Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibody-Dependent Enhancement: Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.NicaraguaDefective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.VietnamVesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.BrazilTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
"Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus- ... A vaccine for horses (ATCvet code: QI05AA10 (WHO)) based on killed viruses exists; some zoos have given this vaccine to their ... cross-reactivity with dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus". J. Med. Virol. 83 (10): 1861-5. doi:10.1002/jmv.22180. ... of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses. A vaccine called Chimerivax-WNV is being actively researched and has ...
"Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes". J ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.142. பப்மெட் 15755604. *↑ Alonso PL, Sacarlal J, Aponte JJ, et al. (2004). "Efficacy of the RTS,S ... "Spatial patterns of and risk factors for seropositivity for dengue infection". Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 (2): 201-8. பப்மெட் ... "Bacteraemia among severely malnourished children infected and uninfected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Kampala, ...
"Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes". J ... Vaccine. 23 (17-18): 2243-50. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.142. PMID 15755604.. Explicit use of et al. in: ,author=. (help)CS1 ... "Spatial patterns of and risk factors for seropositivity for dengue infection". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 72 (2): 201-8. PMID 15741558 ... "Bacteraemia among severely malnourished children infected and uninfected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Kampala, ...
A problem in the search for an efficient vaccine against dengue virus is the immunodominance of the fusion loop epitope (FLE), ... Covalently linked dengue virus envelope glycoprotein dimers reduce exposure of the immunodominant fusion loop epitope. ... In contrast, antibodies targeting the E dimer epitope (EDE), readily exposed at the E dimer interface over the region of the ... These locked dimers are strong immunogen candidates for a next-generation vaccine. ...
Dengue Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Dengue Vaccines Dengue Virus Disease Models, Animal Epitopes Humans Immune Refocusing Mice ... Manipulation of immunodominant dengue virus E protein epitopes reduces potential antibody-dependent enhancement ... Vaccine development is hindered by potential safety concerns due to antibody cross-reactivity with dengue virus and the ... Humoral Immune Responses of Dengue Fever Patients Using Epitope-Specific Serotype-2 Virus-Like Particle Antigens ...
Structure-guided design of an anti-dengue antibody directed to a non-immunodominant epitope. Cell 162:493-504. doi:10.1016/j. ... These MAbs were shown to target an epitope spanning both E proteins of an E protein dimer on partially mature virus-an epitope ... to combating viral diversity between related viruses is exemplified by a new tetravalent vaccine for treatment of dengue virus ... DENV belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus, ZIKV, and several other viruses ...
Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for dengue. Vaccine 34:2934-2938 doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.12.073. ... The initial description of EDE antibodies reported that they were immunodominant in nearly half of the studys subjects ( ... Dengue Virus Envelope Dimer Epitope Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated from Dengue Patients Are Protective against Zika Virus. J. A ... Dengue Virus Envelope Dimer Epitope Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated from Dengue Patients Are Protective against Zika Virus ...
... one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)-mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our ... case-control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus-seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus- ... The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For ... Identification of Zika virus epitopes reveals immunodominant and protective roles for dengue virus cross-reactive CD8+ T cells. ...
As T cell epitope recognition depend on the HLA type of an individual, it would be now important to investigate how epitope ... These data suggest that certain HLA alleles confer susceptibility/protection to severe dengue infections. ... specific T cells associate with primary and secondary dengue infection … ... A Modified mRNA Vaccine Targeting Immunodominant NS Epitopes Protects Against Dengue Virus Infection in HLA Class I Transgenic ...
A Modified mRNA Vaccine Targeting Immunodominant NS Epitopes Protects Against Dengue Virus Infection in HLA Class I Transgenic ... Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infections, Cambodia, 2012-2013. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2019;25 (7):1354-1362. doi: 10.3201/ ... They currently focus on mosquito-borne infections (malaria and dengue). They aim to identify genes governing infection outcome ... Genomic Epidemiology of 2015-2016 Zika Virus Outbreak in Cape Verde. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2020;26 (6):1084-1090. doi: 10.3201/ ...
Dengue virus (DENV) causes disease ranging from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to the potentially lethal ... Finally, immunization with four of the immunodominant CD8(+) T cell epitopes enhanced viral clearance. Collectively, our ... providing rationale for designing DENV-specific vaccines that induce cell-mediated immunity. ... from dengue fever to the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Although T cells have been implicated in ...
A unique challenge in vaccine development against DENV is the high degree of sequence variation, characteristically associated ... The role of T cells in dengue virus infection and subsequent disease manifestations is not fully understood. According to the ... The role of T cells in dengue virus infection and subsequent disease manifestations is not fully understood. According to the ... In a small proportion of patients, the disease can exacerbate and progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and/or dengue ...
Covalently linked dengue virus envelope glycoprotein dimers reduce exposure of the immunodominant fusion loop epitope. Nat ... A problem in the search for an efficient vaccine against dengue virus is the immunodominance of the fusion loop epitope (FLE), ... Covalently linked dengue virus envelope glycoprotein dimers reduce exposure of the immunodominant fusion loop epitope. Nat ... A problem in the search for an efficient vaccine against dengue virus is the immunodominance of the fusion loop epitope (FLE), ...
Use of a recombinant gamma-2 herpesvirus vaccine vector against dengue virus in rhesus monkeys. Bischof, G. F., Magnani, D. M ... A human inferred germline antibody binds to an immunodominant epitope and neutralizes Zika virus. Magnani, D. M., Silveira, C. ... Dengue Virus Evades AAV-Mediated Neutralizing Antibody Prophylaxis in Rhesus Monkeys. Magnani, D. M., Ricciardi, M. J., Bailey ... Vaccine-induced immune responses against both Gag and Env improve control of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in ...
Molecularly engineered live-attenuated chimeric West Nile/dengue virus vaccines protect rhesus monkeys from West Nile virus. ... 5B). In contrast to what we observed with mouse serum and in support of the idea that the DII-fl epitope may be immunodominant ... Vaccines and Antiviral Agents. Induction of Epitope-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies against West Nile Virus. Theodore Oliphant ... Epitope determinants of a chimpanzee Fab antibody that efficiently cross-neutralizes dengue type 1 and type 2 viruses map to ...
The vaccine induced low levels of antibodies but Lassa-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. This is the first report ... Caused by Lassa virus (LASV), the disease is a scourge on populations in endemic areas of West Africa, where reported incidence ... When expressed together, GP and Z form Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) in cell culture. Immunogenicity and efficacy of GEO-LM01 was ... Here, we report construction, characterization, and preclinical efficacy of a novel recombinant vaccine candidate GEO-LM01. ...
Structure-guided design of an antibody against dengue virus directed to a non-immunodominant epitope. Cell, 162:493-504. ... 2018) A systematic approach to the development of a safe live attenuated zika vaccine. Nat Commun, in press. ... 2011) Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Specifically, we are interested in elucidating: (1) how antibodies either protect against or enhance dengue virus infection and ...
The majority of cross-reactive antibodies against the immunodominant flavivirus envelope (E) protein target a conserved epitope ... including dengue, tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), and yellow fever (YFV) viruses. Cross-reactivity ... problematic in areas where different flaviviruses co-circulate or in populations that have been immunized with vaccines against ... West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that continues to spread and cause disease throughout ...
... is a mosquito-borne virus that causes severe health problems. An effective tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate that can ... Through further epitope mapping by yeast surface display, two residues in the AB loop, Q316 and H317, were discovered to be ... It is concluded that EDIII as an immunogen may elicit cross-reactive mAbs toward an epitope that is not exposed on the virion ... A better understanding of the antibody response to DENV envelope protein domain III (EDIII) may offer insights into vaccine ...
Methods and Compositions for Dengue Virus Vaccines. The present invention provides compositions and methods of use comprising a ... The present invention relates to peptides comprising at least one CD4.sup.+ T epitope, which is immunodominant in vitro, of the ... chimeric dengue virus E glycoprotein comprising a dengue virus E glycoprotein... 2016/0257718. ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE WY-21 AND ... MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TARGETING NEUTRALIZING EPITOPES ON H7 INFLUENZA VIRUSES. The present invention relates to the murine ...
Immune response to dengue virus and prospects for a vaccine. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 29: 587-619. ... Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens. PLoS One 4: ... Indeed, DII-FL antibodies are immunodominant in humans after infection with several flaviviruses (16, 54, 69, 75). To test ... including dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Most human ...
Development of recombinant chimeric antigen expressing immunodominant B epitopes of Leishmania infantum for serodiagnosis of ... A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from the Blood of a Native of Uganda 1 K. C. Smithburn, T. P. Hughes, A. W. Burke and J. H. Paul ... Economic Impact of Dengue Illness in the Americas Donald S. Shepard, Laurent Coudeville, Yara A. Halasa, Betzana Zambrano and ... Clin Vaccine Immunol 14 : 544-548.. [Google Scholar] * Sokal JE, 1975. Measurement of delayed skin-test responses. N Engl J Med ...
Dengue virus-infected human dendritic cells reveal hierarchies of naturally expressed novel NS3 CD8 T cell epitopes. ... Immunodominant West Nile Virus T Cell Epitopes Are Fewer in Number and Fashionably Late. ... A dendritic cell vaccine increases the breadth and diversity of melanoma neoantigen-specific T cells. ... A novel T-cell receptor mimic defines dendritic cells that present an immunodominant West Nile virus epitope in mice. ...
These findings support further investigation of gp15 as a vaccine candidate. ... indicating cross-reactivity to conserved epitopes. Cases with acute diarrhea had a significantly greater serum IgA response to ... We investigated antibody responses to the immunodominant gp15 antigen from C. hominis and C. parvum, in C. hominis-infected ... A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from the Blood of a Native of Uganda 1 K. C. Smithburn, T. P. Hughes, A. W. Burke and J. H. Paul ...
2010) Immunodominant T-cell responses to dengue virus NS3 are associated with DHF. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(39):16922-16927. ... Epitope Cluster Analysis.. All epitopes identified were clustered using the Epitope Cluster Analysis tool from the IEDB Web ... attenuated tetravalent dengue-yellow fever chimeric virus vaccine (41), both provides an explanation for these disappointing ... for severe forms of dengue virus infection, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2(10):e304. ...
... characterization of a T cell receptortransgenic mouse with specificity for the immunodominant epitope in the West Nile virus ( ... epitope mapping and structural analysis of bNAb-epitope complexes that may serve as a guide for vaccine development are ... Investigators demonstrated that primary human naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are permissive for dengue virus (DV) infection. DV ... Skin Infection Boosts Memory B-Cells Specific for a Cryptic Vaccine Epitope of Group a Streptococcus and Broadens the Immune ...
Rational design of immunotherapeutics relies on clear knowledge of the immunodominant epitopes of antigens. Current methods for ... virus, etc.) of a self antigen associated with an autoimmune process or disease. Once identified, the immunodominant epitopes ... The vaccine composition may further comprise an adjuvant or other immunostimulatory agent. An epitope-bearing peptide vaccine ... such as a from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a Yellow Fever antigen, or a Dengue virus antigen; a malaria (Plasmodium) ...
... of which the Gag epitopes appear immunodominant. We identify eight novel putative HLA-A*7401-restricted epitopes, of which ... One proposed HIV vaccine strategy is to induce Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses that can corner the virus, through fitness ... Sequencing libraries for three different viruses, including influenza A, dengue, and chikungunya, were prepared separately and ... Further evaluation of the optimum timing of the first vaccine HBV vaccine dose is required; a vaccine dose at birth could ...
  • A problem in the search for an efficient vaccine against dengue virus is the immunodominance of the fusion loop epitope (FLE), a segment of the envelope protein E that is buried at the interface of the E dimers coating mature viral particles. (
  • Receptor-binding domains and other motifs within viral envelope proteins represent one excellent opportunity to target communal epitopes shared by related viruses. (
  • Genetic Diversity of Collaborative Cross Mice Controls Viral Replication, Clinical Severity, and Brain Pathology Induced by Zika Virus Infection, Independently of Oas1b . (
  • No licensed vaccine or effective anti-viral therapy is currently available and treatment is largely supportive in nature, thus increasing the economic and disease burden on public health systems in tropical and subtropical countries around the globe ( 17 - 19 ). (
  • Dengue virus is the etiologic agent of dengue fever, the most significant mosquito-borne viral disease in humans, affecting over 100 million individuals each year. (
  • I also have research interests in other chronic viral infections including HIV, CMV, herpes viruses and human parvovirus-4 (PARV4), and virus diagnosis and discovery using next generation sequencing platforms. (
  • The transfer of eosinophils from the lungs of allergen-sensitized and challenged mice into influenza virus-infected mice resulted in reduced morbidity and viral burden, improved lung compliance, and increased CD8 + T cell numbers in the airways. (
  • Higher viral antigen positive cell frequencies were observed for DENV2 when compared with both vaccine viruses. (
  • Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-borne emerging viral disease in tropical countries due to high morbidity and increased risk of mortality (Gubler 2002). (
  • Dengue is a mosquito‐borne viral infection that affects approximately 390 million people worldwide annually (Bhatt et al , 2013 ). (
  • West Nile (WN) virus is the cause of a potentially fatal form of viral encephalitis that suddenly emerged in the New York City area during 1999. (
  • Plasmid-launched live-attenuated vaccines (PLLAV), also called infectious DNA (iDNA) vaccines, combine the assets of genetic immunization with the potency of replication-competent live viral vaccines. (
  • However, with rapid increases in international travel, globalization, geographic spread of viral vectors, and widespread use of vaccines, there is an increasing need to consider how pre-exposure to viruses which share similar antigenic regions can impact vaccine efficacy. (
  • Dengue is one of the most serious mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans. (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of viral meningoencephalitis in many parts of Europe and eastwards in Asia, with high morbidity and often long-term neurologic sequelae. (
  • During natural flavivirus infections, noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of viral premembrane/membrane (prM/M) and envelope (E) proteins are produced in addition to mature, infectious virions ( 23 ). (
  • We will also test next-generation viral vectored vaccines employing an HCV immunogen fused to HLA class II invariant chain. (
  • Several T cell-based vaccine trials have currently shown primary viremia control in macaque AIDS models of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, but residual viral replication may occur, followed by accumulation of viral CD8+ T-cell escape mutations, possibly leading to eventual viremia rebound. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection induces chronic, persistent viral replication leading to AIDS onset in humans and rhesus macaques, respectively. (
  • However, it is difficult to obtain sterile protection from virus infection by T cell-based vaccines, and whether vaccine-based, primary non-sterile viral control can be stably maintained is debatable. (
  • Some studies have demonstrated that internalization of rabies virus into cells is an important factor for viral pathogenicity (13, 24, 25). (
  • Fusion of enveloped viruses with the host cell is a key step in viral infectivity. (
  • Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. (
  • Several ZIKV vaccine platforms are currently in development, including inactivated viruses, live attenuated viruses, viral-vectored vaccines, and protein subunit- and nucleic acid-based formulations expressing envelope (E) proteins. (
  • The mAbs HM14c10, 5J7 and ZIKV-117 bind to epitopes defined by the set up of two or more E dimers within the viral surface of DENV1, DENV3 and ZIKV, respectively28C30, while the epitopes targeted from the mAbs 2D22 and ZIKV-195 are contained within the E-dimer interfaces of DENV2 and ZIKV31,32. (
  • High efficacy of direct-acting anti-viral agents in hepatitis C virus-infected cirrhotic patients with successfully treated hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne, rapidly rising viral infection with around 400 million cases per year. (
  • Dengue is an acute viral infection, transmitted predominantly by a vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to their human host. (
  • HCV in vitro research is therefore limited to human hepatoma cell lines permissive for virus entry and completion of the viral life cycle. (
  • To assess the influence of dominant restrictions on the complete viral life cycle including cell entry, RNA translation, replication and virus assembly, we took advantage of a human liver cell line (Huh-7 Lunet N cells 9 ) which lacks endogenous expression of CD81, an essential entry factor of HCV. (
  • When co-cultured cells were transfected with a highly fusogenic viral envelope protein mutant of the prototype foamy virus (PFV 11 ) and subsequently challenged with infectious HCV particles (HCVcc), de novo production of infectious virus was observed. (
  • The virus consists of a host derived lipid bilayer membrane, membrane glycoprotein spikes, and the C protein which together with viral RNA forms the icosahedral nucleocapsid. (
  • El glycoprotein was also the target of viral neutralizing (VN) and hemagglutinin (HA) epitope mapping studies. (
  • 2016) . Favipiravir could attenuate the viral RNA replication level and decrease the progeny virus yield of SNV and ANDV in vitro. (
  • Vaccines designed to target epitopes on the spike protein may thus lead to inefficient antibody binding in new variants of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus and result in viral antigenic evolution towards escaping antibody recognition 3 . (
  • Besides potentially being non- or only partially protective and possibly leading to viral evolution, potential risks are associated with vaccines that necessitate extreme caution when vaccine development efforts are to be fast-tracked and approval accelerated. (
  • My mentor, who is the director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, also has great expertise in vaccinology, immunology, and viral pathogenesis. (
  • The range of possible use of active immunization is rapidly expanding to include vaccines against infectious diseases that require cellular responses to provide protection (e.g. tuberculosis, herpes viral infections), therapeutic vaccines for chronic infections (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis B and C), and vaccines against non-infectious conditions (e.g. cancer, autoimmune diseases). (
  • We constructed a viral protein array comprising the complete proteomes of seven viruses associated with T1D and open reading frames from other common viruses. (
  • Although there are a number of studies indicating viral effects on T1D pathogenesis, the exact mechanistic explanations for how viruses contribute to T1D etiology are still unknown. (
  • As the complex role of viral infections in T1D remains elusive, it would be valuable to address this important scientific question by assessing immune responses to many viruses and their antigens using many samples collected longitudinally from birth to disease onset. (
  • Historically, the prevalence of viral infections in T1D was explored either by genomic approaches (which work if the viral nucleic acids remain present at the time of assay) or immunological approaches that only evaluated one viral protein or one type of virus at a time ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Abstract Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (
  • The global emergence of epidemic dengue is partly fueled by an incomplete understanding of the determinants of both immunity and pathogenesis. (
  • Scientists demonstrated that a conserved cryptic epitope that is unrecognized by the host immune system following infection can protect mice following vaccination, and that immunity is strengthened and broadened following successive infections. (
  • The YF17DD vaccine induces long-lasting immunity, similar to wild viruses (Monath 2001, Halstead 2007). (
  • The emergence and rapid expansion of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) require the development of effective countermeasures especially a vaccine to provide active acquired immunity against the virus. (
  • Combining CSP with other pre-erythrocytic stage antigens and using a vaccine platform such as adenovirus vectors better able to induce class I restricted cell-mediated immunity might therefore more effectively target the hepatic stages of infection and reproduce the immunity induced by the irradiate sporozoite vaccine. (
  • Although there are no vaccines available to date, this strategy appears feasible since natural immunity develops in individuals suffering from repeated infection during a lifetime. (
  • Since vaccinations resulting in both Th1- and Th2-type responses have been shown to contribute to protective immunity, a vaccine formulation with the capacity for stimulating multiple arms of the immune response will likely be the most effective. (
  • However, it is not clear to what extent such pre-existing cellular immunity can provide cross-subtype protection against novel emerging influenza A viruses. (
  • Pre-existing CD8 T cell immunity may provide substantial cross-protection against heterosubtypic influenza A viruses, provided that the priming and the subsequent challenge viruses share the identical sequences of the immunodominant, protective CTL epitopes. (
  • Heterosubtypic immunity is a necessary component of a so-called "universal" influenza vaccine that would provide protection against illness from multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. (
  • For example, many studies have shown that CD8 T cells are the major mediator of heterosubtypic immunity following intranasal priming of immune competent mice with live influenza virus particles - . (
  • Aldoxorubicin cost However, the catastrophic effects of illness during pregnancy mandate the development of ZIKV vaccines, for as herd immunity wanes, the likelihood of another epidemic will increase. (
  • A lack of understanding of the effect of pre-existing immunity to heterologous parasite strains may significantly contribute to vaccine failure in the field. (
  • The purpose of this study was to model the effect of pre-existing immunity to MSP1 42 on the immunogenicity of blood-stage malaria vaccines based on alternative MSP1 alleles. (
  • A novel pathogenic coronavirus emerged in 2012 in the Middle East, while the devastating outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) infections in three West African countries in 2013 signaled a new stage in the emergence of this highly pathogenic virus and demonstrated that, in an age of international travel and increasing urbanization, infectious agents can rapidly spread and establish epidemics in new regions. (
  • In this study we aimed to investigate the HLA-class I and class II alleles that are positively and negatively associated with the development of DSS in a cohort of patients with DHF and also the alleles associated with development of DHF during primary dengue infections in a Sri Lankan population. (
  • These data suggest that certain HLA alleles confer susceptibility/protection to severe dengue infections. (
  • As T cell epitope recognition depend on the HLA type of an individual, it would be now important to investigate how epitope specific T cells associate with primary and secondary dengue infections and in severe dengue infections. (
  • They currently focus on mosquito-borne infections (malaria and dengue). (
  • Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infections, Cambodia, 2012-2013. (
  • It was recently reported that as many as 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide each year, thus making this infection potentially even more prevalent than malaria ( 3 ). (
  • Flaviviruses cause severe acute febrile and haemorrhagic infections, including dengue and yellow fever and the pathogenesis of these infections is caused by an exacerbated immune response. (
  • This is followed by sequencing a selected region of the virus which will provide evidence on the source of the virus and possible association of the virus to increased cases of Chikungunya infections. (
  • Interestingly, NS1 concentrations did not differ significantly in serum specimens obtained from patients experiencing primary or secondary dengue virus infections. (
  • Differential diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections can be complicated due to the high degree of cross-reactivity observed in most serodiagnostic assays. (
  • While valuable tools for diagnosing presumptive flaviviral infections, these assays use antigens prepared from virus-infected suckling mouse brains (SMB). (
  • PEACHI is an EU FP7-funded project to develop vaccines for prevention of hepatitis C and HIV co-infections. (
  • We are starting a new project to develop new multi-genotype vaccines for therapy of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections that are responsible for cervical cancer (0.5 million cases per year worldwide) and other anogenital cancers. (
  • Virus-specific CD8 + T cells exert strong suppressive pressure on HIV/SIV replication [ 7 - 11 ], but fail to control viremia in most infections. (
  • Infection with one subtype of influenza A virus often results in a strong protection against subsequent infections with heterosubtypic influenza A viruses in animal models. (
  • Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in Brazilian populations have also been providing important information on whether immune responses specific to these antigens are generated in natural infections and their immunogenic potential as vaccine candidates. (
  • Virus particles bud into the lumen of the ER as immature virions in which the E and prM proteins interact to form 60 heterotrimeric spikes with icosahedral symmetry ( 84 ). (
  • Both CD4 T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells that respond to JE virus and dengue proteins have been identified, and their epitopes have been mapped ( 9 ). (
  • while the structural mapping of epitopes resulted in the interesting maintenance of the structural folding and epitope sequence localization also in the envelope proteins scoring a lower alignment score. (
  • In this study, we identified six novel TBEV HLA-A2- and HLA-B7-restricted epitopes, all derived from the nonstructural proteins of TBEV. (
  • Experimental Validation of Multi- Epitope Peptides Including Promising MHC Class I- and II-Restricted Epitopes of Four Known Leishmania infantum Proteins. (
  • Analysis of the linear B cell epitopes by employing Bepipred showed that the average antigenic indices (AI) of individual VP proteins were all greater than 0 and the average AI of VP4 was substantially higher than that of VP2 and VP3. (
  • In this survey, we describe the look and creation of stabilized ZIKV E dimers, which absence precursor membrane proteins , nor expose the immunodominant fusion loop epitope. (
  • Most of the other immunodominant proteins, including p48 and p45, were localized to the inner membrane. (
  • These findings indicate that leptospiral proteins recognized during natural infection are potentially useful for serodiagnosis and may serve as targets for vaccine design. (
  • 2010). Both dengue and YF wild viruses can induce a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe clinical features, the latter of which is characterised by haemorrhaic manifestations and shock syndrome, which are associated with vascular permeability and leakage. (
  • By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM + mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. (
  • A critical next step in the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines is to define the components of an HIV immunogen that could induce CD8+ T cells with broad and potent inhibitory capacity. (
  • Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. (
  • The therapeutic vaccines would be likely to induce a virus-specific cellular immune. (
  • To evaluate the therapeutic effect of combined immunization strategy with multiple vector vaccines in macaque models. (
  • It laid a foundation for evaluating the therapeutic effect of combined immunization strategy with multiple vector vaccines in SIV infected macaque models. (
  • As more and more infectious agents become targets for immunization programmes, the spectrum of adverse events linked to vaccines has been widening. (
  • During the past century of increasing use of vaccines, is considerable irony in the observation that the very those who support and promote immunization have success of the vaccines introduced to date has been in the large majority. (
  • The current interests of his laboratory revolve around the immunology of infectious diseases with a special interest in dengue haemorrhagic fever and Zika, where his research is currently funded by the Wellcome Trust, with active research collaborations in South-East Asia. (
  • My laboratory aims to address the critical gaps in knowledge in dengue by positioning itself at the interface between clinical epidemiology, virology and immunology. (
  • Greg received his BS in Microbiology from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and his Ph.D. in Immunology from Tufts University, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences where he developed the model for Epstein Barr virus long-term latency in humans. (
  • Employing several complementary cell-based systems and using the yellow fever vaccine (YF17D) and the respective PLLAV-YF17D, we screened a panel of small molecules known to interfere with antiviral signaling for their proviral activity and identified two potent inhibitors of the TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), BX795 and CYT387, to enhance YF17D replication and hence efficacy of PLLAV-YF17D transfection. (
  • Despite the recent licensure of the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine in some countries, results from the vaccine's phase III trial have cast doubts about its overall efficacy and global applicability. (
  • Pooled results from two phase III trials, conducted in Asia and Latin America, revealed that the CYD-TDV vaccine presents an overall efficacy of 59.2%, and that could reach up to 65.6% when data from individuals under age of 9 are excluded. (
  • Molecular surveillance of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is important as it provides data on the circulating CHIKV genotypes in endemic countries and enabling activation of measures to be taken in the event of a pending outbreak. (
  • In this chapter, we demonstrate the utilization of freely available resources to track the evolution and spread of Chikungunya virus. (
  • This chapter presents the most commonly used serological methods for the diagnosis of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in humans. (
  • Simultaneous detection of chikungunya virus, dengue virus and human pathogenic Leptospira genomes using a multiplex TaqMan® assay. (
  • Herein, we will discuss the role of T cells in protection and pathogenesis from severe disease as well as the implications for vaccine design. (
  • A multicenter study of clinical presentations and predictive factors for severe manifestation of dengue in adults. (
  • Severe disease may also occur in horses and a vaccine for these animals is available. (
  • Since the genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was published in January 2020, researchers worldwide have been developing a vaccine to limit the severe impact on public health the pandemic continues to cause. (
  • This is the first report showing that a single dose of a replication-deficient MVA vector can confer full protection against a lethal challenge with ML29 virus. (
  • In tissue culture, BX795 could fully revert the block that plasmid transfection poses on YF17D infection in a type I interferon dependent manner, as confirmed by (i) a marked change in gene expression signatures, (ii) a rescue of full YF17D replication, and (iii) a massively increased virus yield. (
  • It has been related to a multitude of roles including virus infection, replication, dissemination and immune response stimulation. (
  • The vaccines comprise a conserved region immunogen, HIVconsv, delivered by replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA vectors. (
  • Through collaboration with the NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network and Duke University NC, we have shown that targeting of selected vulnerable regions within the HIV proteome by CD8+ T cells is strongly associated with their capacity to inhibit HIV replication in vitro. (
  • We are planning a series of vaccine trials to evaluate vaccinations with HIV and/or HCV immunogens, each delivered by replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA vectors, in healthy volunteers and in HIV-positive HCV-uninfected patients on ART. (
  • K22 has been shown to act on early postentry stages of coronavirus replication and to target membrane-bound RNA synthesis by interfering with the establishment of virus-induced replicative structures. (
  • Our laboratory continues to work on fundamental processes by which T lymphocytes recognize foreign pathogens including viruses such as smallpox, vaccinia, HIV, and influenza A. We have analyzed the basic function and structure of the T cell receptor (TCR) components: TCRalphabeta heterodimer, CD3epsilongamma and CD3epsilondelta heterodimers, and CD3zetazeta homodimer. (
  • Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which infects young chickens, is one of the most important pathogens that harm the poultry industry. (
  • Less virulent pathogens (e.g. varicella, rotavirus in the developed world) are also beginning to be targeted, and vaccine use is being justified in terms of societal and parental ``costs'' rather than in straightforward morbidity and mortality costs. (
  • These locked dimers are strong immunogen candidates for a next-generation vaccine. (
  • In the framework of the independence of the national product, pursued research and development of raw materials that can be used for diagnostic kit and vaccine candidates. (
  • While questions about the effectiveness of the CYD-TDV vaccine still lingers, it is wise to keep at hand an array of vaccine candidates, including alternative non-classical approaches like the one presented here. (
  • This must be considered carefully when designing vaccine candidates or treatment approaches. (
  • Through considerable effort, several vaccine candidates are undergoing human clinical trials [ 9 ] with possible licensure being accomplished in the next five years. (
  • Several vaccine candidates are presently in various stages of preclinical development [ 2 ], and a limited number have also reached early phase clinical trials [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Caused by Lassa virus (LASV), the disease is a scourge on populations in endemic areas of West Africa, where reported incidence is higher. (
  • Definitive CHIKV diagnosis is crucial, especially in distinguishing the disease from dengue virus, which co-circulates in endemic areas and shares the same mosquito vectors. (
  • Ninety-five of 3,433 WN virus peptides scored above a predetermined cutoff, suggesting that these would be likely to bind to HLA B*07 and would also be likely candidate CTL epitopes. (
  • Computerized algorithms (NetMHC software) were used to predict minimal MHC-restricted 8-10-mer epitope sequences within AMA1 15-mer peptides active in ELISpot. (
  • We recently showed that the addition of a cholesterol group to HRC peptides active against Nipah virus targets these peptides to the membrane where fusion occurs, dramatically increasing their antiviral effect. (
  • the cholesterol-tagged peptides cross the blood brain barrier, and effectively prevent and treat in an established animal model what would otherwise be fatal Nipah virus encephalitis. (
  • The mutants containing the functional epitopes were further studied by using synthetic peptides. (
  • The authors investigated mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) modulates chemokine-mediated intercellular communication of the infected cells. (
  • Direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents are the standard of care for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as the major pathogen of liver diseases in recent years leading to worldwide blood-transmitted chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen affecting 3% of the human population [ 1 ]. (
  • By utilizing the knowledge that I gain from this proposed work, I hope to develop my career in a direction independently of my mentor and begin to work on the rational design of a hepatitis C virus vaccine. (
  • We combine basic virological and virus-host interaction studies with clinical investigations and experimental medicine. (
  • For dengue fever, a chimeric YF/dengue vaccine (ChimeriVax TM technology) is currently being tested in clinical trials (Guy et al. (
  • Moreover, the occurrence of rare fatal cases and adverse clinical manifestations has been associated with the YF vaccine (Vasconcelos et al. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during HCV treatment has been reported, the incidence and clinical outcome remains unclear. (
  • In order to provide timely information for the care of the patient, it is important to establish a diagnosis of dengue virus infection during the first few days of clinical symptoms. (
  • To test this hypothesis, two adenovirus-vectored vaccines encoding P. falciparum CSP and AMA1 were evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial. (
  • We are testing ART in combination with vaccines and other agents in clinical trials. (
  • Some have recently moved into human clinical trials, and individuals have argued for the accelerated development and fast-tracking of vaccine testing and approval 1 . (
  • Introduction of mutations at the core residues of the DIII-lr epitope (residues S306, K307, T330, and T332) reduced or abrogated binding of not only E16 but also all other DIII-specific, strongly neutralizing MAbs ( 4 , 44 , 50 ). (
  • A recently defined class of individual mAbs acknowledge the E-dimer epitope (EDE)a quaternary epitope produced across the user interface of two E monomers arranged inside a head-to-tail conformation25. (
  • Employing this technology, we have generated over 250 hybridomas secreting human mAbs to dengue virus from subjects who had recovered from primary or secondary infection. (
  • In this work, we targeted eight promiscuous HIV-derived CD4 + T cell epitopes (HIVBr8) to the DEC205 + DCs by fusing the multiepitope immunogen to the heavy chain of αDEC205 (αDECHIVBr8), in the presence of the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C). In addition, we tested a DNA vaccine encoding the same epitopes using homologous or heterologous prime-boost regimens. (
  • The success of heterologous regimens depended on the degree of homology of the N-terminal p33 portion of the MSP1 42 , likely due to the fact that most T cell epitopes reside in this part of the molecule. (
  • Rubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus within the Togaviridae family. (
  • Signature)( FIV-bDepartment of TA-1-tvi__06, The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate ^L4C_7.0 2 6/5 \DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTRubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus withinthe Togaviridae family. (
  • Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have achieved remarkable successes in controlling virus spread, as well as for other applications such as cancer immunotherapy. (
  • When expressed together, GP and Z form Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) in cell culture. (
  • In an interview published in late 1998 which Montagnier gave to the French journalist Djamel Tahi, Montagnier was asked why he and his colleagues did not publish electron micrographs proving that the 1.16g/ml band (the "purified virus")contained isolated HIV particles. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) and nano-particles (NPs) are promising vaccine platforms that have led to the successful development of commercially available vaccines. (
  • This study presents a comprehensive analysis of functional T-cell memory against dengue viruses and suggests an HLA-linked protective role for CD8 + T cells. (
  • Investigators demonstrated that primary human naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells are permissive for dengue virus (DV) infection. (
  • Here, we discuss vaccine strategies that use C-type lectin receptor (CLR) targeting of APCs, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. (
  • Moreover, the tested vaccine regimen induced proliferating CD4 + T cells with a cytotoxic profile ( 3 ). (
  • Monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are the main targets for viruses involved in vascular permeability induction (Schnittler & Feldmann 2003, Clyde et al. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex ligands identified by this method may be used to screen T cells from WN virus-exposed persons for cell-mediated response to WN virus or to develop diagnostic reagents for immunopathogenesis studies and epidemiologic surveillance. (
  • T cells appear able to recognize both mutational neoepitopes and self-epitopes, which are not normally expressed in a way that activates the immune system. (
  • HLA-A2- and HLA-B7-restricted TBEV epitope-specific effector cells predominantly displayed a CD45RA − CCR7 − CD27 + CD57 − phenotype at day 7, which transitioned into separate distinct phenotypes for HLA-A2- and HLA-B7-restricted TBEV-specific CD8 + T cells, respectively. (
  • Almost all TBEV epitope-specific CD8 + T cells expressed α4 and β1 integrins at days 7 and 21, whereas the bulk CD8 + T cells expressed lower integrin levels. (
  • Studies of the Sm28GST vaccine suggest that both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells might contribute to protection. (
  • Therefore, we also compared the efficiencies of virus internalization of RC-HL and R(G 242/255/268) strains by using NA cells (Fig. 5b). (
  • Herein, the importance of myeloid cells in host defence is discussed and the mechanisms by which these viruses exploit myeloid cells are highlighted. (
  • Distinct susceptibility of HIV vaccine vector-induced CD4 T cells to HIV infection. (
  • Monocytes, macrophages, and skin dendritic cells are the primary target host cells for entry of dengue viruses. (
  • Importantly, HCoV-229E mutants that were able to replicate in the presence of K22 were isolated following several virus passages on K22-treated cells. (
  • Instead of being neutralized, the virus persists in immune cells, causing an aberrant downstream cascade of immune effects and may replicate further. (
  • Induction of multifunctional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T cells capable of proliferation in healthy subjects by using a prime-boost regimen of DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored vaccines expressing HIV-1 Gag coupled to CD8+ T-cell epitopes. (
  • T. annulata - transformed cells were shown to express high levels of CD40 and CD80 and were susceptible to infection with BHV-1, vaccinia and canarypox viruses. (
  • Given the relatively low frequencies of virus-specific CD8 T cells in circulating memory T cell populations (typically ranging from 1/500 to 1/20 000 in human peripheral blood) [ 8 , 9 ], such assays have limited sensitivity. (
  • The establishment in vitro of cell lines enriched for virus-specific T cells provides a more sensitive means of dissecting the specificity of the response. (
  • A*24 (corrected P = 0.03) and DRB1*12 (corrected P = 0.041) were strongly associated with the development of DHF during primary dengue infection. (
  • By elucidating these mechanisms, we hope to contribute to the development of effective vaccines or therapeutics. (
  • Guest Lecturer, undergraduate seminar "Development of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics" taught as a joint course between BrownUniversity and University of Rhode Island (Bio 160/ BIOL1600, URI/MTC 594). (
  • Further, we have created servers for multiple vaccine development based on prediction of supertypic MHC ligands. (
  • The goal of our research is to understand the mechanisms that determine successful containment of HIV and how these can be exploited in the development of vaccines and T cell-based therapies. (
  • Progress in GAS vaccine development has been hindered by a number of obstacles, including a lack of standardization in immunoassays and the need to define human correlates of protection. (
  • A key element in vaccine development is the availability of a validated and standardized immunoassay that correlates with immune protection. (
  • However, this will only happen if the human and financial resources needed for monitoring and studying vaccine safety stay in step with the accelerating pace of vaccine development. (
  • The present invention broadly relates to the synergistic attenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), More particularly, the invention relates to the identification of combined mutation classes which synergistically attenuate the pathogenicity of VSV vectors in mammals and immunogenic compositions thereof. (
  • We found that HLA-A*31 (corrected P = 0.01) and DRB1*08 (corrected P = 0.009) were associated with susceptibility to DSS when infected with the dengue virus, during secondary dengue infection. (
  • The differential cytokine production indicates that DENV2 results in TNF induction, which discriminates it from vaccine viruses that preferentially stimulate interferon expression. (