Routine vaccines in children ... Some vaccines may be used for postexposure prophylaxis. If administered within ____________ of exposure, varicella vaccine ... Infectious mononucleosis: Diagnosis, prognosis, & treatment. Take Quiz. Infectious mononucleosis: Pathophysiology & ... Considerations of vaccine use & storage. Take Quiz. IDSA Guidelines: Management of candidiasis in nonneutropenic patients. Take ...
... full-service CRO Medpace can help your organization excel in the clinical research studies of infectious diseases and vaccines. ... The Medpace Difference for Infectious Diseases and Vaccines Studies. Infectious disease and vaccine clients benefit from ... antifungals and vaccines. As a global CRO with a therapeutic focus on infectious diseases and vaccines, we:. *Creatively ... Infectious Diseases and Vaccines Experience. Extensive experience gives our medical, regulatory, and operational staff a ...
The vaccine is intended for use in chickens and eggs, as an aid to help prevent infectious bursal disease, Mareks disease, and ... APHIS Announces Environmental Assessment to Field Test a Vaccine for Use Against Infectious Bursal Disease, Mareks Disease, ... APHIS Announces Environmental Assessment to Field Test a Vaccine for Use Against Infectious Bursal Disease, Mareks Disease, ... has prepared an environmental assessment to authorize the shipment and field testing of an unlicensed Bursal Disease, Mareks ...
  • Most traditional vaccines have safety and efficacy issues, whereas particulate vaccine delivery systems - which utilize nano- or micro-particulate carriers to protect and deliver antigens - are efficient, stable, include molecules to bolster immune responses, and minimize adverse reactions due to the use of biocompatible biomaterials. (
  • Nearly 20% of parents we surveyed did not know how - or even if - vaccines are evaluated for safety and efficacy before they are licensed for use. (
  • Vaccine safety has come a long way since those early days and undergoes intense scrutiny and trials to ensure efficacy and safety before being approved," said Nadia Qureshi, MD , pediatric infectious disease physician at Loyola University Health System and assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine . (
  • The results of an efficacy study in commercial broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) showed that the V877-based IBD vaccine can break through maternal antibody titers of higher than 1100 as determined by an IBD ELISA. (
  • Although there are no new tuberculosis vaccines currently available, it is possible to estimate the infrastructure needed for efficacy trials of such a vaccine. (
  • Readiness for tuberculosis vaccine efficacy trials will require epidemiological field studies to identify potential trial sites and investment in local diagnostic, surveillance, and data management capabilities. (
  • Most of the influenza vaccines currently utilized are trivalent vaccines consisting of two of the predominant influenza A strains that were circulating during the prior years' flu season and influenza B. These viral strains are typically chemically inactivated, a process that cross-links protein epitopes and adversely impacts the efficacy of viral antigens. (
  • the age-range 2) virus-micronutrient interactions with a particular focus on retinoid-virus interactions and 3) novel adjuvants and immunomodulators to enhance vaccine efficacy and safety. (
  • Adenovirus Vaccine Efficacy Trial Consortium (2013). (
  • A vaccine with 50 percent efficacy and 10 years duration supplied to 65 percent of all adults could reduce HIV incidence by 25 to 60 percent, depending on the context and stage of the epidemic. (
  • The company, along with other vaccine developers, issued a joint pledge in September that they will wait to seek emergency government approval for the vaccine until human trials show 'substantial evidence of safety and efficacy. (
  • The estimated vaccine efficacy over a 10-year observation period of 2 doses for prevention of any varicella disease is 98% (compared with 94% for 1 dose), with 100% efficacy for prevention of severe disease. (
  • In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved the inclusion of another adjuvant, AS03, in the pandemic H5N1 influenza vaccine. (
  • While an array of techniques are available for preventing HIV infection, the development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine remains key to realizing a durable end to the HIV pandemic. (
  • We suggest that state-of-the-art disseminating vaccines may have a role to play as a new and potentially powerful strategy to circumvent EID at the animal source before their establishment as the next human pandemic. (
  • EIB vice-president Ambroise Fayolle said: "In fact, the only way to end the dramatic situation the world is facing since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic would be a safe and effective vaccine. (
  • Preparation is underway in the United States and abroad to develop technologies and vaccines to avert a worldwide flu pandemic should the H5N1 bird flu mutate into a form that allows human-to-human transfer. (
  • These experts discussed the role of the One Health approach in preparing for and responding to an influenza pandemic or other emerging zoonotic disease by using pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as a case study. (
  • One of the largest gaps found in preparedness for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was the inability of scientists to translate virus detection and characterization into effective vaccines in an efficient and timely manner. (
  • Many people see an effective preventive AIDS vaccine as the best solution to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (
  • A highly effective, long-lasting, inexpensive vaccine would be ideal and could make a major contribution in controlling the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (
  • While Genocea still sees preventive vaccines as a core part of its strategy, it has picked a therapeutic vaccine for herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) as its lead candidate because it can generate evidence that it works in smaller clinical trials, potentially offering a faster path to the marketplace, Bakali says. (
  • He adds that an initial, Phase I clinical trial of its therapeutic vaccine candidate is short enough that it's "doable" for a little company like Genocea, which has 25 employees. (
  • The licensing of Midatech's IP and know-how together with our in-licensing of novel vaccine targets presents a significant opportunity for Emergex to create the first prophylactic/therapeutic vaccine applications in nanomedicines,' Emergex said in the statement. (
  • The Company also believes its platform may be applied to produce therapeutic antibodies and vaccines in areas such as infectious disease and oncology. (
  • However, as the burden of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, diabetes and dementia, increases, and they become a leading cause of death worldwide, new therapeutic approaches are being investigated, including vaccines. (
  • Advancements in development of novel adjuvants and therapeutic vaccines are expected to drive growth during the forecast period. (
  • Vaccinology is shifting toward synthetic RNA platforms which allow for rapid, scalable, and cell-free manufacturing of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. (
  • DTap will also be the vaccine most referred to as the discontinuation of DPT makes it irrelevant to the purpose of determining whether or not countries should pursue the usage of pertussis vaccines. (
  • The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases will host the 15th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research, May 7-9, 2012, at the Hyatt Regency Inner Harbor in Baltimore, MD. This three-day conference presents high-quality, current reports of scientific progress via invited presentations and submitted abstracts. (
  • Included in the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations are vaccines for all adolescents (11-18 years old), ideally starting at the routine age 11-12 year visit, catch-up vaccines, and vaccines for adolescents with specific risk conditions that place them at higher risk of certain diseases or complications. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Scientists at Tufts devise a method to store the Cryptosporidium parasite, aiding vaccine research efforts In May, just before one of the hottest summers on record, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a warning about diseases lurking in recreational water facilities like swimming pools and water playgrounds. (
  • The Structural Genomics Centers for Infectious Diseases provide the research community with: 3-D protein structures and protein-ligand complexes Sequence-verified clones and peptides Services that deliver requested 3-D structure determination Molecular screening of proteins in complex with. (
  • We receive research funding from a variety of sources such as the National Institutes of Health, the Fogerty Center, the Centers for Disease Control, the National Vaccine Program Office, the Department of Defense, the March of Dimes and industry sponsors. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which oversees the VSD and the data sharing program, should create a new, independent committee to review researchers' proposals to use VSD data, monitor adherence to protocols, and advise the agency and its partners on when and how to release preliminary findings based on the data, the report says. (
  • In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) passed the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. (
  • Adjuvants have several important benefits, including reducing the amount of antigen required, reducing the number of vaccines needed, enhancing the vaccine effectiveness in immunocompromised people, and many more. (
  • Due to their effectiveness, many diseases known to have a devastating, sometimes fatal, effect on children, such as polio, were nearly eradicated in our country. (
  • Still, there is a lot of confusing information about the safety and effectiveness of vaccines and it can be difficult to discern fact from fiction. (
  • The review supports other data around the world and mounting evidence that vaccine effectiveness is unproven, unjustified and lacking evidence-based medicine. (
  • If on one hand the high price of the vaccine has been a limiting factor, discussions are also ongoing in regards to the feasibility of the programme as well as its long term effectiveness. (
  • 6:19:20 AM) Chris Antenucci: i found an answer to the question about studies on the effectiveness of vaccines: there are none because it's not possible, you c an't infect humans with a disease and then give them the vaccine, that's against all ethical guidelines and laws. (
  • As one of the most successful medical interventions ever created, vaccines have been extensively tested for safety and effectiveness and public confidence and acceptance are essential to sustain their global health value. (
  • Our other clinical research programs include the CDC funded epidemiology and surveillance program, which conducts population-based surveillance to determine the disease burden for infectious diseases and examines the effectiveness of recommended vaccines. (
  • Stover, Garnett, Seitz, and Forsythe use two computer simulation models to investigate the effects of various vaccine characteristics and implementation strategies on the impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccines in different contexts. (
  • Higher costs for the vaccines and the need for many booster shots could reduce the cost-effectiveness significantly. (
  • NIAID supports an array of adjuvant research, from basic studies on immune receptors to clinical testing of new adjuvant vaccine candidates. (
  • With the UK poultry industry sustaining losses of £23.6M a year to infectious bronchitis virus we hope that our research could have a real impact on improving yields for UK farmers. (
  • Professor Julia Goodfellow, Chief Executive of BBSRC, said: "BBSRC research into endemic UK animal disease has the potential to save UK farmers and consumers millions of pounds each year. (
  • IBV is one of the severe animal diseases that BBSRC supports research into, and the work at the Institute for Animal Health shows real promise in delivering tangible improvements on the farm. (
  • The Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre is a research organization of the University of Saskatchewan that operates with financial support from the governments of Saskatchewan as well as Government of Canada and industry competitive grants, foundation grants and royalties from licensed products. (
  • In March 2004, VIDO received funding for the construction one of the world's largest and most advanced Biosafety Level 3 facilities, the International Vaccine Centre (InterVac), for research into emerging and persistent human and animal diseases. (
  • Remaining sections of The Vaccine Book cover the ethics of research and use of vaccines, their safety and controversies, and their introduction into healthcare systems. (
  • Achieve quality results, meet deadlines, and maximize efficiencies by partnering with a full-service CRO that excels in designing and executing clinical research in antivirals, antibacterials, antifungals and vaccines. (
  • It's important for those who work with, and who oversee the government, to educate, surveil, and detect infectious diseases and communicate with the public what they need to know," said Mary Woolley, president and CEO, Research!America. (
  • Working "effectively with the private sector and across the research stakeholder community" on research to tackle infectious disease is essential to prevent and contain epidemics, said Woolley. (
  • Results from an accelerated federal research program published in Thursday's issue of the journal Nature show the vaccine prompted an immune response in the mice and dramatically reduced the level of the virus in the lungs of some mice. (
  • Dr. Gary Nabel, chief of the NIH Vaccine Research Center and the study's lead author, said the government is working with a San Diego-based biotechnology company, Vical Inc., to make a purified vaccine for human testing pending approval from the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Last May, two research teams separately published the genetic sequences of the SARS virus in an effort to find drugs to treat SARS or develop a vaccine to prevent it. (
  • We are improving human health by carrying out cutting-edge, fundamental basic and translational research focusing on the bacteria, viruses and parasites that cause human disease. (
  • Later, it was discovered that he had fabricated and plagiarized clinical records and even was found to have patented a single vaccine for measles so the research finding would benefit him financially. (
  • Extensive research has been done to ensure the vaccine schedule is safe and effective. (
  • They do this because they weaken your immune system (research the mechanis m behind this), which is busy fighting off the vaccine, and is thus lowered and vulnerable to the actual virus when you come into contact with it. (
  • Further research has shown that the historical decline in infectious diseases th at parents are now vaccinating against were not the result of inoculation, like doctors blindly and wrongly assert. (
  • Thomas Geisbert and his colleagues at the US Army Medical Research Institute in Detrick, Maryland, have modified vesicular stomatitis virus for use as a Marburg vaccine. (
  • The Infectious Disease Research Institute announced on Monday that it received a grant extension of $3.4 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to continue developing treatments for tuberculosis. (
  • The team at VIDO-InterVac is comprised of members who share a passion for research and solutions related to some of the world's most infectious diseases. (
  • VIDO-InterVac is one of Canada's largest research organizations focused on infectious diseases of humans and animals, and a world leader in developing a vaccine for the novel COVID-19. (
  • A postdoctoral intramural research training award (IRTA) position is available in the Structural Bioinformatics Core Section (SBIS), part of a multidisciplinary research environment at the Vaccine Research Center, in the areas of computational biology and structural bioinformatics. (
  • The task force recognized and endorsed the broader, yet parallel, recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council in its report, Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases ( ). (
  • The J.D. MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases at McGill University is a world-renowned centre of expertise, research, and training in Clinical Tropical Medicine, including neglected tropical diseases, and is the largest of its kind in North America. (
  • Dr Costiniuk's clinical and translational research program focuses on understanding potential factors associated with accelerated chronic lung disease, such as pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary immune abnormalities, in HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy. (
  • The Vaccine Research Center, a NIH-funded Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, conducts clinical research trials of investigational therapies and vaccines against infectious diseases in individuals of all ages (newborns through elderly). (
  • The Division of Infectious Diseases at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center has earned acclaim for its role in research discoveries that have changed the face of modern medicine. (
  • Thanks to NIH and industry support, our Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit (VTEU) conducts clinical research trials evaluating vaccine and antiviral strategies in humans. (
  • The Vaccine Research Center is responsible for the management of the clinical trials program. (
  • He currently serves on several IPCAVD Scientific Advisory Boards for NIH sponsored HIV vaccine efforts and is on the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Research Working Group. (
  • In addition, CDC should create a new subcommittee of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC), or tap an existing one, to enable stakeholders to review and provide input on the VSD research plan every year. (
  • The resistance profile of malaria parasites to an increasing number of antimalarial drugs and readily available insecticides, the unequal and inadequate distribution of malaria control tools in different settings or the increased movement of migrant populations and tourists to endemic areas are important arguments in favour of concentrating resources towards malaria vaccine research. (
  • 7 ] The most advanced malaria vaccine, the RTS,S candidate, is currently undergoing a pre-licensure trial, and although it constitutes a historical advance in malaria research, more effective second generation vaccines will be required. (
  • Both a monovalent varicella vaccine (Varivax [Merck & Co Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) and a combination quadrivalent varicella-containing vaccine (ProQuad [Merck & Co Inc] or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella) are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. (
  • Monovalent varicella vaccine is approved for use in children ≥12 months of age (and, therefore, adolescents and adults as well), and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella is approved only for children 12 months through 12 years of age. (
  • I don't think it's a home run," said Dr. Robert Brunham, director of the University of British Columbia Centre for Disease Control in Canada. (
  • The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has set up a dedicated webpage for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) updates and risk assessments with a focus on Europe. (
  • The organization currently has >150 staff and some of the most advanced infrastructure in the world, including the International Vaccine Centre (InterVac) - one of the largest high containment facilities in the world. (
  • Please refer to to find out why our Centre is a world leader in the interdisciplinary study of TB and how we work together to unravel the many mysteries of this recalcitrant disease. (
  • A Lancet Infectious Diseases study shows antibody response persists for two years or more after a single shot of Merck's rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. (
  • The teams are currently evaluating multiple COVID-19 vaccine candidates in vivo for immunogenicity and neutralizing antibody activity to support lead candidate selection and the companies have the goal of initiating a first-in-human clinical trial in the fourth quarter of 2020. (
  • The intermediate-plus (hot) IBD vaccine elicited the highest antibody titers but caused reduction in the size of the bursa of Fabricius. (
  • The selected candidate will collaborate extensively with experimental sections to develop new methods for computational vaccine and antibody design. (
  • Rotavirus vaccine may be administered at any time before, concurrent with, or after administration of any blood product, including antibody-containing blood products. (
  • 99% of children achieving an antibody concentration (determined by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of ≥5 U/mL (an approximate correlate of protection) and a marked increase in geometric mean antibody titers after the second vaccine dose. (
  • Since I did a monoclonal antibody update in the last post, here's one on the vaccine front, where there is a lot of news - and where there are a lot of issues coming up similar to the ones with the antibodies as well. (
  • Most scientists are still optimistic that vaccines will be developed and many candidates are being tested. (
  • This review will explore how self-amplifying RNAs are emerging as important vaccine candidates for infectious diseases, the advantages of synthetic manufacturing approaches, and their potential for preventing and treating chronic infections. (
  • We have a lot more vaccine news to catch up on, and I'll use this as a new "frontrunning vaccine candidates" post, replacing this one (and updates therein) from about a month back. (
  • The RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate, based on a recombinant P. falciparum protein, is the most advanced of such candidates, currently undergoing a large phase III trial. (
  • Researchers have found that many vaccine adjuvants work by eliciting early, innate immune responses. (
  • IBV is the worst infectious disease in terms of economic loss to the U...The researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences R...The scientists have extracted a so-called spike protein from a pathoge. (
  • Now, researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University and Harvard's School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) show a non-surgical injection of programmable biomaterial that spontaneously assembles in vivo into a 3D structure could fight and even help prevent cancer and also infectious disease such as HIV. (
  • So far, the researchers have only tested the 3D vaccine in mice, but have found that it is highly effective. (
  • But researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which developed the new gene-based vaccine, and more experiments are needed to determine if it will work in humans. (
  • Their lasting elimination has spurred researchers to work to develop new types of immunizations that could help people avoid other life-altering diseases. (
  • For example, researchers are still striving to find good vaccine targets to prevent malaria, Strep A and traveller's diarrhoea. (
  • The saliva of a fly may save human lives--if researchers can transform it into a vaccine. (
  • Researchers have tested a preliminary form of a vaccine against the disease, which is spread by the bite of the mosquito and kills more than 600,000 people each year. (
  • Researchers now hope to develop the vaccine for further testing, with the aim of producing a therapy that will be effective in humans. (
  • Young horses are more susceptible to the dangers of tetanus than their older counterparts and are at a greater risk of death due to the disease, according to recent study carried out by Belgian researchers at the University of Liege. (
  • Visit our Immune System / Vaccines category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Immune System / Vaccines. (
  • By tuning the surface properties and pore size of the MSRs, and therefore controlling the introduction and release of various proteins and drugs, we can manipulate the immune system to treat multiple diseases. (
  • Another reason vaccines might not work is because all they do is stimulate one's immune system to create IgG antibodies against the virus causing the diseaes, b ut this completely depends on the strength of one's immune system. (
  • If a person doesn't have an optimally functioning immune system, which many peop le don't, then their immune system won't make the IgG antibodies in response to their shot of the vaccine, and thus they won't be any more immune to it than an unvaccinated child. (
  • The disease was to some extent provoked with stress, poor living conditions and other factors weakening the immune system. (
  • A vaccine must incorporate key proteins from the malaria parasites, which will trigger production of antibodies by the immune system. (
  • In tests in mice, a vaccine developed using human malaria parasite proteins - known as MSP-1-BBM - enabled the immune system to produce antibodies in the bloodstream. (
  • He said: "In this review we have explored self-disseminating vaccines as an innovative means to prevent EID transmission from animals to humans. (
  • The SARS-CoV-like virus that exists in animals does not cause typical SARS-like disease in the natural hosts and is not transmitted from animals to humans. (
  • Earlier this year, China announced plans to test on humans an experimental SARS vaccine that uses a killed virus. (
  • Humans have a high degree of resistance to foot-and-mouth disease , for example, while the cattle and sheep with which they may be in close contact suffer in the thousands from it. (
  • The team members believe a similar vaccine may one day protect humans. (
  • So far, two diseases have been successfully eradicated-one specifically affecting humans (smallpox), and one affecting a wide range of ruminants (rinderpest). (
  • Smallpox was the first disease, and so far the only infectious disease of humans, to be eradicated by deliberate intervention. (
  • These recommendations apply to licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. (
  • In April 2008, a live, oral, human attenuated rotavirus vaccine (RV1 [Rotarix]) was licensed as a 2-dose series for use in infants in the United States. (
  • Recommendations now include a second rotavirus vaccine, live, oral human attenuated rotavirus vaccine (RV1) (Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium]), administered in a 2-dose series at 2 and 4 months of age. (
  • The vaccine (or a case of the measles) prompts the body to su pplement this primary buffer with a stronger armor of IgG antibodies, some of wh ich are able to neutralize the measles virus so it can t invade cells or spread to other patients. (
  • Presently available vaccines work primarily through the induction of the antigen specific antibodies. (
  • With all of my posts here about vaccines and antibodies, it's only fair that I spend some time talking about the potential toxicology problems with both of those. (
  • In addition to being unfamiliar with the diseases that vaccines prevent, they want to know more about the vaccines. (
  • Genocea Biosciences sees a big potential in high-speed technology for discovering vaccines-not only ones that prevent diseases, but also ones that treat them. (
  • It was firstly administered as oral vaccine to an infant in 1921 and it is still the only vaccine licensed to prevent TB. (
  • This could be because they regularly see the effects of diseases such as measles, and are therefore generally more motivated to prevent their child catching it, although episodes of vaccine concerns and refusals also occur in even the poorest countries and also need confidence-building. (
  • The fine sanatorium buildings in "healthy" locations such as the Blue Mountains are reminders of the desperate attempts to combine sanitary and microbiological principles by isolating patients to prevent spread of the disease while they were treated with rest and diet. (