A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
... and Coronavirus Website Why Do Cats Purr? Is It Good Or Bad? - Two Cat Freaks Blog Feline ... History: the cat experienced stress such as recent neutering or vaccination History: the cat had an opportunity to become ... "How cats become infected with feline coronavirus: animation". "Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) Transmission - Feline ... Feline vaccination Feline leukemia virus "FIP drugs continue to show promise, while being sold on black market". Addie, D.; ...
Medicine portal Viruses portal Vaccination policy Antitoxin DNA vaccination Feline vaccination H5N1 clinical trials ... Vaccination-autism controversy Vaccination and religion Vaccination of dogs Vaccine trial World Immunization Week Coronavirus ... starting with the Vaccination Act of 1840, which provided for universal vaccination and prohibited variolation. The Vaccination ... The term vaccination was coined in 1800 by the surgeon Richard Dunning in his text Some observations on vaccination. (The word ...
An immunity passport is not the same as a vaccination record or vaccination certificate proving someone has received certain ... Ferguson, Cat; Mitnick, Joshua (1 March 2021). "Israel's "green pass" vaccine passport is an early vision of how we leave ... The coronavirus vaccines, in contrast, are injected deep into the muscles and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies ... The International Certificate of Vaccination (Carte Jaune) is a certificate of vaccination and prophylaxis, not immunity. The ...
A strain of CPV-2b (strain FP84) has been shown to cause disease in a small percentage of domestic cats, although vaccination ... Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other forms of enteritis. ... CPV2a and CPV2b have been isolated from a small percentage of symptomatic cats and is more common than feline panleukopenia in ... Canine parvovirus may infect other mammals including foxes, wolves, cats, and skunks. Felines are susceptible to panleukopenia ...
... which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). H5N1. See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm ... Viral diseases in cats can be serious, especially in catteries and kennels. Timely vaccination can reduce the risk and severity ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Feline ... Epilepsy in cats is rare likely because there is no hereditary component to epilepsy in cats. Feline asthma Flat-chested kitten ...
In March 2021, the Event Center was converted into a mass vaccination center with capacity for 4,000 to 5,000 doses per week ... Vienna Cat. (January 11, 2015). "Researchers: 'Kam Quake' shakes CenturyLink Field". Portland, Oregon: KATU-TV. Retrieved ... "Inslee sending back CenturyLink field hospital to federal government to help states hit harder by coronavirus". The Seattle ... Gutman, David (March 10, 2021). "Lumen Field Event Center opens Saturday as huge COVID-19 vaccination clinic; here's how it ...
Ferret systemic coronavirus is a coronavirus which causes ECE has a counterpart strain that has more systemic effects with a ... This systemic syndrome has been compared to feline infectious peritonitis in cats. Aleutian disease virus (ADV) is a parvovirus ... The only protection against the virus is vaccination, but that is not without controversy as there have been reports, ... Similar to domestic cats, ferrets may also be affected by hairballs or dental problems. Adrenal disease, a growth of the ...
Colleges Become Labs for Coronavirus Tests and Tracking Apps" - via NYTimes.com. Ferguson, Cat (November 30, 2020). "While ... PathCheck Foundation launch interactive COVID-19 vaccination dashboard" - via https://alabamanewscenter.com/. Hayes, Alyce ( ... Coronavirus Tracing Apps Aren't Ready". "What Ever Happened to Digital Contact Tracing?". "Teton County to use app for contact ... Sun, Lena H. (December 7, 2020). "New smartphone tool to track side effects of the coronavirus vaccine may be vulnerable to ...
DA2PPC Vaccine Feline vaccination Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) ( ... Generally not recommended, owing to unproven efficacy, are vaccines for: canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus-1 (which also ... "Canine and Feline Vaccination Guidelines". UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Archived from the original on 2012-05-06. ... "Canine and Feline Vaccination Guidelines". UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. November 2009. Archived from the ...
The first case of coronavirus in Spain was recorded on 31 January 2020 in the island of La Gomera, in the Canary Islands. The ... The first doses arrived in Spain and the rest of the member states of the European Union on December 26 and mass vaccination ... CatalunyaPress.cat. "Salvador Illa (PSC): "No tenim por, a Barcelona passarà el que passi"". Catalunyapress (in Catalan). ... "Spain reports first coronavirus death in Valencia". Reuters. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020. "Los congresos médicos ...
Kirpensteijn J (October 2006). "Feline injection site-associated sarcoma: Is it a reason to critically evaluate our vaccination ... "EMERGENCY USE AUTHORIZATION (EUA) OF THE JANSSEN COVID-19 VACCINE TO PREVENT CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) IN INDIVIDUALS ... "The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel report". Journal of the American Veterinary ... In cats, vaccine-associated sarcoma (VAS) occurs at a rate of 1-10 per ten thousand injections. In 1993, a causal relationship ...
Vaccination. Due to both its effectiveness and safety, in 2009 the World Health Organization recommended that the rotavirus ... Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) occurs in pigs resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.[88] It is ... Many of the same agents cause gastroenteritis in cats and dogs as in humans. The most common organisms are Campylobacter, ... Weese, JS (March 2011). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". Veterinary Clinics ...
Vaccination of dogs for rabies is commonly required by law. Please see the article dog health for information on this disease ... It is a rare disease in dogs, with cats seven to ten times more likely to be infected. The disease in dogs can affect the lungs ... Canine coronavirus is a gastrointestinal disease that is usually asymptomatic or with mild clinical signs. The signs are worse ... The most common flea in dogs is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, followed by the dog flea, C. canis. Ticks* are an external ...
... of the cats testing positive. Feline coronavirus was the next most common infection, found in 18.3% of the cats, although they ... In addition to the vaccinations and spay/neuter, cats may receive other medical care, such as dental care and parasite ... A feral cat or a stray cat is an un-owned domestic cat (Felis catus) that lives outdoors and avoids human contact: it does not ... A farm cat is a free-ranging domestic cat that lives in a cat colony on agricultural farms in a feral or semi-feral condition. ...
... inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AH06 Live canine parainfluenza virus + inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AI01 Live canine ... group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group Vaccination ... canine parainfluenza virus QI07AD11 Canine coronavirus QI07AD12 Canine coronavirus + canine parvovirus QI07AD13 Canine parapox ... inactivated canine coronavirus QI07AH05 Live canine distemper virus + live canine adenovirus + live canine parvovirus + live ...
"Coronavirus New York: Why has coronavirus hit NYC so hard?". Metro. April 3, 2020. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. ... Several other "big cats" were found to have COVID-19, the first of which had started showing symptoms on March 27; they were ... COVID-19 vaccinations at nursing homes began on December 21. A video of 50 members of maskless dancers at a Republican Club ... "Coronavirus Updates: People 18-49 represent 53% of coronavirus cases in New York". ABC. Archived from the original on May 2, ...
Similar to domestic cats, ferrets can also suffer from hairballs and dental problems. Ferrets will also often chew on and ... Ferrets from the US require only a vaccination certificate signed by a veterinarian. Ferrets under three months old are not ... small experimental study of ferrets found that a nasal spray effectively blocked the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus ... European Union - As of July 2004[update], dogs, cats, and ferrets can travel freely within the European Union under the pet ...
Osterhaus played an important role in the identification of the SARS coronavirus. In February 2004, his team found that ... He received his PhD degree in 1978 at the same university for a dissertation entitled "Feline infectious peritonitis: ... not everyone needs a vaccination, we are not going to give Tamiflu to everyone and the virus has not mutated into something ...
"Coronavirus History: Origin and Evolution". WebMD. Retrieved 2020-06-19. "Behind the name: Why is pandemic called coronavirus, ... The WHO stopped providing vaccinations and by 1986, vaccination was no longer necessary to anyone in the world except in the ... In areas where rats are not common, typhus may also be transmitted through cat and opossum fleas. The incubation period of ... The coronavirus pandemic caused many economic disruptions, which caused a functional disconnect in the supply chain and the ...
Although most kennels require proof of vaccination, the vaccination is not a fail-safe preventative. Just like human influenza ... doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1989.tb01471.x. Greene, Craig E (2006). "6". Infectious Diseases in Dogs and Cats (third ed.). St Louis ... Viral infections such as canine parainfluenza or canine coronavirus are only spread for roughly one week following recovery; ... Vaccinations are not always effective. In one study it was found that 43.3% of all dogs in the study population with ...
Some consume their own or other dogs' feces; others seem to prefer cat feces (which, due to the feline digestive system, are ... Vaccinations are an important preventive animal health measure. The specific vaccinations recommended for dogs varies depending ... and canine coronavirus, should be made between an owner and a veterinarian, taking into account factors specific to the dog. ... "Disease prevalence among dogs and cats in the United States and Australia and proportions of dogs and cats that receive ...
Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ... "Coronavirus: Fear over rise in animal-to-human diseases". BBC. 6 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020. "Preventing the next ... As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in 1981. Animal welfare# ... Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies. Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia, which are endemic in both ...
COVID-19 vaccination programme in the United Kingdom "Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK". UK government COVID-19 Web site. " ... The first confirmed case of an animal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the UK is reported, having been detected in a pet cat. ... "Coronavirus forces STA Travel out of business". 21 August 2020 - via www.bbc.co.uk. "Coronavirus will be 'with us forever' - ... "Coronavirus: UK R number back above one". 18 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020 - via www.bbc.co.uk. "Coronavirus RECAP ...
In 2004, he began to self-publish his books after Alice's Diary, a book about his cat, was turned down. Coleman has also ... Vernon Coleman (born 18 May 1946) is an English conspiracy theorist, anti-vaccination activist, AIDS denialist, blogger and ... Amery, Rachel (15 October 2020). "Coronavirus survivors hit out at hoax leaflets posted through doors in Perth". Evening ... Ryder, Gemma (22 September 2020). "Dunfermline MSP condemns coronavirus hoax leaflet". Dunfermline Press. Retrieved 28 ...
Other coronaviruses are known to cause mild infections in humans, so the virulence and rapid spread of SARS infections-that by ... Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections ... Companion animals such as cats, dogs, and horses, if not vaccinated, are susceptible to serious viral infections. Canine ... A related coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China in November 2019 and spread rapidly around the world. Thought to have originated ...
"Coronavirus statistics for Brazil". www.worldometers.info. "Coronavirus statistics for France". www.worldometers.info. "Russia ... After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in ... Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV-1 was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to ... "Coronavirus confirmed as pandemic". BBC News. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020. "Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic". ...
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ... As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in 1981. ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ...
"Online Cat Fight Heating Up". Washington Post. January 7, 1998. Cope, Nigel. "Pet City founder to buy back superstore chain ... In 1990 mobile vet clinics were brought to stores to administer vaccinations. Parker also redesigned stores to be more inviting ... "PetSmart Workers Ask Retailer's Private-Equity Owner for Coronavirus Protections". Wall Street Journal. July 8, 2020. "Petco vs ... By the end of 2008 over 100 stores had PetsHotels offering daycare for dogs and boarding for dogs and cats, and by 2020 there ...
CAT) are simple questionnaires that may be used to determine the severity of symptoms.[22] Scores on CAT range from 0-40 with ... Other recommendations include influenza vaccination once a year, pneumococcal vaccination once every five years, and reduction ... "COPD Assessment Test (CAT)". American Thoracic Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 29, ... Miller MS, Tilley LP, Smith FW (January 1989). "Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat". The Veterinary Clinics ...
"Coronavirus: Belgian cat infected by owner". Brusselstimes.com. 27 Mart 2020. 27 Mart 2020 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. ... Mass vaccination with an improperly tested vaccine is unethical. Any problem with the Russian vaccination campaign would be ... "Coronavirus: Primi due casi in Italia" [Coronavirus: First two cases in Italy]. Corriere della sera (İtalyanca). 31 Ocak 2020. ... "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 Şubat 2020. 26 Ocak 2020 ...
Weese, JS (2011 Mar). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". The Veterinary ... Patel, MM; Steele, D, Gentsch, JR, Wecker, J, Glass, RI, Parashar, UD (2011 Jan). "Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination ... Ang transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus o naihahawang gastroenteraytis sanhi ng koronabirus(TGEV) ay nangyayari sa mga ... and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the United States: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data". The ...
Cats[edit]. Avian influenza in cats can show a variety of symptoms and usually lead to death. Cats are able to get infected by ... Less pathogenic viruses are controlled by vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks (ATCvet codes: QI01AA23 (WHO) ... Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Control measures for HPAI encourage mass vaccinations of poultry though The World Health Organization has compiled a list of ...
"Puppies & burnout: The economic impact of the coronavirus on vets". The Conversation. Retrieved 10 August 2020.. ... Small animal practice - Usually dogs, cats, and other companion animals/household pets such as hamsters and gerbils. Some ... Common interventions include vaccination against common animal illnesses, such as distemper or rabies, and dental prophylaxis ... felines, canines, rodents, and even exotic animals). Their responsibility is not only for the health and well being of the ...
Feline vaccination. *H5N1 clinical trials. *Immunization during pregnancy. *List of vaccine topics ... Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. *Nipah virus infection. *Rift Valley fever. *Severe acute respiratory syndrome ... "Straight Talk about Vaccination". scientificamerican.com.. *^ Plotkin, Stanley A. (2006). Mass Vaccination: Global Aspects - ... The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified.[1][2][3] Vaccination is the most effective method of ...
Although most human Coronaviruses are not transmitted fecally (Feline coronavirus, in contrast, is), there have also been ... "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (10): 929-936. doi:10.1056/ ... "Coronavirus: scientists identify possible new mode of transmission in human faeces". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020- ...
In China, for example, vaccination of domestic birds against H7N9 successfully limited its spread, indicating that vaccination ... "Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus ... For example, in late 2016 to early 2017, an avian H7N2 strain was found to be infecting cats in New York. Equine IAVs include ... Vaccination recommendations vary from country to country. It some countries, it is recommended that all people above a certain ...
Since the reopening, coronavirus surged across Texas, leading Abbott to pause the gradual re-opening. On June 24, 2020, Texas ... "Would-be Obama assassin identified by cat hairs, authorities say". theguardian.com. Retrieved November 25, 2017. Grinberg, ... signed an executive order banning state agencies and corporations that take public funding from requiring proof of vaccination ... According to The New York Times, Abbott's response to the coronavirus pandemic has been contradictory, as he has said that ...
One dump reports finding parts of dismembered animals, like "dogs, cats, donkeys, horses and pigeons" and there is evidence ... Borger, Julian (31 March 2020). "US ignores calls to suspend Venezuela and Iran sanctions amid coronavirus pandemic". the ... with diseases that are preventable via vaccination spreading, and "dramatic surges" in infectious diseases once eradicated in ... Mask, gown, gloves - none of that exists': Venezuela's coronavirus crisis". the Guardian. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March ...
In 2017, Bowser proposed several animal regulations, including a ban on backyard chickens, a requirement that all cats be ... Zauzmer, Julie (February 24, 2021). "Mercia Bowser, sister of D.C. mayor, dies of coronavirus at age 64". Washington Post. ... Bowser issued a mayoral order that patrons could enter dining establishments unmasked if they provided proof of vaccination ... Christopher, Peak (July 15, 2020). "Investigation Uncovers Missteps In Washington, D.C.'s Coronavirus Response". NPR. ...
Coronavirus, dai locali alle palestre: tutte le misure nel nuovo Dpcm di ottobre, Sky Tg 24 "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases ... The vaccination campaign began on 27 December 2020, when Italy received 9,750 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. These doses ... 1 (2). doi:10.1056/CAT.20.0080 (inactive 20 January 2021). Retrieved 5 April 2020.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 ( ... "Coronavirus: primi casi a Milano. Cosa sappiamo dei nuovi contagi in Lombardia, Veneto e Piemonte" [Coronavirus: first case in ...
The coronavirus sped up that inevitable trend. Like many of you, I'm reinventing my life for a post-coronavirus world. The ... Adams" who hires former head of security Michael Garibaldi to locate his megalomaniacal dog and cat. He also had a cameo in " ... Shiva Now to Talk About Vaccinations" - via www.youtube.com. "Scott Adams: Dr. Shiva - U.S. Senate Candidate (2018)". www.imdb. ... Shiva Now to Talk About Vaccinations". Scott Adams' Blog. September 16, 2019. "Episode 664 Scott Adams: Join Me With Dr. ...
Other techniques (such as X-rays, CAT scans, PET scans or NMR) are used to produce images of internal abnormalities resulting ... 6][full citation needed] Another example is the use of ring culling or vaccination of potentially susceptible livestock in ... Ebolavirus and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) Fungi, further subclassified into: Ascomycota, including yeasts ... or by vaccination. Knowledge of the protective antigens and specific acquired host immune factors is more complete for primary ...
... to buy CAT for £702m BBC News, 15 May 2006 AstraZeneca agrees to buy Arrow Therapeutics for US$150M Marketwatch, 1 ... "CORONAVIRUS: EU contract with AstraZeneca is inferior to UK's, says Matt Hancock". The Times. 25 March 2021. "The Planning ... Nectar Gan (15 March 2021). "European countries suspend AstraZeneca vaccinations despite advice from EU medicines regulator". ... "Coronavirus: AstraZeneca donates nine million face masks and steps up Covid-19 drugs research". Cambridge Independent. 30 March ...
Trieu, Cat (November 16, 2017). "Remembering the 1982 World's Fair". The Daily Beacon. Knoxville: University of Tennessee. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Tracking Coronavirus in Tennessee: Latest Map and Case Count". The New York Times. ... of the eligible population receiving at least one vaccination and 25% fully vaccinated. The 2020 United States census reported ... Kelman, Brett; Ebert, Joel (March 5, 2020). "Coronavirus case detected in Tennessee: First patient is quarantined in Williamson ...
St John Ambulance announced in January 2021 that their staff would be volunteering to help in the national vaccination program ... Carter, Helen (5 January 2020). "Volunteer coronavirus vaccinators are needed". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 11 January ... for the work it carried out with the CATS (Great Ormond Street) and the South Thames Retrieval Service (Evelina Children's ... "Update on St John Ambulance support for the NHS COVID-19 vaccination programme". St John Ambulance (Press release). Retrieved ...
... an FIV infected cat can remain completely asymptomatic its entire lifetime.[citation needed] Feline vaccination Winn Feline ... "Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a Lentivirus that affects cats worldwide, with 2.5% to 4.4% of felines being infected. ... FIV differs taxonomically from two other feline retroviruses, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline foamy virus (FFV), and is ...
Posted in Cat News , Tagged Cat News, cat vaccinations, coronavirus (2019-nCoV), human to cat relationship, viral infection , ... Posted in vaccinations , Tagged animal health, cat drugs, cat health care, cat vaccinations, cat welfare, cat welfare ... Posted in stolen cats , Tagged abandoned cats, adoption, cat vaccinations, colony of cats, contagious diseases, stealing cats, ... Posted in coronavirus pandemic , Tagged Cat News, cat vaccinations, coronavirus (2019-nCoV) , 1 Reply ...
A 3-year-old cat with more than 33,000 Instagram followers died after a brawl at a park in the Greenpoint neighborhood of ... Tyson Foods to require COVID-19 vaccinations for U.S. workforce Coronavirus / 3 hours ago. ... Hawaii coronavirus survivor encourages others to get vaccinated: Do it for the people around you Coronavirus / 2 days ago. . ... Tyson Foods to require COVID-19 vaccinations for U.S. workforce Coronavirus / 3 hours ago. ...
A drug used to treat a deadly disease caused by a coronavirus in cats may be effective in treating humans infected with COVID- ... What COVID-19 vaccinations are recognized abroad? A guide for Canadian travellers ... Drug used to treat coronavirus in cats may be effective for humans too: study. Jackie Dunham CTVNews.ca Writer ... TORONTO -- A drug used to treat a deadly disease caused by a coronavirus in cats may be effective in treating humans diagnosed ...
There are some vaccines for cats that can be classified as situational, when the only time they are useful is in the face of a ... It is caused by a coronavirus. This particular virus infects many kittens, usually causing some mild diarrhea, and then most ... FEATUREDCBD Oil for Cats: What You Need to Know. Is cannabis safe for cats? And what sorts of ailments might it treat?. READ ... In some cats, however, the virus mutates into a form that causes the disease FIP unless the cats immune system is capable of ...
coronavirus pandemic. Substantial number of people give Covid-19 to their companion animals. There have been a few studies on ... Vaccinations can damage your cats immune system.. *Cats who are exposed more (e.g. cats who stay out a lot or meet other cats ... Vaccinations are one part of the many elements needed to create a healthy environment and life for cats. Cat Vaccination ... The Vaccinations. The first of the vaccinations mentioned above is a multi-vaccination against (a) Feline Panleucopenia, (b) ...
... data reviewed by WGN News clearly shows the ongoing race between cases and vaccinations. Covid hospitalizations and cases ... Coronavirus / 1 hour ago. What a great man he was: Bears Tarik Cohen reacts to twin brothers death on Twitter Chicago News ... Meet the cats fighting Chicagos rat problem .cls-1{fill:#fff;fill-rule:evenodd}. Video ... "Coronavirus State and Local Fiscal Recovery Funds provide eligible state, local, territorial, and Tribalgovernments with a ...
FIP vaccination is not helpful at all in cats that already have feline enteric coronavirus. It can protect cats that have never ... So feline corona virus is very common.. Cats who develop feline infectious peritonitis have a mutant form of the feline corona ... Most cats have feline corona virus and then make their own mutations. So the fact that your cats have been exposed to feline ... A cat who has never been exposed to feline coronavirus wont get FIP. Probably around 50 to 60% of cats in single cat ...
Cats are prone to viral infections. Coronavirus is common in environments such as animal shelters, where numbers of cats live ... Finally the feline leukemia virus causes cancer of the blood. The highly contagious nature of this virus makes vaccination ... As with humans, vaccination of young dogs and cats is a wise precaution to avoid microbiological diseases later in life. ... Like humans, cats are also prone to herpes virus infections. In cats the infection is in the respiratory tract and eyes. Severe ...
A new federal mass vaccination site opens Tuesday in Gary. The new site will open at the old Roosevelt High School, located at ... Coronavirus / 2 hours ago. What a great man he was: Bears Tarik Cohen reacts to twin brothers death on Twitter Chicago News ... Meet the cats fighting Chicagos rat problem .cls-1{fill:#fff;fill-rule:evenodd}. Video ... A new federal mass vaccination site opens Tuesday in Gary.. The new site will open at the old Roosevelt High School, located at ...
Learn the transmission, symptoms and treatment of feline coronavirus and FIP in cats. ... is a big cause of infectious death in young cats. ... until vaccination immunity is completed. That will take chronic ... Most cats in catteries and rescues are infected with feline Coronavirus.. *Separate new litters of kittens and any cats that ... Feline Coronavirus and FIP in Cats. Note: If you are looking for information regarding COVID-19 in pets, please check out our ...
7. Vaccination Guidelines. 8. Feline Leukemia Virus. 9. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. 10. Feline Coronavirus and FIP. 11. ... Novel Coronavirus Information Center. Please visit Elseviers Novel Coronavirus Information Center for free health and medical ... Feline Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex. 12. Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough). 13. Canine Distemper. 14 ... Feline Symmetric Alopecia. 53. Miliary Dermatitis and Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex. 54. Surgery of Intertriginous Dermatoses ...
Cock van Oosterhout, professor of evolutionary genetics at UEA, said dogs and cats can contract coronavirus - but that there ... Whilst the vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2/ Covid-19 are being rolled out worldwide, new virus variants are likely to ... CATS and dogs may need to get the Covid vaccine to curb the spread of the virus, a group of scientists has said. ... Coronavirus can infect a wide range of domesticated animals - and experts have said that giving pets the jab is a precaution ...
So what are the side-effects and treatments for dogs and for cats? ... Coronavirus is not new! We are told the virus is different in humans and between animal species. ... for adult dogs and cats. Studies have shown over-vaccination can cause serious diseases. ... NOTE: Feline enteric coronavirus is not the same as Canine enteric coronavirus and NONE of the dog/cat coronaviruses are ...
Hed been in the shelter for about 7-8 weeks going by his vaccination record. His companion was brought in later so shed only ... Cat Chat Feline Forum. Cat Chat, the Cat Rescue Resource. Charity no. 1100649 ... Im really sorry to hear you lost a cat to FIP.. I will be keeping my boy as an only cat - I wouldnt want to risk another cat ... VIP Cat Chatter!. Posts: 2256. Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:36 pm. Re: FIV+ and coronavirus. * Quote ...
Nuremburg and the Coronavirus Trials. Diseases and Pandemics: 5 hours ago * Bidens "other" grandchild..... Political Mud-Pit: 6 ... President Joe Biden Just Threatened U.S. Citizens who Refuse the Covid-19 Vaccination.. Political Mud-Pit: 2 hours ago ... Loved the part about the movement under the blanked , my cat used scratch the bottom of my feet to wake me up so she could get ... Whats wrong? Im a cat. Youre a therapist ... Sure, Id start with the eyeballs and go to the toes ... but I probably ...
Levels Determine Benefit of Oral Vitamin A&D Supplements to Humoral Immune Responses Following Pediatric Influenza Vaccination ... Mucosal Immune Response to Feline Enteric Coronavirus Infection. 25th Anniversary. Journals. Information. ... Interferon γ and α Have Differential Effects on SAMHD1, a Potent Antiviral Protein, in Feline Lymphocytes ...
Pet Doctor-Rockwall Veterinary Clinic Provides FREE Vaccinations With Exam For First Time Clients. Call Now 972-772-7777 or ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). FIP, although uncommon, is an immune response to Feline Coronavirus. It is contagious and ... Feline Distemper (FVRCP). Feline Distemper is one of the core vaccinations that you need to give your kittens. Without it, your ... Subsequent vaccinations are administered yearly. Feline Leukemia. This is a fatal disease that attacks a cats immune system. ...
What are the most common types of fungal rhinitis in cats and dogs? ... Vaccination- parental or intra-nasal. *ulcerative keratisis, punctate, or dendritic ulcers. 4 ...
... a Domestic Long Hair Cat for adoption, at Solano County Friends of Animals in Benicia, CA on Petfinder. Learn more about Suzy ... She is current with vaccinations. We are current not holding adoption events (because of the coronavirus) but we can make an ... Susy is a sweet 5-6 year old cat with long soft black fur. What she would love to do most is sit in your lap. Cuddling, petting ... Suzy is spayed, micro-chipped, tested negative for Feline Leukemia and FIV. ...
Cat vaccination. As with dogs, there is no law requiring cats to be vaccinated in Singapore unless they are imported, in which ... Find out how to access vaccinations and veterinary care for dogs, cats and other pets in Singapore.... There are many vets ... Dog vaccination. Only dogs that have been imported are legally required to be vaccinated. Imported dogs need to have all ... vaccinations up to date, including rabies shots, no more than six months prior to arrival in Singapore. ...
A female cat can give birth to up to eight kittens, three times a year, and with spaying programmes… ... By Maria Gregoriou The stray cat population is rapidly spiralling out control as a result of swingeing cuts to government and ... Coronavirus: At the vaccination centre (video). July 11, 2021. CM Videos. Public opinion: The two-state solution (Video). June ... "For five cats we will pay for 30 per cent of the charge. If six to ten cats are brought in, the percentage goes up to 50 per ...
Or Feline Leukemia in your cat? Vaccines are cheap and effective insurance for these deadly and debilitating diseases. Now let ... some crossover benefits to this human corona thing as it has both vaccines that immunize the dog and the cat against corona ... Center for Disease Control Recommended Childhood Vaccination Schedule *This is how I handle vaccines and vaccinations in my ... Or Feline Leukemia in your cat? Vaccines are cheap and effective insurance for these deadly and debilitating diseases. ...
A schedule for vaccination of cats. A schedule for vaccination of cats By Pr. Oswald Jarrett, University of Glasgow, 2007.( ... Introduction The purposes of this discussion were to review past knowledge about feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline ... Indications for vaccination against feline leukaemia virus. Indications for vaccination against feline leukaemia virus By Pr. ... Feline vaccination. Feline Vaccination By Marie-Bernadette Pautet, Chacolateries Somalis, 2006.Report on 2006/03 SFF seminar ...
NEW! 2020 AAHA/AAFP Feline Vaccination Guidelines Education arrow_drop_down Education overview ... there is no evidence that companion animals/pets such as dogs or cats can be infected with the new coronavirus." ... AAHA Home AAHA publications NEWStat 2020-03 Coronavirus update: Pets are safe . . . but wash your hands ... Canine influenza virus Feline hypertension and CKD Heartworm resources Infection prevention and biosecurity Lifetime care ...
Capital reaches vaccination milestone * 2. Problems with Bratislava bypass opening continue * 3. Donkey, dog, cat and a rooster ... 4. Coronavirus in Slovakia: 1,039 new cases confirmed (graphs) * 5. No one has come to me and spat on my face: Briton on ... 3. Coronavirus in Slovakia: 1,039 new cases confirmed (graphs) * 4. No one has come to me and spat on my face: Briton on ... Donkey, dog, cat and a rooster. Four friends find a new home in Bratislava A Town Musicians of Bremen statue has been ...
A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus: molecular biology, immunopathogenesis, clinical aspects, and vaccination. Vet ... Session I: Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses. Virion characteristics and coronavirus life cycle. Holmes, K. V. Coronaviruses. ... "the SARS-associated coronavirus is neither a mutant of any known coronavirus nor a recombinant of known coronaviruses. It is a ... The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. In S. G. Siddell, Ed. The Coronaviridae. Plenum, New York.. Coronavirus reverse genetics ...
Winn has been providing synopses on current cat health research since 2007. ... Find the latest information in cat health news from around the world. ... Therapeutic vaccination in healthy FeLV positive cats Full story * Jun 09, 2015 ... Looking to avoid resistance to treatment of feline coronavirus Full story * Jun 05, 2015 ...
The vaccination includes Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Coronavirus-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus Vaccine. ... So, please take a moment to fill out one of the following Wish list: Wish List (Dogs) or Wish List (Cats) ... Animal Care and Control will hold the dog or cat until the pet is transported to the vet on the date of sterilization. A vet ... Find Adoptable Dogs Find Adoptable Cats. The primary responsibility of Animal Control is animal welfare, making sure that ...
Indonesia has sought emergency authorisation to start a mass vaccination campaign by the end of the year to combat the ... coronavirus in the archipelago, the Southeast Asian nations president said on Friday. ... REUTERS/Feline Lim/File Photo. At a ministerial roundtable after the Jokowi interview, Coordinating Minister for Maritime ... has sought emergency authorisation to start a mass vaccination campaign by the end of the year to combat the coronavirus in the ...
  • Chlamydophila is included in with some combo herpes, calici, panleukopenia vaccines for cats. (petmd.com)
  • Within the first 6 to 7 weeks, bring your kitten to our vet to get its initial core vaccinations, Panleukopenia, Rhinotracheitis and Calicivirus. (dogandcat.com)
  • The cat combination is feline rhinotracheitis-calici-panleukopenia and the rabies vaccine. (craigdailypress.com)
  • For cats, the feline panleukopenia virus is the main vaccination that is needed. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Injectable feline rhinotracheitis and feline calici virus are not nearly as effective as the feline panleukopenia vaccination. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Nosodes are available for canine distemper, parvovirus, and bordatella, as well as feline panleukopenia and feline leukemia virus. (1800petmeds.com)
  • For the vaccination of healthy cats, 8 weeks of age or older, as an aid in the prevention of disease caused by feline rhinotracheitis, calici and panleukopenia viruses. (dog.com)
  • Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus and Panleukopenia (FVRCP). (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • Vaccinate for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, panleukopenia (feline distemper) and a variety of other conditions using these trusted products. (entirelypets.com)
  • This is also a composite, containing mostly upper respiratory diseases including Panleukopenia, Feline Viral Rhinotrachetis, Calici Pneumonitis. (sagemoor.com)
  • Vaccination for other conditions (feline panleukopenia, cat flu, etc) should be continued as normal in the healthy FIV-positive cat. (vetstream.com)
  • Feline panleukopenia (FP) vaccine can be given intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (SQ) with equal effect. (maxshouse.com)
  • Core vaccines required by a dog or cat under one year of age are considered essential to ensure immunity against diseases such as Parvo, Panleukopenia, Distemper, Rabies, etc. and can be administered. (pa.gov)
  • The minimum recommended vaccination protocol includes vaccination against feline panleukopenia (feline distemper), feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus (a "3-way vaccine") at 9 and 12 weeks of age. (mcbfa.org)
  • The core vaccines are defined as those vaccines against panleukopenia (feline distemper), calici virus, and herpes virus. (mcbfa.org)
  • FVRCPC-FLK-R stands for feline Rhinotracheitis-Calicivirus-panleukopenia-coronavirus, feline leukemia and Rabies. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • He says the same about the feline distemper (panleukopenia) vaccine. (littlebigcat.com)
  • Feline Panleukopenia: also known as 'feline distemper,' this type of parvovirus can prove to be fatal for infected cats. (hartz.com)
  • What causes Feline Enteric Corona, a common intestinal bug, to mutate to FIP, a deadly killer? (revivalanimal.com)
  • There are two forms of Canine Coronavirus: Enteric Canine Coronavirus (CCoV) and Respiratory Canine Coronavirus (CRCoV). (thedogplace.org)
  • 5%-10% of cats with the virus can have a mutation of the otherwise non-fatal feline enteric coronavirus turning into Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). (thedogplace.org)
  • Studies show a common intestinal virus, feline enteric coronavirus, can mutate and cause FIP. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • The FIP virus (FIPV) is very similar to the coronavirus that causes a transient, usually mild, self-limiting diarrhea (Feline Enteric Corona Virus, FECV). (newmanveterinary.com)
  • The virus that causes FIP is the product of mutations in a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) which, according to a review paper by Pedersen, is ubiquitous in cats throughout the world and not itself an important pathogen. (vin.com)
  • Most coronaviruses of animals infect epithelial cells in the respiratory and/or enteric tracts, causing epizootics of respiratory diseases and/or gastroenteritis with short incubation periods (2-7 days), such as those found in SARS. (jci.org)
  • The virus is a mutation of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cats, the infection begins a cascade of genetic mutations within the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV), and the cat's immune system response climaxes in FIP. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Galaxy Cv (feline enteric coronavirus) is a killed virus vaccine. (pupspetsupply.com)
  • A positive result on a blood antibody test may indicate exposure to a related but not life-threatening virus, feline enteric coronavirus, (FECV) or may indicate that the cat could have feline infectious peritonitis. (mcbfa.org)
  • The two known coronaviruses, from which cats can suffer, are feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the rare mutant form of feline infections peritonitis virus (FIPV). (hemopet.org)
  • 1) Annual vaccination for canine distemper, parvovirus, and feline distemper, rhinotracheitis, calcivirus (Scientific studies indicate that repeat administration of these vaccines provides no beneficial effect. (thedogplace.org)
  • Feline Calicivirus and Feline Rhinotracheitis: the two viruses most commonly responsible for upper respiratory infections in cats and kittens. (hartz.com)
  • This is reflected in a wide array of activities, including research and control of infectious agents in meat and milk, rabies vaccination campaigns (both of wildlife and domestic animals), monitoring arboviruses and Lyme borreliosis in populations in wildlife, and hydatid disease control programs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Your kitten should have its first rabies vaccination when it is only 12 weeks old for its own protection. (dogandcat.com)
  • Your kitten should be given Rabies vaccination on this round and the third boosters of their core vaccination. (dogandcat.com)
  • Pets with chronic diseases and cancer may sometimes be eligible for medical exemptions from rabies vaccination, because in those cases the risk of vaccination may outweigh the benefits. (1800petmeds.com)
  • All animals will be spayed or neutered prior to leaving shelter and receive 1 year rabies vaccination and city license. (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • Most states just require the rabies vaccination. (hubpages.com)
  • The AAFP also recommends rabies vaccination every 3 years (using a product licensed specifically for every three year use, not an annual rabies vaccine) where required by law. (mcbfa.org)
  • The rabies vaccination but also others are for example prerequisites for entry into other countries or necessary for taking part in certain events (breeding exhibitions, sporting events). (bioresonance.com)
  • The vaccination includes Canine Distemper-Adenovirus Type 2-Coronavirus-Parainfluenza-Parvovirus Vaccine. (pinalcountyaz.gov)
  • If canine distemper, feline distemper and parvovirus vaccines are given after 6 months, a pet has immunity for the rest of its life. (presspublications.com)
  • Galaxy DA2PPvL is for the vaccination of healthy dogs against diseases caused by canine distemper virus, adenovirus type 1 (hepatitis) adenovirus type 2 (respiratory disease), canine parainfluenza virus, canine parvovirus and leptospirosis. (pupspetsupply.com)
  • Some of the most common dog diseases, such as Canine Distemper Virus, Canine Parvovirus, Canine Coronavirus, Infectious Canine Hepatitis, Rabies Virus, Bordetella, and Canine Parainfluenza Virus, are potentially airborne or known to be transmitted by air. (hartz.com)
  • If a cattery has had an outbreak of either calicivirus or herpesvirus, then the use of an intranasal vaccine against these two viruses is strongly recommended at 3 weeks of age, with 3- or 4-way vaccination begining at 6 weeks. (mcbfa.org)
  • other cats are able to naturally eliminate FECV from their systems. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Researchers will study cats with a protective immune response to FECV, and use this new data to assess the feasibility of developing an FECV vaccine as a way to prevent FIP. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Vaccination would be especially useful in situations where cats have a higher incidence of FECV and risk of developing FIP, such as shelters, catteries and animal sanctuaries. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • In fact, there is considerable evidence that FECV actually mutates to FIPV in individual cats. (newmanveterinary.com)
  • c) Antibody levels fluctuate up and down, seemingly in random fashion, in either FIPV or FECV infected cats. (newmanveterinary.com)
  • The Pedersen paper explains: "FECV is shed in the feces of most apparently healthy cats in large multi-cat environments, and transmission results from direct ingestion of feces or contaminated litter and other fomites. (vin.com)
  • About 95 percent of cats with FECV remain healthy. (healthcommunities.com)
  • This strongly suggests that most cats do not "catch" FIP, but develop it from their own mutant FECV. (healthcommunities.com)
  • There are two FCoV strains seen in cats, one being FECV, which generally causes diarrhea or no symptoms, and the other, FIPV which causes FIP. (petfinder.com)
  • Both FECV and FIPV are alpha-coronaviruses. (hemopet.org)
  • Many of the serious diseases of cats can be prevented by vaccination. (dogandcat.com)
  • Without regular vaccinations, your kitten may develop life-threatening diseases. (dogandcat.com)
  • The following will help guide you through the various diseases that your kittens may get without vaccination and how we can help get your kitten started on the path to success with our "Start Right" programs. (dogandcat.com)
  • Without it, your kitten is extremely susceptible to respiratory diseases and problems, especially since it is very common among the feline population. (dogandcat.com)
  • 6 months of age) may have the same heart diseases as adult cats (in particular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • Vaccination for certain core infectious diseases is important, but too many vaccinations given too frequently may lead to the development of cancer or other chronic diseases. (1800petmeds.com)
  • If your pet is suffering from acute or chronic illness after vaccination, it is best to consult with a veterinarian skilled in recognizing and treating these diseases. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Although vaccinations are available for canine diseases such as leptospirosis, Lyme Disease , Bordatella, and influenza, the long-term safety and efficacy of these vaccinations is questionable, so their use in clinical practice is not routinely recommended. (1800petmeds.com)
  • I understand that some factors significantly increase surgical risk, including but not limited to: pregnancy, heat, and diseases such as Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline Leukemia, and heartworms. (emailmeform.com)
  • Dogs, cats, and ferrets are vaccinated against the diseases most likely to affect them. (holistic-pet-care.com)
  • If you have adopted a cat, it has been given a vaccination for distemper and certain upper respiratory diseases. (mvhspets.org)
  • To protect your pet from contagious diseases, keep his essential vaccinations up-to-date. (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • Some animals are immune-suppressed from concurrent diseases (e.g. feline AIDS). (newmanveterinary.com)
  • When you get a new puppy or kitten, veterinarians give them standard vaccinations to guard against infectious diseases. (presspublications.com)
  • Some studies have shown routine vaccinations can even cause cancer and other serious diseases in pets. (presspublications.com)
  • The change was implemented after experts agreed with the overwhelming evidence showing annual vaccinations for canine diseases were unnecessary and harmful. (articlebiz.com)
  • Have a clear idea whether you want or need your pet to receive any vaccinations for which diseases and ask your veterinarian if any particular vaccines are necessary due to conditions in the area you live in. (articlebiz.com)
  • EntirelyPets provides a wide range of vaccines for dogs and cats designed to arm your furry friends with the antigens they need to combat the infiltration of debilitating and life-threatening viruses and diseases. (entirelypets.com)
  • he incidence of many infectious diseases in cats has been reduced greatly through the use of vaccines. (maxshouse.com)
  • In the future, we will probably see a number of unique recombinant vaccines for various infectious diseases of the cat. (maxshouse.com)
  • widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from much of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some diseases, such as measles outbreaks in America, have seen rising cases due to relatively low vaccination rates in the 2010s - attributed, in part, to vaccine hesitancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early success brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For equine practitioners, vaccination against West Nile Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis/Western Equine Encephalitis/Tetanus, or other diseases that in the veterinarian's medical opinion may be deadly or have long-term negative health effects, can be administered in addition to rabies vaccine. (pa.gov)
  • Depending on the environment, it will benefit the puppy to receive vaccinations against upper respiratory diseases (parainfluenza and Bordatella bronchiseptica) , leptospirosis, and/or Lyme disease. (hubpages.com)
  • 3) Leptospirosis or Lyme disease vaccination (Research indicates these diseases are rare to non-existent in Texas and many other parts of the country. (thedogplace.org)
  • Kittens, older cats, or cats that have other diseases or are suffering from stress develop FIP because their immune systems are unable to fight the virus. (petfinder.com)
  • It is important to vaccinate your cat, as there are many contractible diseases which can cause serious illness or fatality. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • Apart from the subject of vaccinations I also wish to report new findings on borreliosis and CEE, both of which are diseases transferred by ticks. (bioresonance.com)
  • Diseases associated with vaccination like fibrosarcoma in cats belong to this category. (bioresonance.com)
  • In cats, infectious diseases are often passed through saliva (biting and licking), and feces. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • For these zoonotic diseases, parasite control is important to human health as well as that of the cats involved. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Vaccinations are essential to protecting your furry family member by creating a defensive level of antibodies to build up immunity from communicable diseases. (hartz.com)
  • In the simplest sense, when a cat or dog is vaccinated, he receives a disease-enabling organism to stimulate his immune system and 'communicate' to the body how to fight those diseases in the future. (hartz.com)
  • If you board your pet, plan to travel or stay in pet-friendly hotels, frequent dog parks and grooming salons, enroll him in doggie day care or a similar pet-sitting service, vaccinations may not only be required by an establishment, but also protect your companion from contracting contagious diseases from other animals as well as unintentionally spreading infection. (hartz.com)
  • In adult and senior pets, it may be better to measure vaccination antibody titers as a more healthy option instead of vaccinating needlessly. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Vaccination antibody titers are blood tests that may be performed by veterinarians instead of routinely vaccinating pets. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Vaccination titers measure blood antibody levels and can document whether further vaccinations are needed for core viruses. (1800petmeds.com)
  • In most cases, pets vaccinated adequately as puppies or kittens typically have high antibody level protection against core viruses, and no further vaccinations are needed. (1800petmeds.com)
  • I've had several questions about antibody-dependent enhancement, which has always been a worry as the coronavirus vaccines have been developed. (sciencemag.org)
  • For the coronavirus, a straightforward example of a neutralizing antibody would be on that binds to the tip of the Spike protein, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that is the part that recognizes and binds to the human ACE2 protein on a cell surface. (sciencemag.org)
  • Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. (uzh.ch)
  • The antibody tests for FIPV may be negative in FIP-positive cats, because a) The immune system components may actually be involved in the progression of the disease and be 'consumed' in the disease process. (newmanveterinary.com)
  • If you are seeing a veterinarian for the first time, it is a good idea to make an appointment to see him without your pet to discuss his philosophy toward vaccinations and other tests such as the antibody titer test. (articlebiz.com)
  • Serology: the cat has a high antibody titre to FCoV: this parameter should be used with caution, because of the high prevalence of FCoV in breeding and rescue catteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-effusive FIP can be ruled out as a diagnosis if the cat is seronegative, provided the antibody test has excellent sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research suggests that some cats have a preexisting antibody to FIPV, which sensitizes the animal to the mutant virus. (healthcommunities.com)
  • This phenomenon is called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), in which the sensitized cat experiences a more serious disease than a cat that lacks the preexisting antibody. (healthcommunities.com)
  • He continued his experiment by measuring antibody levels in the dogs' blood nine and 15 years after vaccination. (freerepublic.com)
  • In an ironic twist, it is believed that in some cats the immune system may actually contribute to the development of FIP by forming virus and antibody complexes that are harmful to the body rather than destructive to the virus. (petfinder.com)
  • however, if an antibody test is performed in a cat which appears healthy, then a negative result is probably meaningful (i.e., the cat has not been exposed to feline coronaviruses). (mcbfa.org)
  • According to the limited studies available, only cats known to be feline coronavirus antibody negative at the time of vaccination are likely to develop some level of protection. (hemopet.org)
  • Vaccination of cats living within households in which FIP is known to exist ,or cats that are known to be feline coronavirus antibody positive, is not recommended. (hemopet.org)
  • It is rare that a cat will be coronavirus antibody negative at 16 weeks of age or older. (hemopet.org)
  • Vaccines are available for the two feline pathogens Bordetella (yes, the same Bordetella that can infect dogs) and Chlamydophila (previously called Chlamydia ), but I've never used them. (petmd.com)
  • Bordetella is fairly ubiquitous in the cat world, but it rarely causes a problem in healthy individuals. (petmd.com)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia, bordetella, and chlamydophila felis vaccines are non-core vaccines that may be recommended for some cats. (holistic-pet-care.com)
  • Bordetella - this vaccination protects against upper respiratory viruses. (serenityanimalhospital.net)
  • They are not only pathogens of veterinary importance but also pose a threat to humans, as demonstrated by the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. (asm.org)
  • There is an unprecedented need to manufacture and distribute enough safe and effective vaccine to immunize an extraordinarily large number of individuals in order to protect the entire global community from the continued threat of morbidity and mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (sciencemag.org)
  • An equivalent booster vaccination is the (1) Nobivac Tricat and (2) Nobivac FELV. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Feline Leukemia (Felv). (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • Felv is a viral infection that is only transmitted through close contact, and this vaccine is generally only recommended for cats that go outdoors. (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • The presence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) may predispose a cat to developing FIP. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Both of these viruses are contagious (FeLV more so than FIV), incurable and ultimately fatal, although cats can live with FIV for quite a long period of time with good veterinary care (up to several years). (mcbfa.org)
  • Ideally, both studs and queens should be tested for FeLV and FIV before each breeding when the cats have different owners or reside in different households. (mcbfa.org)
  • When all the FeLV negative cats are vaccinated in a group, in which one cat is FeLV positive, success is dubious. (bioresonance.com)
  • Feline Leukemia (Felv): a viral infection that is transmitted through close contact. (hartz.com)
  • Without widespread disease (epidemics), it is sensible to ask whether it is wise to vaccinate regularly, particularly as vaccination carries its own potential health risk? (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • As of Monday, April 12, here's where individual Illinois counties stand in the race to vaccinate against coronavirus. (wgntv.com)
  • McCandless Animal Hospital and High County Veterinary Clinic are joining forces to vaccinate pets in Craig by sponsoring the annual pet vaccination and licensing clinic. (craigdailypress.com)
  • Back in 2003, the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) revised vaccination guidelines, recommending veterinarians to vaccinate adult dogs every three years instead of annually and many veterinarians have changed their protocols in respect to the new guidelines. (articlebiz.com)
  • FIP Introduction FIP is a fatal disease caused by infection with feline coronavirus (FCoV). (pawpeds.com)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the name given to a common and aberrant immune response to infection with feline coronavirus (FCoV). (wikipedia.org)
  • seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. (uzh.ch)
  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): a viral infection that is transmitted through close contact. (hartz.com)
  • The public, people who keep cats, are in the hands of their veterinarian and their views vary widely, it seems to me. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Polyps - Frequently asked questions By Cat Moody, Stormwatch Maine Coons(Reprinted with permission) Disclaimer: I am not a veterinarian, just a breeder who experienced the problem of polyps many, many times. (pawpeds.com)
  • For example, your veterinarian may suggest the feline leukemia vaccine if your pet spends times outdoors where he or she may be exposed to cats with the virus. (holistic-pet-care.com)
  • If you have a Feline Leukemia test done by your veterinarian and your cat/kitten tests positive, we will issue a replacement certificate and a free Feline Leukemia test when you choose another cat/kitten to replace the one you are returning). (mvhspets.org)
  • Your veterinarian may recommend this vaccine before your cat goes to a boarding kennel or groomer. (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • Your veterinarian can Tell you if your cat requires these additional vaccinations. (sagemoor.com)
  • Because some problems can be life threatening, vaccination of cats should be done only by a veterinarian or under the supervision of a veterinarian. (maxshouse.com)
  • In this situation, your veterinarian needs to be notified for an evaluation and then will determine if vaccines need to be separated in future or if the risk is too high and your cat should not be vaccinated again. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • As always, if you suspect your cat may be ill, contact your veterinarian. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • The American Animal Hospital Association recommends that healthy dogs and cats visit the veterinarian once a year for a complete exam and laboratory testing. (gulfshoreanimalhospital.com)
  • Probably around 50 to 60% of cats in single cat households are never exposed to this virus because they miss being exposed when kittens and then have no contact with other cats. (vetinfo.com)
  • A female cat can give birth to up to eight kittens, three times a year, and with spaying programmes no longer keeping numbers down, whole neighbourhoods are in danger of being overrun with felines. (cyprus-mail.com)
  • If cats continue to reproduce at this rate, then more citizens will have to deal with kittens in whatever way they may feel necessary. (cyprus-mail.com)
  • Feline Distemper is one of the core vaccinations that you need to give your kittens. (dogandcat.com)
  • Feline Leukemia can be spread easily from different cats and kittens. (dogandcat.com)
  • In this reference article, management of incidentally detected cardiac murmurs in puppies, adult small and large breed dogs, geriatric dogs, kittens, and adult and geriatric cats is reviewed. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • Systemic disturbances such as anemia or excitement can cause nonpathologic murmurs in pediatric cats, and nonpathologic murmurs also can be ausculted in kittens with no identifiable systemic disturbances or structural cardiovascular disease. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • The authors recommend the use of a pediatric stethoscope for the most accurate auscultation of kittens and small cats. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • All kittens and all adult cats with unknown vaccination history should be optimally immunized with core vaccine antigens. (vin.com)
  • Animal shelters started prepping for the arrival of new litters of puppies and kittens as well as abandoned animals during the coronavirus outbreak back in February, racing to empty kennels filled with healthy and adoptable dogs and cats before they are forced to resort to euthanasia. (nbcsandiego.com)
  • Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets FortiFlora Feline Probiotic Complement is a complementary pet food for cats and kittens to help support intestinal health and balance. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • The virus is shed in feces and cats become infected by ingesting or inhaling the virus, usually by sharing cat litter trays, or by the use of contaminated litter scoops or brushes transmitting infected microscopic cat litter particles to uninfected kittens and cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-effusive FIP diagnosis should be considered when the following criteria are met: History: the cat is young (under 2 years old) and purebred: over 70% of cases of FIP are in pedigree kittens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no vaccine is 100 percent effective, the proper use of vaccines allows kittens the best opportunity to grow up as healthy, robust cats. (maxshouse.com)
  • Experts agree that feline infectious peritonitis occurs more often in young kittens (3 months to 5 years) and older cats (10 to 14 years). (healthcommunities.com)
  • Exchanging animals, especially kittens and young cats, increases the risk. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Feline Leukemia: Testing is required prior to administering the vaccine as kittens. (serenityanimalhospital.net)
  • Pedigree kittens and certain large cats like cheetahs may be genetically predisposed to developing the disease. (petfinder.com)
  • All newly acquired kittens and cats should be isolated from other kittens and cats for a period of four weeks to be observed for signs of illness. (mcbfa.org)
  • Kittens/cats which test positive for either or these viruses should have follow-up testing and must be kept in strict isolation pending the outcome of confirmatory or follow-up tests. (mcbfa.org)
  • Council officers will not collect any cats or kittens unless they are contained securely and do not pose a risk to the safety of the officer. (vic.gov.au)
  • My cats , for example, have never been on any deworming medication, with the exception of when they were treated as kittens. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Please visit Elsevier's Novel Coronavirus Information Center for free health and medical research on novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). (elsevier.com)
  • The race between the novel coronavirus, which is still raging in some countries, and the global vaccination drive to effectively contain the virus is tough. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Manama, Mar.23 (BNA): the vaccines being administered in Bahrain against the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) have all shown their efficiency, said Dr. Basma Al Saffar, Public Health Consultant and Head of Immunization Group.Cat the Ministry of Health. (bna.bh)
  • Find out how to access vaccinations and veterinary care for dogs, cats and other pets in Singapore. (angloinfo.com)
  • he said ' I don't think coronavirus is a real issue in cats, I think cats have always had coronavirus but the veterinary industry comes up with their ever-expanding, ever-more-expensive blood test to tell you that your cat has it. (thedogplace.org)
  • Niels C. Pedersen (Professor Emeritus) at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, tested the antiviral drug GS-441524 and cured naturally occurring FIP in 25 out of 31 cats safely and effectively. (thedogplace.org)
  • Veterinarians from McCandless Animal Hospital and High County Veterinary Clinic will be on hand to administer the vaccinations. (craigdailypress.com)
  • After the kitten vaccine series, each cat should be presented to the veterinary clinic for a general health examination and a vaccine needs risk assessment yearly. (vin.com)
  • Though many veterinary colleges support newer vaccination guidelines, which reduce the need for some shots, the debate over whether we may be over-vaccinating our pets continues. (presspublications.com)
  • Experts at the University of Tennessee's veterinary college estimate that FIP affects as many as 5 percent of cats in shelters and catteries, as well as some smaller proportion of household felines. (vin.com)
  • New vaccination protocols have been established by a variety of medical organizations (American Veterinary Medical Association, American Animal Hospital Association, Association of Feline Practitioners) as well as the veterinary schools. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • As a result, the veterinary community has been slowly adopting a three-year vaccination protocol. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Kaogel VP Veterinary Kaolin Suspension Bottle is for the treatment of diarrhoea of non-specific origins in cats and dogs. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • Since indirect transmission does not occur, FIV-infected cats can be safely boarded in the veterinary surgery or boarding cattery with no fear of transmission to other cats. (vetstream.com)
  • Please note that the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association has not adopted any changes in its vaccine protocol recommendations, since the risk of vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma is low, the risk of infectious disease is unknown, and the fact that feline immunity duration statistics come from titers, not from disease challenge studies. (mcbfa.org)
  • Vaccination is an ongoing controversy in veterinary medicine today. (littlebigcat.com)
  • On March 18, 2020, the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) in Belgium was informed by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Liege that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in the feces and vomit of a cat. (hemopet.org)
  • The vaccine against FIP is not recommended by either the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) or the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA). (hemopet.org)
  • Vaccination burdens in veterinary medicine. (bioresonance.com)
  • Excessive thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) are the classic signs of diabetes in cats, so be alert to these symptoms and seek veterinary advice (more on feline diabetes symptoms ). (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Note: If you are looking for information regarding COVID-19 in pets, please check out our blog post Coronavirus in Humans vs. Dogs and Cats written by Dr. Greer, DVM. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Imported dogs need to have all vaccinations up to date, including rabies shots, no more than six months prior to arrival in Singapore. (angloinfo.com)
  • As with dogs, there is no law requiring cats to be vaccinated in Singapore unless they are imported, in which case they need to have all vaccinations up to date, including rabies shots. (angloinfo.com)
  • CATS and dogs may need to get the Covid vaccine to curb the spread of the virus, a group of scientists has said. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Cock van Oosterhout, professor of evolutionary genetics at UEA, said dogs and cats can contract coronavirus - but that there are no known cases of them carrying it on to humans. (thesun.co.uk)
  • SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide range of host species, including cats, dogs, mink and other wild and domesticated species and, hence, the vaccination of domesticated animals might be required to halt further virus evolution and spillback events. (thesun.co.uk)
  • So what are the side-effects and treatments for dogs and for cats? (thedogplace.org)
  • The society helps neuter 300 to 400 cats and dogs per year. (cyprus-mail.com)
  • What are the most common types of fungal rhinitis in cats and dogs? (brainscape.com)
  • That advice comes courtesy of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is doing its best to allay the fears of pet owners by stating on its website that, "At present, there is no evidence that companion animals/pets such as dogs or cats can be infected with the new coronavirus. (aaha.org)
  • All dogs receive one 4-in-1 vaccination before adoption. (pinalcountyaz.gov)
  • All dogs are microchipped and cats can be chipped upon request. (pinalcountyaz.gov)
  • Management of incidentally detected heart murmurs in dogs and cats. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • Careful auscultation will often allow the clinician to decide whether a heart murmur is pathological or nonpathological in dogs, but in cats, making this distinction with systolic murmurs of intensity grades 1/6 through 3/6 may be difficult to impossible. (winnfelinefoundation.org)
  • Increasing numbers of vaccinations for dogs and cats have become available over the past few decades. (1800petmeds.com)
  • A "less is more" individualized approach for each pet is preferred when developing vaccination programs for dogs and cats. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Which caccinations do dogs and cats need? (1800petmeds.com)
  • Distemper and parvo virus are the two chief core viruses most dogs need a vaccination for. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Vaccinating domestic animals, including pet dogs and cats, against Covid-19 may be necessary in the future, scientists have warned. (berwick-advertiser.co.uk)
  • Cock van Oosterhout, professor of evolutionary genetics at UEA and one of the editorial's authors, said that dogs and cats are capable of contracting Covid-19, but as yet there are no known cases in which there has been transmission back to humans. (berwick-advertiser.co.uk)
  • I'm under the impression that adult dogs do not need yearly vaccinations and that rabies vaccines need be given only every three years. (vetinfo.com)
  • Answer: Jan- At the present time there is no universally accepted vaccination protocol for dogs or cats. (vetinfo.com)
  • Their logic: a) It is obvious that some dogs react badly to vaccinations, either at the time they are given or several weeks later by experiencing immune mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). (vetinfo.com)
  • There is a documented rise in the cases of IMHA for the month following vaccination in dogs but it is a slight rise -- just barely enough to be statistically significant. (vetinfo.com)
  • In an effort to curb the continual over-population of pets, the society requires that all dogs, cats, and rabbits adopted from the society be surgically sterilized by a certain age and date. (mvhspets.org)
  • For subcutaneous vaccination of healthy dogs 6 weeks of age or older as an aid in the prevention of disease. (dog.com)
  • Rabies vaccinations for dogs are required by law in most states. (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • The North Shore Animal League America had a population of more than 300 dogs and cats in mid-March. (nbcsandiego.com)
  • But scientists for years have been questioning the need for annual "boosters" for adult dogs and cats. (presspublications.com)
  • Dogs' and cats' immune systems mature fully at 6 months old, she explained. (presspublications.com)
  • Tumors have been found at the site of vaccine injections in cats, though not dogs, according to an article published in the March/April issue of The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. (presspublications.com)
  • Dogs and cats no longer need to be vaccinated against distemper, parvo, and feline leukemia every year," Rogers said. (presspublications.com)
  • While we still don't know the exact maximum duration of immunity for the various vaccines (from a variety of manufacturers) for cats and dogs, preliminary research suggested that most pets maintained immunity for at least three years for the vaccines tested. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • the best time for play is often when cats and dogs are well rested and eager for human attention. (waltham.com)
  • It is common today for veterinarians to see sicker dogs and cats at a much younger age. (articlebiz.com)
  • Dorwest Tree Barks Powder for Dogs and Cats has a soothing effect on the digestive tract, slowing the passage of food and increasing absorption of nutrients. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • Logic Firm Digestive Support Paste for Cats and Dogs (formerly Logic Diar-Stop) is a pharmaceutical grade formulation that offers balanced and proven intestinal support for cats and dogs. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • VetUK Probiotic Kolin Paste for Cats and Dogs is a palatable paste for use in cases of digestive upset or diarrhoea. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • Johnson's Diarrhoea Tablets are effective in treating the symptoms of mild diarrhoea in cats and dogs aged 12 weeks and over. (vetuk.co.uk)
  • A small number of pet cats and dogs have been reported to be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 in several countries, including the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Annual and often Bi-Annual exams are recommended for all cats and dogs. (serenityanimalhospital.net)
  • Unlike dogs which require consistent love and attention from their owner, cats give off the impression of being autonomous, picking and choosing when they show that they either require or wish to give love. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Pennsylvania's Dog Law requires shelters and rescues to have dogs and cats spayed/neutered prior to adoption. (pa.gov)
  • Galaxy Cv is for the vaccination of healthy dogs against disease caused by canine coronavirus infection. (pupspetsupply.com)
  • What many pet owners don't know, researchers say, is that most yearly vaccines for dogs and cats are a waste of money -- and potentially deadly. (freerepublic.com)
  • Just as humans don't need a measles shot every year, neither do dogs or cats need annual injections for illnesses such as parvo, distemper or kennel cough. (freerepublic.com)
  • The movement to extend vaccine intervals is gaining ground because of growing evidence that vaccines themselves can trigger a fatal cancer in cats and a deadly blood disorder in dogs. (freerepublic.com)
  • Then animal doctors began noticing something ominous: rare instances of cancer in normal, healthy cats and an unusual immune reaction in dogs. (freerepublic.com)
  • Top veterinarians say a blizzard of lawsuits may be the way to protect dogs from over-vaccination, drug company larceny, and vaccine damage. (thedogplace.org)
  • Every year over 30 thousand dogs and cats in the U.S. die from adverse reactions from unnecessary vaccines. (thedogplace.org)
  • Recent outbreaks of distemper in dogs and cats, and whooping cough and measles in children, are of great concern. (littlebigcat.com)
  • The trap should be covered to keep the cat calm and should be placed in an area where other animals, particularly dogs, cannot access the trap. (vic.gov.au)
  • Healthy senior dogs and cats should receive a wellness exam and lab testing every six months. (gulfshoreanimalhospital.com)
  • Many states mandate vaccinations, such as rabies, for cats and dogs, and also require vaccination records from residents in order to obtain a pet license. (hartz.com)
  • All cats and dogs are unique, and there are many factors which influence what vaccinations are best for your pet, such as age, breed, gender, environment/geography, family or genetic history, overall health, risk of exposure and local animal laws. (hartz.com)
  • As I understand it, the feline distemper vaccine is normally part of a combination vaccine which is commonly given and which is called FVRCP. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Recently, parenterally administered FVRCP vaccines have been shown to induce antibodies that recognize renal tissues of cats (Lappin et al , 2002). (vin.com)
  • 12 weeks of age and adult cats with unknown vaccination history should receive 2 killed or 2 modified live FVRCP 3-4 weeks apart. (vin.com)
  • In the United States, at one year of age or one year after the last vaccination, booster FVRCP and rabies virus vaccines should be administered. (vin.com)
  • Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that causes severe conjunctivitis, and the vaccination for it is often included in the distemper combination vaccine (making it an FVRCP-C). (mesquitelocalnews.com)
  • Most vaccine-associated soft tissue sarcomas have been associated with adjuvanted feline leukemia virus and rabies virus vaccines. (vin.com)
  • We ran out of vaccines early into the pandemic so the vets actually used the Feline Distemper vaccine in hopes that there would be some cross protection and I do believe they were seeing some results with that. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • and an associate professor at McMaster University, says the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 will likely stick around even after the pandemic ends. (cbc.ca)
  • All politicians need to focus on what really matters - the vaccination programme, the economic recovery and learning the lessons of the pandemic - and spend as little time as possible on what does not, such as bickering about the meaning of words. (scotsman.com)
  • This one was different from the ones in the past, mostly due to social distancing, face masks, and other requirements due to the coronavirus pandemic. (parkerpioneer.net)
  • It usually goes away as young cats mature and develop immunity to the virus. (thedogplace.org)
  • The two-in-one parvo/distemper vaccination given at eight, 12, and at 16 weeks of age should offer long-term protective immunity for most puppies. (1800petmeds.com)
  • d) The duration of immunity provided by vaccinations probably varies from one vaccine to the next, depending on the strain of virus/bacteria used, the adjuvents used in the vaccine and the production methods -- therefore, until each vaccine is tested for duration of action, it will be hard to make blanket judgments about how long vaccine intervals should be. (vetinfo.com)
  • Once the initial series of puppy or kitten vaccinations and first annual vaccinations are completed, immunity…persists for life. (presspublications.com)
  • Since the discovery of an increasing incidence of sarcoma tumors in some cats who received repeated immunization, researchers began testing cats to see just how long immunity from a vaccine might last. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • At this time, I recommend annual boosters for 3-way vaccinations in cattery situations, although studies are underway to determine the actual duration of immunity. (mcbfa.org)
  • You might be surprised to know that the real purpose of vaccinations is not only to protect your particular animal against disease, but to establish immunity in enough animals so that if a disease does break out, there will not be enough susceptible animals to sustain an epidemic. (littlebigcat.com)
  • Both canine and feline distemper vaccines have been shown to induce immunity for 3-8 years or more. (littlebigcat.com)
  • She urged people to choose the available vaccine instead of waiting until the vaccination is available from a specific company, stressing the importance of accelerating the process of herd immunity, which is the basis for the success of the national vaccination campaign. (bna.bh)
  • Appendix Figure 1, infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona- panels B, C). Cats were housed in single cages during virus 2 during a cluster outbreak in the home residents. (cdc.gov)
  • Although we confirmed prolonged presence of virus RNA the first 4 days of quarantine (surveillance days 6-10), in the asymptomatic cat, genome sequencing showed then moved into 1 combined cage system (surveillance no further role of the cat in human infections on site. (cdc.gov)
  • ats are susceptible to severe acute respiratory Testing at regular intervals of conjunctival, fecal, and syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection oropharyngeal swab specimens showed that K4 and and can transmit the virus to other cats ( 1-3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • When the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was occurring, we decided to test this feline drug to see if it would work with the current virus that was circulating," Lemieux said. (ctvnews.ca)
  • Indeed, this drug that was used for cats was effective in preventing virus replication in cells," Lemieux said. (ctvnews.ca)
  • In some cats, however, the virus mutates into a form that causes the disease FIP unless the cat's immune system is capable of fighting it off. (petmd.com)
  • At this time it appears that feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) occurs when normal feline coronavirus mutates in an individual cat into a form of the virus capable of causing FIP. (vetinfo.com)
  • Since Jagger likely had a corona virus when he was about two, I assume that my other cats have been exposed. (vetinfo.com)
  • The literature I have read says that the FIP vaccine is not effective for cats that have already been exposed to a corona virus (as many cats have) because the vaccine doesn't stop FIP itself but rather the corona virus which then would have to mutate in an individual cat in order to develop into FIP. (vetinfo.com)
  • I've also read that there is some possibility that the FIP vaccination could actually make a cat more sensitive to a corona virus. (vetinfo.com)
  • Because feline Coronavirus survives in the environment for several weeks after recovery, the potential to transmit the virus directly is high. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Most feline practitioners do not test, except to confirm virus outside the GI in face of FIP clinical signs. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Coronavirus can infect a wide range of domesticated animals - and experts have said that giving pets the jab is a 'precaution' to reduce the risks of the virus spreading further. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Whilst the vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2/ Covid-19 are being rolled out worldwide, new virus variants are likely to continue to evolve that have the potential to sweep through the human population. (thesun.co.uk)
  • They said that more transmissible virus strains, such as the UK variant, require more people to be vaccinated to keep coronavirus under control. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Is canine and feline corona virus as deadly to our pets as COVID-19 has been to the 2.8+ million people that have died world-wide from the human version of coronavirus ? (thedogplace.org)
  • I'm dreading the thought of watching our cat succumb to the virus(es) in the same way as his companion. (catchat.org)
  • In this study, the Renilla and the firefly luciferase genes were systematically analyzed for their stability after insertion at various genomic positions in the group 1 coronavirus feline infectious peritonitis virus and in the group 2 coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus. (asm.org)
  • If your dog, cat or ferret is exposed to the virus in the future, the antibodies will quickly kill and attack the virus, preventing your pet from becoming ill. (holistic-pet-care.com)
  • Some apparently healthy cats may carry the virus which can be shed intermittently in bodily fluids or feces, with feces being the most common source of oral infection (which is considered an uncommon means of infection). (newmanveterinary.com)
  • In a video highlighting his work, Whittaker explains that "the conventional approach to this problem is essentially a genetic approach, which means analyzing a lot of samples of cats from a genetic point of view to sequence information of the virus. (vin.com)
  • These antibodies are made whenever a dog or cat contacts an infectious organism (virus or bacteria, as a result of a natural infection) or is vaccinated (the vaccine uses low doses of infectious organisms, tricking the immune system to form protective antibodies without causing disease. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • The virus is easily spread through direct contact between cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, vaccine virus may be shed from the vaccinated cat to infect other cats that may come in contact with the vaccinated cat. (maxshouse.com)
  • In this type of vaccine, a portion of the infectious agent is separated from the rest of the agent and serves to stimulate the immune system of the cat to develop antibodies against the whole virus or agent. (maxshouse.com)
  • 2) Corona virus vaccination . (thedogplace.org)
  • Brangacovirus Goose coronavirus CB Call those from previous work 33, 44suggest that CoVs operator that Korona Virus are seeking care for someone who has and nsp10supporting the athletes choosing to play sports complex, as described previously Beluga Department of Health and Human. (pdccgolf.com)
  • November Hudson and Fred Robert Beaudette cultivated the virus for the first time in CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website assembly of a multiprotein replicase-fidelity whale coronavirus SW1. (pdccgolf.com)
  • Cats become infected with FCoV primarily by ingesting or inhaling the virus. (petfinder.com)
  • Although statistics vary, up to 75% of healthy cats that have been exposed to and naturally infected with FCoV will shed the virus either continuously or intermittently for up to one year after infection. (petfinder.com)
  • a respiratory virus which most cats are exposed to, presents with sneezing, runny eyes. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • also known as feline infectious peritonitis, is a virus shed in feces and can be contracted through inhalation or ingestion. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • The overall effectiveness of vaccinations is high and contributes to relieving symptoms when infected with the virus", she said, adding that shots reduce the rate of transmitting the virus to others compared to those who are not vaccinated. (bna.bh)
  • All feline calici virus vaccination strains are at least 30 years old and come from the USA. (bioresonance.com)
  • 15 infected residents showed When serum samples were analyzed for SARS- typical signs of coronavirus disease, including fever CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies ( 5 ), K8 showed a posi- and severe respiratory disease (cough, pneumonia, tive titer (range 1:20-1:52) (Appendix Figure 1, panel and dyspnea). (cdc.gov)
  • So there are plenty of ways to get neutralizing antibodies, with various ways of binding to the Spike protein and in binding to other coronavirus proteins as well. (sciencemag.org)
  • But there are also plenty of ways to get non -neutralizing antibodies, ones that stick to some part of the coronavirus particle without really inconveniencing it much. (sciencemag.org)
  • The vaccines administered to your cat are dead viruses, which elicit the body's immune response to produce the proper antibodies against the disease. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • You cat may also spike a small fever, as their body works to create the new antibodies. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • It is referred to as a 'cat village' because there are hundreds of cats while the population of humans is smaller. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • TORONTO -- A drug used to treat a deadly disease caused by a coronavirus in cats may be effective in treating humans diagnosed with COVID-19 as well, according to a new study . (ctvnews.ca)
  • The first interesting thing about cat vaccinations is that humans don't have booster vaccinations every year. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Vaccinations last a long time and don't need boosting for humans. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Coronavirus is spread through litter pans, grooming, toys and humans moving from area to area. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Kevin Tyler, editor-in-chief of Virulence, said: 'Cats are asymptomatic but they are infected by it and they can infect humans with it. (thesun.co.uk)
  • It is the only vaccination requirement because rabies can be passed on to humans. (craigdailypress.com)
  • Coronavirus is capable of infecting a wide range of species, meaning there is a significant risk of transmission to humans without vaccination. (berwick-advertiser.co.uk)
  • Kevin Tyler, editor-in-chief of Virulence, said that while cats are asymptomatic, they can be infected by Covid-19 and pass this on to humans. (berwick-advertiser.co.uk)
  • Transplacental transmission is rare, unlike in HIV, presumably because of the different type of placenta in cats compared to humans. (vetstream.com)
  • Cats have developed an interesting relationship with humans over the course of history, playing a key role in our survival during the dawn of agriculture and later becoming one of man's best little friends. (collective-evolution.com)
  • The cat offered society protection of their crops, and in return received food and shelter from humans, hence beginning the symbiotic relationship between mankind and cats. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Some cat parasites have the potential to infect humans as well. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Outdoor cats and cats that live in catteries and multi-cat households are at greater risk for FIP than solitary, indoor animals. (healthcommunities.com)
  • While outdoor cats and felines living in multi-cat households are more prone to disease, indoor cats and 'only cats' can get sick too. (hartz.com)
  • Hi there, I adopted two lovely cats (former strays) from a local shelter In January - both were health checked and vaccinated (but not tested for viruses) by the shelter before we took them home. (catchat.org)
  • I suspect the Pet Vaccinosis Nosode may have some crossover benefits to this human corona thing as it has both vaccines that immunize the dog and the cat against corona viruses. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • Even if you always keep your cat indoors, your pet can be exposed to viruses carried in the air, in dust, or on clothing. (dogandcat.com)
  • The recent development of efficient reverse genetics systems for coronaviruses now allows us to study the potential of these viruses as vectors. (asm.org)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses that belong to the family Coronaviridae in the order Nidovirales . (asm.org)
  • While vaccination for certain core viruses is certainly important, too many vaccinations given too frequently may lead to the development of chronic disease and even cancer in some sensitive pets. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Vaccinated cats shed vaccine viruses for long periods after IN vaccination. (maxshouse.com)
  • They are extremely common viruses and almost all cats will be exposed to them at some point in their lifetime. (hartz.com)
  • These risks need to be researched and they are dependent on the cat's health, age, and behavior (indoor cat or outdoor cat). (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • BUT, the coronavirus is shed in an infected cat's feces so keep litter boxes clean and keep away from food and water bowls in a multi-cat home! (thedogplace.org)
  • This week: World's first cloned cat still going strong, beware CBD products that leave out the CBD, and a cat thief thoughtfully leaves owner a note from the cat's perspective. (aaha.org)
  • One theory about FIP is that cats become infected with FCoV, which then mutates in the cat's body into the deadly FIPV form to cause FIP. (petfinder.com)
  • But "the looming question," Fauci said during a White House coronavirus response briefing last week, is whether a person infected despite vaccination can still, unwittingly, infect someone else. (chicagotribune.com)
  • F eline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is caused by a coronavirus that can infect any cat, though young cats and very old cats (14yr and up) appear most susceptible. (newmanveterinary.com)
  • The American Association of Feline Practitioners and the Council on Biological and Therapeutic Agents have published information concerning cat vaccination guidelines in the last several years. (vin.com)
  • A vegan mum who refused to allow her sons to receive routine vaccinations has been overruled by the High Court. (yahoo.com)
  • Staying up to date on routine vaccinations is important even for pets that remain predominantly indoors. (hartz.com)
  • Parasites are often passed in feces and cats that roam are more likely to become infected simply by stepping on infected ground. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • One SARS-CoV-2-positive resident (90 years of Cat after Cluster Outbreak age, given a diagnosis on April 4, 2020), already bed- in Retirement Home ridden, died on April 12. (cdc.gov)
  • On the worst day in April 2020, a little more than 5,000 people were in the hospital with coronavirus-related illness. (wgntv.com)
  • News reports about the cat did not circulate until March 27, 2020. (hemopet.org)
  • To me, it looks like FIP research in all areas is really ramping up, and we are making bigger strides than we have in the past," observed Dr. Vicki Thayer, executive director of the Winn Feline Foundation, a nonprofit that funds medical studies to improve feline health. (vin.com)
  • Then it needs to receive a booster vaccination every 3 to 4 weeks until it is at least 4 months old. (dogandcat.com)
  • A booster vaccination is recommended annually, just prior to the start of flea and tick season. (hubpages.com)
  • however, if a pregnant queen is very overdue for her annual booster vaccination, then an all-killed 3-way vaccine should be given at mid-gestation (about 3-4 weeks before her due date). (mcbfa.org)
  • Jessica Biel is not the only one to take a stand on vaccinations. (yahoo.com)
  • COVID-19 vaccine exemptions: Where do different religions stand on vaccinations? (fox59.com)
  • With all the talk about the big international push to develop an effective and approved human vaccine against Covid-19, it is nice to read that in parallel at least one company is developing a coronavirus vaccine for cats. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • What COVID-19 vaccinations are recognized abroad? (ctvnews.ca)
  • While state officials express concern over an increase in Covid cases and hospitalizations, data reviewed by WGN News clearly shows the ongoing race between cases and vaccinations. (wgntv.com)
  • President Joe Biden Just Threatened U.S. Citizens who Refuse the Covid-19 Vaccination. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Last year, Denmark's government was forced to cull millions of mink after it emerged that hundreds of Covid-19 cases in the country were linked with coronavirus variants associated with farmed mink. (berwick-advertiser.co.uk)
  • CDC has updated select ways to operate healthcare systems effectively in response to COVID-19 vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are due for a mammogram and have been recently vaccinated for COVID-19, ask your doctor how long you should wait after vaccination to get your mammogram. (cdc.gov)
  • This mechanism aims to generate essential safety and efficacy data for several candidate vaccines in parallel, so as to accelerate the licensure and distribution of multiple vaccine platforms and vaccines to protect against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). (sciencemag.org)
  • What's safe after COVID-19 vaccination? (chicagotribune.com)
  • What experts also need to learn: The vaccines are highly effective at preventing symptomatic COVID-19, especially severe illness and death - but no one yet knows how well they block spread of the coronavirus. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Vaccination efforts for polio were (and I think for the most part still are) on hold as well because it wasn't known if it was worse to risk spreading COVID. (soapmakingforum.com)
  • Recently, MSNBC's "Stephanie Ruhle Reports" opined that it is "incredibly frustrating that certain Americans" were not getting the COVID-19 vaccination after the Biden administration has made it free and easily accessed. (skadi.net)
  • Although not considered a core vaccination, we feel as though it is a necessity since it is such a highly contagious disease. (dogandcat.com)
  • FIP, although uncommon, is an immune response to Feline Coronavirus. (dogandcat.com)
  • Modified-live products should not be administered to clinically ill, debilitated, or pregnant animals, but are preferred over killed products in healthy cats, since cell-mediated immune responses are superior. (vin.com)
  • Vaccinations are a major stress to your pet's immune system and can cause side effects and allergic reactions as well as long term chronic disease such as skin allergies, arthritis, leukemia, upper respiratory infections, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions as aggressive behavior, epilepsy, auto-immune disease and cancer. (articlebiz.com)
  • This immune response provides protection for the cat against the specific infectious agent. (maxshouse.com)
  • This vulnerability may be exacerbated by an undeveloped immune system in a kitten or young cat or by weakening the immune system in an older cat. (healthcommunities.com)
  • Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronavirus antigen has been chemically inactivated and combined with an adjuvant designed to enhance the immune response. (pupspetsupply.com)
  • If you cat falls behind, they will likely need a booster vaccine four weeks after the initial vaccine to boost the immune system. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • Vaccination breakthroughs, which are defined by a non-intact immune system. (bioresonance.com)
  • It is now thought that yearly cat vaccinations may be unnecessary and could on occasions cause health problems for your cat. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Subsequent vaccinations are administered yearly. (dogandcat.com)
  • b) There isn't much published information in refereed (scientifically reviewed) journals that refutes the once yearly vaccination schedule. (vetinfo.com)
  • This vaccination is given yearly to cats. (serenityanimalhospital.net)
  • Your cat needs to be vaccinated on a yearly basis. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • Worms are one of the most common cat health problems and your cat should be tested for worms at least yearly. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • The only way the vaccine could have a benefit would be if it were to be given before a kitten comes in contact with the original coronavirus, but since these infections usually occur so early in life, this would rarely occur in a real-world setting. (petmd.com)
  • My six-month old kitten was exposed to another cat who recently passed away from FIP. (vetinfo.com)
  • The initial vaccination is given when your kitten is 6 to 8 weeks old. (dogandcat.com)
  • Your kitten should receive its initial leukemia vaccination around 8-11 weeks. (dogandcat.com)
  • Your kitten should also get booster vaccinations every 2 to 3 weeks until it is 16 weeks old. (dogandcat.com)
  • This is a good time for your kitten to get their booster shots for their core vaccinations. (dogandcat.com)
  • Based on the blood test results, you can also choose if you want to give your kitten a vaccination feline leukemia. (dogandcat.com)
  • As a responsible pet owner, you should visit us to start your new kitten on one of our simple vaccination programs. (dogandcat.com)
  • Animals under three-months old must get the puppy or kitten vaccination. (craigdailypress.com)
  • The standard of immunization was an annual set of "shots", determined by each individual practitioner, following the initial puppy and kitten vaccination series. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • History: the cat experienced stress such as recent neutering or vaccination History: the cat had an opportunity to become infected with FCoV, such as originating in a breeding or rescue cattery, or the recent introduction of a purebred kitten or cat into the household. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is difficult as fewer than 10 percent of the cats with feline Corona develop FIP. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Recently, the mutation theory of FIP origin has been questioned ( J. Feline Med Surg 9:202, 2007). (newmanveterinary.com)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis is a uniformly fatal disease of cats. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Half a century since scientists began trying to unlock the mysteries of feline infectious peritonitis, a fatal disease that affects mostly young cats, momentum seems to be building toward a treatment, with research underway at numerous institutions. (vin.com)
  • The researchers reported, "We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. (vin.com)
  • The shots apparently caused feline fibrosarcoma, a grotesque tumor at the site of the shot, which is fatal if not discovered early and cut out completely. (freerepublic.com)
  • Feline Infectious Peritonitis or FIP is an invariably fatal viral disease that creates a lot of fear and confusion in shelters despite the fact that it is not very common in the general cat population. (petfinder.com)
  • However, a high and rising FIP titer along with other clinical signs of this disease does suggest that a cat has this incurable and fatal illness. (mcbfa.org)
  • The latter, FIPV, can actually be highly fatal by developing into a multisystemic disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (hemopet.org)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (uzh.ch)
  • Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. (uzh.ch)
  • The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. (uzh.ch)
  • FCoV is common in places where large groups of cats are housed together indoors (e.g. breeding catteries, animal shelters, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cat with FIP will shed FCoV, not FIP. (petfinder.com)
  • Approximately 95-100% of cats that are exposed to FCoV will become infected with it. (petfinder.com)
  • The current coronavirus vaccine for cats is intended to prevent FIP. (hemopet.org)
  • It causes eye infections and sometimes respiratory disease, but cats typically recover quickly once an appropriate antibiotic is started. (petmd.com)
  • The country has Southeast Asia's largest coronavirus caseload with about 15,000 deaths and 450,000 infections although health experts warn those numbers are likely to be higher due to low testing rates. (reuters.com)
  • Since many cat parasite infections are passed from cat to cat, the chances of infection are greater in places with large cat populations and overcrowding, such as shelters. (cat-lovers-only.com)
  • Is it time for your pet's vaccinations? (holistic-pet-care.com)
  • Many vaccination protocols are beginning to be changed and as per the recommendation of the Veterinarians in our area, we require a 2 week waiting period if your pet's vaccinations need to be given or updated prior to your boarding date. (sagemoor.com)
  • Keep FIV-positive cats indoors so they are not a risk to other outdoor cats and so the FIV-positive cat will not be exposed to pathogens carried by other cats. (vetstream.com)
  • Even through previous, decades-long global vaccination efforts, we haven't eradicated the vast majority of pathogens, she said. (cbc.ca)
  • Not only is there a chance your indoor cat could get outside and be exposed to other animals and pathogens, they could also end up in a shelter, where risk is drastically increased. (elginanimalhospital.com)
  • Previously, we have shown that the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) accepts insertions of foreign expression cassettes at many different positions ( 9 ). (asm.org)