Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Mice, Inbred BALB CViral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Lentiviruses, Feline: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.United StatesChronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred C57BLPapillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Saudi ArabiaVaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Tetanus ToxoidImmunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Animals, ZooCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
... incurable disease caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats, also known as feline influenza, caused by feline ... Programs supporting regular feline vaccination have contributed both to the health of cats and to public health. Currently, ... "Summary Table: Vaccination in General Practice" (PDF). The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine ...
Feline vaccination Feline leukemia virus Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, et al. Feline infectious peritonitis. ABCD ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis and Coronavirus Website Feline Infectious Peritonitis from vetinfo.com Research on Feline ... Addie: FIP and Coronavirus. 2013. ISBN 978-1480208971 Addie DD, le Poder S, Burr P, et al. Utility of feline coronavirus ... History: the cat experienced stress such as recent neutering or vaccination History: the cat had an opportunity to become ...
Vaccinations are an important preventative animal health measure. The specific vaccinations recommended for cats varies ... which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). H5N1. See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Feline ... Epilepsy in cats is rare likely because there is no hereditary component to epilepsy in cats. Feline asthma Flat-chested kitten ...
This systemic syndrome has been compared to Feline infectious peritonitis in cats. Aleutian disease virus (ADV) is a parvovirus ... The coronavirus which causes ECE has a counterpart strain that has more systemic effects with a higher mortality rate. ... The only protection against the virus is vaccination, but that is not without controversy as there have been reports, ... Similar to domestic cats, ferrets may also be affected by hairballs, or dental problems. Adrenal disease, a growth of the ...
A strain of CPV2b (strain FP84) has been shown to cause disease in a small percentage of domestic cats, although vaccination ... Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other forms of enteritis. ... CPV2a and CPV2b have been isolated from a small percentage of symptomatic cats and is more common than feline panleukopenia in ... rather than feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). CPV2 may spread to cats easier than dogs and undergo faster rates of mutation ...
Vaccination. Due to both its effectiveness and safety, in 2009 the World Health Organization recommended that the rotavirus ... Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) occurs in pigs resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.[88] It is ... Many of the same agents cause gastroenteritis in cats and dogs as in humans. The most common organisms are Campylobacter, ... Weese, JS (March 2011). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". Veterinary Clinics ...
"Canine and Feline Vaccination Guidelines". UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Retrieved 2012-06-23. Vaccination Guidelines ... Generally not recommended, owing to unproven efficacy, are: canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus-1 (which also causes ... DA2PPC Vaccine Feline vaccination Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) ( ... "Vaccination guidelines for the owners and breeders of dogs and cats" (PDF). *Horzinek, MC (2010). "Vaccination protocols for ...
... inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AH06 Live canine parainfluenza virus + inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AI01 Live canine ... group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Vaccination ... canine parainfluenza virus QI07AD11 Canine coronavirus QI07AD12 Canine coronavirus + canine parvovirus QI07AD13 Canine parapox ... inactivated canine coronavirus QI07AH05 Live canine distemper virus + live canine adenovirus + live canine parvovirus + live ...
Vaccination of dogs for rabies is commonly required by law. Please see the article dog health for information on this disease ... It is a rare disease in dogs, with cats seven to ten times more likely to be infected. The disease in dogs can affect the lungs ... Canine coronavirus is a gastrointestinal disease that is usually asymptomatic or with mild clinical signs. The signs are worse ... The most common flea in dogs is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, followed by the dog flea, C. canis. Ticks* are an external ...
Osterhaus played an important role in the identification of the SARS coronavirus. In February 2004, his team found that ... He received his PhD degree in 1978 at the same university for a dissertation entitled "Feline infectious peritonitis: ... not everyone needs a vaccination, we are not going to give Tamiflu to everyone and the virus has not mutated into something ...
... of the cats testing positive. Feline coronavirus was the next most common infection, found in 18.3% of the cats, although they ... When neutered, the cats receive vaccinations against rabies and other medical care, such as dental care and parasite treatment ... A feral cat advocacy organization's explanation of feral cats Stray Cat Alliance Feral cat control in the UK Study of the feral ... and unowned cats who rely on humans as semi-feral or stray. Farm cats (also called barn cats) are cats that live on ...
Although most kennels require proof of vaccination, the vaccination is not a fail-safe preventative. Just like human influenza ... Greene, Craig E (2006). "6". Infectious Diseases in Dogs and Cats (third ed.). St Louis. Zoetis (formerly Pfizer Animal Health ... Viral infections such as canine parainfluenza or canine coronavirus are only shed for roughly 1 week following recovery; ... Vaccinations are not always effective. In one study it was found that 43.3% of all dogs in the study population with ...
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ... As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in 1981. ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ...
Some consume their own or other dogs' feces; others seem to prefer cat feces (which, due to the feline digestive system, are ... Vaccinations are an important preventative animal health measure. The specific vaccinations recommended for dogs varies ... and canine coronavirus, should be made between an owner and a veterinarian, taking into account factors specific to the dog. ... "Disease prevalence among dogs and cats in the United States and Australia and proportions of dogs and cats that receive ...
Feline vaccination. *H5N1 clinical trials. *Immunization during pregnancy. *List of vaccine topics ... Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. *Nipah virus infection. *Rift Valley fever. *Severe acute respiratory syndrome ... "Straight Talk about Vaccination". scientificamerican.com.. *^ Plotkin, Stanley A. (2006). Mass Vaccination: Global Aspects - ... The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified.[1][2][3] Vaccination is the most effective method of ...
... the Anti-Vaccination League and the Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League were formed in 1866. Following the anti-vaccination ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a new type of coronavirus. Other coronaviruses were known to cause mild ... Pigs, cattle, goats, sheep, horses, camels, cats and dogs were all kept and bred in captivity. These animals would have brought ... Vaccination was made compulsory in England and Wales by the 1853 Vaccination Act, and parents could be fined £1 if their ...
Weese, JS (2011 Mar). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". The Veterinary ... Patel, MM; Steele, D, Gentsch, JR, Wecker, J, Glass, RI, Parashar, UD (2011 Jan). "Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination ... Ang transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus o naihahawang gastroenteraytis sanhi ng koronabirus(TGEV) ay nangyayari sa mga ... and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the United States: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data". The ...
Weese, JS (2011 Mar). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". The Veterinary ... Patel, MM; Steele, D, Gentsch, JR, Wecker, J, Glass, RI, Parashar, UD (2011 Jan). "Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination ... Ang transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus o naihahawang gastroenteraytis sanhi ng koronabirus(TGEV) ay nangyayari sa mga ... and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the United States: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data". The ...
There are some vaccines for cats that can be classified as situational, when the only time they are useful is in the face of a ... It is caused by a coronavirus. This particular virus infects many kittens, usually causing some mild diarrhea, and then most ... FEATUREDCBD Oil for Cats: What You Need to Know. Is cannabis safe for cats? And what sorts of ailments might it treat?. READ ... In some cats, however, the virus mutates into a form that causes the disease FIP unless the cats immune system is capable of ...
coronavirus pandemic. Substantial number of people give Covid-19 to their companion animals. There have been a few studies on ... Vaccinations can damage your cats immune system.. *Cats who are exposed more (e.g. cats who stay out a lot or meet other cats ... Vaccinations are one part of the many elements needed to create a healthy environment and life for cats. Cat Vaccination ... The Vaccinations. The first of the vaccinations mentioned above is a multi-vaccination against (a) Feline Panleucopenia, (b) ...
Cats are prone to viral infections. Coronavirus is common in environments such as animal shelters, where numbers of cats live ... Finally the feline leukemia virus causes cancer of the blood. The highly contagious nature of this virus makes vaccination ... As with humans, vaccination of young dogs and cats is a wise precaution to avoid microbiological diseases later in life. ... Like humans, cats are also prone to herpes virus infections. In cats the infection is in the respiratory tract and eyes. Severe ...
7. Vaccination Guidelines. 8. Feline Leukemia Virus. 9. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. 10. Feline Coronavirus and FIP. 11. ... Novel Coronavirus Information Center. Please visit Elseviers Novel Coronavirus Information Center for free health and medical ... Feline Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex. 12. Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough). 13. Canine Distemper. 14 ... Feline Symmetric Alopecia. 53. Miliary Dermatitis and Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex. 54. Surgery of Intertriginous Dermatoses ...
FIP vaccination is not helpful at all in cats that already have feline enteric coronavirus. It can protect cats that have never ... So feline corona virus is very common.. Cats who develop feline infectious peritonitis have a mutant form of the feline corona ... Most cats have feline corona virus and then make their own mutations. So the fact that your cats have been exposed to feline ... A cat who has never been exposed to feline coronavirus wont get FIP. Probably around 50 to 60% of cats in single cat ...
Learn the transmission, symptoms and treatment of feline coronavirus and FIP in cats. ... is a big cause of infectious death in young cats. ... until vaccination immunity is completed. That will take chronic ... Most cats in catteries and rescues are infected with feline Coronavirus.. *Separate new litters of kittens and any cats that ... Feline Coronavirus and FIP in Cats. Note: If you are looking for information regarding COVID-19 in pets, please check out our ...
Cat vaccination. As with dogs, there is no law requiring cats to be vaccinated in Singapore unless they are imported, in which ... Find out how to access vaccinations and veterinary care for dogs, cats and other pets in Singapore.... There are many vets ... Dog vaccination. Only dogs that have been imported are legally required to be vaccinated. Imported dogs need to have all ... vaccinations up to date, including rabies shots, no more than six months prior to arrival in Singapore. ...
Or Feline Leukemia in your cat? Vaccines are cheap and effective insurance for these deadly and debilitating diseases. Now let ... some crossover benefits to this human corona thing as it has both vaccines that immunize the dog and the cat against corona ... Center for Disease Control Recommended Childhood Vaccination Schedule *This is how I handle vaccines and vaccinations in my ... Or Feline Leukemia in your cat? Vaccines are cheap and effective insurance for these deadly and debilitating diseases. ...
NEW! 2020 AAHA/AAFP Feline Vaccination Guidelines Education arrow_drop_down Education overview ... there is no evidence that companion animals/pets such as dogs or cats can be infected with the new coronavirus." ... AAHA Home AAHA publications NEWStat 2020-03 Coronavirus update: Pets are safe . . . but wash your hands ... Canine influenza virus Feline hypertension and CKD Heartworm resources Infection prevention and biosecurity Lifetime care ...
Hed been in the shelter for about 7-8 weeks going by his vaccination record. His companion was brought in later so shed only ... Cat Chat Feline Forum. Cat Chat, the Cat Rescue Resource. Charity no. 1100649 ... Im really sorry to hear you lost a cat to FIP.. I will be keeping my boy as an only cat - I wouldnt want to risk another cat ... VIP Cat Chatter!. Posts: 2256. Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:36 pm. Re: FIV+ and coronavirus. * Quote ...
A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus: molecular biology, immunopathogenesis, clinical aspects, and vaccination. Vet ... Session I: Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses. Virion characteristics and coronavirus life cycle. Holmes, K. V. Coronaviruses. ... "the SARS-associated coronavirus is neither a mutant of any known coronavirus nor a recombinant of known coronaviruses. It is a ... The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.. Coronavirus reverse genetics ...
Pet Doctor-Rockwall Veterinary Clinic Provides FREE Vaccinations With Exam For First Time Clients. Call Now 972-772-7777 or ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). FIP, although uncommon, is an immune response to Feline Coronavirus. It is contagious and ... Feline Distemper (FVRCP). Feline Distemper is one of the core vaccinations that you need to give your kittens. Without it, your ... Subsequent vaccinations are administered yearly. Feline Leukemia. This is a fatal disease that attacks a cats immune system. ...
What are the most common types of fungal rhinitis in cats and dogs? ... Vaccination- parental or intra-nasal. *ulcerative keratisis, punctate, or dendritic ulcers. 4 ...
The vaccination includes Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Coronavirus-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus Vaccine. ... So, please take a moment to fill out one of the following Wish list: Wish List (Dogs) or Wish List (Cats) ... Animal Care and Control will hold the dog or cat until the pet is transported to the vet on the date of sterilization. A vet ... Find Adoptable Dogs Find Adoptable Cats. The primary responsibility of Animal Control is animal welfare, making sure that ...
Picture of a tiger cat April 1, 2020. * Chinese study says that coronavirus can replicate in domestic cats and transmit ... Home→Cat Health→vaccinations→Titers tell you if your cat needs a vaccination ... The wild cat species who failed to become the domestic cat. The DNA of all domestic cats has no trace of any wild cat species ... Small wild cats. Cat-fox said to be a new wild cat species in Corsicas mountains. The experts say that this is a new species ...
... a Domestic Long Hair Cat for adoption, at Solano County Friends of Animals in Benicia, CA on Petfinder. Learn more about Suzy ... She is current with vaccinations. We are current not holding adoption events (because of the coronavirus) but we can make an ... Susy is a sweet 5-6 year old cat with long soft black fur. What she would love to do most is sit in your lap. Cuddling, petting ... Suzy is spayed, micro-chipped, tested negative for Feline Leukemia and FIV. ...
Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline ... Furthermore, vaccination with the FIPV deletion mutant viruses resulted in protection against (otherwise) lethal FIPV challenge ... Switching species tropism: an effective way to manipulate the feline coronavirus genome. J. Virol. 77:4528-4538. ... The molecular genetics of feline coronaviruses: comparative sequence analysis of the ORF7a/7b transcription unit of different ...
... and High County Veterinary Clinic are joining forces to vaccinate pets in Craig by sponsoring the annual pet vaccination and ... Dog vaccinations include distemper, parinfluenza, parvovirus, corona virus and rabies. The cat combination is feline ... It is the only vaccination requirement because rabies can be passed on to humans. The ordinance also requires that people ... An additional feline leukemia vaccine is available, as is a rabies-only vaccine. ...
Winn has been providing synopses on current cat health research since 2007. ... Find the latest information in cat health news from around the world. ... Therapeutic vaccination in healthy FeLV positive cats Full story * Jun 09, 2015 ... Looking to avoid resistance to treatment of feline coronavirus Full story * Jun 05, 2015 ...
Please Select All Vaccinations or Treatments You Would Like Your Pet to Recieve:. DA2PPV( Adult Canine Booster) $15.00 " ... and diseases such as Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline Leukemia, and heartworms. ... DA2PPV+CV (Puppy Booster) $15.00 "Distemper, Adenovirus Type 2, Corona Virus, Para Influenza and Parvovirus". ...
Does My Cat Love Me? Not sure how your cat feels about you? Learn how your pet shows affection. ... ... Side effects can occur after vaccination, but most are mild and only last for a day or two. Common side effects may include ... Other non-core vaccines include bordetella (kennel cough), coronavirus, leptospirosis, and canine influenza. ... Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia, bordetella, and chlamydophila felis vaccines are non-core vaccines that may be ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia, bordetella, and chlamydophila felis vaccines are non-core vaccines that may be ... Side effects can occur after vaccination, but most are mild and only last for a day or two. Common side effects may include ... Other non-core vaccines include bordetella (kennel cough), coronavirus, leptospirosis, and canine influenza. ... If your dog, cat or ferret is exposed to the virus in the future, the antibodies will quickly kill and attack the virus, ...
Feline coronavirus exposure is possible. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus exposure shouldnt occur ... at vaccination sites in cats has been enough to sway us to go to a three year vaccination protocol in cats. There are ... feline leukemia vaccination and feline infectious peritonitis vaccination were not included in this study). This, combined with ... In cats, there is one published study, that was well done, that supports triennial vaccination in cats since titers were at ...
... feline infectious peritonitis virus vaccination with killed, recombinant or live-attenuated virus results in the production of ... Abbreviations: CoV, coronavirus; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; icSARS, infectious clone SARS; E64-d, (2S,3S)- ... A previously undescribed coronavirus (CoV) is the etiologic agent responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). ... Reverse genetics with a full-length infectious cDNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Boyd Yount, Kristopher M ...
For adult dogs and cat, antibody titers are a more healthy option instead of vaccinating needlessly. ... Too many vaccinations given too frequently may lead to chronic disease and even cancer in some sensitive pets. ... For cats, the feline panleukopenia virus is the main vaccination that is needed. Injectable feline rhinotracheitis and feline ... Addisons Disease Allergies Anal Sac Inflammation Anxiety Arthritis Asthma Behavior Coronavirus Bladder Stones Cancer ...
  • Most feline practitioners do not test, except to confirm virus outside the GI in face of FIP clinical signs. (revivalanimal.com)
  • The American Association of Feline Practitioners and the Council on Biological and Therapeutic Agents have published information concerning cat vaccination guidelines in the last several years. (vin.com)
  • New vaccination protocols have been established by a variety of medical organizations (American Veterinary Medical Association, American Animal Hospital Association, Association of Feline Practitioners) as well as the veterinary schools. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • The conditions we will describe here have a significant rate of incidence or a strong impact upon this breed particularly, according to a general consensus among feline genetic researchers and veterinary practitioners. (ingleside.com)
  • To me, it looks like FIP research in all areas is really ramping up, and we are making bigger strides than we have in the past," observed Dr. Vicki Thayer, executive director of the Winn Feline Foundation, a nonprofit that funds medical studies to improve feline health. (vin.com)
  • The shots apparently caused feline fibrosarcoma, a grotesque tumor at the site of the shot, which is fatal if not discovered early and cut out completely. (freerepublic.com)
  • Ideally, both studs and queens should be tested for FeLV and FIV before each breeding when the cats have different owners or reside in different households. (mcbfa.org)