Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Mice, Inbred BALB CPoliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Tetanus ToxoidAntibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Staphylococcal VaccinesT-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antibodies, Catalytic: Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.SqualeneInterferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
"IAVIs Neutralizing Antibody Center". 6 March 2015.. *^ "Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research". ... "Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery". *^ "Scripps Center for Metabolomics and Mass ... including the development of an antibody engineering platform aimed at improving treatments for chronic diseases such as ...
"Human trial proves ricin vaccine safe, induces neutralizing antibodies; further tests planned". University of Texas ... Because ricin is a protein, it can be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target cancerous cells recognized by the antibody. The ... has licensed an anti-ricin vaccine called RiVax™ from Vitetta et al. at UT Southwestern. The vaccine is safe and immunogenic in ... Another antidote developed by the U.S. military has been shown to be safe and effective in lab mice injected with antibody-rich ...
Both vaccines have been shown[who?] to induce strong neutralizing antibodies in different laboratory animals. Trials began in ... Vaccine for horses. In November 2012, a vaccine became available for horses. The vaccine is to be used in horses only, since, ... "a vaccine for people would take many more years." The vaccine is a subunit vaccine that neutralises Hendra virus and is ... While no vaccine currently exists, a recent (2012) study of a trial vaccine developed using the outer proteins of Hendra virus ...
"Oral iodine supplementation does not reduce neutralizing antibody responses to oral poliovirus vaccine". Bull. World Health ... A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on giving infants iodized poppyseed oil together with an oral polio vaccine had ...
Antibodies and T cells are also involved. The neutralizing antibodies also play an important role to prevent further infection ... There are no alphavirus vaccines currently available. Vector control with repellents, protective clothing, breeding site ... The E2 protein is the site of most neutralizing epitopes, while the E1 protein contains more conserved, cross-reactive epitopes ... through the introduction of variable antibody domains in a non-conserved loop in the structure of E2, specific populations of ...
One of the approaches for a protective HIV-1 vaccine is broadly neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies are found in 10-25 % ... "Magnitude and Breadth of the Neutralizing Antibody Response in the RV144 and Vax003 HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials". The Journal ... Most of the conducted vaccine trials were not able to induce protective neutralizing antibodies; even though some protective ... It is likely to assume that these results are transferable to humans as HIV-1 patients with neutralizing antibodies were shown ...
"New Indian Medicinal Chemistry Programme towards Advancement of Novel Neutralizing Antibody Approach". International AIDS ... Merck have tested the a few vaccines and some of the other proposals are being tested by International AIDS Vaccine Initiative ... and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative for the development of HIV vaccines. He has also mentored a number of scholars in ... "Influenza hemagglutinin stem-fragment immunogen elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and confers heterologous protection". ...
Unless a gp120-based vaccine can be designed to elicit antibodies with strongly neutralizing antiviral properties, there is ... "Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot ... Many neutralizing antibodies bind to sites located in variable regions of gp120, so mutations in these regions will be selected ... While the transmitting host has developed a neutralizing antibody response to gp120, the newly infected host lacks immune ...
"Global panel of HIV-1 Env reference strains for standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies". Journal ... Building on her correlation of levels of V2 antibodies with reduced infection rates in the RV144 vaccine trial, Zolla-Pazner ... for an effective vaccine should focus not only on inducing specific types of antibodies but on eliciting a durable antibody ... Her research indicated that high levels of antibodies to V2 correlated with a reduced rate of infection. Antibodies to V3 were ...
"Pediatric measles vaccine expressing a dengue tetravalent antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue ... These antibodies inhibit the function of D7 proteins, which enhance transmission of dengue virus. Only one vaccine for dengue ... However, these antibodies are incapable of neutralizing other serotypes upon reinfection and actually increase viral ... One vaccine was in phase III trials in 2012 and planning for vaccine usage and effectiveness surveillance had started. In 2009 ...
... neutralizing antibodies have been identified within humans. There is an inactivated-virus vaccine for horses. Once the horse is ...
Epstein, M. A.; Randle, B. J.; Finerty, S.; Kirkwood, J. K. (1986). "Not all potently neutralizing, vaccine-induced antibodies ... "Purified Epstein-Barr virus Mr 340,000 glycoprotein induces potent virus-neutralizing antibodies when incorporated in liposomes ... "Clinical consequences of Epstein-Barr virus infection and possible control by an anti-viral vaccine". Clinical and experimental ...
For patients with JE virus IgM antibodies, confirmatory neutralizing antibody testing should be performed.[citation needed] ... 1995). "Japanese encephalitis vaccine: persistence of antibody up to 3 years after a three-dose primary series (letter)". J ... The neutralizing antibody persists in the circulation for at least two to three years, and perhaps longer.[16][17] The total ... Jelinek T (July 2008). "Japanese encephalitis vaccine in travelers". Expert Rev Vaccines. 7 (5): 689-93. doi:10.1586/14760584.7 ...
Researchers are currently trying to identify neutralizing antibodies that will provide true immunity against type 2 PRRSV. Type ... The live attenuated vaccine works through an unknown mechanism and only helps clinical symptoms; it does not prevent infection ... Without a strong neutralizing vaccination, the host cells are able to attach strongly and then with weak neutralizing effects, ... It has been found that the inactivated vaccination only induces weak neutralizing antibodies against PRRS. This type of ...
Crispin, Max; Doores, Katie J (2015-04-01). "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine ... These mannose residues are the target for broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recombinant proteins produced in yeast may be ... "Glycan clustering stabilizes the mannose patch of HIV-1 and preserves vulnerability to broadly neutralizing antibodies". Nature ... Vaccine. 27 (34): 4704-4708. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.063. PMID 19520203. Postma, P. W.; Lengeler, J. W.; Jacobson, G. R ...
The antibodies induced by vaccinia vaccine are cross-protective for other orthopoxviruses, such as monkeypox, cowpox, and ... Neutralizing antibodies are detectable 10 days after first-time vaccination, and seven days after revaccination. Historically, ... the need for development of a new generation smallpox vaccine". Vaccine. 29 Suppl 4: D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.05.037 ... The vaccine is given using a bifurcated (two-pronged) needle that is dipped into the vaccine solution. The needle is used to ...
In ferrets, the virus affects the immune system (causing it to produce non-neutralizing antibodies) and many internal organs, ... There is no cure or vaccine for the disease, and ferrets may carry the virus for months or years without any signs. Canine ... There is some anecdotal evidence that occurrence of a vaccine reaction is related to a low blood sugar level, and that feeding ...
... vaccine comprising envelope glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single isolate elicits broad cross-genotype neutralizing ... It is estimated that antibody testing has prevented at least 40,000 new infections per year in the US alone and many more ... The vaccine is currently in clinical trials. Houghton holds 73 U.S. patents related to his research; a further seven patents ... In 2013, Houghton's team at the University of Alberta showed that a vaccine derived from a single strain of Hepatitis C was ...
"Antibody response of Navajo children primed with PRP-OMP vaccine to booster doses of PRP-OMP vs. HbOC vaccine". The Pediatric ... Neutralizing and IgG subclass antibody responses to aluminum phosphate, calcium phosphate, and stearyl tyrosine adsorbed ... "Phase 1 trial of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in healthy adults". Vaccine. 25 (33): 6164-6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine ... Vaccine-type and non-vaccine type pneumococci after administration of 9valent CRM 197 conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Pnc CRM9 ...
... group that deciphered the maturation pathways of several types of broadly neutralizing antibodies that point the way to vaccine ... the isolation of rare broad neutralizing HIV antibodies and their ancestor antibodies; and 8) the development of a new strategy ... Host controls of HIV neutralizing antibodies". Science. 344 (6184): 588-589. doi:10.1126/science.1254990. PMC 4162091 . PMID ... He is the Director of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute and the Duke Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen ...
Han D, Habte H, Qin Y, Takamoto K, Labranche C, Montefiori D, Cho M. Retraction: eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies ... On 1 July 2015 Han was sentenced to 57 months imprisonment for fabricating and falsifying data in HIV vaccine trials. He was ... Tony Leys (February 25, 2015). "Ex-ISU scientist pleads guilty of AIDS vaccine fraud". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved June ... Soltis, Andy (26 December 2013). "Professor admits faking AIDS vaccine to get $19M in grants". New York Post. Retrieved 27 ...
Utilizing immunoglobulins is a logical solution for treatment as neutralizing antibodies because a majority of adults have been ... and identification of the virus by the host's antibody cells. Currently there is no vaccine to prevent infection by all ... have been suggested acting as antigens for improving of vaccines. For pigs vaccine; inactivated live, monovalent combined, most ... When antibodies and parvovirus samples were added at the same time to human cells and HeLa cells it was found that no infection ...
"IAVIs Neutralizing Antibody Center". 6 March 2015. "Pearson Center for Alcoholism and Addiction Research". ... The institute also incorporates the: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery Center for Integrative ... Center for Regenerative Medicine Dorris Neuroscience Center Molecular Screening Center IAVI's Neutralizing Antibody Center at ... "Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery". "Scripps Center for Metabolomics and Mass ...
Utilizing immunoglobulins is a logical solution for treatment as neutralizing antibodies because a majority of adults have been ... have been suggested acting as antigens for improving of vaccines. For pigs vaccine; inactivated live, monovalent combined, most ... Currently there is no vaccine to prevent infection by all parvoviruses, but recently the virus's capsid proteins, which are ... When antibodies and parvovirus samples were added at the same time to human cells and HeLa cells it was found that no infection ...
Human monoclonal antibodies and vaccine design: Taking advantage of his studies on human memory B cells (16), Lanazvecchia ... Neutralizing antibodies were isolated against SARS, cytomegalovirus, avian influenza and dengue virus. Unusually potent ... which is currently tested as a candidate vaccine. The most striking examples are antibodies with exceptional breadth, being ... the full exploitation of the human immune response for serotherapy and vaccine design. These fully human monoclonal antibodies ...
... neutralizing antibody - neutralizing domain - neutropenia - neutrophil - New Drug Application (NDA) - New York Cares - NIAID - ... AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting syndrome - AIDS-related cancer - AIDS-related complex (ARC ... antibodies - antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) - antibody-mediated immunity - antifungal medication - ... V3 loop - vaccination - vaccine - vaccinia - vaginal candidiasis - valley fever - variable region - varicella zoster virus (VZV ...
Persistence of neutralizing antibody 30-35 years after immunization with 17D yellow fever vaccine. Bull World Health Organ 1981 ... of participants to coded vaccine types (double-blind). Neutralizing yellow fever antibody titters were compared in pre- and ... 4 YF vaccines are now considered safe and highly immunogenic.16,25 Protective antibodies induced by the vaccine are ... attributable to the vaccine, with 95% CI.2 Antibody titters from vaccines and placebo were compared in reverse cumulative ...
Immunogenicity, determined by anti-WN/DEN4 neutralizing antibody titer [ Time Frame: At study entry, Days 28 and 42 after first ... The vaccine is based on a live attenuated vaccine developed against dengue virus. ... Biological: WN/DEN4delta30 vaccine Live attenuated WN/DEN4delta30 vaccine (one of two doses) ... Biological: WN/DEN4delta30 vaccine Live attenuated WN/DEN4delta30 vaccine (one of two doses) ...
Description of the drug Yellow Fever Vaccine. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Yellow Fever ... Live virus vaccine that induces neutralizing antibodies to yellow fever virus.. Pharmacokinetics. Onset. Immunity develops by ... 0.6 mL for single-dose vial of vaccine; 3 mL for 5 dose vial of vaccine). Slowly inject diluent into vial containing vaccine. ... meningococcal vaccine ( Menomune ), typhoid vaccine ( Typhim Vi ). Separate other vaccines by at least 4 wk. ...
The current package insert for MMRII provides that a single injection of the vaccine induced ... mumps neutralizing antibodies ... Vaccine manufacturers will therefore invest in developing a new vaccine only where they se both a need for the vaccine and an ... Mercks enhanced methodology permitted various types of human antibodies to be counted as mumps neutralizing antibodies when ... Merck also has a license in the U.S. to sell ProQuad, a quadravalent vaccine containing MMRII vaccine and chickenpox vaccine. ...
... and Germany showed a robust immunogenic response and a promising safety profile of the novel BNT162b1 RNA-based vaccine against ... Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine shows promise - virus neutralizing antibodies achieved. *Download PDF Copy ... Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine shows promise - virus neutralizing antibodies achieved. News-Medical. 09 August 2020. ,https ... Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine shows promise - virus neutralizing antibodies achieved. News-Medical, viewed 09 August 2020, ...
The use of neutralizing antibodies to identify the most effective antigen has been proposed as a strategy to design vaccines ... Antibody-driven design of a human cytomegalovirus gHgLpUL128L subunit vaccine that selectively elicits potent neutralizing ... Antibody-driven design of a human cytomegalovirus gHgLpUL128L subunit vaccine that selectively elicits potent neutralizing ... Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from immunized mice showed the same potency as human antibodies and targeted the same as ...
... Sci Signal. 2019 Nov 12;12(607 ... From their complexity of 4 serotypes, the ideal vaccine for dengue should be able to stimulate cross-neutralizing antibodies. ... Amino acid starvation enhances vaccine efficacy by augmenting neutralizing antibody production. Sci Signal. 2019 Nov 12;12(607 ... Epitope of dengue virus E protein detect human antibodies associated with mild disease: a potential peptide for vaccine ...
... mass campaign administration of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and seroprevalence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies.. ... mass campaign administration of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and seroprevalence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies.. ... A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis / T. Jacob John  John, T. Jacob (‎2004)‎ ... Poliovirus vaccine strains will continue to circulate long after wild strains have been eradicated : round table discussion / ...
A trimeric, V2-deleted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine elicits potent neutralizing antibodies but limited breadth of ... A Trimeric, V2-Deleted HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies but Limited Breadth of ... A Trimeric, V2-Deleted HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies but Limited Breadth of ... A Trimeric, V2-Deleted HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies but Limited Breadth of ...
Two doses of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in serum and provided complete protection from pulmonary ... A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus induces neutralizing antibody that confers protection from challenge in mice, ... A Live Attenuated H7N7 Candidate Vaccine Virus Induces Neutralizing Antibody That Confers Protection from Challenge in Mice, ... A Live Attenuated H7N7 Candidate Vaccine Virus Induces Neutralizing Antibody That Confers Protection from Challenge in Mice, ...
Current vaccines that promote immunity to seasonal human H3N2 strains do not protect against H3N2v. ... Influenza-Neutralizing Antibodies Generated in Human Subjects Given an Experimental Vaccine. Jul 07, 2016 ... characterization of monoclonal antibodies with H3N2v-neutralizing capacity from human subjects given an H3N2v candidate vaccine ... However, these antibodies were able to neutralize human H3N2 strains that circulated between 1995 and 2005, indicating that ...
The HIV vaccine neutralizing antibody problem is solvable, and its solution is a prerequisite for a successful AIDS vaccine, ... Most existing vaccines against other diseases work by eliciting neutralizing antibodies.. The NAC is part of a global AIDS ... Its purpose was to focus attention on the potential of neutralizing antibodies at a time when vaccine candidates in preclinical ... Finding a way to elicit neutralizing antibodies against HIV is the biggest challenge facing AIDS vaccine researchers today. ...
Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibodies from an African Donor Reveal a New HIV-1 Vaccine Target ... Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibodies from an African Donor Reveal a New HIV-1 Vaccine Target ... Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibodies from an African Donor Reveal a New HIV-1 Vaccine Target ... Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibodies from an African Donor Reveal a New HIV-1 Vaccine Target ...
... preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world. ... The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global ... Title: Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV 1 templates for a vaccine Abstract: The need for an effective vaccine to ... Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: templates for a vaccine. Virology 2013;435(1):46-56 doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.10 ... Home , Newsroom , Scientific Publications , Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV 1 templates for a vaccine ...
Further, the investigational vaccine induced up to 100-fold higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in mice compared with ... In their testing, the experimental vaccine induced potent neutralizing antibodies in both mice and nonhuman primates. ... NIH-Developed Epstein-Barr Virus Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies in Animals. ... However, in the only large human clinical trial of an experimental EBV vaccine conducted to date, the EBV gp350 vaccine did not ...
... and several candidate vaccines are currently being developed. It is vital to assess if protective antibodies are induced ... Both Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Human H7N9 Influenza Vaccine-Induced Monoclonal Antibodies Confer Protection Cell Host ... vaccine. Both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies protected mice in vivo during passive transfer challenge experiments ... Further, the broadly cross-reactive non-neutralizing antibodies generated in this study were protective through Fc-mediated ...
... preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world. ... The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global ... Minimally Mutated HIV 1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Guide Reductionist Vaccine Design Abstract: An optimal HIV vaccine ... Minimally Mutated HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Guide Reductionist Vaccine Design. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12(8):e1005815 ... Minimally Mutated HIV 1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Guide Reductionist Vaccine Design ...
The first large-scale human studies for the development of an anti-HIV vaccine using monoclonal antibodies have just begun ... Should this antibody prove to be effective, monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies could also be used to prevent HIV ... The first large-scale human studies for the development of an anti-HIV vaccine using monoclonal antibodies have just begun ... Volunteers in both studies will receive infusions of a monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibody, VRC01, to determine whether ...
Positive samples were then analyzed for levels of antibodies against JEV and neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus ( ... Although most persons had medium to high levels of JEV-reactive IgG and neutralizing antibodies, only 2 of the 82 unvaccinated ... These findings suggest that previous JEV infection or vaccination did not induce adequate levels of WNV-reactive antibodies in ... Serum samples were collected and screened for IgG antibodies against JEV by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. ...
Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein. ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ...
Furthermore, these two YFE-based vaccine candidates induced VN antibody responses with high serum avidity in nonhuman primates ... Immunogenicity and challenge studies in mice demonstrated that both YFE and YFE-LicKM elicited virus neutralizing (VN) ... The YF vaccines are considered safe and highly effective. However, a recent increase in demand for YF vaccines and reports of ... All current licensed YF vaccines, including YF-Vax® (Sanofi-Pasteur, Lyon, France) and 17DD-YFV (Bio-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro ...
Neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T lymphocytes both contribute to immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine vectors. J. Virol. ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein. ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ... Neutralizing Antibodies to Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vaccine Vectors Are Directed Primarily against the Adenovirus Hexon Protein ...
Quantifying Adenovirus-Neutralizing Antibodies by Luciferase Transgene Detection: Addressing Preexisting Immunity to Vaccine ... Quantifying Adenovirus-Neutralizing Antibodies by Luciferase Transgene Detection: Addressing Preexisting Immunity to Vaccine ... Quantifying Adenovirus-Neutralizing Antibodies by Luciferase Transgene Detection: Addressing Preexisting Immunity to Vaccine ... Quantifying Adenovirus-Neutralizing Antibodies by Luciferase Transgene Detection: Addressing Preexisting Immunity to Vaccine ...
Vaccines. Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime. Ioanna Skountzou, Lakshmipriyadarshini ... Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime. Ioanna Skountzou, Lakshmipriyadarshini Satyabhama ... Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime. Ioanna Skountzou, Lakshmipriyadarshini Satyabhama ...
Vaccine. 2019 Nov 13;: Authors: Nuñez IA, Ross TM Abstract Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses continue to spread around ... Human COBRA 2 vaccine contains two major epitopes that are responsible for eliciting neutralizing antibody responses against ... Human COBRA 2 vaccine contains two major epitopes that are responsible for eliciting neutralizing antibody responses against ... Human COBRA 2 vaccine contains two major epitopes that are responsible for eliciting neutralizing antibody responses against ...
  • According to a quantitative features frequency analysis, the set of features for one of these minimally mutated bnAbs compared favorably with all 68 HIV bnAbs analyzed and was similar to antibodies elicited by common vaccines. (
  • We have thus developed potent HIV bnAbs that may be more tractable vaccine goals compared to existing bnAbs, and we have proposed a strategy to elicit them. (
  • This reductionist approach to vaccine design, guided by antibody and antigen structure, could be applied to design candidate vaccines for other HIV bnAbs or protective Abs against other pathogens. (
  • Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. (
  • B roadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) hold the potential of being a component of an HIV functional cure regimen, an HIV treatment, and even a prevention therapy to protect against the virus. (
  • Dr. Sajadi notes, "bNAbs, in some form, could be useful as prophylaxis against HIV as an alternative to a vaccine. (
  • bNAbs are being considered in vaccine research for just this reason. (
  • In this study, the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. (
  • We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. (
  • AIDS vaccine researchers have in recent years exhaustively studied the structure, biochemistry, and genetics of bNAbs in an effort to design vaccine candidates that might coax the body's immune system to make similarly potent antibodies against HIV. (
  • Such a vaccine regimen would need to deliver two types of immunogens: those that can bind the unmutated precursors of bNAbs to kick-start the affinity maturation process, and those that can subsequently guide that process toward the desired bNAbs. (
  • However further understanding of the viral targets of such antibodies and mechanisms of action of bNAbs is required for advancement of HIV vaccine research. (
  • This technical note discusses our current knowledge on the bNAbs and immunoprophylaxis using viral vectors with their relevance in designing of new candidates to HIV-1 vaccines. (
  • Although the primary impetus for this work is the development of an effective preventive HIV vaccine, there is also interest in exploring whether infusions of these new bNAbs may have therapeutic potential. (
  • The declines in viral load appeared faster than is typically seen with antiretroviral therapy (ART), hinting that the bNAbs were accelerating the clearance of virus-infected cells via antibody-mediated effector mechanisms. (
  • Further, while bNAbs isolated from people with HIV infection have demonstrated promise in primate studies and have entered human studies for HIV prevention and treatment , questions remain about whether effective antibodies could be produced rapidly and at a scale suitable for widespread distribution. (
  • A minority of people living with HIV produce bNAbs, but only after a significant period of infection, at which point virus in their body has already evolved to resist these defenses," said Dennis R. Burton, Ph.D., a lead author on the study, director of the NIH's Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery and scientific director of the IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Consortium at TSRI. (
  • Collaboration is essential to making things happen, so the more we bring people together to promote scientific interaction, the more rapid our progress will be toward the creation of an effective AIDS vaccine,' said Dennis Burton, Ph.D., professor in the Scripps Research Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and scientific director of IAVI's NAC. (
  • 7 Center for Vaccine Biology & Immunology, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Clinical and Vaccine Immunology article. (
  • Vaccine Immunology 13(7): 768-78, July 2006. (
  • More specifically, the BNT162b1 vaccine candidate in current trials clinically incorporates nucleoside modified RNA and encodes the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein - a key target for virus- neutralizing antibodies . (
  • We tested serum specimens collected 12-19 months after illness onset from patients with confirmed Zika virus disease for Zika virus IgM and Zika virus and dengue virus neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Volunteers in both studies will receive infusions of a monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibody, VRC01, to determine whether this prevention strategy also works in people and what level of antibodies in the blood will be needed to protect from acquiring HIV. (
  • The VH1-2 restricted VRC01-class of antibodies targeting the HIV Envelope CD4 binding site (CD4bs) are a major focus of HIV vaccine strategies. (
  • To inform these strategies, we describe here the rapid development of a VRC01-class antibody lineage in the subtype C infected IAVI Protocol C neutralizer PC063. (
  • This first longitudinal study of broadly neutralizing VRC01-class antibody lineage reveals early binding to the N276-glycan during affinity maturation, which may have implications for vaccine design. (
  • The joint lead authors were Katherine E. Clarridge and Jana Blazkova, and the focus of the study was on the effects of an analytical treatment interruption (ATI) performed during a clinical trial of the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01. (
  • Laboratory studies have shown that the antibody used in this study (VRC01) stops up to 90 percent of HIV strains, and thus it is considered a broadly neutralizing antibody. (
  • The VRC01 antibody uses mimicry of the CD4 receptor to neutralize over 90 percent of HIV-1 isolates, though the inability of germline versions of VRC01 to bind to HIV-1 Env and its extraordinary level of somatic hypermutation suggest roadblocks to eliciting similar antibodies (Zhou 2010 Science 329, 811-817). (
  • Antibodies of the VRC01 class neutralize HIV-1, arise in diverse HIV-1-infected donors, and are potential templates for an effective HIV-1 vaccine. (
  • Despite antibody-sequence differences exceeding 50%, antibody-gp120 cocrystal structures reveal VRC01-class recognition to be remarkably similar. (
  • B cell transcripts indicate that VRC01-class antibodies require few specific genetic elements, suggesting that naive-B cells with VRC01-class features are generated regularly by recombination. (
  • Developmental similarities in multiple donors thus reveal the generation of VRC01-class antibodies to be reproducible in principle, thereby providing a framework for attempts to elicit similar antibodies in the general population. (
  • Called VRC01, VRC02 and VRC03, these antibodies were found in blood donated for NIAID studies by an HIV-infected North American known as donor 45. (
  • In the new paper, scientists report discovering antibodies similar to VRC01 in the blood of two HIV-infected Africans known as donor 74 and donor 0219. (
  • The researchers further discovered that these VRC01-like antibodies all bind to the same spot on HIV in the same way. (
  • This suggests that an HIV vaccine should contain a protein replica of this spot, known as the CD4 binding site, to elicit antibodies as powerful as VRC01, according to the researchers. (
  • The scientists previously found that the genes for VRC01-like antibodies undergo an unusually high number of mutations 70 to 90 between the first draft that codes for a weak antibody and the final version that codes for an antibody that can neutralize HIV. (
  • To make a vaccine that elicits VRC01-like antibodies, we will need to coach B cells to evolve their antibody genes along one of several pathways, which we have now identified, from infancy to a mature, HIV-fighting form," said VRC Director Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D. (
  • We found a way to read the books, or genes, in this library by defining unique characteristics of VRC01-like antibodies," said Peter Kwong, Ph.D., chief of the VRC's structural biology section and co-principal investigator of the study. (
  • Based on their discovery of the common structure and genetic origin of the VRC01-like antibodies, the scientists devised strategies for scanning the B-cell DNA libraries of donor 45 and donor 74. (
  • From hundreds of thousands of antibody genes, the scientists first identified thousands that code for VRC01-like antibodies and then sorted these genes into family trees showing their evolution from their earliest stage into mature forms. (
  • Next, the researchers focused on the gene segment that codes for the part of the VRC01-like antibody that attaches to and neutralizes HIV. (
  • A vaccine that elicits VRC01-like antibodies would need to coax the B-cell DNA of immature antibodies to evolve along one of these pathways. (
  • The scientists now aim to create proteins they can deliver through a vaccine to serve as signposts that direct the development of B-cell DNA to produce VRC01-like antibodies. (
  • Researchers from various notable institutions in the U.S. and Germany just reported available safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity data from the ongoing, placebo-controlled, and observer-blinded dose-escalation study of the aforementioned vaccine candidate. (
  • Scripps Research Institute, one of the world's largest independent, non-profit biomedical research organizations, and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), the world's only global non-profit organization focused solely on AIDS vaccine development, today announced the establishment of a new research center dedicated exclusively to solving the most pressing challenge facing AIDS vaccine researchers today. (
  • Scripps Research is delighted to partner with IAVI to establish the world's first center dedicated to tackling the toughest challenge facing AIDS vaccine researchers today. (
  • We are confident that this center will facilitate more productive exchanges among researchers and stimulate new ideas that will help to accelerate AIDS vaccine science. (
  • Finding a way to elicit neutralizing antibodies against HIV is the biggest challenge facing AIDS vaccine researchers today. (
  • To build on these findings, the researchers designed a nanoparticle-based vaccine that expressed the cell-binding portion of gp350. (
  • Dennis Burton, Ph.D., is one of the most respected, invested researchers in the field of HIV vaccine research. (
  • Though there are a number of effective prevention interventions and treatment methods like preexposure prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy, researchers have always been zealous about HIV vaccine as the ultimate HIV prevention and control strategy. (
  • The researchers have also given the vaccine to a few hundred people in Brazil, but over the next couple of weeks, the number may increase to about 5,000 people. (
  • However, researchers from the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine along with researchers at Harvard and a biotechnology company called Atreca, recently identified monoclonal antibodies that appear capable of a broadly neutralizing effect on a diverse range of HIV subtypes. (
  • In traditional vaccine studies, people get a vaccine and researchers wait to see if they produce antibodies in response. (
  • In recent years, researchers have isolated dozens of antibodies from the blood of HIV-infected individuals that can inactivate, or neutralize, most HIV strains in laboratory tests (see VAX Mar. 2010 Primer on Understanding Advances in the Search for Antibodies Against HIV ). (
  • It suggests that researchers will need to design immunogens-the active ingredients of vaccines-that can drive the required affinity maturation process. (
  • Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute have uncovered the surprising details of how a powerful anti-HIV antibody grabs hold of the virus. (
  • Researchers from the current team recently isolated the new antibody and 16 others from the blood of HIV-infected volunteers, in work they reported online in the journal Nature on August 17, 2011. (
  • Researchers hope to use the knowledge of these antibodies' binding sites on HIV to develop vaccines that stimulate a long-term perhaps lifetime protective antibody response against those same vulnerable sites. (
  • Recently, researchers from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Switzerland lead by Dr. Antonio Lanzavecchia have developed an antibody that neutralizes all 16 subtypes of the Influenza A virus. (
  • The researchers used molecular cell biology technology to screen over 100,000 plasma cells from 6 different volunteers who had the flu or were immunized with the flu vaccine. (
  • The researchers used x-ray crystallographic methods to determine the structure of the antibody and found that is bound to a conserved epitope in the F subdomain of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein on the surface of the influenza virus. (
  • With this new knowledge, researchers can now work on producing a vaccine that can be used once instead of having to be given every year as the virus mutates. (
  • Cattle may offer some help solving these problems, report researchers supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of NIH, at the Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and Texas A&M University. (
  • While cattle do not naturally acquire the human virus HIV, their immune systems have unique features that the researchers thought would allow them to produce potent antibodies when injected with HIV immunogens, or proteins designed to mimic proteins on the surface of HIV. (
  • Researchers are racing to develop an effective vaccine to combat the spread of the deadly virus, SARS-COV-2, which has infected over 13 million people globally. (
  • Moderna's results come after Russian researchers announced the completion of phase I of their vaccine trials and claimed to work on launching their vaccine model by August. (
  • Researchers have traced in detail how certain powerful HIV neutralizing antibodies evolve, a finding that generates vital clues to guide the design of a preventive HIV vaccine, according to a study appearing in Science Express this week. (
  • To define bNAb targets, we characterized 28 antibodies belonging to expanded and hypermutated clonal families identified by transcriptomic analysis of single plasmablasts from DENV-infected individuals. (
  • 5. Description of SHIV/Env-Ab co-evolution that leads to bnAb induction in rhesus macaques as a guide for iterative HIV-1 vaccine design. (
  • Rhesus V3 glycan bNAb mAbs are being cloned for use in HIV vaccine design and animal model testing. (
  • A broadly neutralising antibody (bNAb) is a neutralising antibody that has this effect against a wide range of antigens. (
  • Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. (
  • They isolated not only the final mature bNAb, but also its unmutated precursors and several intermediate antibodies generated along the way to the bNAb. (
  • A subset of macaques (3 of 18) showed prolonged control of SHIV replication to undetectable levels after a single bNAb infusion, which persisted long after the antibodies declined to undetectable levels. (
  • Research in non-human primates (specifically, macaques) has shown that the monkey version of HIV, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and a monkey-human hybrid virus, Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV), can be prevented by injecting HIV antibodies. (
  • However, these antibodies were able to neutralize human H3N2 strains that circulated between 1995 and 2005, indicating that these strains are highly related to H3N2v. (
  • Therefore, the size and shape of an antibody may serve as a vital factor in determining an antibody's ability to continue to effectively neutralize an HIV virion in the face of shifts in the glycan shield. (
  • PGT 128, the antibody described in the new report, can neutralize about 70 percent of globally circulating HIV strains by blocking their ability to infect cells. (
  • These extended loops help to penetrate sugar molecules on the surface of HIV, enabling the high performing antibodies to reach and recognize concealed regions of HIV proteins and neutralize the virus. (
  • A second area in which we and others have made an impact is in understanding how human antibodies can neutralize diverse HIV-1 isolates. (
  • Antibodies that bind the V1V2-region of HIV-1 such as CAP256-VRC26, by contrast, use an anionic loop formed by recombination and neutralize at much lower levels of somatic hypermutation (Doria-Rose 2014 Nature 509, 55-62). (
  • Functional analysis of vaccine-elicited NAbs from NHPs and humans revealed a capacity to neutralize the structurally mature form of the ZIKV virion that varied in magnitude among vaccine candidates. (
  • While these antibodies effectively neutralized H3N2v, they were not effective against currently circulating human H3N2 strains. (
  • A technology, called the Immune Repertoire Capture (IRC) platform was used to sequence antibodies taken from the blood and antibody-producing cells in the bone marrow of elite neutralizers, individuals with HIV who are capable of producing antibodies effective against numerous HIV strains. (
  • This makes developing an HIV vaccine that is effective against all HIV strains across the globe very difficult. (
  • The serum of these animals demonstrated antibodies that cross-reacted with heterologous serotypes of gp120 and had significant neutralizing activity against two clade-B laboratory strains of HIV (HIVBaL and HIVSF162) and five primary HIV-1 isolates. (
  • Both of these glycans appear in most HIV strains, which helps explain why PGT 128 is so broadly neutralizing," said Katie J. Doores, a research associate in the Burton lab who was one of the report's lead authors. (
  • Two PRRSV attenuated live vaccine strains (HuN4-F112 and CH-1R) are currently widely used in China. (
  • The new findings build on last year's discovery reported by VRC scientists of three HIV antibodies, two of which could stop more than 90 percent of known global HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory. (
  • The world needs an AIDS vaccine to turn the tide on this devastating pandemic,' said Richard A. Lerner, M.D., president of The Scripps Research Institute. (
  • IAVI is establishing the Neutralizing Antibody Center at The Scripps Research Institute and expanding our consortium to ensure that the best minds and institutions are dedicated to solving this problem,' said Seth Berkley, M.D., president and CEO of IAVI. (
  • The need for an effective vaccine to prevent the global spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well recognized. (
  • However, unlike other viruses known to cause epidemics across the world, such as polio, no effective vaccine for HIV has been discovered through classical strategies. (
  • Intranasal (i.n.) administration of a single dose of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus fully protected mice from lethal challenge with homologous and heterologous H7 viruses from Eurasian and North American lineages. (
  • T lymphocytes were not essential for the vaccine-induced protection from lethal challenge with H7 wt viruses. (
  • Additionally, passively transferred neutralizing antibody induced by the H7N7 NL/03 ca virus protected mice from lethality following challenge with H7 wt viruses. (
  • Pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza viruses continue to represent a public health concern, and several candidate vaccines are currently being developed. (
  • When the Asn-Thr pair at position 155-156 in the Hu-CO HA was converted to the Ser-Ala residues found in the Hu-Av CO HA, the elicited antibodies lost HAI activity against clade H5Nx viruses, such as A/Hubei/01/2010. (
  • These roughly Y-shaped proteins, which can bind to viruses and inactivate them, are thought to be essential to the protection afforded by most, if not all, existing vaccines (see VAX Feb. 2007 Primer on Understanding Neutralizing Antibodies ). (
  • Most efforts to develop a preventive EBV vaccine have focused on glycoprotein 350, or gp350, a molecule on the surface of EBV that helps the virus attach to certain immune system cells called B cells. (
  • In a pilot study, we constructed a DNA vaccine (pLASV-GPC) that expressed the LASV glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC). (
  • The vaccine was made by adding genetic material - called spike glycoprotein - that is expressed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 to the ChAdOx1 virus. (
  • By vaccinating volunteers with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, scientists hope to make the human body recognize and develop an immune response (i.e., develop antibodies) to the spike glycoprotein that will help stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus from entering human cells and causing COVID-19. (
  • A rabies DNA vaccine consisting of plasmid DNA expressing the rabies virus surface glycoprotein was injected (im) twice at two week interval to outbred swiss mice or Bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) and the levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titres were examined over a one year period. (
  • Analysis of Antibody Response to an Epitope in the Haemagglutinin Subunit 2 of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 for Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Chickens. (
  • The neutralizing epitope region of COE contains 139 amino acids within the S1 domain extending from amino acid 499-638 ( 10 , 15 ). (
  • Neutralizing antibodies with the most protective functionalities may be a rare component of a polyclonal, pathogen-specific antibody response, further complicating efforts to identify the elements of a protective immune response. (
  • One of the most critical problems remaining to be overcome in the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine is the problem of the virus variability, cell tropism and immune escape by variants of HIV-1. (
  • The vaccine, AZD1222, which is licensed to AstraZeneca, has been shown to trigger an immune response against SARS-CoV-2. (
  • by combining, or reshuffling, them in many different ways, the immune system generates a variety of B cells that express any one of more than a million different antibodies on their surfaces. (
  • One of these antibodies is particularly potent, and binds to a key site that HIV uses to attach to and infect immune cells. (
  • In previous experiments, the TSRI team and their collaborators observed that cattle produce antibodies with long HCDR3 loops at a much higher frequency than humans, that these HCDR3 loops are ultra-long, and that bovine immune cells may produce antibodies with effective immunogen binding through a fundamentally different mechanism than takes place in human immune cells. (
  • According to latest findings which have been published in The New England Journal of Medicine of Interim Results, the vaccine has been found to be safe and provoked a good immune response in the early testing done on volunteers. (
  • This elegant research brings us another step closer to an HIV vaccine and establishes a potent new technique for evaluating the human immune response to experimental vaccines, not only for HIV, but for pathogens generally," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. (
  • They began by turning to an existing technology to sequence the collection of B-cell genes that code for all the antibodies created by a person's immune system. (
  • These donations are used to make a variety of immunoglobulin products, some of which physicians use to treat individuals whose immune systems are too weak to launch a protective response to either the vaccine or to the virus itself. (
  • The persistence of functional antibodies in both infected and vaccinated cohorts confers complete protection against 50× LD 50 A/PR/8/34 20 months after influenza virus exposure. (
  • Measuring influenza hemagglutinin (HA) stem-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in human sera using novel stabilized stem nanoparticle probes. (
  • Such assay could be utilized in the assessment of next generation influenza vaccines. (
  • The neutralizing antibody response to influenza virus is thought to be specific for a few antigenically related isolates within a given subtype. (
  • Since the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still rampant in many parts of the world, a vast amount of research funds are directed towards finding an effective drug or vaccine. (
  • We are excited and hopeful that this collaboration will help to bring us closer to developing a vaccine that will help end the AIDS pandemic. (
  • The coronavirus pandemic has marked its 11th million cases, and without a vaccine, cases are expected to continue to rise for the foreseeable future. (
  • Memo Therapeutics CEO Dr Karsten Fischer said: "The identification of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies could be a game-changer in how we tackle the global Covid-19 pandemic. (
  • Memo Therapeutics CSO Dr Christoph Esslinger said: "We are also extremely pleased to see that our DROPZYLLA antibody discovery platform and the established workflow appear to be perfectly suited for a rapid pandemic response, and we believe that patient-derived antibodies are the most straightforward, safe and reliable therapeutic option for such a situation. (
  • 04 /10 Can Moderna's vaccine help fight the pandemic? (
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) elicits neutralizing antibodies (NAb) of various potencies and cell type specificities to prevent HCMV entry into fibroblasts (FB) and epithelial/endothelial cells (EpC/EnC). (
  • A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus induces neutralizing antibody that confers protection from challenge in mice, ferrets, and monkeys. (
  • Sarah Gilbert, professor of vaccinology at the University of Oxford, and one of the scientists leading the vaccine initiative told the U.K.'s Science and Technology Committee last week that their candidate vaccine has progressed to the phase III trial in the United Kingdom. (
  • The phase III trial will involve testing the candidate vaccine in approximately 8,000 people in the United Kingdom. (
  • The scientists said that the candidate vaccine was created with the use of the ChAdOx1 vaccine technology, which was based on an adenovirus. (
  • A key missing element in the development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is an immunogen that can generate broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of the virus. (
  • The technical name of the vaccine is ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), as it is made from a virus called ChAdOx1, which is a weakened and non-replicating version of a common cold virus (adenovirus). (
  • Cross-reactivity between Zika virus and other flaviviruses occurs both with IgM and neutralizing antibodies and makes distinguishing Zika virus from dengue virus infections especially challenging. (
  • The TRSI investigators isolated specific antibodies from the immunized calves to study their properties. (
  • However, the stochastic processes that generate repertoires in each individual of >10(12) antibodies make elicitation of specific antibodies uncertain. (