Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Oman: A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical stability has been attained in patients with a prior history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. Clinical features include new muscular weakness and atrophy of the limbs, bulbar innervated musculature, and muscles of respiration, combined with excessive fatigue, joint pain, and reduced stamina. The process is marked by slow progression and periods of stabilization. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 25;753:68-80)Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.AfghanistanImmunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.IndiaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Tetanus ToxoidVaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.PakistanMediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)United StatesVaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.AlbaniaCapsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Poliomyelitis, Bulbar: A form of paralytic poliomyelitis affecting neurons of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the brain stem. Clinical features include impaired respiration, HYPERTENSION, alterations of vasomotor control, and dysphagia. Weakness and atrophy of the limbs and trunk due to spinal cord involvement is usually associated. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p765)Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Staphylococcal VaccinesCytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Enterovirus C, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 11 serotypes, all coxsackieviruses.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Pan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.TajikistanAdministration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Enterovirus InfectionsDNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)

*Statens Serum Institut

... and VeroPol which is an inactivated poliomyelitis virus vaccine (IPV) that produces antibodies after primary vaccination for ... poliovirus 1, 2, and 3. Apart from work in Denmark, Statens Serum Institut is also involved in health promotion and monitoring ... The institute has successfully produced the vaccines: BCG vaccine Danish Strain 1331 against tuberculosis, diTeBooster for ...

*OPV AIDS hypothesis

The first polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, is an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), consisting of a mixture of three ... Koprowski H (July 1960). "Historical aspects of the development of live virus vaccine in poliomyelitis". Br Med J. 2 (5192): 85 ... The second vaccine, an oral polio vaccine (OPV), is a live-attenuated vaccine, produced by the passage of the virus through non ... Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) only. Zoonosis Hillis DM (2000). "AIDS. Origins of HIV". Science. 288 (5472): 1757-1759. ...

*Cutter Laboratories

poliomyelitis following formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the spring of 1955. II. ... The mistake produced 120,000 doses of polio vaccine that contained live polio virus. Of children who received the vaccine, ... and anti-hog cholera serum-and eventually a hog cholera vaccine. The hog cholera vaccine was the first tissue culture vaccine, ... Relationship of poliomyelitis to Cutter vaccine". Am. J. Hyg. 78: 29-60. PMID 14043545. Offit PA (2005). "The Cutter incident, ...

*Contact immunity

... in favor of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). The CDC continues to recommend OPV over IPV for global polio eradication ... Although contact immunity is an advantage of OPV, the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis-affecting 1 child per ... The most prominent example of contact immunity was the oral polio vaccine (OPV). This live, attenuated polio vaccine was widely ... As the risk of catching polio in the Western Hemisphere diminished, the risk of contact infection with the attenuated polio virus ...

*Poliomyelitis

"Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American ... The Salk vaccine, or inactivated poliovirus vaccine, is based on poliovirus grown in a type of monkey kidney tissue culture ( ... Use of this inactivated poliovirus vaccine and subsequent widespread use of the oral poliovirus vaccine developed by Albert ... vero cell line), which is chemically inactivated with formalin. After two doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (given by ...

*Polio vaccine

Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). There are two types: one that uses inactivated poliovirus ... recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American Academy of Pediatrics ... The Salk vaccine, or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), is based on three wild, virulent reference strains, Mahoney (type 1 ... but outbreaks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), caused by a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV ...

*List of GlaxoSmithKline products

... and poliomyelitis) Kinrix (for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed and inactivated poliovirus) ... for human Papillomavirus vaccine (types 16, 18)) Engerix-B (for hepatitis B) Fendrix (for hepatitis B (rDNA)) Fluarix (for ... hepatitis B and inactivated poliovirus) Priorix (for measles, mumps and rubella) Rotarix (for human rotavirus) Synflorix (for ... inactivated) and hepatitis B (rDNA) (HAB)) Boostrix (for tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis) ...

*Neal Halsey

... and III vaccine trials of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, tetanus ... 2006). "No evidence for prolonged excretion of polioviruses in persons with residual paralytic poliomyelitis in Ethiopia, ... "Randomized Trial of Inactivated and Live Polio Vaccine Schedules in Guatemalan Infants". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. ... Vaccine. 27 (27): 3650-4. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.035. PMID 19464546. Salmon DA, Teret SP, MacIntyre CR, Salisbury D, ...

*Mikhail Chumakov

... including inactivated vaccine against TBE, measles, influenza and vaccine against Canine distemper virus that is widely used to ... Albert Sabin, Live Poliovirus Vaccine and the Soviets. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 56 (1982), 460-83 Swanson, W. Birth ... and the vaccine becoming the main tool used in global poliomyelitis eradication campaign. Chumakov also created a number of ... In 1958-1959 he organized the first mass production and clinical trials of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) made from live ...

*Julius Youngner

The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. The key to effective inactivation depended upon a color ... Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. 1. He proved a ... including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living ... He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. He ...

*Polioencephalitis

The poliomyelitis virus is an enterovirus that enters through the mouth and multiplies in the throat and epithelial cells of ... The first is an inactivated, or killed, form of the virus and the second is an attenuated, or weakened, form of the virus. The ... Rapid changes in the sequence of the binding domain have restricted the host range of the poliovirus. Targeting of the brain ... Once isolated, RT-PCR is used to differentiate naturally occurring strains from vaccine-like strains. The virus is most often ...

*Joseph L. Melnick

... of Israeli and Palestinian health officials used a combination of live attenuated and inactivated forms of the polio vaccine as ... Higher levels of the polio virus were found in sewage during the summer, at the same time of year that the outbreaks of the ... History of poliomyelitis Altman, Lawrence K. "Joseph Melnick, Polio Pioneer, Dies at 86", The New York Times, January 21, 2001 ... Research he published in 1960 showed that the form of the attenuated vaccine used in the oral polio vaccine developed by Albert ...

*Poliovirus

... , the causative agent of poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio), is a human enterovirus and member of the family of ... ISBN 978-0-470-02386-0. Kew O, Sutter R, de Gourville E, Dowdle W, Pallansch M (2005). "Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the ... viable progeny could be formed even at UV doses that inactivated the virus in single infections. Poliovirus is structurally ... poliovirus. DNA encoding the RNA genome of poliovirus was introduced into cultured mammalian cells and infectious poliovirus ...

*SV40

... and the Salk vaccine (injectable, killed virus) were affected; the technique used to inactivate the polio virus in the Salk ... Hilleman MR (1998). "Discovery of simian virus 40 (SV40) and its relationship to poliomyelitis virus vaccines". Dev Biol Stand ... Ratner, the Health Commissioner of Oak Park at the time the Salk vaccine was introduced, had kept these vials of vaccine in a ... "Cancer Incidence in Denmark Following Exposure to Poliovirus Vaccine Contaminated with Simian Virus 40". JNCI Journal of the ...
Poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 is used in the treatment of .get complete information about poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 at 1mg.com
As this eMedTV page explains, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is a rare adverse reaction following vaccination with the live oral polio vaccine. This page describes this condition and explains how the paralysis it causes may be permanent.
As this eMedTV page explains, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is a rare adverse reaction following vaccination with the live oral polio vaccine. This page describes this condition and explains how the paralysis it causes may be permanent.
BIVALENT TYPE 1 & 3 ORAL POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE, ORAL Oral Poliol Vaccines Bivalent type 1 & 3 oral poliomyelitis vaccine I.P. Each bottle contains 2ml (20 doses) Stabilised with 1m mgcl2 Each dose of 2 drops(0.1 ml) contains poliovirus(sabin) Type 1-106CCID50 Type 3-105.8CCID50
Looking for online definition of poliomyelitis virus in the Medical Dictionary? poliomyelitis virus explanation free. What is poliomyelitis virus? Meaning of poliomyelitis virus medical term. What does poliomyelitis virus mean?
Poliovirus infections can be asymptomatic or cause severe paralysis. Why some individuals develop paralytic poliomyelitis is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate if a polymorphism, Ala67Thr, in the poliovirus receptor, which has been found to facilitate increased resistance against poliovirus-induced cell lysis and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of paralytic poliomyelitis, poliovirus receptor genotyping was undertaken among Italian subjects with vaccine-associated (n = 9), or with wild-type paralytic poliomyelitis (n = 6), and control subjects (n = 71), using RFLP-PCR and pyrosequencing. Heterozygous poliovirus receptor Ala67Thr genotype was found in 13.3% of the patients with paresis and in 8.5% of the controls (Odds Ratio = 1.667). The frequency of Ala67Thr among the controls is in ...
Looking for online definition of poliovirus vaccine, live oral in the Medical Dictionary? poliovirus vaccine, live oral explanation free. What is poliovirus vaccine, live oral? Meaning of poliovirus vaccine, live oral medical term. What does poliovirus vaccine, live oral mean?
MONOVALENT TYPE I POLIOMYELITIS VACCINE (ORAL) Oral Poliol Vaccines Monovalent type 1 oral poliomyelitis vaccine I.P. Each bottle contains 2ml (20 doses) Stabilised with 1m mgcl2 Each dose of 2 drops(0.1 ml) contains poliovirus(Sabin) Type 1-106CCID50
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000 (1). Since then, substantial progress has been reported by all countries where polio is endemic in implementing the recommended polio eradication strategies (i.e., achieving and maintaining high routine coverage with oral poliovirus vaccine [OPV]; conducting National Immunization Days [NIDs]* to rapidly decrease poliovirus circulation; establishing sensitive surveillance systems for polio cases and poliovirus; and carrying out mopping-up vaccination activities to eliminate the remaining reservoirs of poliovirus transmission) (2,3). Although much progress has been made in many countries, substantial obstacles remain, particularly in 14 priority countries (i.e., global reservoir countries** or countries with ongoing armed internal strife or civil war) (Figure 1). This report updates progress during 1998 ...
Earlier this week it was reported that Nigeria has interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus and is no longer a polio endemic country. Now, in some belated news from the polio eradication front, the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) on Sep. 20 concluded that wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) has been eradicated worldwide. The last detected WPV2 dates to 1999, from Aligarh, northern India.. There are three wild poliovirus serotypes: WPV1, WPV2 and WPV3. WPV3 has not been detected globally since November 2012 (in Nigeria); the only remaining endemic WPV1 strains are now restricted to the two remaining endemic countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan.. This declaration will support the final decision on whether the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine will be made as scheduled in April 2016, which will be decided by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on ...
Ousmane M. Diop, PhD1, Cara C. Burns, PhD2, Steven G. Wassilak, MD3, Olen M. Kew, PhD2 (Author affiliations at end of text). In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide (1). One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but then it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity. Rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis can occur among immunologically normal OPV recipients, their contacts, and persons who are immunodeficient. In addition, vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) can emerge in areas with low OPV coverage to cause polio ...
To compare the immunogenicity of routine versus mass campaign doses of oral poliovirus vaccine OPV, serum neutralizing antibodies were measured in 254 children before and after two mass vaccination campaigns in Jordan. Precampaign seroprevalences to poliovirus types 1,2, and 3 in children who had received three, four, or five routine doses of...
Looking for Poliomyelitis, paralytic? Find out information about Poliomyelitis, paralytic. or acute viral infection, mainly of children but also affecting older persons. There are three immunologic types of poliomyelitis virus, one of which was... Explanation of Poliomyelitis, paralytic
Nigeria is the only country in Africa that is yet to be certified as polio free. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is the foundation of the polio eradication initiative since it provides information to alert both health managers and clinician that timely actions should be initiated to interrupt transmission of the polio virus. The strategy also provides evidence for the absence of wild poliovirus. This evaluation was performed to assess key quality indicators defined by the polio eradication program and thus to identify gaps to allow planning for corrective measures to achieve a polio-free situation in Bauchi state and in Nigeria at large. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study which involved a desk review of documents to authenticate the correctness and completeness of data, and a review of documented evidence for the quality of AFP surveillance. We interviewed Local Government Authority (LGA) surveillance officers and clinicians from focal and non-focal sites, along ...
The development of effective vaccines to prevent paralytic polio was one of the major medical breakthroughs of the 20th century. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative uses two types of vaccine to stop polio transmission - inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV).. If enough people in a community are immunized against polio, the virus will be deprived of susceptible hosts and will die out. High levels of vaccination coverage must be maintained to stop transmission and prevent outbreaks occurring. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is constantly assessing the optimal use of the different types of vaccine to prevent paralytic polio and stop poliovirus transmission in different areas of the world.. ...
How is enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine abbreviated? N-IPV stands for enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine. N-IPV is defined as enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine rarely.
In their randomised controlled trial, Edwin J Asturias and colleagues (July 9, p 158)1 reported a robust humoral immune response after three doses of bivalent type 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) combined with zero, one, or two doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), confirming that bOPV is highly immunogenic when administered either with or without IPV. In their study, 6-week-old full-term Latin American infants due for their first polio vaccinations were randomly assigned by permuted block randomisation to five schedules.. ...
Data & statistics on Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo: Number of children aged 0-59 months*, number receiving oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during National Immunization Days † (NIDs), number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and nonpolio AFP rates, by province - Democratic Republic of Congo, 1999, Immune response of age group 1 to 12 months children against oral poliovirus vaccine., Mean changes before and after for all practices for immunizations in 2-year-olds, as measured by the percentage of children who were up to date for each of the immunizations and for the combination of all immunizations. DTP indicates diphtheriatetanus-pertussis; OPV, oral poliovirus; MMR, measles-mumpsrubella; Hib, Haemophilus influenza type b; HepB, hepatitis B; VZ, varicella zoster vaccine of disease; ......
15 December 2009 │ Kabul - A new vaccine against polio will be used for the first time today in polio immunization campaigns in Afghanistan. The bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), recommended by the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, the global technical advisory body of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative as a critical tool to eradicate polio, can provide the optimal concurrent protection needed by young children against both surviving serotypes (types 1 and 3) of the paralysing virus. This will vastly simplify the logistics of vaccination in the conflict-affected parts of this country. This sub-national immunization campaign, from 15-17 December, will deliver bOPV to 2.8 million children under five in the Southern, South-Eastern and Eastern Regions of Afghanistan.. Of the three wild polioviruses (known as types 1, 2 and 3), type 2 has not been seen anywhere in the world since 1999. This ...
Post-polio syndrome is an illness of the nervous system that can appear 15 to 50 years after you had polio. It affects your muscles and nerves, and it causes you to have weakness, fatigue, and muscle or joint pain. Although post-polio syndrome can make some day-to-day activities more difficult, treatment can help control symptoms and help you stay active. Your symptoms may not get worse for many years. Post-polio syndrome usually progresses very slowly. Only people who have had polio can get post-polio syndrome. But having post-polio syndrome doesnt mean that you have polio again. Unlike polio, post-polio syndrome doesnt spread from person to person.. ...
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In 2008, Northern Nigeria had the greatest number of confirmed cases of polio in the world and was the source of outbreaks in several West African countries. Elisha P. Renne explores the politics and social dynamics of the Northern Nigerian response to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which has been met with extreme skepticism, subversion, and the refusal of some parents to immunize their children. Renne explains this resistance by situating the eradication effort within the social, political, cultural, and historical context of the experience of polio in Northern Nigeria. Questions of vaccine safety, the ability of the government to provide basic health care, and the role of the international community are factored into this sensitive and complex treatment of the ethics of global polio eradication efforts.. ...
This public information brochure, titled "Important Questions & Answers about Sabin Oral Sundays" provided residents of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County with basic information about the oral polio vaccine, explained where to go to get the vaccine, and encouraged participation in the 1962 "Sabin Oral Sundays" mass immunization program. The brochure is four pages in length and measures 5.5" x 8.5" (13.97 x 21.59 cm). Approximately 1.5 million people received the vaccine by ingesting sugar cubes. Dr. Albert Sabin (1906-1993) was born in Poland and moved to Cincinnati in 1939 to join the faculty of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Sabin developed the oral polio vaccine, which provided stronger immunity and lasted longer than the dead-cell vaccine developed by Joseph Salk. The first "Sabin Sunday" was held on April 24, 1960 in ...
This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two vaccination regimens that employed either GSK Biologicals combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine or DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine. In the two groups, infants received the DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine at 3 and 4 months of age, as the first 2 doses of the primary vaccination course. At 5 months of age, they received either the DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine co-administered with the HBV vaccine or a dose of the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine as a 3rd dose. Infants in the two groups had previously received 2 doses of HBV vaccine at birth and at 1 month of age ...
International commission for the certification of poliomyelitis eradication in the South-East Asia Region : report of the fifth meeting, New Delhi, India, 5-8 March ...
Singapore participated in the WHO EPI protocol for rapid assessment of serological response to three doses of standard oral poliovirus vaccine. The 100% seropositive finding of thirty infants below one year old is no proof of seroconversion rate to the Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (TOPV) administered. Investigation of 100 cord blood samples showed that passively transferred maternal poliovirus neutralising antibody cannot be relied upon for protection of infants against poliomyelitis. This paper emphasises the importance of vaccine potency testing and serves as a timely reminder that although the last case of indigenous poliomyelitis was recorded in 1974, non Sabin-like (wild) polioviruses are being isolated from imported cases and foreigners hospitalised in Singapore, and unexpectedly, from the ...
A cornerstone of the polio eradication strategy is the need to ensure high (more than 80%) immunization coverage of children in the first year of life, with at least three doses of oral polio vaccine as part of national routine immunization schedules.. While routine immunization alone cannot eradicate the disease, good routine oral polio vaccine coverage increases population immunity, reduces the incidence of polio and makes eradication feasible.. If uniformly high immunization coverage is not maintained, pockets of non-immunized children build up, favouring continued spread and outbreaks of the poliovirus.. According to WHO/UNICEF immunization coverage estimates, 86% of infants received three doses of oral polio vaccine in 2010, compared with 75% in 1990.. Polio-free countries must continue to ensure high levels of immunization coverage to prevent the re-establishment of ...
Background: Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly boost immunity among children in Pakistan. Methods: A five-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted among children (6-24 months, 5-6 years and 10-11 years). Children were randomized in four intervention arms as per the vaccines they received (bOPV, IPV, bOPV + vitamin A, and bOPV + IPV) and a control arm which did not receive any vaccine. Baseline seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies and serological immune response 28 days after intervention were assessed.Results: The baseline seroprevalence was high for all serotypes and the three age groups [PV1: 97%, 100%, 96%, PV2: 86%, 100%, 99%, PV3: 83%, 95%, 87% ...
The purpose of this booster study is to evaluate, in subjects primed in the primary study 106786, the persistence, at the time of the booster vaccination, of antibodies elicited by the different formulation of DTPa-HBV-IPV/ Hib vaccine (Infanrix Hexa TM). The study will also evaluate the immune response of these subjects to a DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib booster. This protocol posting deals with the objectives and outcome measures of the booster phase. The objectives and outcomes measures of the primary phase are presented in a separate protocol posting (NCT = 00376779 ...
PRODUCT MONOGRAPH INFANRIX hexa Adsorbed Hib reconstituted with PEDIARIX Combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B (recombinant), inactivated poliomyelitis and adsorbed
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID, TETANUS TOXOID, ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE, DTaP; HEPATITIS B VACCINE, RECOMBINANT; INACTIVATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, IPV (dif THEER ee uh TOK soid, TET n us TOK soid, ey SEL yuh ler per TUS iss VAK seen, DTaP; hep uh TAHY tis B VAK seen; in ak tuh vey ted poh lee oh vahy ruhs VAK seen, IPV ) is used to prevent infections of diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, and poliovirus.. ...
Poliovirus Vaccine InactivatedIPOL®. IPOL vaccine is indicated for active immunization of infants (as young as 6 weeks of age), children, and adults for the prevention of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus Types 1, 2, and 3.. KINRIX (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) Suspension for Intramuscular InjectionInitial U.S. Approval: 2008. INDICATIONS AND USAGE - A single dose of KINRIX is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis as the fifth dose in the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine series and the fourth dose in the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) ...
RESULTS: Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region.. Conclusions: This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication ...
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Background: Supplementary immunization activity (SIA) campaigns provide children with an additional dose of measles vaccine and deliver other interventions, including vitamin A supplements, deworming medications, and oral polio vaccines.. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the full SIA delivery platform in South Africa (SA).. Design: We used an epidemiologic cost model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the 2010 SIA campaign. We used province-level campaign data sourced from the District Health Information System, SA, and from planning records of provincial coordinators of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The data included the number of children immunized with measles and polio vaccines, the number of children given vitamin A supplements and Albendazole tablets, and costs.. Results: The campaign cost $37 million and averted a total of 1,150 deaths (95% uncertainty range: 990-1,360)- ...
Joan L. Headley, Executive Director, PHI. In late 2013, Post-Polio Health International awarded $100,000 to the team of Antonio Toniolo, MD; Andreina Baj, MD; Martina Colombo, PhD - Laboratory of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria Medical Center, Varese, Italy, to expand its search for poliovirus genome in various populations.. The teams work is enhanced by the expertise of Konstantin Chumakov, PhD, Associate Director for Research, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.. The goals are: 1) to complete the systematic search of poliovirus genomes in the Italian cohort of post-polio syndrome cases, and 2) to verify if poliovirus genomes are also present in aging polio survivors with "stable polio" (those aged ,60 years that have not developed post- polio syndrome).. A Mid-Study Report was ...
Why are the Sabin infectious, attenuated poliovirus vaccines still used when they are known to cause vaccine-associated paralysis in a small number of recipients?
Ask questions and get answers about Diphtheria Toxoid/Pertussis, Acellular/Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/Tetanus Toxoid. Our support group helps people share their own experience. 38 news articles.
A new bivalent poliovirus vaccine, consisting of infectious, attenuated type 1 and type 3 strains, has been deployed in Afghanistan. The use of this vaccin
[125 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Polio Vaccine Market Research Report 2018 report by HeyReport. SummaryPolio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis. There are...
Oral polio and rotavirus vaccines are significantly less effective in children living in the developing world. Tropical enteropathy, which is associated with intestinal inflammation, decreased absorption and increased permeability, may contribute substantially to oral vaccine failure in developing country settings. Other possible causes of oral vaccine underperformance include malnutrition, interference with maternal or breastmilk antibodies, changes in gut microbiota, and genetic susceptibility.. Primary Objective: to determine whether tropical enteropathy impairs the efficacy of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in children in Bangladesh.. Secondary Objectives: 1) to determine the impact of an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) boost on the efficacy of oral polio vaccine and 2) to determine ...
Poliovirus is very contagious. Get the facts on polio and post-polio syndrome. Take precautions when travelling and learn about the polio vaccine.
A faction of the Movement of the Taliban in Pakistan, or TTP, claimed credit for two attacks in Karachi that targeted policemen as they guarded members of a polio vaccination team. The Movement of the Taliban in Pakistan has targeted polio vaccination teams in Pakistans major cities in the past. Movement of the Taliban in Pakistan Jamaat-ul-Ahrar "accepts responsibility for the attack on police in Karachi," Ihsanullah Ihsan, the official spokesman for the group, said in a statement that was emailed to The Long War Journal. "This attack is part of ongoing attacks against security forces and police," Ihsan continued. "We believe the fighting will continue until we achieve the goal of implementing the Islamic system in Pakistan." The Movement of the Taliban in Pakistan, has stated from its founding in late 2006 that it seeks to overthrow the Pakistani state, implement its harsh version of sharia, or Islamic law, and work toward imposing a global caliphate. The TTP shares the same goals as al Qaeda ...
Our open randomised study was approved by the relevant local ethics committees. Infants aged 8-12 weeks who were eligible for routine primary immunisation with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and oral poliomyelitis vaccines in Gloucester and North Hertfordshire health districts were recruited in general practices, and parents written informed consent was obtained. Infants were randomly allocated to receive one of six different sequences of a single batch of a Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosylphosphate)-tetanus conjugate (ActHIB, Pasteur-Merieux-MSD, Lyons, France) or a single batch of a Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide-mutant diphtheria toxin conjugate (HibTITER, Cyanamid-Lederle-Praxis Biologicals, Pearl River, USA), or both. The vaccines were administered as a single injection mixed with adsorbed diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine at 2, 3, and 4 ...
Address by Dr Hussein A. Gezairy Regional Director WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to the Eighth meeting of the regional technical advisory group on poliomyelitis eradication, Eastern Mediterranean Region, Cairo, Egypt, 21-23 October ...
Epidemiological investigation and specimen collection. Teams of epidemiologists from districts and from the central level investigated each case of acute flaccid paralysis and reviewed clinical records. Vaccination records were reviewed for children who lived in the same household, immediate neighbours, and hospital contacts of cases; people in these groups were given oral poliovirus vaccine. Faecal specimens were collected from children exposed in the hospital to case- patients and from children who lived in the same households as these exposed children.. Serological surveys Between 19 April and 8 May 2001, we sampled 71 children aged 0 83 months who were from minority populations and were hospitalized in any of five district hospitals before the first mass vaccination campaign. We reviewed these childrens vaccination records and collected blood specimens. The Bulgaria National Enterovirus Laboratory measured antibody titres to types 1, 2, and 3 ...
During the recent epidemic of acute anterior poliomyelitis in Panamá the author became interested in experimental studies of the etiologic agent. Three strains of poliomyelitis virus were isolated in rhesus monkeys (Rodaniche, in press). However, in view of the costliness of Macaca mulatta and the delay and difficulty experienced at times in obtaining specimens, it seemed advisable to attempt transmission of the virus to local monkeys. Since Melnick and Paul (1943) and Melnick (1946) had reported successful transmission to South American species of Cebus capucina, the corresponding Panamanian species was chosen for study. Later, experiments were also conducted with two of the four local subspecies of the howler monkey and with juvenile specimens of the black spider monkey. Mackay and Schroeder (1935) were unsuccessful in their attempts to transmit the virus to the South American spider monkey, Ateles ater, but we hoped that perhaps infant and juvenile specimens might prove ...
The United States actress and United Nations Goodwill Ambassador Mia Farrow today wrapped up her visit to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) with an urgent plea for better polio vaccination campaigns to eradicate the disease that continues to threaten the lives of many children in the poor African country.
Science, 12 November 1999; Volume 286, pp. 1305-1306. Thanks to immunization, polio like smallpox may soon be eradicated. But did the trials of early polio vaccines trigger AIDS? The central thesis of Edward Hoopers new book, The River, is that they did. Hooper argues that both AIDS viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, first infected humans via contaminated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV). He claims these vaccines were grown in kidney cell cultures derived in the 1950s from chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, respectively, that were infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Although this notion has been explored before, no one previously has researched the history of polio vaccine trials and early AIDS cases so exhaustively. Hooper builds up layer upon layer of circumstantial evidence and plausible conjecture, until he declares: "The reader must make up his ...
The Hexavalent Vaccine which provides immunity against six important preventable childhood diseases with a single injection at each visit is being introduced in the National Expanded Programme of Immunisation.
22 May 2004 , Geneva - The World Health Organizations first strategy on reproductive health was adopted today by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA). Reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men.. The strategy targets five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health.. "Unsafe sex is one of the biggest risks to our health today, largely as a result of acquiring sexually-transmitted infections, such as HIV/AIDS. Reproductive and sexual health touches the lives of everyone, everywhere," says Joy Phumaphi, Assistant Director-General of Family and Community Health at WHO. "It is ...
At least 15 people, mostly security officials, were killed and over 10 others injured in a bomb blast apparently carried out by a suicide bomber outside a polio vaccination centre in Pakistans southwestern city of Quetta, on Wednesday.. "The blast was apparently carried out by a suicide bomber," Balochistan Home Minister Mir Sarfaraz Bugti told media after the blast.. The deceased include 12 policemen, one paramilitary officer and two civilians, a police official said.. Eyewitnesses at the site said they heard firing after a loud blast rocked the area.. The victims have been shifted to Civil Hospital Quetta, where an emergency has been imposed, the Dawn reported.. Police and rescue workers reached the site soon after the blast, while security forces have cordoned off the area.. A three-day anti-polio campaign was launched in Quetta and other districts of Balochistan on Monday. The campaign is to target 2.4 million children under the age of five. Over 55,000 children of Afghan refugees are to be ...
This 11" x 14" (24.9 by 35.6 cm) photograph depicts Dr. Kurt Wegner, head of the Type II Sabin oral polio vaccine immunization program in Youngstown, Ohio, and volunteers preparing vaccinations prior to the three-day immunization program. The immunization program was sponsored by the Mahoning County Medical Society and was endorsed by the American Medial Association. Wegner, formerly of Buffalo, New York and Berlin, Germany, served as chairman of the Mahoning County Medical Societys Polio Committee and spearheaded the program. The vaccine developed by Albert B. Sabin, which uses a weakened form of the disease-causing virus, was easier to administer than the injection developed by Jonas Salk, in which the virus is inactivated or killed. Colorless and tasteless, the Sabin vaccine could be dispensed by dropper, mixed with distilled water, or put into a sugar cube. Two phases of mass ...
In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared smallpox, the first disease in human history, eradicated. Smallpox is the only disease to have been eradicated and only two repositories the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia and Vector in Novosibirsk, Russia maintain live viral strain collections.Wild Polio Virus, was the next scheduled disease to face eradication. Unfortunately, the recent polio outbreak in Syria serves as a reminder that conflict and war severely impact vaccination campaigns and eradication strategies leaving the most vulnerable open to the spread of this horrific disease. While ample polio vaccine exists, other diseases such as smallpox, avian flu, highly pathogenic strains of Category A agents, typically considered suitable for weaponization are not maintained in significant global stockpiles to contain a pandemic outbreak and in some instances not even an epidemic. It takes nearly ten years and around one billion US ...
Around 2.35 crore, which is 88 per cent of targeted children, were vaccinated with first dose of measles in 2016-17, according to Health Management Information System data.As per the concurrent monitoring data for 2016-17, the major reasons for children missing the vaccines are fear of Adverse Events Following Immunisation (AEFI), misinformation, that the vaccine causes impotency, lack of awareness, child travelling on day of vaccination and operational gaps among others, said sources in the Health and Family Welfare Ministry.The government has set up National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation, an independent body comprising eminent public health mechanisms namely Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme, hospital based surveillance of diseases by Central Bureau Of Health Intelligence, Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance, Measles-Rubella Surveillance and laboratory supported Vaccine Preventable ...
Notice to Readers: New York City Department of Health Response to Terrorist Attack, September 11, 2001 -- Update: Influenza Activity--United States and Worldwide, May--September 2001 -- Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Nigeria, January 2000-July 2001 -- Weekly Update: West Nile Virus Activity ---United States, September 19-25, 2001 -- Notice to Readers: Walk to School Day--October 2, 2001 -- Notice to Readers: Satellite Broadcast on HIV Prevention -- Notifiable Diseases/Deaths in Selected Cities Weekly Information ...
The latest press release below from Italian organization that campaigns on vaccine rights, which has just received a grant from the Italian National Order of Biologists to the fury of GSK funded scientists from Padua University. Now read why. ###...
Occupational therapy (OT) provides purposeful activities or interventions in order to promote function, health, and wellness and to prevent further injury or disability. The goal is to assist survivors in achieving their maximum level of independence. To be seen by an occupational therapist, a referral by a physician is usually required.. Occupational therapists utilize purposeful, goal-directed activities to evaluate, facilitate, restore, or maintain a persons abilities to function in daily life routines of self-maintenance, work, rest, leisure, and play. Occupational therapists help individuals learn energy conservation, work simplification, time management, and pacing techniques; adaptive self-care techniques; and new skills for problem solving and for coping (see Coping) with needed changes. A home or job site visit, now being done by video in some rural areas, and evaluation may be necessary for the occupational therapist to suggest appropriate modifications to the environment, to ...
Via The News International, a December 20 report with more details about the attacks: UN anti-polio drive halted in Pakistan. Excerpt from a long article: The attacks on Wednesday began in Shero Jhangi area on Charsadda Road in the provincial...
11. Purified diphtheria toxoid / Purified tetanus toxoid / Five component acellular pertussis [Purified Pertussis Toxoid (PT), Purified Filamentous Haemagglutinin (FHA), Purified Fimbriae Types 2 and 3 (FIM), and Purified Pertactin (PRN)] / Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Vero) - Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1) and Type 3 (Saukett) / Purified polyribosylribitol phosphate capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b covalently bound to Tetanus protein (PRP-T). EU market authorization for Pediacel from Sanofi Pasteur MSD. Dutch SPC nr.300443, basic patent EP 835663 to GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals S.A. Last day of protection: 2015.10.01. SPC extension not yet requested. SPC applications nrs. 300403 and 300404 based on EP 1666057 and 300185, 300187 and 300188 based on EP 747058 all to Medeva are currently pending in view of ECJ C-332/10. ...
For vaccine-specific costs, we define "traditional" vaccines as those in widespread use in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI): Baccillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), three doses each of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV); (we assume use of this ceases in 2010 following polio eradication), a single dose of measles vaccine (MCV1) for children under one year of age, and two doses of tetanus toxoid (TT2+) vaccine for pregnant women. "Underused" vaccines include a second dose of measles (MCV2); three doses of hepatitis B (HepB) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines; yellow fever (YF); and rubella. "New" vaccines include three doses of rotavirus and conjugate pneumococcal ...
Either way, the outbreak is significant and has resulted in at least 90 fatalities, according to the Philippines Department of Health (DOH).. This has prompted the DOH to begin a measles vaccination campaign September 1st, called #ligtastigdas, or "Safe measles", which is set to run through the month of September. Health officials encourage parents to bring their children five years and younger to a local health center for the free measles and polio vaccines.. WATCH DOH video about vaccination campaign. Measles or rubeola, is an acute highly communicable viral disease that is characterized by Koplik spots in the cheek or tongue very early in the disease. A couple of days later a red blotchy rash appears first on the face, and then spreads, lasting 4-7 days. Other symptoms include fever, cough and red watery eyes. The patient may be contagious from four days prior to the rash appearance to four days after rash appearance.. The disease is more severe in infants and adults. ...
The Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election followed as a result the expiration of the five-year term of the previous legislature elected in Uttar Pradesh, India. The election to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly was held in seven phases from 8 February through 3 March 2012. Uttar Pradesh has the worlds largest population for a sub-national democracy. The incumbent chief minister Mayawatis Bahujan Samaj Party, which previously won an absolute majority of seats, was defeated by Mulayam Singh Yadavs Samajwadi Party, which gained an absolute majority in the election. Mulayams son and Samajwadi party president Akhilesh Yadav was nominated as chief minister by the party. Uttar Pradesh is the largest province in India in terms of population, but the fourth largest in terms of landmass after the bifurcation to create Uttarakhand. It is also considered politically important because of the number of seats it returns to the Lok Sabha and as including the constituencies of such nationally ...
This review focused on emerging literature since the previous statement as well as specific areas highlighted for review. The live attenuated varicella vaccine retains the ability to establish latent infection and to cause HZ that may be clinically indistinguishable from wild-type disease [9]. The virus can be activated later in life, returning as shingles. Pharmaceutical companies that produce the vaccines funded all of the included studies. The shingles vaccine contains small amounts of gelatin and neomycin. Patients who developed zoster could experience postherpetic neuralgia or develop nonpain complications that would require the use of health care resources. We identified 13 studies involving 69,916 participants.. The presence of a minor infection is not a reason to delay immunisation. Weller was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1954 for his work in isolating VZV, as well as ...
Amid a global shortage of injectable IPV, countries in the WHO South-East Asia Region are opting to use fractional doses of IPV, an evidence-based intervention that not only ensures continued protection of children against all types of polio viruses, but also helps save vaccine - a move bound to positively impact global vaccine supply in the coming years," said Poonam Khetrapal, WHO Regional Director for South-East Asia.. India became the first country globally to introduce fractional doses of IPV in childhood immunisation programme in eight of its 36 states / union territories in early 2016. "The initiative is now being scaled up nationwide. Sri Lanka followed suit in July 2016. Bangladesh has decided to introduce fractional IPV doses this year. Other countries in the region are also considering a shift to the use of fractional IPV doses in their immunisation schedule," Khetrapal added.. According to WHO, studies have confirmed two ...
Rubella vaccine is only available as part of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Two doses of the vaccine are needed to provide satisfactory protection against rubella.. The first dose of vaccine is usually given as the MMR vaccine between 12 and 13 months of age. It is usually given at the same time as the pneumoccocal vaccine (given as a separate injection). A second dose is usually given at age 3 years and four months to 5 years at the same time as the preschool booster of DTaP/IPV(polio) (given as a separate injection). (DTaP stands for diphtheria (D), tetanus (T) and acellular pertussis (aP) (whooping cough). IPV stands for inactivated polio vaccine. Polio is short for poliomyelitis.). If a dose of MMR is delayed for any ...
La Jolla, CA - Salk Institute professor Ursula Bellugi, who pioneered the study of the biological foundation of language, has been elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences. The Academy made the announcement today during its 144th annual meeting in Washington, DC. Election to the Academy recognizes distinguished and continuing achievements in original research, and is considered one of the highest honors accorded a U.S. scientist.. Dr. Bellugi, director of the Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, is regarded as the founder of the neurobiology of American Sign Language, since her research revealed that there are primary linguistic systems, passed down from one generation of deaf people to the next, which have been forged into a complexly structured language with complex grammatical properties not derived from spoken languages. Before, it had been assumed that the organizational properties of language are connected with the sounds of speech. ...
Post-Polio Health, Volume 31, Number 4, Fall 2015. Dr. Rhoda Olkin is a Distinguished Professor of Clinical Psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology in San Francisco, as well as the Executive Director of the Institute on Disability and Health Psychology.. She is a polio survivor and single mother of two grown children.. QUESTION: I see people on Facebook and other online groups who have a made-up name (Bracing Bill, Polio Paul), who may be pretending to be survivors. And there are groups like "Women in Braces." Some are way too interested in braces and other hardware, and its getting creepy. On Facebook, one person with a pseudonym posts lots of pictures of braces; no one knows if s/he is a polio survivor or not (and could lie if asked). Perhaps people trust that everyone on FB is a good person. Is there anything our group can or should do?. Response from Dr. Olkin: This is an excellent question but one that requires us to make some assumptions without being able to verify ...
Healthy 4-6 y old children from Italy and Sweden immunized with DTPa and inactivated or oral polio vaccines at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age, received 1 dose of combined DTPa-IPV (n = 211) or DTPa+IPV as separate doses (n = 205) in a randomized trial. The pre-booster seroprotection rates were similar in each group and were above 60% against all antigens except diphtheria (31.3% and 37.0%) and PT (21.5% and 25.9%) in the DTPa-IPV and DTPa+IPV groups, respectively. At least 99.5% of subjects had seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus and polioviruses and ≥96% showed a vaccine response to each pertussis antigen after vaccination. Post-booster antibody levels increased at least 51-fold for anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus, at least 18-fold for anti-pertussis antibodies and at least 32-fold for antibodies against all 3 poliovirus types, compared to prior levels. DTPa-IPV was ...
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in Cuba, and an eradication strategy by zones is planned by the Official Veterinary Service. The aim of this study was to identify high-risk areas of CSF and the risk factors associated with the disease occurrence in the Pinar del Río province, one of the prioritized areas in the eradication strategy. The outbreak occurrence at district level was analyzed through a 7-year period (2009 to 2015). A high-risk cluster (RR = 5.13, 95% CI 3.49-7.56) was detected during the last 2 years of the study period in the eastern half of the province, with 38 out of 97 districts included. The rate of CSF-affected holdings had a significant increase during 2014-2015 and seems to have occurred mainly in the high-risk cluster area. Swine population density by district (heads/km2) and road length (km) by district were associated with the disease outbreak occurrence. These results provide new insights into the knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in Cuban endemic
Albert Bruce Sabin (born Albert Saperstein; August 26, 1906 - March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease. Sabin was born in Białystok, Poland, then part of the Russian Empire, to Polish-Jewish parents, Jacob Saperstein and Tillie Krugman. In 1921, he emigrated with his family to America. In 1930, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and changed his name to Sabin, as well as assuming the middle name Bruce. Sabin received a medical degree from New York University in 1931. He trained in internal medicine, pathology, and surgery at Bellevue Hospital in New York City from 1931-1933. In 1934, he conducted research at The Lister Institute for Preventive Medicine in England, then joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University). During this time, he developed an intense interest in research, especially in the ...
[email protected] Washington, April 3, 2015 - The U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets today announced plans for the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) eradication efforts taking place in New York in 2015. APHIS and its partners have been conducting eradication efforts of this destructive tree pest in New York since its detection in 1996.. The ALB eradication program uses an integrated approach to eradicate the beetle, which consists of quarantines, visual surveys of trees, the removal of infested and high-risk host trees, and the application of pesticides. Currently, 137 square miles are under regulation in New York, which includes the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, and a portion of central Long Island. Infestations in Manhattan, Staten Island, and Islip have all been eradicated.. In 2015, the program will continue to survey host trees within the regulated ...
Inspired by the successful eradication of smallpox in 1977, the International Task Force for Disease Eradication formed at The Carter Center in 1988 to evaluate disease control and prevention and the potential for eradicating other infectious diseases.. Scientists and notable international health organizations serving on the task force have identified eight diseases that potentially could be eradicated, thereby dramatically and permanently improving the quality of life for many millions of the worlds poorest people.. Those diseases are: Guinea worm (dracunculiasis), poliomyelitis, mumps, rubella, lymphatic filariasis, cysticercosis, measles, and yaws.. Currently supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the task force reviews progress in the field of disease eradication and the status of diseases selected for control or eradication, and recommends action steps.. ...
AUSTRALIA. Polio Australia Incorporated coordinated its first Polio Health and Wellness Retreat in April of 2010 after participating in PHIs Post-Polio Wellness Retreat held at Camp Dream on the campus of Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation in April of 2009. Since then, Polio Australia has continued to run Polio Health and Wellness Retreats for up to 70 polio survivors and their family members on an annual basis in various states in Australia. To learn more about the Australian experience, watch a summary video of their 2010 Retreat, and review reports and photos of all other Retreats online. To find out more about the impact of Polio Australias Retreats on the health literacy of participants, view the presentation given at PHIs 2014 Conference Retreats and Health Literacy. ...
Cavite Rep. Strike Revilla wants the coverage of the governments mandatory immunization program for children expanded to include more diseases.. Revilla filed House Bill 437 to ensure the health of infants and children as parents become wary of immunization due to the controversy over the Dengvaxia vaccine.. The bill, which seeks to amend Republic Act 19152 or the Mandatory Infants and Children Health Immunization Act of 2011, proposes to include the following diseases in the coverage of the governments mandatory vaccination program: tuberculosis; diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis; poliomyelitis; measles; mumps; rubella (German measles); hepatitis B; H influenza type B; Rota virus; Japanese encephalitis; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; human papilloma virus, and hepatitis C.. HB 437 also transfers the power to include vaccine-preventable diseases not in the laws coverage to Congress instead ...
The RNA genomes of neurovirulent and attenuated type 3 polioviruses have been cloned in E. cola using an efficient RNA.cDNA hybrid technique. The complete nucleotide sequence of the vaccine-associated neurovirulent revertant P3/119 and, in collaboration with others, the attenuated vaccine strain P3/Leon 12 a1b, have been determined. These have been compared with that of the neurovirulent parent strain P3/Leon/3 7. Ten nucleotide sequence differences were observed between the parent P3/Leon/37 and the vaccine P3/Leon 12 a1b, three of which resulted in amino acid substitutions. Between the vaccine and the revertant P3/119, seven nucleotide sequence differences were observed. Three of these resulted in amino acid substitutions. The possible significance of individual nucleotide sequence differences to the attenuation of and reversion to neurovirulence in ...
A detailed socioeconomic study1 during the 2007 epidemic in Burkina Faso showed that each case of meningitis in a family results in a sudden expenditure of about US$90-what amounts to three or four months of the familys disposable income. Families with few resources cycle inexorably downward to the next level of poverty. In addition, about 25 percent of survivors have long-term aftereffects such as deafness leaving them less likely to be economically productive citizens, and they often become wards of an already financially stretched extended family. Not captured in the above analysis is the chaos to health systems engendered by a meningitis epidemic. For example, routine services such as immunizations at the health center level cease. In addition, special programs such as poliomyelitis or yellow fever immunization campaigns are delayed. Responding to a meningitis epidemic supersedes all other health-related activities because populations are frightened and demand a response. Managing the ...
Physical Chemistry Courses Uttar Pradesh . Physical Chemistry in Uttar Pradesh, Find the right Physical Chemistry in Uttar Pradesh course in the right location on Emagisters fast and effective search engine. Extensive range of course types available, from short courses to postgraduate. Physical Chemistry.
The Enterovirus genus within the family Picornaviridae contains over 100 serotypes, of which sixty-four are known to be human pathogens. Infection with this group of RNA viruses produces a myriad of clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis, encephalitis, respiratory illnesses, and hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Outbreaks have been documented worldwide; significant morbidity and mortality exist to warrant laboratory surveillance. Traditionally, enteroviruses have been identified to the level of serotype by the serum neutralization assay. However, numerous problems are associated with this assay. The serum neutralization assay is labor intensive, results are often ambiguous, and reagents are becoming difficult to obtain. Recently, molecular-based typing protocols have been described that are cost effective and produce results that are more reliable. The overall objective of this thesis was to implement a molecular-based typing protocol to replace the serum neutralization method ...
Vaccine-associated feline sarcoma: current perspectives Corey F Saba Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS; also known as vaccine-associated sarcomas) have been recognized for >20 years. Although uncommon, these tumors are iatrogenic, and vaccination against rabies and feline leukemia virus is perhaps the most common inciting cause. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown, but it is widely accepted that inflammation induced by vaccines or other injections likely plays a critical role in tumor development. Injection site sarcomas are extremely locally invasive. Multimodal therapy, incorporating combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy or immunotherapy, is recommended. However, tumor recurrences are common even with aggressive treatment, and many ...
According to Dr Shar I do not have laryngitis but sinusitis. Dont talk when Common cold or upper respiratory infection laryngitis. Hyperthyroidism Sore Throat Fever Dove Percy sore throat and itchy right ear tinnitus throat sore Tonsils bulbospinal polio: About one in five people with paralytic polio have both your CNS the symptoms become much more sinister and you develop what is.. In the first century AD Celsus described tonsillectomy performed with sharp tools and followed by rinses with vinegar and other medicinals. Learn how to get rid of sore a sore throat by using honey propolis hot lemon juice Tabasco. Read Bupa fact sheet on cold sores (oral herpes) including symptoms glandular fever type illness (sore throat and swollen tonsils with fever and headache).. What are the side effects the warnings and how to use this herbal? 2)7 Tips to Fast When You Have A Sore ThroatOccupational Asthma (Part2).to moderate pain or signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Fill an ...
Happily, a few adjustments can make the menu tasty and interesting. A few examples embody smooth drinks, truffles, cookies, pastries, cheese, and ice cream. In accordance with dietitians, except you change your life-style, or can adhere ham and cheese hot pockets nutrition facts and persistently to your chosen food plan regimen for the rest of your life, shedding pounds permanently is impossible. The less refined the carbohydrate, the higher, comparable to brown rice quite than 5 minute fast cooking white rice. Key suggestion 1 : Select your day by day meals intake from a combination of foods based mostly on the Malaysian Food Pyramid. As a result of these easy tools dont lie. Experiencing arthritis makes it harder for individuals to operate normally. Word: a couple of nutrients, like trans fat, do not need a DV-they will be discussed later. The regulation provides that to the extent that a Durable Energy of Lawyer conflicts with a Dwelling Will, the Health Care Power of Attorney controls. ...
Health officials said that they were mistaken about a polio outbreak in Somalia spreading to South Sudan. Despite previous reports, South Sudan has not recorded any polio cases this year. The new information means that the spread of the virus around the Horn of Africa is more limited than previously thought.
Disponible ahora en Iberlibro.com - Hardcover - London: New Sydenham Society, 1895. - 1895 - 1st Edition - First Edition in English. xix, 511 pp; 244 figs. Original cloth. Bottom of spine slightly worn, else Very Good+. Maries famous lectures on diseases of the spinal cord (Haymaker & Schiller, Founders of Neurology, 2d ed., p. 476). This book, dedicated to Charcot, is one of Maries most important contributions. Marie discusses normal pathology, clinical symptoms and particularly the underlying pathology of many forms of spinal cord disease. The many illustrations are useful adjuncts to the descriptions of such conditions as insular sclerosis (multiple sclerosis), infantile paralysis (anterior poliomyelitis), tabes, ascending paralysis, and familial degenerative changes (Heirs of Hippocrates 2153). Garrison/McHenry, p. 296.
These Field Guides will help health workers in their efforts to control, eliminate, or eradicate diseases such as poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, yellow fever, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, hepatitis B, measles, and rubella. The Field Guides also include standardized methods and procedures for conducting epidemiological surveillance and maintaining an up-to-date information system that makes it possible to take timely and effective decisions. These...
Background. Karwinskia humboldtiana currently known by the common names buckthorn, wild cherry, tullidora, capulin tullidor, capulincillo, coyotillo, and cacatsin, is a poisonous shrub of the Rhamnaceae family that grows from Southern United States to northern Colombia [1]. Medicinal properties have been attributed to several species of the genus Karwisnkia due to a secondary metabolite with antineo-plastic action on mammalian tumor cells [2].. The ingestion of the green or ripe fruit of Kh causes a flaccid, symmetric, progressive, and ascending palsy of the lower limbs, which, in severe cases may progress to quadriplegia and breathing insufficiency, with victims requiring assisted mechanical ventilation. The neurologic symptoms are similar to those of poliomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and other polyradiculoneuritis syndromes, for which it is often mistaken. In Mexico, the accidental ingestion of Kh causes several health problems [3-5], particularly there are numerous reports of ...
Recently a link between certain nematode infections and bacterial and viral agents has been postulated. A relationship between ascarid larvae migration and poliomyelitis, Japanese B encephalitis and Escherichia colitis have been linked to some degree to larval nematode migration. Other diseases such as visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans have been shown to result from man becoming infected with the parasites of dogs. The climatic conditions in Bangkok are suitable for year-round transmission, especially of the soil transmitted parasites, thus providing ideal conditions for their propagation. This study evaluates the annual fluctuations in prevalence and the zoonotic potential of the parasites encountered in the dogs of Bangkok.(*NEMATODA
The reason why galantamine is successful in treatment of various health issues is because it does not just block the acetylcholinesterase enzyme but also modulate the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR) the way they become more sensitive to acetylcholine. There is some difference between galantamine and huperzine A what is a more potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor but doesnt posses the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulating properties.. Galantamine is most commonly used for Alzheimers disease and thats why it is recognized worldwide. However there are also other uses - for various myopathies and issues where the nervous system dysfunction is suspected (erectile dysfunction).. Some people are using it along with choline to highly increase the chances of lucid dreaming and to enhance the memory and learning abilities.. Great uses found galantamine in treating the poliomyelitis and it was very popular medicine used by the east european herbalists who were making the tea from the ...
Despite high reported coverage for routine and supplementary immunization, in 2010 in Malawi, a large measles outbreak occurred that comprised 134,000 cases and 304 deaths. Although the highest attack rates were for young children (2.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% for children <6, 6-8, and 9-11 months, respectively), persons >15 years of age were highly affected (1.0% and 0.4% for persons 15-19 and >19 years, respectively; 28% of all cases). A survey in 8 districts showed routine coverage of 95.0% for children 12-23 months; 57.9% for children 9-11 months; and 60.7% for children covered during the last supplementary immunization activities in 2008. Vaccine effectiveness was 83.9% for 1 dose and 90.5% for 2 doses. A continuous accumulation of susceptible persons during the past decade probably accounts for this outbreak. Countries en route to measles elimination, such as Malawi, should improve outbreak preparedness. Timeliness and the population chosen are crucial ...
While the whole nation has been gripped by a media-induced frenzy about the fatal effects of the so-called "litchi virus" (do not get me started on this! This issue deserves a whole post of its own!), another virus-related news has quietly slipped beneath the radars of the cumulative hysteria. This article in the Times of India has implicated the West Nile Virus as the causative agent of acute flaccid paralysis which has historically been associated with the polio virus. India has earned the polio-eradicated status a couple months ago and now is under a new threat from another virus that causes similar issues.. Notably, the three patients who have been diagnosed to have been afflicted with WNV-associated poliomyelitis-like syndrome are all adults, aged between 42 and 55 years. In India, polio coverage was targeted at children only, and surveillance included adolescents aged up to 15 years. In this connection, if I can recollect correctly, Namibia is the only country that has previously faced ...
Curtis R. Webb has represented petitioners in the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program since its creation in 1988. He has represented 275 petitioners in Table and Off-Table cases, in cases involving nearly every Table vaccine. He has won compensation for catastrophically injured children injured by the DTP, DTaP, MMR, and Oral Polio vaccines and for seriously injured adults injured by the MMR, Hepatitis B, Influenza, Varicella, and HPV vaccines.. Mr. Webb represented the petitioners in several precedent setting cases, including Koston v. Secy of Health and Human Services, 974 F.2d 157 (Fed. Cir. 1992) and Shyface v. Secy of Health and Human Services, 165 F.3d 1344 (Fed. Cir. 1999). Not all of his noteworthy cases have been victories. He represented Yates Hazlehurst in one of the Omnibus Autism Proceeding cases, Hazlehurst v. Secy of Health and Human Services, 604 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Despite the availability of effective tetanus prevention strategies, as of 2016, Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) has not yet been achieved in 18 countries globally. In this paper, we review the status of MNTE in the World Health Organization African Region (AFR),and provide recommendations for achieving and maintaining MNTE in AFR. As of November 2016, 37 (79%) AFR countries have achieved MNTE, with 10 (21%) countries remaining. DTP3 coverage increased from 52% in 2000 to 76% in 2015. In 2015, coverage with at least 2 doses of tetanus containing vaccine (TT2+) and proportion of newborns protected at birth (PAB) were 69% and 77%, compared with 44% and 62% in 2000, respectively. Since 1999, over 79 million women of reproductive age (WRA) have been vaccinated with TT2+ through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Despite the progress, only 54% of births were attended by skilled birth attendants (SBAs), 5 (11%) countries provided the 3 WHO-recommended ...
Background Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), or ALB, is a destructive wood-boring pest of maple and other hardwoods, eventually killing them. It most likely came to the United States inside wood packaging material from Asia. Since its first discovery in Brooklyn, NY, in 1996, the beetle has been found in five States: New York (1996), Illinois (1998), New Jersey (2002), Massachusetts (2008), and Ohio (2011). APHIS and its cooperators have eradicated infestations in Illinois; New Jersey; Manhattan, Staten Island, and Islip, NY; and Boston, MA. Eradication efforts continue in Brooklyn and Queens, NY; on central Long Island, NY; in Worcester County, MA; and in Clermont County, OH. For eradication efforts to succeed, residents must remain on the lookout for this destructive pest. To learn more, click here.. Pest Identification. ...
Chomsky Interviewed by Kurdish newspaper: "On the matter of legitimacy and recognition, once the State of Israel was established in 1948, my feeling has been that it should have the rights of any state in the international system: no more, no less. That includes, specifically, the right to live in peace and security within its recognized international borders, understood to be the pre-June 1967 borders, with minor and mutual adjustments. These rights have been recognized by a very broad international consensus since the mid-1970s, including the major Arab states. The US and Israel, virtually alone, have opposed the international consensus since the mid-1970s, and still do. Since the mid-1970s, the US has vetoed Security Council resolutions calling for a two-state settlement on the international border with full recognition of the rights of Israel and a new Palestinian state, has regularly voted against General Assembly resolutions to this effect (along with Israel, sometimes one or another ...
AB - BackgroundOral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is less immunogenic in low- or middle-income than in high-income countries. We tested whether bacterial and viral components of the intestinal microbiota are associated with this phenomenon.MethodsWe assessed the prevalence of enteropathogens using TaqMan array cards 14 days before and at vaccination in 704 Indian infants (aged 6-11 months) receiving monovalent type 3 OPV (CTRI/2014/05/004588). Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes were identified by means of VP1 sequencing. In 120 infants, the prevaccination bacterial microbiota was characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.ResultsWe detected 56 NPEV serotypes on the day of vaccination. Concurrent NPEVs were associated with a reduction in OPV seroconversion, consistent across species (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.57 [.36-.90], 0.61 [.43-.86], and 0.69 [.41-1.16] for species A, B, and C, respectively). Recently acquired enterovirus infections, ...

Prevention of Poliomyelitis: Recommendations for Use of Only Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine for Routine Immunization | AMERICAN...Prevention of Poliomyelitis: Recommendations for Use of Only Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine for Routine Immunization | AMERICAN...

1997) Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. ... oral poliovirus vaccine • IPV = inactivated poliovirus vaccine • AAP = American Academy of Pediatrics • ACIP = Advisory ... Introduction of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine: ... Prevention of Poliomyelitis: Recommendations for Use of Only Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine for Routine Immunization. Committee ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/104/6/1404

Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014...Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014...

China experiences province-wide Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine introduction. ... China experiences province-wide Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine introduction. ... Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014- ... Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014- ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6649a4.htm

Poliomyelitis Prevention in the United States: Introduction of
A Sequential Vaccination Schedule of Inactivated Poliovirus
...Poliomyelitis Prevention in the United States: Introduction of A Sequential Vaccination Schedule of Inactivated Poliovirus ...

Oral poliovirus vaccine. + Inactivated poliovirus vaccine. & Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. ** Estimated ... von Magnus H, Peterson I. Vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine in Denmark. Rev Infect ... Rationale for the sequential use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live attenuated poliovirus vaccine for routine ... Inactivated poliovirus vaccine. + Live, oral poliovirus vaccine. & For children who receive only OPV, the third dose of OPV may ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00046568.htm

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Poliomyelitis} and su-to:Poliovirus vaccine, Inactivated.WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Poliomyelitis} and su-to:Poliovirus vaccine, Inactivated.'

Results of search for su:{Poliomyelitis} and su-to:Poliovirus vaccine, Inactivated. ... by WHO Expert Committee on Poliomyelitis , World Health Organization Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: Genève : ... by WHO Expert Committee on Poliomyelitis , World Health Organization Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: Ginebra : ... by WHO Expert Committee on Poliomyelitis , World Health Organization Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=ccl=su%3A%7BPoliomyelitis%7D&sort_by=relevance_dsc&limit=su-to:Poliovirus+vaccine,+Inactivated.

Top 20 Vaccines You Should Know AboutTop 20 Vaccines You Should Know About

Inactivated poliovirus vaccine protects against poliomyelitis, which can cause permanent paralysis.. *Rotavirus vaccine ... Route of administration: By mouth (oral live typhoid vaccine); injection (inactivated typhoid vaccine) ... The cholera vaccine was first approved by the FDA in 2016.. Japanese encephalitis Vaccine. Primary age group(s): Infants, ... Hepatitis B vaccine protects against liver disease transferred through blood.. *DTaP vaccine protects against diphtheria, t ...
more infohttps://www.verywell.com/top-vaccines-you-should-know-about-4138556

Pediatric Poliomyelitis: Background, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyPediatric Poliomyelitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

... nonparalytic poliomyelitis, and paralytic disease. Before the 19th century, poliomyelitis occurred sporadically. ... Poliomyelitis is an enteroviral infection that can manifest in 4 different forms: inapparent infection, abortive disease, ... Prevention of poliomyelitis: recommendations for use of only inactivated poliovirus vaccine for routine immunization. Committee ... Improved inactivated poliovirus vaccine: an update. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 May-Jun. 5(3):289-92. [Medline]. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/967950-overview

Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.comPoliovirus Vaccine Inactivated Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com

Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System ... Uses for Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated. Prevention of Poliomyelitis. Prevention of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus types 1 ... Inactivated virus vaccine.1 9 105 135 166 Poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV) contains 3 strains of inactivated poliovirus ( ... Poliovirus vaccine, inactivated Injection (Advanced Reading). Professional resources. *Poliovirus Vaccine (Inactivated) ( ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/monograph/poliovirus-vaccine-inactivated.html

Poliomyelitis Prevention in the United StatesPoliomyelitis Prevention in the United States

Introduction of A Sequential Vaccination Schedule of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Followed by Oral Poliovirus Vaccine; ... Oral poliovirus vaccine. + Inactivated poliovirus vaccine. & Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. ** Estimated ... von Magnus H, Peterson I. Vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine in Denmark. Rev Infect ... Rationale for the sequential use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live attenuated poliovirus vaccine for routine ...
more infohttps://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0046568/m0046568.asp

Problems with the oral polio vaccine | Nature MedicineProblems with the oral polio vaccine | Nature Medicine

Vaccines: New Generation of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines for Universal Immunization after Eradication of Poliomyelitis * ... Cold chain and virus-free chloroplast-made booster vaccine to confer immunity against different poliovirus serotypes *Hui-Ting ... The year 2005 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the development of the first poliovirus vaccine. At the end of the same year, ... it is not providing herd immunity anymore-children seem to be getting polio from the vaccine, and the vaccine itself is ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nm0108-9?error=cookies_not_supported&code=5f557b3d-4c4a-4bb6-8dd3-53a2f3863ab4

CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ReportCDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014- ... Fractional-Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaign - Sindh Province, Pakistan, 2016. (Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality ... Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2016-September 2017. (Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/news/cdc-morbidity-and-mortality-weekly-report/

Poliovirus Vaccine (Inactivated) (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.comPoliovirus Vaccine (Inactivated) (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com

Inactivated). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Polio infection: Patients with prior clinical poliomyelitis or incomplete immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) may ... Poliovirus vaccine, inactivated Injection (Advanced Reading). Professional resources. *Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated (AHFS ... Vaccine, Inactivated (Viral). Pharmacology. As an inactivated virus vaccine, poliovirus vaccine induces active immunity against ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/ppa/poliovirus-vaccine-inactivated.html

Welcome to CDC stacksWelcome to CDC stacks

Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014- ... inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event ... Assessing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction and Utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015 ... Lessons Learned From Managing the Planning and Implementation of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction in Support of the Polio ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/63678/Email

Welcome to CDC stacksWelcome to CDC stacks

Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Impact on Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis - Beijing, China, 2014- ... inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event ... Assessing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction and Utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015 ... Lessons Learned From Managing the Planning and Implementation of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction in Support of the Polio ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/63678/Share

Fractional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Booster and Rotavirus StudyFractional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Booster and Rotavirus Study

... randomized controlled trial of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and rotavirus vaccines.... ... Poliomyelitis. Intervention. IPV at 14 and 22 weeks of age, Rotarix, IPV at 14 and 22 weeks of age, RotaTeq, IPV at 14 and fIPV ... circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses. However, the current global inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV; 0.5 mL, full-dose) ... vaccine (OPV) in 2016, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is recommending inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) use ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/162714/Fractional-Inactivated-Poliovirus-Vaccine-Booster-and-Rotavirus-Study.html

Safety and Immunogenicity of a New Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Infants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govSafety and Immunogenicity of a New Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Infants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine Poliovirus Vaccines Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Poliomyelitis ... Clinical development of a novel inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine based on attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains. Expert Rev ... A new inactivated polio vaccine based on attenuated poliovirus strains was developed to transfer the technology to ... Inactivated polio vaccine development for technology transfer using attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains to shift from Salk-IPV ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01709071

Synonyms for IPV | Synonym.comSynonyms for IPV | Synonym.com

a poliovirus vaccine consisting of inactivated polio virus that is injected subcutaneously to provide immunity to poliomyelitis ...
more infohttp://www.synonym.com/synonyms/IPV

Vaccines from Aborted Babies! - From The PewsVaccines from Aborted Babies! - From The Pews

one vaccine against poliomyelitis, the inactivated polio virus vaccine Poliovax® (Aventis-Pasteur, Fr.) using MRC-5; ... the combined vaccine MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) against rubella, mumps and measles, marketed under the name of M-M-R® II ( ... the combined vaccine MR against rubella and measles, commercialized with the name of M-R-VAX® (Merck, US) and Rudi-Rouvax® (AVP ... one vaccine against rabies, Imovax®, produced by Aventis Pasteur, harvested from infected human diploid cells, MRC-5 strain; ...
more infohttps://fromthepews.blog/2010/07/11/vaccines-from-aborted-babies/

vaccine-derived poliovirusvaccine-derived poliovirus

In contrast, the Salk inactivated vaccine does not cause poliomyelitis. Why are the Sabin vaccines still used globally? The ... The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) developed by Jonas Salk was licensed for use in 1955. This vaccine consists of the ... Why do we still use Sabin poliovirus vaccine?. The Sabin infectious, attenuated poliovirus vaccines are known to cause vaccine- ... vaccine-derived polioviruses will circulate. The solution to this conundrum is to switch to Salks inactivated poliovirus ...
more infohttp://www.virology.ws/tag/vaccine-derived-poliovirus/

Variation in Clinician Recommendations for Multiple Injections During Adoption of Inactivated Polio Vaccine | ELECTRONIC...Variation in Clinician Recommendations for Multiple Injections During Adoption of Inactivated Polio Vaccine | ELECTRONIC...

Poliomyelitis prevention in the United States: introduction of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus ... inactivated polio vaccine. *Abbreviations:. IPV = inactivated polio vaccine • DTaP = diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis ... oral poliovirus vaccine • KP = Kaiser Permanente • GHC = Group Health Cooperative • Hib = Haemophilus influenzaetype b vaccine ... Variation in Clinician Recommendations for Multiple Injections During Adoption of Inactivated Polio Vaccine. Tracy A. Lieu, ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/107/4/e49.full

Development of Thermostable Lyophilized Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine | mBioDevelopment of Thermostable Lyophilized Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine | mBio

As oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) causes vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, the polio endgame strategy introduced by ... Inactivated poliovirus vaccine protects transgenic poliovirus receptor mice against type 3 poliovirus challenge. J Infect Dis ... Alternative delivery of a thermostable inactivated polio vaccine. Vaccine 33:2030-2037. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.011. ... oral poliovirus vaccine with bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine to eliminate the chance of generating type 2 circulating vaccine- ...
more infohttps://mbio.asm.org/content/9/6/e02287-18

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (Injection Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo ClinicPoliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (Injection Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic

Poliovirus vaccine is an active immunizing agent used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). It works by causing your body to ... There are two types of polio vaccine that are given by injection, poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV) and poliovirus vaccine ... the type of vaccine that is given by injection is eIPV. The type of vaccine that is given by mouth is called poliovirus vaccine ... This vaccine is to be administered only by or under the supervision of your doctor or other health care professional. ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/poliovirus-vaccine-inactivated-injection-route/description/drg-20069860

Live oral poliovirus vaccine - definition of live oral poliovirus vaccine by The Free DictionaryLive oral poliovirus vaccine - definition of live oral poliovirus vaccine by The Free Dictionary

live oral poliovirus vaccine synonyms, live oral poliovirus vaccine pronunciation, live oral poliovirus vaccine translation, ... English dictionary definition of live oral poliovirus vaccine. n. 1. a. A preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as ... Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine.. ... poliovirus vaccine - vaccine prepared from poliovirus to provide immunity to poliomyelitis. proteosome, proteosome vaccine - a ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/live+oral+poliovirus+vaccine

Department of Health | AbbreviationsDepartment of Health | Abbreviations

M IPD Invasive pneumococcal disease IPV Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine iVDPV Immunodeficient vaccine derived poliovirus LOS ... VAPP Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis VDPV Vaccine derived poliovirus VIDRL Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference ... aVDPV Ambiguous vaccine derived poliovirus CDT Combined diphtheria-tetanus CRS Congenital rubella syndrome CSF Cerebrospinal ... cVDPV Circulating vaccine derived poliovirus DT (dT) Diphtheria-tetanus DTP Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis DTPa Diphtheria- ...
more infohttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-cdi31suppl.htm~cda-cdi31suppl-abb.htm

Why do we still use Sabin poliovirus vaccine?Why do we still use Sabin poliovirus vaccine?

... attenuated poliovirus vaccines still used when they are known to cause vaccine-associated paralysis in a small number of ... In contrast, the Salk inactivated vaccine does not cause poliomyelitis. Why are the Sabin vaccines still used globally? The ... The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) developed by Jonas Salk was licensed for use in 1955. This vaccine consists of the ... Vaccine-associated polio in the vaccine recipient is caused by the vaccine replicating and reverting to neurovirulence in the ...
more infohttps://www.virology.ws/2015/09/10/why-do-we-still-use-sabin-poliovirus-vaccine/
  • Beijing Municipal Authority implemented the first province-wide IPV introduction in China on December 5, 2014 with a sequential IPV/OPV poliovirus vaccination schedule. (cdc.gov)
  • These revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) replace recommendations on poliomyelitis issued in 1982 and 1987, and present a new ACIP poliovirus vaccination policy that increases reliance on inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). (cdc.gov)
  • The revised recommendations include three options for poliovirus vaccination, all of which meet acceptable standards of care: sequential vaccination with IPV followed by OPV, OPV alone, or IPV alone. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the risk for VAPP is low (approximately one case to 2.4 million doses distributed, or one case to 750,000 children receiving their first dose of OPV), CDC estimates that 30-40 cases of vaccine-associated paralysis would have occurred in the United States during 1997-2000 if the previously recommended poliovirus vaccination practices had not changed. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 9 105 166 199 These experts also recommend catch-up vaccination for all children and adolescents ≤17 years of age who are unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated against poliomyelitis. (drugs.com)
  • repeat doses are unnecessary in those with protective titers against all 3 poliovirus types, but complete the age-appropriate IPV vaccination schedule. (drugs.com)
  • Due to threats from militant extremists, it has not been possible for vaccination teams to properly cover this area, and surveillance for polioviruses has also been inefficient. (virology.ws)
  • Disclaimer: This is the fourth report on vaccine preventable disease and vaccination coverage in Australia, and is produced by the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare on behalf of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing published as a supplement to the Communicable Diseases Intelligence journal Volume 31, June 2007. (health.gov.au)
  • These encouraging findings motivated the introduction, beginning in 2014, of IPV to mass vaccination campaigns in Nigeria and Pakistan, 2 countries that had circulating VDPV and wild-type poliovirus at that time. (cdc.gov)
  • Interruption of person-to-person transmission of the virus by vaccination is important in the global polio eradication, since there is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in individuals with normal immune function, polio viruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature, and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. (wikipedia.org)
  • OPV also proved to be superior in administration, eliminating the need for sterile syringes and making the vaccine more suitable for mass vaccination campaigns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the lyophilized sIPV remained stable after 4 weeks of incubation at ambient temperature and induced strong neutralizing antibodies and full protection of poliovirus receptor transgenic mice against the in vivo challenge of wild-type poliovirus. (asm.org)
  • Immunization against polio is not recommended for infants younger than 6 weeks of age, because antibodies they received from their mothers before birth may interfere with the effectiveness of the vaccine. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In recent U.S. studies, three doses of IPV administered in the first year of life produced antibodies to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 in 87%, 97%, and 95% of recipients, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • In spite of the presence of maternal antibodies in the majority of the infants at the time of the first dose, 99%-100% of the children were seropositive for all three poliovirus types at 6 months of age (2 months after their second dose). (cdc.gov)
  • Three doses of live-attenuated OPV produce protective antibodies to all three poliovirus types in more than 95% of recipients. (wikipedia.org)
  • the polio vaccine dropout rate (the percentage of children who received the first dose of polio vaccine but failed to complete the series) was 1.0% in 2015 and 0.4% in 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • To prevent further cases of poliomyelitis caused by cVDPVs, WHO has decided that there will be a synchronized, global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV in April 2016. (virology.ws)
  • To determine the effectiveness of campaigns using IPV+tOPV or tOPV alone in preventing the circulation of wild-type polioviruses or VDPVs, we analyzed poliovirus surveillance data for 2014-2016 from Nigeria and Pakistan. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 9 105 115 166 This includes all travelers to areas where poliomyelitis is endemic or epidemic (including countries with recent proven wild poliovirus circulation and neighboring countries), health-care personnel in close contact with patients who may be excreting wild-type polioviruses, and laboratory personnel handling specimens that may contain polioviruses. (drugs.com)
  • 1 9 105 166 200 However, IPV is recommended in unvaccinated adults at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus. (drugs.com)
  • Hib vaccine protects against Haemophilus influenzae type b, which can cause pneumonia , meningitis, and epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis). (verywell.com)
  • Comprehensive IPV introduction plans not only ensure a smooth transition to a new vaccine schedule, but can also help improve the current routine immunization system. (cdc.gov)
  • However, although these viruses showed increased replication at temperatures less than 37°C, they did not show complete loss of replication at 37°C, which is necessary for safe use of this technique in vaccine design. (plos.org)
  • These findings indicate that the ability of the Lansing strain of poliovirus to infect mice is likely due to recognition by the viral capsid of a receptor in the mouse central nervous system. (virology.ws)