Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Programs in which participation is required.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/8916)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt. (2/8916)

BACKGROUND: In 1995, Egypt continued to experience endemic wild poliovirus transmission despite achieving high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) and implementing National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually for several years. METHODS: Parents of 4188 children in 3216 households throughout Egypt were surveyed after the second round of the 1995 NIDs. RESULTS: Nationwide, 74% of children are estimated to have received both NID doses, 17% one NID dose, and 9% neither NID dose. Previously unimmunized (47%) or partially immunized (64%) children were less likely to receive two NID doses of OPV than were fully immunized children (76%) (P < 0.001). Other risk factors nationwide for failure to receive NID OPV included distance from residence to nearest NID site >10 minute walk (P < 0.001), not being informed about the NID at least one day in advance (P < 0.001), and residing in a household which does not watch television (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, subsequent NIDs in Egypt were modified to improve coverage, which has resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: In selected situations, surveys can provide important information that is useful for planning future NIDs.  (+info)

Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group. (3/8916)

BACKGROUND: Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS: Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics were collected retrospectively for the years 1985-1994. RESULTS: Meningitis (42%) was most frequent, followed by pneumonia (28%) and bacteraemia (26%). The overall annual incidence was 2.7 cases per 100000 children <17 years old and 11 cases per 100000 children <2 years old. Annual incidence rates were stable over the study period. Lethality was high for meningitis (8.6%) and bacteraemia (8.9%). A history of basal skull fracture was reported in 3.3% of children with pneumococcal meningitis. Residence in a rural region was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection (relative risk = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease seems to be less frequent in Switzerland than in other European and non-European countries. This may be due to differences in diagnostic strategies and lower frequency of risk factors such as the use of day care. Children with a history of basal skull fracture are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. Further investigation of the association of invasive pneumococcal infection with rural residence and the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections might give new insight into the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and the development of antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa hybrid outer membrane protein F-I vaccine in human volunteers. (4/8916)

A hybrid protein [Met-Ala-(His)6OprF190-342-OprI21-83] consisting of the mature outer membrane protein I (OprI) and amino acids 190 to 342 of OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni2+ chelate-affinity chromatography. After safety and pyrogenicity evaluations in animals, four groups of eight adult human volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at 4-week intervals and revaccinated 6 months later with either 500, 100, 50, or 20 microg of OprF-OprI adsorbed onto A1(OH)3. All vaccinations were well tolerated. After the first vaccination, a significant rise of antibody titers against P. aeruginosa OprF and OprI was measured in volunteers receiving the 100- or the 500-microg dose. After the second vaccination, significant antibody titers were measured for all groups. Elevated antibody titers against OprF and OprI could still be measured 6 months after the third vaccination. The capacity of the elicited antibodies to promote complement binding and opsonization could be demonstrated by a C1q-binding assay and by the in vitro opsonophagocytic uptake of P. aeruginosa bacteria. These data support the continued development of an OprF-OprI vaccine for use in humans.  (+info)

Protective efficacy of recombinant Yersinia outer proteins against bubonic plague caused by encapsulated and nonencapsulated Yersinia pestis. (5/8916)

To evaluate the role of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) in conferring protective immunity against plague, six yop loci from Yersinia pestis were individually amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified and injected into mice. Most Yop-vaccinated animals succumbed to infection with either wild-type encapsulated Y. pestis or a virulent, nonencapsulated isogenic variant. Vaccination with YpkA significantly prolonged mean survival time but did not increase overall survival of mice infected with the nonencapsulated strain. The only significant protection against death was observed in YopD-vaccinated mice challenged with the nonencapsulated strain.  (+info)

Sustained reduction in the carriage of Neisseria meningitidis as a result of a community meningococcal disease control programme. (6/8916)

The effect of a community intervention programme of antibiotics and meningitis vaccine on pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was investigated. Carriage rates were determined in pupils at both secondary schools (ages 11-18 years) included in the community intervention programme and compared with two schools outside the area matched for socio-economic status. A total of 1869 pupils were studied 6 months after the programmes, and 2457 pupils after 11 months. Six months after the programme was completed there was a 72% reduction in pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in pupils attending the schools in the intervention area compared with pupils in the control schools. After 11 months this difference persisted in the 11-14 age group but not in the 15-18 age group. No resistance to the antibiotics used in the programme was found. A community intervention programme of antibiotics and vaccine for the control of meningococcal disease led to a long-term reduction in Neisseria meningitidis carriage in some age groups.  (+info)

Seroepidemiological evaluation of 1989-91 mass vaccination campaigns against measles, in Italy. (7/8916)

In 1989-91 anti-measles vaccination campaigns were conducted in several Italian regions to vaccinate all children aged between 13 months and 10-12 years without a history of measles or measles vaccination. This study was conducted to evaluate serological status after the mass vaccination campaigns. In 1994, capillary blood samples were collected from randomly selected children, aged 2-14 years, living in 13 local health units. Antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Blood spot samples were analysed for 4114 (75.6%) of 5440 selected children. Among the 835 that reported measles before 1990, 806 (96.5%) were immune and of the 2798 vaccinated, 2665 (95.2%) were immune. The Edmoston-Zagreb (E-Z) strain vaccine was associated with a lower level of immunity than the Schwarz (SW) strain. A history of measles identified almost all immune children. Vaccination with the SW strain conferred persistent immunity (at least 5 years) in 98% of vaccinees. The strategy was able to unite natural and induced immunity.  (+info)

A model-based evaluation of the national immunization programme against rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands. (8/8916)

In order to improve the prevention of cases of congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands, in 1987 the selective vaccination strategy against rubella infection in girls was replaced by mass vaccination. This decision was supported by mathematical model analyses carried out by Van Druten and De Boo. In order to compare the predicted impact of the rubella vaccination programme with the current available data in more detail, a similar model was built. Although the model predicts elimination of the rubella virus, data show that virus circulation is still present at a higher level than expected by the model. Simulation studies indicate that import of infection and a lower vaccine effectiveness, related to possible asymptomatic reinfection of vaccinated people, could be sources contributing to the present virus circulation. Even though the number of infections is much higher than the number of reported cases of disease, limited serosurveillance data and case notification data show that females of childbearing age are well protected by immunization.  (+info)

This statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDAs) Food and Consumer Service (FCS), presents programmatic strategies to increase vaccination rates among preschool-aged children. This is the first statement to recommend assessment of vaccination status and referral for needed vaccinations of children receiving services from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Although vaccination coverage levels of first-grade school entrants are greater than 95%, during the 1989-1991 nationwide measles epidemic, coverage levels among urban children aged 2 years were commonly less than 50% (1). Based on studies conducted during the epidemic, 29%-63% of unvaccinated preschool-aged children with measles either were or had been enrolled in WIC. WIC is a categorical federal grant program administered by the FCS through state health departments. The program provides supplemental ...
McElligott JT, Darden PM. Pediatrics 2010 Mar;125(3):e467-72. PMID: 20156897. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether patient-held vaccination records improve vaccination rates.. METHODS: The public-use files of the 2004-2006 National Immunization Survey, a national, validated survey of households with children 19 to 35 months of age, were used. The main outcome was up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status (4 diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, 3 poliovirus vaccine, 1 measles vaccine, 3 Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine, and 3 hepatitis B vaccine doses), and the main predictor was the use of a vaccination record. Control variables were race/ethnicity, maternal education, poverty status, language, number of children in the home, state of residence, and number of health care providers.. RESULTS: Overall, 80.8% of children were UTD, and 40.8% of children had vaccination records. Children with vaccination records were more likely to be UTD (83.9% vs 78.6%; P < ...
This statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) presents programmatic strategies to increase vaccination rates. This is the first statement to recommend the use of routine assessment and feedback of provider-based vaccination coverage information. Routine assessment and feedback of vaccination rates obtained at the provider site is one of the most effective strategies for achieving high, sustainable vaccine coverage. For example, in 1986, the Immunization Program of the Division of Public Health, Georgia Department of Human Resources, initiated a program to assess annually the vaccination records of children enrolled in public health clinics to determine progress toward achieving the national goal of 90% series-complete coverage by age 2 years. During 1986-1994, series-complete vaccination rates at age 2 years among children in public health clinics increased from less than 40% to approximately 80% -- an increase attributed to assessment and feedback, which motivated ...
In the Netherlands, there are 80 municipalities with a low vaccination coverage for one or more vaccinations. This is a decrease compared to last year when there were still 90 municipalities. The average percentage of children who are vaccinated in the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) remains high.
In this study, we have demonstrated that a single i.n. BCG vaccination confers better protection, particularly in the lung, against pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection than s.c. BCG vaccination. Such superior protection by i.n. BCG vaccination could last at least for 1/2 year after the initial vaccination. Our findings thus lend experimental support to the concept of airway mucosal vaccination against pulmonary TB.. Mucosal vaccination has received increasing attention due to its potency in inducing mucosa-associated protection from mucosal infectious diseases (16, 23, 30). In this regard, both intragastric and intrarectal routes of TB vaccination have been explored, but it was found that not only were larger doses of vaccines required but also the protection level did not exceed that by percutaneous BCG vaccination (1, 19). In comparison, i.n. vaccination, aiming to target the lymphoid tissues present both in the nasal and bronchial mucosa (5, 11, 16), represents an attractive way to elicit ...
We now use modern vaccinations that require fewer injections. For kittens there is an initial vaccination at 8-9 weeks of age and then a single booster at 12 weeks of age. There is no need for a third kitten vaccination like in the old regime. For older cats, or cats with unknown vaccination status, we give an initial vaccination and then a booster 4 weeks later.. The big difference for annual boosters with our vaccination regime is that the Parvovirus component only needs to be given every 3 years. We firmly believe fewer vaccinations are healthier and safer for your cat. After starting vaccinations with us, your cat just needs a booster for cat flu (called an F2 vaccination) for the next two years. The Parvovirus vaccination is then only given every third year as an F3 vaccination.. Unlike the old regime we can reduce the number of vaccinations your kitten needs initially, and also for the rest of its life. This newer vaccination allows your kitten to be fully vaccinated earlier and have good ...
Low vaccination rates, global outbreaks fuel U.S. measles spread Social Sharing Low vaccination rates, global outbreaks fuel U.S. measles spread In New York state and Washington state, U.S. travelers picked up measles in foreign countries where the highly contagious disease was running rampant and brought it back to places where vaccination rates were too low by U.S. public health standards.. Read the source article at ...
Neonates are more susceptible to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the agent of Johnes disease, due to high degree of exposure from their dams and possibly less developed immune system. Thus an effective vaccine should not only elicit strong immune response in young animals, but also a quality of the T-cell response that correlates with long term protection. Here we report the effect of age at vaccination and quality of immune response following vaccination of calves with recombinant MAP proteins formulated with DDA/ TDB (CAF01) adjuvant. A total of 27 male jersey calves were divided into three groups of nine calves each with first vaccination at 2, 8 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Vaccine induced immune response, mainly the Th1 type cytokine secretion, was evaluated in different age groups following booster doses at equal time intervals. Preliminary results show higher antigen specific IFN-c levels in response to heat shock protein and ESAT-6 family member protein ...
Following publication of the service specification and the Patient Group Direction (PGD) for the Flu Vaccination Advanced Service 2019/20, PSNC has published a number of resources and recorded a presentation on the national Flu Vaccination Service to support community pharmacy contractors with delivering the service. Recorded presentation on the Flu Vaccination Service 2019/20 This 15-minute recorded presentation...
The United States (US) accepts large numbers of Cuban refugees and parolees, yet there are no published reports assessing the quality of the overseas vaccination records of this population. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the quality of Cuban refugees and parolees overseas vaccination records by comparing reported history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization to demonstrated serologic immunity during the first domestic medical screening. The study population consisted of all Cuban refugees and parolees who arrived in Texas between January 2010 through December 2013 and whose domestic records could be matched with overseas records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) determining the prevalence of immunity to HBV in Cuban refugees and parolees with a complete vaccination series compared to those with no vaccination history and comparing those with an incomplete vaccination series to those with no vaccination history. The study included ...
To the Editor: Adult vaccination rates are low (1), and workplaces are a useful location for increasing vaccination (2). In 2008, only 41% of US workers 50-64 years of age reported vaccination against influenza virus (3). Workplace vaccination is common and increases with employer size (4). Among adults, the workplace is the most common site for influenza vaccination for persons 18-49 years of age and second most common for persons 50-64 years (2). Offering vaccination in the workplace increases vaccination coverage (5).. Consistent with guidelines and economic incentives, employers have focused workplace vaccination on seasonal influenza (4), but the workplace has also been a key site for vaccination against influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and could be a site for other adult vaccinations. The most recent guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend annual influenza vaccination of all adults (6). In most years, the seasonal influenza vaccine and predominant ...
Descripción en Español. The National Immunization Survey. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is sponsored by the National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) and conducted jointly by NCIRD and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The NIS is a list-assisted random-digit-dialing telephone survey followed by a mailed survey to childrens immunization providers that began data collection in April 1994 to monitor childhood immunization coverage.. The target population for the NIS is children between the ages of 19 and 35 months living in the United States at the time of the interview. Data from the NIS are used to produce timely estimates of vaccination coverage rates for all childhood vaccinations recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Estimates are produced for the nation and for each of 78 Immunization Action Plan (IAP) areas, consisting of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, ...
The Ministry of Health stressed the need for public awareness towards effective vaccination program. The head of the program in the Ministry, Mr. Tedros Yihdego, said that effective vaccination program could not be attained short of active public participation. He further indicated that the commitment of health professionals and village health committees are imperative for satisfactory health service in remote areas.
Health-care workers (HCWs) represent a high risk group for acquiring vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Objective: to determine susceptibility and vaccination coverage rates against VPDs among a group of health care workers in a tertiary care paediatric hospital, Egypt. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted at the Paediatric hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University from July 2017 to November 2017. A Structured self-administered questionnaire including Socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to occupational VPDs infections and vaccination coverage was used. Results: Out of the 110 HCWs enrolled, 50.0% were physicians, 34.5% were nurses and 15.5% were house keepers. The reported vaccination coverage rate was highest for Tuberculosis (95.5%) followed by Hepatitis B (86.4%) and lowest for chickenpox (9.1%). HCWs reporting no history of disease or vaccination were considered as
When vaccination coverage is derived from ABS data using similar leeway times to the ACIR then the estimates are broadly consistent and many of the estimates are the same. Remaining differences between ACIR and ABS vaccination coverage estimates (see Table 4 for ACIR estimates) reflect fundamental differences in the way the statistics were collected. ABS estimates are self-reported data from household surveys and rely on the ability of parents and guardians to report reliably on their childs vaccination records, preferably by referring to written records at interview, and no earlier vaccinations were assumed as given. ABS estimates are also subject to confidence intervals as they are estimates from sample surveys. ACIR estimates assume, in some instances, that earlier vaccinations were given. They also rely on the quality of information sent in by providers of immunisation services, an issue that has caused difficulties with quality in the earlier years of the Register (Human Capital Alliance ...
At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 ...
Ojective.-To obtain estimates on 1 the percentage of children who were up-to-date on the recommended childhood vaccination series, 2 the percentage of children who were age-appropriate immunized, and 3 coverage levels by individual vaccines. Desgin.-Vaccination levels were estimates by conducting retrospective immunization coverage surveys of...
We studied the influenza vaccination of HCWs and the social network defined by conversations around a vaccination campaign. A major finding is that similarity in vaccination behavior did not play a significant role in the probability of naming another HCW in our hospital. Links were more likely when individuals shared a professional category, sex, age, or department. In addition, some characteristics influenced participants citing more HCWs (being younger, having a position of responsibility, some professional categories) and others which increased the likelihood of being cited as a link (being vaccinated).. The lack of homophily according to vaccination behavior, also described for influenza vaccination in a friendship network of medical students [28], contrasts with other studies of advice networks in parental vaccination decisions [24-26] and in a contact network of influenza vaccination in high school students [27], where homophily by vaccination status was observed. The differences between ...
Rein DB, Hicks KA, Wirth KE, Billah K, Finelli L, Fiore AE, Hoerger TJ, Bell BP, Armstrong GL. Cost-effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination for hepatitis A in the United States. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(1): e12-21 ...
Vaccines have reduced the global burden of disease by preventing an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths worldwide each year. In India, the reduction in annual under-five deaths, from 3.4 to 1.2 million between 1990 and 2015, was largely due to expansions in coverage of routine childhood vaccination.
Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: A Critical Assessment of the Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Influenza vaccination during all trimesters of pregnancy is now universally recommended in the United States. We critically reviewed the influenza vaccination policy of the CDC.s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP) and the citations that were used to support their recommendations. The ACIP.s citations and the current literature indicate that influenza infection is rarely a threat to a normal pregnancy. There is no convincing evidence of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination during this critical period. No studies have adequately assessed the risk of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and animal safety testing is lacking. Thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative present in most inactivated formulations of the vaccine, has been implicated in human neurodevelopment disorders, including autism, and a broad range of animal and ...
We observed high effectiveness of the pertussis vaccine within 3 years of vaccination, but with clear evidence of waning of immunity beyond 4 years and little-to-no protection beyond 7 years from last vaccination. The odds of pertussis increased by 27% each year that passed after receipt of an acellular vaccine. Individuals primed with acellular vaccine had a 2.2 times higher odds of disease than those primed with the previously used whole-cell vaccine.. Recent observational studies from the US have yielded some comparable results.10,11,26-28 Our analysis, which is stratified by time since last vaccination and adjusted for age, suggests that the low estimates of vaccine effectiveness beyond 4 years from last vaccination are attributable to waning immunity. A recent meta-analysis identified an increased odds of pertussis of 33% for each year following the DTaP dose.23 That meta-analysis supports our finding that beyond 7 years since the last vaccination there is minimal protective effect of the ...
In a large multisite retrospective cohort of children with ARTI, we examined variation in resource use by provider-documented child vaccination status at hospital presentation. Overall, we identified that children with ARTI whose vaccination status was documented as not UTD had higher odds of undergoing diagnostic testing compared with children whose vaccination status was documented as UTD. In particular, we found higher odds of testing for children with CAP and croup whose vaccination status was documented as not UTD compared with children with the same conditions whose vaccination status was documented as UTD.. It is noteworthy that many of the tests in which we identified differences by vaccination status are nonspecific, such as CBC counts and CRP level tests, and it is unknown how the results influence subsequent medical decision-making for children admitted with ARTI. In previous work, Glanz et al16 identified higher rates of ED visits and inpatient admissions for children who were ...
Adolescents are a reservoir population for a variety of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Despite this, adolescent vaccination rates lag substantially behind national goals of 80% coverage for adolescent vaccines set forth by Healthy People 2020. This has been particularly the case for the vaccines most recently recommended for adolescents, such as the HPV (human papilloma virus) and seasonal influenza (flu) vaccines; national coverage levels in 2010 for HPV were 32% (for series completion among females only) and 35% for flu vaccine. Uptake levels for the two other adolescent-targeted vaccines, Tdap and meningococcal conjugate (MCV4) vaccines are currently at 69% and 63%, respectively.. A major barrier to increased adolescent vaccination levels is the lack of parental and provider recognition that an adolescent is due for vaccine doses. For providers, there are the dual challenges of getting adolescents to come in for annual preventive care visits and also minimizing missed opportunities ...
The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults over the age of 18 to determine if there is an association between CAM use
Hundreds of people aged 65 and over and those who are clinically vulnerable are being invited to book a coronavirus vaccination at a new NHS large scale vaccination centre at St Johns Shopping Centre in Preston. The centre will be located in the large unit previously occupied by B&M Bargains.. People who are eligible, live within 45 minutes drive from the new vaccination site and who havent already been vaccinated by their local GP led vaccination services or hospital hub, will receive letters from the NHS Covid-19 Vaccination Booking Service, telling them how they can book their appointment.. The Preston venue is the last in a series of larger vaccination sites which have opened in Lancashire and South Cumbria over the past few months to offer a convenient alternative to GP and hospital services, which can deliver thousands of vaccinations every week. It remains important that the public do not try to book or go to these services before they receive their booking letter.. People who book into ...
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent study from Tayside found a reduced risk of all cause mortality with vaccination in COPD patients.. Objectives: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database to test this hypothesis in a different data source.. Methods: We searched the THIN database for patients with COPD. Vaccination status against pneumococcus and their annual influenza vaccination status were determined. Mortality rates were calculated in the periods December-March, April-November. Relative risks for the effect of vaccination on all cause mortality were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, year and serious co-morbidities.. Results: We found 177,120 patients with COPD, mean age of 65 years, with an average of 6.8 years follow up between 1988 and 2006. Vaccination rates against influenza rose from ,30% prior to 1995 to ,70% in 2005 among patients aged 60 years or ...
These revised recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) on Measles Prevention replace previous recommendations published in 1987 (1) and 1989 (2). The recommendations include a basic change in the routine childhood vaccination schedule from a one-dose to a two-dose schedule using combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Routine revaccination will generally be implemented one age group at a time starting with school enterers. New recommendations are also included for vaccination of preschool children at high risk of contracting measles, for students in colleges and other institutions of higher education, for health-care personnel and international travelers, and for outbreak control ...
AbstractIn young children, infrequent antigen exposure, which is partly characterized by fewer vaccinations, may be a factor impairing the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine.We assessed the effects of prior vaccinations on age-specific immune responses in Japanese children aged 6 months
Italy which depends on two main factors. Firstly, the achievement of a higher than expected vaccination coverage rate in a 9-month time span corresponding to a weighted mean of 65%±10% and 73%±12% for 4 and 3 cohorts respectively (excluding twenty-four year olds who showed a lower completion rate of the 3 doses vaccination schedule during the time period) (table I) and also because a relatively high percentage of the National Healthcare Fund has been channelled for prevention and vaccination in this Region (6% of the total National Healthcare Fund compared with a mean of approximately 1% among the other Regions[8]). As expected, these results would never have been accomplished without the strong commitment of political decision makers who performed a value-based political and economical evaluation. In such circumstances, a rigorous cooperative framework that allows stakeholders to discuss the values to be used in setting priorities is mandatory. These successful preliminary results from the ...
Effective from 1st April 2012, flu vaccinations will be mandatory for all competing horses and ponies and they must be in possession of a valid flu vaccination certificate. It is the owners responsibility to ensure that the horses vaccinations are up to date and correctly recorded on the diagrammatic vaccination record. Spot checks will be regularly carried out at shows throughout the year. The horse must have received 2 injections for primary vaccination against equine influenza given no less than 21 days and no more than 92 days apart. Only these 2 injections need to have been given before a horse can compete in British Showjumping competitions. In addition, a first booster injection must be given no less than 150 days and no more than 215 days after the second injection of the primary vaccination. Subsequently, booster injections must be given at intervals of not more than 1 year apart. ...
The Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute has been recommending a number of basic vaccinations for young children. Since many of these recommended Immunsierungen be carried out in several partial vaccinations, it is often difficult for you as a parent to keep track of which remain outstanding vaccinations or when the next appointment is pending. Even in an emergency, for example when suspected acute tetanus after an injury, it is important to know quickly which vaccination is available.. The vaccination certificate is useful here because it gives you and the doctor a quick overview of what already exists and vaccinations while still needs to be vaccinated. So you can be sure that your child always has the best protection and prevent with you or your child a vaccination is done in duplicate. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Novel proteins antigens from Streptococcus pneumoniae and comparison of protection following mucosal and parenteral vaccination. AU - Jomaa, Maha. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. M3 - Abstract. T2 - 3rd International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases. Y2 - 5 May 2002 through 8 May 2002. ER - ...
The researchers also compared vaccination rates to effectiveness of the shot against the virus during the prior flu season.. Generally, they noted a downward trend in vaccination rates in recent years, and that none of the three variables -- severity of the current influenza season, severity of prior season or vaccine effectiveness -- had a significant effect on these numbers.. For example, the 2010-2011 flu season, which the CDC deemed high severity, vaccination rates for most age groups of children hovered around 60 percent or less, with the exception of infants between 6 and 23 months old.. The CDC considered the flu season immediately prior, 2009-10, to be of moderate severity, and vaccine effectiveness for both the 2009-10 and 2010-2011 seasons was around 60 percent for all pediatric age groups except teens.. Fortunately, in the just released CDC influenza vaccination data, the downward trend in vaccination was reversed this past season, Stockwell said. However, it still remains ...
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We offer a range of travel vaccinations services for those travelling to Pakistan, ensuring that you are both protected and confident on your travels.
When vaccination coverage levels in Region VI of the Visayas of Philippines, were mapped, they showed great variation across different areas. Whilst the overall vaccination coverage achieved (higher than 70%) was high, it was very uneven and areas with less than 40% or even less than 20% vaccination coverage existed. Modelling of the actual vaccination coverages achieved, along with realistic estimates of dog movements for the area allowed the study to examine the probability that rabies (...)
During the study followup period, 3,485 patients died. Overall, a first vaccination was associated with a nonsignificant annual reduction of mortality (death) risk of 10 percent, while revaccination was associated with a reduced mortality risk of 24 percent, the authors report. Compared with a first vaccination, revaccination was associated with a reduced annual mortality risk of 15 percent. During the epidemic periods this reduction was 28 percent. The authors also found that an interruption of the annual vaccinations series was associated with a 25 percent increase in mortality risk, whereas restarting vaccination after an interruption resulted in a mortality risk reduction similar to that observed following revaccination. The authors note that in the total population one death was prevented for every 302 vaccinations, or 1 for every 195 revaccinations ...
Universal infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has nearly eliminated PCV7-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young U.S. children, but has been accompanied by increases in the incidence of serotype 19A IPD. Because antibiotic-non-susceptible 19A has increased more than antibiotic-susceptible 19A, antibiotic selection pressure could be contributing to this trend. We developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model of pneumococcus to better understand the causes of this rise and to estimate the impact of vaccines or changes in antibiotic use on future IPD incidence in the U.S. in |2 year-olds. The model predicted that with current practices, serotype 19A IPD incidence will plateau at about the 2007 level over the next few years. The model suggests that antibiotic usage played a major role in the rise in antibiotic-non-susceptible 19A IPD, with a lesser contribution from PCV7 vaccination. However, hypothetical large decreases in antibiotic use starting
Though vaccine against diphtheria has been included in the National Expanded Immunization Program in Vietnam and children have enjoyed free vaccine in the program for years, the country has not eradicated the disease due to low vaccination rate in some localities.
When it comes to philanthropy, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation surely leads the pack.. In an Interview last week on CNN, Bill Gates was proud and excited to tell the world about the benefits of vaccination.. This particular writer can not argue that is quite possible that world population may be getting quite close to the tipping point, but what Bill Gates actually says to in this interview with Dr. Sanjay Gupta on CNN March 5th 2011 might be just a little bit too much information for the conventional Main Stream Media audience.. In this 5 minute interview, Bill Gates clearly states that the child deaths and sickness are not the only benefits of an extensive vaccination program, and population control is an equally beneficial affect of a well funded vaccination program, but population control is an equally beneficial affect. (It is an elitist concept promoted and believed in by much or the Ruling Elite around the World… the Progressives, the Fabians, the Bilderbergers (Melinda Gates, ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage lags behind coverage for the other vaccines recommended for preteens, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).1 A recent report about vaccination coverage in the United States among adolescents aged 13 to 17 found that rates of vaccination have increased since the HPV vaccine was introduced for females in 2006 and for males in 2011.2 Still, coverage remains substantially lower than for tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine and for meningococcal conjugate vaccine.. To help close that gap, the CDC encourages clinicians to recommend HPV vaccination in the same way and on the same day that they recommend other routinely recommended vaccines for patients at age 11 or 12 years. In addition, the CDC suggests effectively recommending HPV vaccination by bundling the recommendation for all vaccines for preteens, with HPV vaccine in the middle.. Safe for Most Young People. The CDC recommends routine HPV ...
Today the government released the regulations and guidance for businesses and organizations to support them in implementing proof of vaccination requirements, which take effect on September 22, 2021. Requiring proof of vaccination will help increase vaccination rates, protect individuals in higher-risk indoor settings, and keep businesses open.. High rates of vaccination against COVID-19 are critical to helping protect our communities and hospital capacity while keeping Ontario schools and businesses safely open, said Christine Elliott, Deputy Premier and Minister of Health. As we continue our last mile push to increase vaccination rates, requiring proof of immunization in select settings will encourage even more Ontarians to receive the vaccine and stop the spread of COVID-19. If you havent received your first or second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, please sign up today.. In advance of September 22, all Ontarians can print or download their vaccination receipt from the provincial booking ...
Individual decision-making regarding vaccination may be affected by the vaccination choices of others. As vaccination produces externalities reducing transmission of a disease, it can provide an incentive for individuals to be free-riders who benefit from the vaccination of others while avoiding the cost of vaccination. This study examined an individuals decision about vaccination in a group setting for a hypothetical disease that is called
Results: The overall sample consisted of 4,011 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate in Germany increased from 22.3% in 2002/2003 to 25.1% in 2003/2004. This increase is not significant. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccinees were: influenza considered to be a serious illness, which people wanted to avoid (90.1%), having received advice from the family doctor or nurse to be vaccinated (71.3%), and not wanting to infect family and friends (70.4%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who have never been vaccinated were: thinking about it, however, not being vaccinated in the end (47.7%), not expecting to catch influenza (43.6%), and not having received a recommendation from the family doctor to be vaccinated (36.6%). Options encouraging influenza vaccination are: recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (66.6%), more available information on the vaccine regarding efficacy and tolerance (54.2%), and more information available about the ...
Pertussis, a highly contagious but vaccine preventable disease also known as whooping cough, is on the rise across North America, including here in Simcoe Muskoka. But why is pertussis resurfacing, you might ask? There is a natural cyclical increase of pertussis every 4 to 6 years, but decreased immunity of previously vaccinated adults is another explanation for the increase in cases.. Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick and parts of Ontario are experiencing significant outbreaks of pertussis. Even more concerning is that the United States is on the verge of the worst outbreak of pertussis since 1959, with more than 22,000 cases and 13 deaths reported since January. A bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, pertussis is largely preventable through vaccination. The pertussis vaccine is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. In Ontario, this vaccination is publically funded at two, four, six and 18 months and then again at ages 4-6 and 14-16. Parents are encouraged to ...
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has made the achievement of high vaccination coverage levels a key goal for the Region of the Americas. Achieving coverage levels of 95% or higher at the national and local levels is central to PAHOs objectives of eliminating measles and rubella, controlling vaccine-preventable diseases, and maintaining polio eradication in the Americas (1-3). Besides the national coverage levels, PAHO currently recommends that countries utilize two other measures or indicators of coverage for each vaccine: (1) the number and proportion of municipalities (i.e., districts) with a vaccine-specific coverage level of , 95%, and (2) the number and proportion of children in a given age group who live in a municipality with , 95% coverage.1 These three measures of coverage enable national programs to identify high-risk municipalities and to ensure equity in the provision of immunization services (4).. Implicit in adopting coverage goals is the ability to measure and monitor ...
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive effects of socioeconomic factors to explain influenza vaccination coverage rates in 11 European countries. METHODS: Data from national household surveys collected over up to seven consecutive seasons between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008 were analyzed to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with immunization against influenza. RESULTS: In total, data from 92,101 household contacts representative for the national non-institutionalized population aged above 14 years were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe remain suboptimal with little or no progress in the last years. The results of this study indicate that gender, household income, size of household, educational level and population size of living residence may significantly contribute to explain chances of getting immunized against influenza apart from the known risk factors age and chronic illness. The effect of these socioeconomic factors was ...
We therefore evaluated the efficacy of influenza vaccination in SLE patients in several ways. With respect to the percentage of patients who achieved seroconversion or a fourfold titre rise we found that influenza vaccination was less effective for A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in SLE patients. Accordingly, fewer SLE patients achieved a protective titre after vaccination against both the influenza A strains together when compared with healthy controls, despite the fact that more patients than controls had received a vaccination with the same viral antigens the year before. We suggest that the GMT in SLE patients after vaccination did not differ from the controls because GMT before vaccination was higher in the patients-which can easily be accounted for by their higher rate of previous vaccination. The conclusion that SLE patients appear to have a decreased immune response compared with healthy controls is supported by the subanalysis of those patients and controls who did not have influenza vaccination the ...
Influenza vaccines are universally funded in Ontario, Canada. Some public health units (PHUs) vaccinate children in schools. We examined the impact of school-based delivery on vaccination rates and healthcare use of the entire population over seven influenza seasons (2000-2007) using population-based survey and health administrative data. School-based vaccination was associated with higher vaccination rates in school-age children only. Doctors office visits were lower for PHUs with school-based vaccination for children aged 12-19 but not for other age groups. Emergency department use and hospitalizations were similar between the two groups. In the context of universal influenza vaccination, school-based delivery is associated with higher vaccination rates and modest reductions in healthcare use in school-age children.. Keywords: Immunization Vaccination Health care utilization ...
The findings of this research suggest that there is indeed a low number (64/331, 19%) of HCWs vaccinated against hepatitis B in Lusaka district. In this study 281 (85.0%) of the HCWs knew that a vaccine against hepatitis B exists and 321 (97.0%) of the HCWs were willing to get vaccinated if the vaccine were to become available in their institution. A high knowledge base on the existence of the vaccine among HCWs and high willingness to be vaccinated suggests that the reason for low vaccination prevalence among HCWs is not by their own doing. Perhaps low vaccination rates can be due to the unavailability of the vaccine in the institution due to a non-stringent policy on the vaccination of HCWs.. Other studies have shown some interesting findings, for example, a study done in Uganda, found the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination among HCWs at 38.4% [12] and 83.6% in Kuala lumpa [13]. In this study, out of the 64 HCWs that were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 35 (54.7%) had completed full ...
The Ministry of Health of the Government of the Canary Islands The flu vaccination begins this Thursday in all health centers in the Canary Islands, according to the organ. The objective is decrease the incidence of this disease through vaccination, reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with influenza and the impact of the disease in the community. This year, experts also insist on the importance of flu vaccination given the coexistence of the Covid-19 pandemic with flu season, stated in a statement. Flu vaccination is done by appointment, calling 012 or their numbers without additional charges 922470012 and 928301012, designing a clean circuit for access to vaccination. The vaccine is recommended for everyone over 60 years of age, chronically ill of any age and their caregivers, pregnant women, healthcare personnel, and personnel from other professions that are also essential to the community, such as police and firefighters. Vaccination against influenza will reduce the possibility of ...
EVERETT - The Baker-Polito Administration today announced that beginning next week, most of the Commonwealths mass vaccination sites will open for walk-up appointments. The Administration also provided the weekly update on the states allocation of vaccines received from the federal government.. The Administration, CIC Health, FEMA and other partners also announced a new milestone of 250,000 doses administered at the FEMA supported Community Vaccination Clinic at the Hynes Convention Center.. Mass Vaccination Sites Open for Walk Ups. Beginning Monday, May 10th, six of the Commonwealths mass vaccination sites will open for walk up vaccination. These sites include the Hynes Convention Center, the Reggie Lewis Center in Roxbury, the Double Tree in Danvers, the former Circuit City in Dartmouth, the Eastfield Mall in Springfield and the Natick Mall. Residents should still go to VaxFinder to find a location near them and plan their vaccination. Residents will be able to use each sites VaxFinder ...
We included 18 cross-sectional studies in this review. The included studies were conducted in 10 out of the 54 countries in Africa. The 18 studies focused on a wide range of adolescent vaccines. Thirteen studies evaluated vaccines against Human Papilloma Virus, while each of the remaining 5 studies, evaluated vaccines against rabies, HIV, tetanus toxoid, tuberculosis and adolescent vaccines in general. Among the key players, we found low to moderate levels of knowledge about adolescent vaccination. Positive attitudes and practices towards adolescent vaccination, especially against Human Papilloma Virus were reported. Despite the low knowledge, our results showed high levels of acceptability to adolescent vaccination among adolescents, parents and teachers.. CONCLUSIONS ...
The substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality associated with smallpox vaccination make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial. If vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. A previous game-theoretical study by Bauch et al. [4] examined this conflict of interest, and focused on the trade-off between prophylactic vaccination and post-outbreak mass vaccination (which has been shown to outperform contact-traced vaccination in a bioterrorism setting [10]). In particular, they showed that if the decision regarding pre-emptive vaccination is left to the individual, then the vaccine coverage achieved will be suboptimal from the group perspective. Bauch et al. [4] assumed that, once a post-outbreak vaccination campaign begins, individuals will be ... Vaccination is probably the most deceptive tool of imperialism that even anti-imperialists often fail to recognize. It displays a humanitarian face but has the soul of a beast. Its true character is that of a deceptive agent of imperialism. The romanticism of western medicine has masked the true nature and ethos of vaccination. However, using the anti-imperialist tool, pedagogy of the oppressed (1), a diligent and deeper study of the history of vaccination and the socio-political and cultural context of that history would reveal the true character of vaccination.. Vaccination is the process of introducing a vaccine into the body to produce immunity to a specific infectious organism. It is not the same as immunization (which has been mistakenly used interchangeably with vaccination), which is the process of conferring immunity, not necessarily through vaccination. Immunity is the capacity of the body to protect itself from the development of a disease due to exposure to an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody response to influenza vaccine in adults vaccinated with identical vaccine strains in consecutive years. AU - Nabeshima, Shigeki. AU - Kashiwagi, Kenichiro. AU - Murata, Masayuki. AU - Kanamoto, Yoko. AU - Furusyo, Norihiro. AU - Hayashi, Jun. PY - 2007/3/1. Y1 - 2007/3/1. N2 - Fifty seven hospital workers received influenza vaccine in November 2003, and the serum HI antibody titer was determined before, 2 and 4 weeks after the vaccination. Thirty seven were vaccinated in November, 2002 consecutively (the repeated vaccination group), and the remaining 20 had not been vaccinated in the previous year (the single vaccination group). Six of the repeated vaccination group received both influenza and hepatitis B vaccination in September, 2004 and the antibody responses were examined 2 weeks later. Two and four weeks after the 2003-vaccination, the HI antibody titers to A/ H1N1, A/H3N2, and B in the repeated vaccination group were significantly lower than in the single ...
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This study, similar to previous studies in low/middle-income countries (eg, refs 5-8), found pro-rich inequalities in immunisation rate in most countries under study. Gambia, Namibia and Kyrgyz Republic were the only countries where children who belong to higher SES households were less likely to be fully immunised against the four diseases than their lower SES counterparts. Lower vaccination coverage among higher versus lower SES children was also observed in more developed countries (eg, ref 27). Studies27-29 have suggested several factors that may be associated with a decrease in child vaccination coverage among higher SES population in more developed countries. The significant reductions in the incidences of vaccine-preventable diseases in recent decades may have changed how parents perceive child vaccines. In other words, parents may perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines than the risks of rare adverse events following immunisation. Some scientifically unfounded claims about ...
Mandatory vaccination policies in Europe were associated with higher rates of vaccination for both measles and pertussis. Although mandatory vaccination overall was not associated with a lower incidence of either measles or pertussis, when there was no option of a nonmedical vaccination exemption, the incidence of measles was significantly lower. Moreover, the presence of a financial penalty for nonvaccination was associated with a lower incidence of both pertussis and measles. Countries with a fine for noncompliance experienced incidence rates of less than half that of countries without mandatory vaccination for both measles and pertussis. Among these countries with a financial penalty, a €500 increase in the maximum penalty parents could face for failing to comply with their countrys vaccination regulations was associated with a 1.1% higher vaccination rate for pertussis and a 0.8% higher vaccination rate for measles.. Financial penalties could be an effective measure in a comprehensive ...
Hepatitis B is a significant health burden in Poland with nosocomial transmission being the main source of infection. Therefore, HBV vaccination is widely recommended for those not covered by the national immunisation program. Objective: To assess the coverage and influencing determinants of HBV vaccination among adult patients attending GP clinics as well as to establish serological status in terms of HBV infection. Patients who were seen consecutively in March 2013 at four randomly selected GP practices located in Zgorzelec county, in south-western part of Poland, were invited to participate and complete questionnaires on socio-demographic data and other factors related to vaccination. A pilot study was done in one urban GP practice in the city of Gryfino (Gryfino county), the results have been included in the study. Patients immunisation status was assessed basing on vaccination cards and anti-HBs titer with the use of third-generation testing methods. In addition, serum samples were assayed for
Some Silicon Valley daycares have dangerously low vaccination rates that threaten herd immunity, according to a Wired magazine report citing state data.
We estimated cost-effectiveness of annually vaccinating children not at high risk with inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) to range from US $12,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved for children ages 6-23 months to $119,000 per QALY saved for children ages 12-17 years. For children at high risk (preexisting medical conditions) ages 6-35 months, vaccination with IIV was cost saving. For children at high risk ages 3-17 years, vaccination cost $1,000-$10,000 per QALY. Among children not at high risk ages 5-17 years, live, attenuated influenza vaccine had a similar cost-effectiveness as IIV. Risk status was more important than age in determining the economic effects of annual vaccination, and vaccination was less cost-effective as the child's age increased. Thus, routine vaccination of all children is likely less cost-effective than vaccination of all children ages 6-23 months plus all other children at high risk.
A new study published in the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association shows that pharmacy-based immunization services have increased influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations by millions since immunizations became more accessible in pharmacies.. All the data researchers used came from 2006 through 2010, a time when changes in immunization policy led to a significant push to offer vaccination services in pharmacies. The researchers studied the data to determine whether more widespread availability of pharmacy-based immunizations had actually increased vaccination rates beyond national trends, as opposed to shifting immunization services away from other providers.. In examining the data, the researchers found that pharmacy-based immunization services had increased significantly during 2006-2010. In 2010, pharmacy-based immunization was available in 97 percent of counties, up from only 36 percent of counties in 2006. Adult influenza vaccination rates increased from 40 percent in 2006 to 49 ...
Over recent decades, the Region of the Americas has made significant progress towards hepatitis B elimination. We summarize the countries/territories efforts in introducing and implementing hepatitis B (HB) vaccination and in evaluating its impact on HB virus seroprevalence. We collected information about HB vaccination schedules, coverage estimates, and year of vaccine introduction from countries/territories reporting to the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization. We obtained additional information regarding countries/territories vaccination recommendations and strategies through communications with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) managers and national immunization survey reports. We identified vaccine impact studies conducted and published in the Americas. As of October 2016, all 51 countries/territories have included infant HB vaccination in their official immunization schedule. Twenty countries, whose
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major cause of hepatitis in South Africa (SA), with an estimated 4 million carriers. It is transmitted by infected blood and other body fluids, placing health care workers (HCWs) at high risk of infection. The SA Department of Health strongly recommends that all HCWs be vaccinated against HBV, but studies have shown that uptake of the vaccine is sub-optimal. This study aimed to estimate HB vaccination coverage levels among nurses, and describe the demographics and characteristics of the HB vaccination policies associated with different levels of coverage, at private and public hospitals in Tshwane. METHODS: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study on 300 randomly selected nurses and 12 chief infection control officers (CICOs) from 13 hospitals (6 public and 7 private) in Tshwane performing high risk procedures. CICOs were asked questions about HB vaccination policies and coverage, while nurses were asked about demographics, HB ...
This is the fifth report on vaccine preventable disease and vaccination coverage in Australia, and is produced by the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare on behalf of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing published as a supplement to the Communicable Diseases Intelligence journal, Volume 34, December 2010.
ABSTRACT:. OBJECTIVE: Previous surveys on hypothesized sexual activity changes after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may be subject to self-response biases. To date, no studies measured clinical markers of sexual activity after HPV vaccination. This study evaluated sexual activity-related clinical outcomes after adolescent vaccination.. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing longitudinal electronic data from a large managed care organization. Girls enrolled in the managed care organization, aged 11 through 12 years between July 2006 and December 2007, were classified by adolescent vaccine (HPV; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis, adsorbed; quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate) receipt. Outcomes (pregnancy/sexually transmitted infection testing or diagnosis; contraceptive counseling) were assessed through December 31, 2010, providing up to 3 years of follow-up. Incidence rate ratios comparing vaccination categories were estimated with ...
The full Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Vaccination Coverage in Australia, 2001 to 2002 report is available in 16 HTML documents. This preliminary document contains the References. The full report is also available in PDF format from the Table of contents page, either the full version or by chapter.
The full Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Vaccination Coverage in Australia, 2001 to 2002 report is available in 16 HTML documents. This preliminary document contains the References. The full report is also available in PDF format from the Table of contents page, either the full version or by chapter.
However, superintendents and other experts have said increasing vaccination rates among students will be difficult, Stolberg reports.. When you look at a map of the United States and you see those states that have low vaccination rates and high infection rates, those are the areas where superintendents are having problems in getting kids vaccinated, Dan Domenech, the executive director of AASA: The School Superintendents Association, said.. School officials have faced difficulties on many fronts when it comes to vaccination, Stolberg reports. Some parents are reluctant to allow their children to be vaccinated and are against schools being used as vaccination sites, particularly in rural areas where there is already vaccine resistance.. For people who are for it, its an easy one-they support vaccination as a strong strategy to fight Covid, and they dont see any issue with the use of public space, Kristi Wilson, the superintendent for Buckeye Elementary School District in Arizona, said. But ...
However, We Must Do Better. Gardasil was the first HPV vaccine to be approved, in 2006. At that time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended routine vaccination for girls at the age of 11 or 12, with catch-up vaccination through the age of 26 years. In 2011, the CDC expanded the recommendation to include routine vaccination for boys age 11 or 12.. Even though HPV vaccination has been recommended for more than a decade, the most recent estimates from the CDC are that as of 2015, only 42 percent of girls and 28 percent of boys ages 13 to 17 had completed the HPV vaccination series. During that time the recommended vaccination series was three doses of vaccine. In the fall of 2016, the CDC revised this and now recommends that children age 11 or 12 receive just two doses of HPV vaccine at least six months apart. However, the CDC continues to recommend three doses for teens and young adults who start the HPV vaccination series from age 15 through age 26.. The good news is ...
The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) released two annual reports recently. The reports provide information about healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and influenza vaccination rates among health care providers.. While California hospitals have made progress in preventing healthcare-associated infections, HAIs continue to be a significant public health issue in the state. In 2015, hospitals reported 19,847 healthcare-associated infections to CDPH. From 2014 to 2015, 56 hospitals demonstrated significant improvement in preventing one or more HAI type. Hospitals are making progress in preventing HAI with the exception of C. difficile diarrheal infections (CDI), which increased 8 percent since 2011. CDPH offered infection-prevention assistance to 73 hospitals with high infection rates.. The departments influenza vaccination report indicates that vaccination rates among health care providers have improved in the past five years. Since 2011, vaccination rates increased 21 percent for ...
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Rates of HPV vaccination lagged behind the coverage rate for other recommended vaccinations for adolescents, such as tetanus diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) and meningococcal conjugate. Based on national coverage estimates from 2016, 65 percent of 13-17-year-old women received at least one HPV vaccination and only 49.5 percent were up to date with the series, compared to about 88 percent of the adolescents who received Tdap.. Although major studies have demonstrated the safety of HPV vaccination, concerns about parental safety - including possible consequences for future fertility - are often cited as a reason for lower HPV coverage.. ,p class = canvas-atom canvas-text Mb (1.0em) Mb (0) - sm Mt (0.8em) - sm type = text content = Reports of premature menopause after HPV vaccination have received a lot media attention, also on social media, said Allison Naleway, PhD, lead author and researcher at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research Portland, Oregon. However, these ...
At present there are 2 vaccinations available in Australia that protect against the A, B, C, W and Y strains. Strains A, C, W, Y are covered by Menveo, Nimenrix and Menracta (can be given from the age of 6 weeks depending on the brand). The B strain is covered by Bexero (can be given from age of 6 weeks) or Trumenba (from the age of 10).. The schedule for these is dependent on the age that the child commences vaccination. The ACWY vaccination is currently on the National Immunisation Schedule for the general population at age 12 months and 14 to 16 years (usually administered at school as part of the vaccination program).. The B vaccination is only covered at present for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children or those with specific medical risk factors. It is covered as part of the state immunisation schedule however for those living in South Australia. At present if parents/young adults would like to have the B vaccination they would need to obtain this privately by prescription ...
Our analysis demonstrated that under most assumptions, the prophylactic vaccination against HPV-16 and HPV-18 had an ICER between US$7,000 and US$27,000 per QALY gained in the vaccinated adolescent girls in Taiwan. The ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY unless the vaccine efficacy declined to less than 38% or if the immunity waned and required booster shots every 10 years (Figure 4). If the vaccination cost could be reduced to below US$277, then the HPV vaccination would cost less than US$10,000 per QALY gained, indicating a potential for further enhancement of cost-effectiveness. Although there has been no domestic consensus on the threshold of the cost-effectiveness ratio for the National Health Insurance system to decide whether to reimburse a new medical intervention, the results of our analysis suggest that prophylactic vaccination against oncogenic HPV administered in preadolescent girls in Taiwan would be usually cost-effective based on the World Health Organization proposed ...
The translated Covid vaccination record will help you to travel around the globe. Lets find out more reasons to translate Covid Vaccination Records.
Before we delve into this issue, I want to make a few points about vaccination.. I recognise that vaccination is an emotive issue for many people. This includes those who see vaccination as a legitimate, important and useful means to prevent disease, as well as large numbers of parents who have concerns about vaccination and the potential side effects on their children.. Vaccination in and of itself is not immoral. Vaccinations have helped to eliminate a number of deadly and debilitating diseases. This is a good thing.. I acknowledge that there are serious concerns about the morality of some vaccinations which have been developed from foetal tissue. Abortion is clearly a grave moral evil and under no circumstances can it be approved, even for the purpose developing vaccines.. In 2003, the Vaticans Pontifical Academy for Life had this to say about such vaccines:. However, in this situation, the aspect of passive cooperation is that which stands out most. It is up to the faithful and citizens of ...
Influenza vaccination uptake and socioeconomic determinants in 11 European countries. Vaccine : the official journal of the International Society for Vaccines, Vol. 27. pp. 4018-4024 ...
Lu A.B, Halim A.A, Dendle C, Kotsanas D, Giles M.L, Wallace E.M, Buttery J.P, Stuart R.L. Influenza vaccination uptake amongst pregnant women and maternal care providers is suboptimal. VACCINE 30 (27) : 4055 - 4059(2012 ...
The majority of countries (83% of 24 respondents) had an official vaccination policy for pregnant women. No replies were received from nine countries and it is possible that response bias results from smaller countries and countries without vaccination policies being less likely to respond. Twenty one countries out of the 27 in the EU, corresponding to 93% of the member population, were covered by the combined responses to both questionnaires.. Some countries had existing advance purchase agreements with pharmaceutical companies which allowed early procurement. A lack of capacity to identify and prioritise key population groups quickly may also have influenced policy decisions. Public perceptions, which can be influenced by certain key events in a population, may be significant. For example, in the Czech Republic, a previous key event involving vaccines contaminated with deadly live H5N1 avian flu virus, might have influenced the decision not to formulate an official vaccination policy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modelling epidemics with fractional-dose vaccination in response to limited vaccine supply. AU - Chen, Zhimin. AU - Liu, Kaihui. AU - Liu, Xiuxiang. AU - Lou, Yijun. PY - 2020/2/7. Y1 - 2020/2/7. N2 - The control strategies of emergency infectious diseases are constrained by limited medical resources. The fractional dose vaccination strategy as one of feasible strategies was proposed in response to global shortages of vaccine stockpiles. Although a variety of epidemic models have been developed under the circumstances of limited resources in treatment, few models particularly investigated vaccination strategies in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we develop a two-group SIR model with incorporation of proportionate mixing patterns and n-fold fractional dose vaccination related parameters to evaluate the efficiency of fractional dose vaccination on disease control at the population level. The existence and uniqueness of the final size of the two-group SIR epidemic model, ...
In March 1991 the Supreme Board of Health issued new recommendations for immunization of children which are basically similar to those issued in 1989, but were partially reformulated. Again, BCG vaccination is not generally recommended and should be given only to individuals at high risk of contracting the disease. It is therefore not listed any more in the general recommendations (A) but only mentioned under special vaccinations (B). Special indications for BCG vaccination were clearly reformulated. Vaccinations against diphtheria-tetanus or pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus are recommended as usual, an oral pertussis vaccine is presently not available and an acellular pertussis vaccine is under study. Booster vaccinations at school entry will be performed with a low dose of diphtheria-toxoid to avoid local side reactions.
Vaccinating healthcare personnel (HCP) against influenza is important to prevent transmission and morbidity among patients and staff. We conducted an online survey assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes concerning influenza vaccination among HCP. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of vaccination. The survey was completed by 468 HCP representing all categories of staff. Doctors believed that vaccination was the best way to prevent influenza and perceived the vaccine less harmful as compared to nurses and allied health professionals. Getting vaccinated was associated with a greater likelihood of recommending vaccination to patients: 86 % vs. 54 % in vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, respectively. Reasons for vaccine refusal were fear of needles (19 %); fear of side effects (66 %) and lack of time (16 %). In the multivariate analysis, survey items that were independently associated with vaccination were beliefs that: vaccine effectively prevents
Vaccination has revolutionised control of infectious disease in our pets. It is essential that all pets are adequately vaccinated to help protect the pet population as a whole. Responsible pet care requires puppies to be given their initial course of vaccinations, but this cannot protect them for the rest of their lives. Adult dogs require regular vaccination to maintain immunity against disease.. Puppy Vaccination. Puppies are temporarily protected against many diseases by antibodies received through their mothers milk. These maternal antibodies decline in the first few months of their lives, however until they drop sufficiently they can also neutralise vaccines. This is why a series of vaccinations are necessary in a puppy. At our clinic we pride ourselves in offering the best advice, customer care and lots of cuddles to all new puppies. We recommend puppies are vaccinated between 6 and 8 weeks of age, followed by a booster vaccination between 10 and 12 weeks of age. Each puppy will be ...
A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. If a person acquires a vaccine-preventable disease and dies from it, the death is considered a vaccine-preventable death. The most common and serious vaccine-preventable diseases tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO) are: diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, hepatitis B, measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. The WHO reports licensed vaccines being available to prevent, or contribute to the prevention and control of, 25 vaccine-preventable infections. In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that vaccination prevents 2.5 million deaths each year. If there is 100% immunization, and 100% efficacy of the vaccines, one out of seven deaths among young children could be prevented, mostly in developing countries, making this an important global health issue. Four diseases were responsible for 98% of ...
The Denton County Health Department is currently seeing major increases in influenza activity and is offering free flu shots to anyone six months old or older. While this increase is typical for this time of year, it should still prompt those who have not received a flu vaccination to make sure they do so now, said Juan Rodriguez, Chief Epidemiologist at the health department.. Denton County normally sees flu activity peak in February so it is important for residents to ensure they are protected, said Rodriguez.. DCHD is conducting a free flu vaccination clinic on Saturday, Jan. 29, from 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. at their Denton office located at 535 S. Loop 288.. In addition, free vaccinations are available during normal business hours in both the Denton and Lewisville offices. Flu mist will be available for children over the age of 2.. Flu vaccinations will be available for the general public, but health officials especially encourage those at high risk of complications from the flu to receive ...
Vaccination[edit]. A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, ... First, for dog owners who live near or who often frequent tick-infested areas, routine vaccinations of their dogs is an ...
Guérin, N. (2007). "Histoire de la vaccination: De l'empirisme aux vaccins recombinants" [History of vaccination: from ... Vaccination[edit]. Main articles: Smallpox vaccine and Edward Jenner. In 1796, Edward Jenner, a doctor and scientist who had ... Harris F "Edward Jenner and Vaccination" World Wide School Full text. *^ Pead, Patrick P. (2003). "Benjamin Jesty ; new light ... Despite some opposition vaccination took over from variolation. ... The theory to support further advances in vaccination came ...
The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the latter two disease ... Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccinations: a History: From Lady Montagu to Jenner and genetic engineering. John Libbey Eurotext. pp. ... Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccinations: a History: From Lady Montagu to Jenner and genetic engineering. John Libbey Eurotext. pp. 66 ... Immunology and vaccination. Chicken cholera. Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. He received ...
Vaccination[edit]. An International Certificate of Vaccination required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against ... Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination ... Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has recently visited one.[31] ... require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination. ...
Affordability of vaccines can be a problem; if the governments do not provide vaccinations, only the wealthy may be able to ... WHO recommends that oral cholera vaccination be considered in areas where the disease is endemic (with seasonal peaks), as part ... Work is under way to investigate the role of mass vaccination.[56] The WHO recommends immunization of high-risk groups, such as ... Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of ...
Vaccination European New Integrated Collaboration Effort. Venice III.. *^ "The German Standing Committee of Vaccination". ... Vaccination[edit]. In Germany, the Standing Committee on Vaccination is the federal commission responsible for recommending an ... the STIKO recommends vaccinations for occupational groups, police, travelers, and other at risk groups.[14] Vaccinations ... administering booster vaccinations, maintaining medical and vaccination history, and giving information and recommendations ...
Vaccination. Vaccines have been developed that prevent infection by some carcinogenic viruses.[126] Human papillomavirus ... vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight ... The administration of human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccinations is recommended when resources allow.[127] ...
Vaccination[edit]. The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for prevention of cholera, is of questionable use for prevention ... Jelinek T, Kollaritsch H (2008). "Vaccination with Dukoral against travelers' diarrhea (ETEC) and cholera". Expert Rev Vaccines ...
Vaccination[edit]. Main article: Hepatitis C vaccine. Unlike hepatitis A and B, there is currently no vaccine to prevent ... Once introduced to a country its spread has been influenced by many local factors including blood transfusions, vaccination ...
Vaccination[edit]. Main articles: Vaccination and Vaccine. The primary way to boost levels of immunity in a population is ... Mass vaccination, discussions of disease eradication, and cost-benefit analyses of vaccination subsequently prompted more ... "The case for vaccination" (PDF). North & South. Bauer Media. Retrieved 3 July 2015.. ... Some individuals either cannot develop immunity after vaccination or for medical reasons cannot be vaccinated.[14][15][4][14] ...
IRIN Africa news has been providing the number of deaths for each country since 1995,[41][42][43][44] and a mass vaccination ... Meningitis A,C,Y and W-135 vaccines can be used for large-scale vaccination programs when an outbreak of meningococcal disease ... Andreoni J, Käyhty H, Densen P (July 1993). "Vaccination and the role of capsular polysaccharide antibody in prevention of ... Since vaccine duration is unknown, mass select vaccinations may be the most cost-effective means for controlling the ...
Vaccination-like process[edit]. Sex may also be derived from another prokaryotic process. A comprehensive theory called "origin ... Sterrer W (2002). "On the origin of sex as vaccination". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 216 (4): 387-396. doi:10.1006/jtbi. ... of sex as vaccination" proposes that eukaryan sex-as-syngamy (fusion sex) arose from prokaryan unilateral sex-as-infection, ...
Vaccination[edit]. Main article: Vaccination schedule. Vaccination programs are one of the most effective and common types of ... and most private health insurers cover these vaccinations. In the UK, the NHS both decides and implements vaccination protocols ... NGOs also may be involved in funding or implementing vaccination programs; for instance Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ... For instance, in the U.S., the Center for Disease Control decides on a vaccination schedule, ...
Vaccination centre[edit]. Air France operates the Air France Vaccinations Centre in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.[77][78] ... "Nous Situer." Air France Vaccinations Centre. Retrieved on 5 May 2010. *^ "Vaccinations Centre Archived 6 May 2010 at the ... a b B. H. "Twingo travaillaient à la chaîne La station Simplon ne rouvrira qu'en novembre Le centre de vaccinations d'Air ... "Le centre de vaccinations internationales d'Air France quittera samedi le terminal de la compagnie aux Invalides (VII e ) pour ...
Alternative medicine and anti-vaccination controversy[edit]. The Huffington Post has been criticized by several science ...
Flu vaccinations[edit]. Main article: Influenza vaccine. Flu vaccinations have been used to diminish the effects of the flu ... CDC brochure on flu vaccination for diabetics *^ Flu Season Overview Archived 2010-02-16 at the Wayback Machine. North Carolina ... Vaccination with the flu shot has been shown to boost the immune system and protect against the seasonal flu in some patients ... Flu vaccination is also strict for lung cancer patients, as cancer leads to complications of pneumonia and bronchitis. People ...
Vaccination[edit]. The Five-Star Movement has strong links to anti-vaccination activists, and party leaders have called for ... rolling back mandatory vaccination laws.[133][134] European affiliation[edit]. About the politics of the European Union and the ...
Vaccination[edit]. Since the 1980s, many countries have included immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type B in their ... Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), which is active against ... For some causes of meningitis, protection can be provided in the long term through vaccination, or in the short term with ... She survived the disease and became a poster child for a meningitis vaccination campaign in New Zealand. ...
Immunity and vaccination[edit]. Due to its extreme potency, even a lethal dose of tetanospasmin may be insufficient to provoke ...
Vaccination against influenza[edit]. After vaccination, IgG+ antibody-secreting plasma cells (ASCs) increase rapidly and ... These high affinity human monoclonal antibodies can be produced within a month after vaccination and because of their human ...
Vaccination[edit]. Two typhoid vaccines are licensed for use for the prevention of typhoid:[7] the live, oral Ty21a vaccine ( ... endorsed the use of a vaccination program starting in 1999. Vaccinations have proven to be a great way at controlling outbreaks ... Development of vaccination[edit]. During the course of treatment of a typhoid outbreak in a local village in 1838, English ... Vaccination prices are normally low, less than US $1 per dose. Because the price is low, poverty-stricken communities are more ...
Vaccination[edit]. Main article: Meningococcal vaccine. United States[edit]. A number of vaccines are available in the U.S. to ... "Meningococcal Vaccination". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 1 September 2016.. ... "Meningitis A Nearly Eliminated in Africa through Vaccination, Reaching more than 235 Million People". Immunization Africa. 22 ... The vaccination campaign has resulted in near-elimination of serogroup A meningitis from the participating countries.[31] ...
Vaccination[edit]. After Edward Jenner's 1796 demonstration that the smallpox vaccination worked, the technique became better ... The Santee Sioux refused vaccination and many died.[15] Other causes of depopulation[edit]. War and violence[edit]. Main ... In other cases, natives refused vaccination because of suspicion of whites. The first international healthcare expedition in ... Artist and writer George Catlin observed that Native Americans were also suspicious of vaccination, "They see white men urging ...
Vaccination[edit]. Though IAP for EOD prevention is associated with a large decline in the incidence of the disease, there is, ... Vaccination is considered an ideal solution to prevent not only EOD and LOD but also GBS infections in adults at risk.[35] ... Vaccination is an effective method to prevent pathogenic diseases in aquaculture and different kinds vaccines to prevent GBS ... "Preventing the broad spectrum of perinatal morbidity and mortality throughgh group B streptococcal vaccination". Vaccine. 31S: ...
Vaccination. Due to both its effectiveness and safety, in 2009 the World Health Organization recommended that the rotavirus ... "Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 30 (1 Suppl): S1-5. doi:10.1097/INF. ... and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the United States: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data". The ... the implementation of a rotavirus vaccination program in the United States has substantially decreased the number of cases of ...
Vaccinations[edit]. Main article: Feline vaccination. Vaccinations are an important preventive animal health measure. The ... Timely vaccination can reduce the risk and severity of an infection. The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate cats ... specific vaccinations recommended for cats varies depending on geographic location, environment, travel history, and the ...
Vaccination campaigns[edit]. In 2013, the Government of Haiti launched an oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in two ... This vaccination effort was slightly controversial because the WHO guidelines at the time did not encourage mass vaccination ... or higher protective effectiveness 5 years after vaccination[93]) in recent vaccination campaigns in Haiti and other countries ... "Cholera vaccination campaign for Haitians hardest hit by Hurricane Matthew". Retrieved 15 December 2020.. ...
"Vaccination". *"The Hormones". *"The Chain of Life". *"Repairs and changes". *"And Life Goes On" ...
Vaccination Superstition. 1902.. *. Marriage: a Lifelong Honeymoon. 1903.. *. Building of Vital Power. 1904.. ...
Tdap and recommend catch-up vaccination. Tdap and recommend catch-up vaccination. Tetanus immunoglobulin ... Vaccination status. Clean, minor wounds. All other wounds Unknown or less than 3 doses of tetanus toxoid containing vaccine. ... Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid.[28] The CDC recommends that adults receive a booster vaccine every ...
... and staff to build confidence about COVID-19 vaccination, educate patients, and provide storage and handling information. ... Considerations for Planning School-Located Vaccination Clinicsplus icon *How Schools Can Support COVID-19 Vaccination ... Mobile Vaccination Resources. *Vaccinating Dialysis Patients and Healthcare Personnelplus icon *What Public Health ... COVID-19 Vaccination Program Operational Guidance. *Vaccine Allocation Transfer and Redistribution Guidance for IHS and Tribal ...
The weakened immune system can also mean that older people dont respond as well to flu vaccination. Given the higher risk of ... Flu Burden Averted from Vaccinationplus icon *How CDC Estimates Burden Averted ... severe flu illness and lower protective immune response after vaccination among older adults, substantial research and ...
Other vaccinations may be listed on the other side.. (5) The date on which the vaccination is given should be entered as shown ... INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATE OF VACCINATION OR PROPHYLAXIS (ICVP). The IHR allow countries to require proof of YF vaccination ... Authorization to Provide Vaccinations and to Validate the ICVP. People who received YF vaccination after December 15, 2007, ... Medical Contraindication to Vaccination section of the International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP). ...
... influenza vaccination coverage for vulnerable groups, according to a new report from the European Centre for Disease Prevention ... Vaccination is the most effective form of influenza prevention. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public ... Countries that do not yet have a seasonal influenza vaccination action plan to achieve higher seasonal influenza vaccination ... Usually, a flu vaccination reduces the risk by 60%. In a bad year, the seasonal flu vaccine reduces the risk of flu illness by ...
Vaccination of the egg-allergic individual can be undertaken safely with the measles mumps rubella (MMR), the measles mumps ... Vaccination in specific hospital-based vaccination clinics. *Allergy specialist review before influenza vaccination unless ... ASCIA Guidelines vaccination egg-allergic individual 2017265.95 KB. Introduction. Vaccination is an important method of ... Older vaccination guidelines and the vaccine Product Information (PI) recommended avoidance of influenza vaccination in egg- ...
59 ). Reactive prostate tumor DTH tests were present before vaccination in two of eight men. Following vaccination, seven of ... Examples of new approaches involve vaccinations with defined peptide antigens, such as PSA (66) , vaccinations with ... has indicated that vaccination-associated B-cell responses elicited by vaccination include the generation of new antibodies ... Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing ...
Indian states ranking by vaccination coverage. References[edit]. *^ Loehr, Jamie (2009). "Vaccine Basics". The Vaccine Answer ... "Vaccination against trypanosomiasis: Can it be done or is the trypanosome truly the ultimate immune destroyer and escape ...
Immunisation & Vaccination Skills for Health Learn about the practical and legal implications of immunisations and vaccinations ... Vaccination & Anaphylaxis Charles Bloe Training Vaccination programmes are amongst the most successful public health measures. ... Flu Vaccination Ashfield Services This one day course will give learners the core information and knowledge on administering ... Immunisation and vaccination training for the NHS and private healthcare sector further provides current information on vaccine ...
Ready to Schedule Your Vaccination? 12- to 15-year-olds Approximately 17 million adolescents in the United States now qualify ... We are providing COVID-19 vaccinations at four locations, by appointment only:. *UT Southwesterns West Campus Building 3, 2001 ... COVID-19 vaccinations are available by appointment only at the following UTSW sites:. *UT Southwestern West Campus Building 3 ( ... The approved mRNA vaccinations are not identical, and clinical trials did not examine data regarding combining shots. So, you ...
In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers the nations childhood vaccination rate as one of the ... Earlier this month, a report published in JAMA Pediatrics concluded that MMR vaccination rates in many of the populations ... In more encouraging public health news, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that vaccination rates among ... Everyday, in health departments across the nation, someone is working on maintaining and improving childhood vaccination rates ...
Vaccination is still one of the most powerful tools of preventive medicine. The point needs to be underlined on account of the ... The decline in polio vaccinations has stabilized, but there is still an unfortunately large number of parents who are gambling ... THERE IS disturbing evidence of public apathy in the United States concerning vaccination against communicable disease. In 1963 ... bad publicity that vaccination received from the swine-flu program. It is unnecessary and unthinkable that Idaho-type epidemics ...
If vaccination rates are low in a particular region or community, a governments first step must be to find out why. Guidance ... In summary, making vaccination a legal requirement can be a powerful and effective tool if implemented with care and with ... As specialists in vaccination policy and programmes, we lay out here whats known, to help governments consider whether a ... Increases in vaccination rates have been associated with financial penalties. These take the form of either the withdrawal of ...
... Important Notice to Immigrant Visa Applicants Concerning Vaccination Requirements. United States immigration law ... If you do not have a vaccination record, the panel physician will work with you to determine which vaccinations you may need to ... Only a physician can determine which of the listed vaccinations are medically appropriate for you, given your age, medical ... Certain waivers of the vaccination requirement are available upon the recommendation of the panel physician. ...
Vaccination. Br Med J 1865; 2 doi: (Published 23 September 1865) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
If you dont want your vaccinations or a childs vaccinations recorded in the state registry, you can opt out of the system by ... Georgia law, O.C.G.A 31-12-3.1, requires all vaccinations administered to any person be recorded in the states immunization ... It was created under a 1996 state law requiring mandatory reporting of vaccinations given to children and teens under age 18. ... Ask your doctor: Find out whether your health care providers record vaccinations in GRITS. If they dont, patients should urge ...
Vaccination ingredients. The main ingredient of any vaccine is the disease-causing virus, bacteria or toxin, but a number of ... The only vaccines containing gelatine in the UK routine vaccination schedule are the MMR vaccine, the shingles vaccine, and the ...
Definition Vaccination introduces a vaccine into the body to produce immunity and prevent specific diseases. Description Many ... Vaccination. Vaccination refers to a procedure in which the presence of an antigen stimulates the formation of antibodies. The ... VACCINATION. Vaccination is the introduction into the body of a vaccine to prevent disease. In the late nineteenth and early ... This periodic vaccination is also referred to as a booster shot. The use of booster vaccinations produces a long lasting ...
Find out how you can book an appointment to receive a flu vaccination at one of the clinics run on campus funded by the ... Flu vaccination clinics. Find out how you can book an appointment to receive a flu vaccination at one of the clinics run on ... The flu vaccination. While the majority of people can safely receive the flu vaccination, you will not be offered the flu ... The flu vaccination clinics. Both the Government and Public Health England have stressed the importance of making every effort ...
... This free, online text/course introduces the student to vaccinations. "The unit begins with the early history of ... At the end of section 5 you will study the mini-lecture on vaccination. You will conclude your study of this chapter by ... Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health Care Personnel - United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season ... You just viewed Vaccination . Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Use the input boxes below to record the data you wrote down while experimenting with the two social networks, with random and targeted vaccination ...
Measles Vaccination. Br Med J 1969; 2 doi: (Published 26 April 1969) Cite this as: Br ...
Vaccination is strongly recommended if youre going to be staying or working with local people, or if youre going to be ... Vaccination against typhoid fever is usually free on the NHS from GP surgeries. Private travel clinics also offer the vaccine ... Vaccination against typhoid fever is recommended if youre travelling to parts of the world where the condition is common. ... Read more about routine NHS vaccinations.. Advice for travellers. Whether you have been vaccinated against typhoid or not, its ...
Kristin Cavallari Talks About Anti-Vaccination Stance. March 19, 2014. Former Laguna Beach star and shoe designer Kristin ... Vaccinations were designed to introduce the human body to a weakened or dead strain of a virus so the body… ... Microsoft Will Require Vaccinations Onsite, Delays Opening to October 4. Matt Milano 2 months ago ... Most people believe that vaccinations are a good thing and ensure that their children are vaccinated within a timely manner. ...
Measles resurgence prompts debate over mandatory vaccination Marie-Claude Grégoire. CMAJ June 17, 2019 191 (24) E676-E677; DOI ... Five things to know about …: Vaccination in adults with autoimmune rheumatic diseases Timothy S.H. Kwok, Michael Libman and ... Cases Sepsis: Disseminated varicella zoster virus infection after vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine Vinita Dubey and ... Health Services: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster in Canada: a modelling study Mélanie ...
Mandatory Vaccination in Canada. *van: Anonymous. *ontvanger: Justin Trudeau (Prime Minister of Canada/Premier ministre du ... A small child under the age of 1 travelled to another country with family and as a result of no vaccination contracted the ...
vaccinationLearn about the importance of adult vaccination against measles and other diseases.. Courtesy of Northwestern ... The second dose of MMR must be given at least four weeks after the first dose; in adults whose vaccination status is uncertain ... WHO and health officials in regions affected by measles outbreaks increased efforts to bolster vaccination rates to stop the ... In the second decade of the 21st century, however, large measles outbreaks continued to occur in countries with low vaccination ...
An electronic immunisation record system, which aims to better monitor vaccination among populations, will need clear privacy ... An innovation-driven approach - ranging from vaccination to other health management solutions and appropriate biosecurity ... as it is currently almost entirely taken up by people who are against vaccination, Dr Andrea Ammon told in an ...
Vaccination. WHO/Cassandra Butu. Influenza vaccines are safe, effective and the principal measure for preventing influenza and ... Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among these groups is a key strategy to reduce the burden of influenza in the ... WHO/Europe also monitors seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and policies in the Region, in order to provide technical ... WHO Regional Office for Europe recommendations on influenza vaccination during the 2017/2018 winter season ...
International Vaccination Newsletter, Richard Moskowitz MD, and Harris L. Coulter PhD ... Posts about Vaccination written by Randall Neustaedter OMD, ... Do you have questions about vaccinations for your children? Dr ... A sharp division has occurred and, in some cases, battle lines have been drawn over the issue of vaccination. A survey ... Some Facts you want to consider about Vaccines and vaccinations. include Toxicity of the vaccines, their adverse effects, ...
This article describes the history of vaccination and the methodologies used to produce vaccines, including attentuation, ... Edward Jenner carried out some of the earliest experiments in vaccination more than 200 years ago. Previously, the practice of ... History of Vaccination. News-Medical, viewed 21 June 2021, ... History of Vaccination. News-Medical. 21 June 2021. ,,. ...
  • The best way to prevent or minimize severe disease from influenza among vulnerable groups is timely vaccination, even though the effectiveness of the vaccine varies depending on the virus in circulation. (
  • Overview of vaccine recommendations for 2017-2018 and vaccination coverage rates for 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 influenza seasons. (
  • Older vaccination guidelines and the vaccine Product Information (PI) recommended avoidance of influenza vaccination in egg-allergic individuals based on case reports of anaphylaxis 30 years ago, when the amounts of egg protein were much higher than currently (5, 6). (
  • Measles mumps and rubella (MMR) and Varicella vaccines can occasionally be followed by delayed rash (usually 4-12 days after vaccination) but this is also not due to a vaccine allergy. (
  • Immunisation and vaccination training for the NHS and private healthcare sector further provides current information on vaccine-preventable diseases, and their associated medications. (
  • In more encouraging public health news, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that vaccination rates among kindergarteners have remained stable, with the median vaccine exemption rate at 2 percent. (
  • In a study published earlier this week in JAMA Pediatrics, researchers took on the issue of vaccine hesitancy by estimating the disease burden and economic costs associated with declines in the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination rate. (
  • The only vaccines containing gelatine in the UK routine vaccination schedule are the MMR vaccine , the shingles vaccine , and the children's nasal flu vaccine . (
  • Vaccination introduces a vaccine into the body to produce immunity and prevent specific diseases. (
  • Vaccinations in children began about 1900 with the smallpox vaccine. (
  • The flu vaccine has been robustly tried and tested and is extremely safe for administration but some people may experience a slightly sore arm after the vaccination which can include redness, swelling, pain or bruising around where the vaccine is injected, but the majority of people do not report this side effect. (
  • Walmart is the latest company pushing for digital vaccine records as a way for people to prove they have received the COVID-19 vaccination. (
  • In the case of polio vaccine, that attenuation was sometimes lost and the virulent genes regained, leading to very rare cases of paralysis following vaccination. (
  • The first use of polysaccharides for vaccination purposes was the meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (
  • In the book Vaccine Epidemic , which she co-edited with Louise Kuo Habakus, they feature a variety of experts from such fields as ethics, science, medicine, and business, who call for reform in the compulsory mandating of vaccinations, and a reevaluation of their safety. (
  • This page lists the different types of COVID-19 vaccination sites and links to a vaccine finder tool for individuals currently eligible to be vaccinated. (
  • Residents who receive the vaccine at mass vaccination sites at Gillette Stadium, Fenway Park, the DoubleTree in Danvers, the Eastfield Mall in Springfield, the Natick Mall, and the former Circuit City in Dartmouth will be able to schedule their second dose on-site during the checkout process. (
  • On the day of your scheduled vaccination appointment, before receiving your vaccine, complete the required online NYS COVID-19 vaccine form. (
  • In 2017 Minnesota suffered a measles outbreak: in a Somali-American community with previously high vaccination rates, concerns about autism led parents to refuse the MMR vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella, and measles spread among the unvaccinated. (
  • It includes doses administered statewide, including vaccine supplied directly by the State to various locations and a long-term care vaccination program operated and supplied by the federal government. (
  • Individuals receiving a vaccine have the option to self-report race and ethnicity to their vaccination site. (
  • New kids' vaccination schedules Vaccine recommendations for children and adolescents have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics and other physician groups. (
  • Still waiting on a resupply of the Moderna vaccine, the Allentown Health Bureau has been forced to cancel and reschedule COVID-19 vaccination appointments for the rest of the week. (
  • Yes, flu vaccines, including the vaccine for the 2009 pandemic swine flu that is included in the seasonal flu vaccinations again for the 2012-2013 flu season, are considered safe and effective for breastfeeding mothers. (
  • Since that time this vaccine is no longer needed to be given in a separate vaccination and has been included in the annual flu vaccine for the several years since then. (
  • In addition, cost-effectiveness studies should be updated to incorporate real-world estimates of program- and vaccine-level effectiveness and coverage to provide more accurate assessments of the value of [quadrivalent HPV] vaccination," they recommend. (
  • AP) - Twenty-eight more COVID-19 vaccination sites will open as Kentucky's inoculation network grows in preparation for the time when vaccine supplies are much more plentiful, Gov. Andy Beshear said Thursday. (
  • Because vaccination is both an individual medical intervention and a central component of public health efforts, it raises a distinct set of legal and ethical issues-from debates over their risks and benefits to the use of government vaccination requirements-and makes vaccine policymaking uniquely challenging. (
  • After an overview of vaccine history, they consider research and development, regulation and safety, vaccination promotion and requirements, pandemics and bioterrorism, and the frontier of vaccination. (
  • Although vaccinations are accelerating, CDC estimates that just 9.2% of the U.S. population has been fully vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine that the FDA has authorized for emergency use. (
  • And once the procedure for getting a vaccine goes from the doctor telling you that it is now time for a vaccine - and 99% of parents agreeing because that person went through medical school - to it being a question to ponder, vaccination rates will go down. (
  • However, the studies show that these diseases are no more common now after vaccination than they were before the vaccine programs started. (
  • Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. (
  • However, some diseases, such as measles outbreaks in America, have seen rising cases due to relatively low vaccination rates in the 2010s - attributed, in part, to vaccine hesitancy. (
  • Whether the newer vaccines and vaccination strategies will provide better overall protection will be studied by ECDC in the coming winter seasons. (
  • Special precautions such as split dosing, prior allergy testing with the vaccines, allergy specialist review before vaccination or prolonged waiting times after administration are not required. (
  • The yellow fever and Q fever vaccines potentially contain higher amounts of egg protein and allergy specialist evaluation is recommended before vaccination. (
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (
  • Such mandates, which began with smallpox vaccination in nineteenth-century Europe, are in place for numerous vaccines in various countries. (
  • In fact, it doesn't even mention HPV or seventh-grade girls, but it broadens the scope of mandated vaccines and delegates the authority to compel childhood vaccination to the California Department of Public Health, which the Legislature created last year and came to life July 1. (
  • Some Facts you want to consider about Vaccines and vaccinations include Toxicity of the vaccines, their adverse effects, dangers, and long- term negative consequences. (
  • At this years flu vaccination a so-called Quadrivalent flu vaccines (Vierfachimpfstoff) will be used. (
  • HPV vaccination is 1 of 3 vaccines all children need at this age. (
  • Vaccination coverage was stable by single birth year from 2011 through 2016 ( ), except for an increase in ≥2 doses of HepA by age 35 months from 71.1% (2011) to 76.6% (2016). (
  • The proportion of children that received no vaccinations by age 24 months increased slightly across birth years 2011 through 2016, with an estimated change per year of 0.09 percentage points ( ). (
  • For all vaccines, except the HepB birth dose and rotavirus vaccination, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate vaccination coverage to account for children whose vaccination history was ascertained before age 24 months (35 months for ≥2 HepA doses). (
  • Only about half of Ukraine's children are fully immunized against polio, measles, rubella and other diseases that vaccines can prevent, despite a government policy calling for free universal vaccination, according to UNICEF, the United Nations children's agency. (
  • Widespread fears about vaccines prompted the government to cancel a U.N.-backed measles vaccination campaign in 2009 and the number of measles cases skyrocketed from about 40 in 2010 to 13,000 last year, including one lethal case, according to the Health Ministry. (
  • It took that step in late 2018 after noticing that the majority of shared images on Pinterest cautioned people against vaccinations, despite medical guidelines demonstrating that most vaccines are safe for most people. (
  • Again and again, he pits fear of vaccines against the consequences of non-vaccination, and the vaccines, and the practice of vaccination, pretty much win out. (
  • This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention currently recommends annual influenza vaccinations for everyone over 6 months old, but pandemic vaccines may not be available in sufficient quantities for the whole population. (
  • Our strategies center around responding to outbreaks, boosting preventive vaccination in our pediatric and emergency projects, investing in research on ways to better utilize current vaccines, and advocating for cheaper vaccines that are better-adapted to tropical climates and low-resource settings. (
  • WTO suggested the risks in stating "new technologies are involved in the production of some pandemic vaccines, which have not yet been extensively evaluated for their safety in certain population groups…" As a result, "post-marketing surveillance" and "post-marketing safety and effectiveness studies" are essential so that countries can adjust their vaccination policies. (
  • None of the European Union (EU) Member States could demonstrate that they reach the EU target of 75% influenza vaccination coverage for vulnerable groups, according to a new report from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). (
  • Influenza vaccination coverage remains low in many countries, and leads to severe disease, hospitalisations and premature deaths. (
  • Influenza vaccination coverage rates for the 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18 seasons were provided by 19 Member States. (
  • Countries that do not yet have a seasonal influenza vaccination action plan to achieve higher seasonal influenza vaccination coverage rates are encouraged to develop and adopt such a plan, document or policy. (
  • Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among these groups is a key strategy to reduce the burden of influenza in the European Region. (
  • WHO/Europe also monitors seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and policies in the Region, in order to provide technical assistance to Member States that are expanding their seasonal influenza vaccination programmes. (
  • Previously, the researchers behind the new study had found that text message reminders improved first-dose influenza vaccination rates among young children. (
  • Vaccination and immunization have a similar meaning in everyday language. (
  • T-cell vaccination is immunization with inactivated autoreactive T cells. (
  • Smallpox vaccination within three days of exposure will usually prevent development of the disease, or dramatically reduce its virulence. (
  • By mid-2004, health officials plan to have smallpox vaccinations available on a voluntary basis for all Americans. (
  • The unit begins with the early history of smallpox - the first infectious disease to be eradicated by a vaccination programme. (
  • At the end of section 1," you will be asked to "read an article on the history of smallpox, then, before continuing further with this unit, you should turn to the case study on polio, where we discuss the prospects for making this the second infectious disease to be eradicated by vaccination. (
  • widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio and tetanus from much of the world. (
  • Find specific immunisation and vaccination elearning materials using our search function, located in the top right of this page. (
  • Pinterest said Wednesday that it would no longer return any search results , including pins and boards, for terms related to vaccinations, whether in favor or against them. (
  • This story has been updated to reflect that anti-vaccination misinformation was still findable through some search terms that Pinterest was unable to block. (
  • In the first half of 2021, COVID-19 vaccination site organizers have been using Screenflex Room Dividers nationwide to create a safe and efficient environment for their patients. (
  • But some parents still fear a link between vaccinations and autism, a possibility science has largely debunked. (
  • When he gets the wind up about vaccinations and autism, all I can do is stand back and watch him work. (
  • Vaccination rates among adults in California have been dropping in recent years, large due to the influence of anti-vaccination zealots such as Jenny McCarthy and groups such as Age of Autism. (
  • Fraudulent research linking the Measles Mumps & Rubella (MMR) jab to autism by the disgraced British doctor Andrew Wakefield has led to cross-cultural hesitancy of vaccination. (
  • The ECDC report recommends improving vaccination coverage rates through targeted communication campaigns towards vulnerable groups, as well as ensuring adequate and sustainable funding of national vaccination programmes. (
  • Vaccination programmes are amongst the most successful public health measures. (
  • As specialists in vaccination policy and programmes, we lay out here what's known, to help governments consider whether a mandate is the right fit for their situation. (
  • You will conclude your study of this chapter by conducting some internet research on the progress of vaccination programmes. (
  • Build confidence in COVID-19 vaccination. (
  • As of May 12, ages 12 and older are now eligible for COVID-19 vaccination. (
  • This dashboard is updated daily by 10 a.m. with COVID-19 vaccination data included as of 11:59 p.m. the previous day. (
  • Eligible Population - Click "Eligible 12+" in the upper right hand corner to see metrics for the population authorized by the FDA for COVID-19 vaccination (currently ages 12+). (
  • At the bottom of the dashboard, click COVID-19 Vaccination Trends to see the daily trend of Doses Administered by Manufacturer (bar chart), as well as Cumulative Doses Administered (line chart). (
  • At the bottom of the dashboard, click COVID-19 Vaccination County Listing to see Summary Measures by County. (
  • Dr Taweesilp Visanuyothin, spokesman for the Centre for Covid-19 Situation Administration, announces the Covid-19 vaccination schedule at Government House in Bangkok on Tuesday. (
  • The decline in polio vaccinations has stabilized, but there is still an unfortunately large number of parents who are gambling with their children's health. (
  • The polio vaccinations did not guarantee full protection, which is why millions had to be inoculated again, Ryan said. (
  • Find out how you can book an appointment to receive a flu vaccination at one of the clinics run on campus funded by the University. (
  • In support of this and following the successful uptake of the flu vaccination voucher scheme run in early October, the University has decided to fund an additional scheme allowing all staff the opportunity to book an appointment to receive a free flu vaccination at one one of the clinics run on campus during November to December. (
  • Complete the [ on the day of your appointment and not before. (
  • Reader: After reading all the letters stating the ease of obtaining a vaccination appointment and the relative quickness of receiving it, I think that I must be living in an alternative universe. (
  • It was created under a 1996 state law requiring mandatory reporting of vaccinations given to children and teens under age 18. (
  • In the early 2000s, children in the United States and in other developed countries routinely have a series of vaccinations that begins at birth. (
  • The number of vaccinations children receive has steadily increased since that time. (
  • and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib disease, a major cause of spinal meningitis ) and, in some states, hepatitis A . This series of vaccinations is recommended by the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is a requirement in all states before children can enter school. (
  • States make exceptions for children who have medical conditions such as cancer that prevent them from having vaccinations, and some states also make exceptions for children whose parents object for religious or other reasons. (
  • Decisions about vaccinations for children with chronic illnesses are made with the child's doctor. (
  • Most people believe that vaccinations are a good thing and ensure that their children are vaccinated within a timely manner. (
  • The Hernandez bill allows parents to have their children opt-out of vaccinations if they meet certain requirements. (
  • Do you have questions about vaccinations for your children? (
  • But now seven states are considering legislation to make it even easier for mothers and fathers to spare their children from vaccinations, especially on religious grounds. (
  • This week, hundreds of health workers and volunteers were fanning out across Lebanon - especially in its vulnerable slums - offering free vaccinations and hoping to reach the country's half-million children under age 5. (
  • U.N. officials established new vaccination points across Lebanon's eastern and northern borders with Syria to catch children before they cross. (
  • Syrian refugees in Lebanon said officials ordered them to bring their children for vaccination as a compulsory step to renewing U.N. identity cards entitling them to aid, but U.N. officials denied that. (
  • Syria's 90 percent vaccination rate plummeted to 68 percent during the civil war, leaving a half-million children without inoculations, the U.N. estimated. (
  • Only 1.3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 received no vaccinations ( Table 1 ). (
  • Ukraine doesn't mandate vaccination, but encourages it by requiring children to show certification of vaccination to be admitted to public schools. (
  • The study notes that vaccination rates among kindergartners have fluctuated considerably in recent years and that while annual changes of 1% or less may not seem dramatic, those tiny deviations represent thousands of children who are theoretically susceptible to serious illness. (
  • California makes it easy for parents to claim exemptions from the required vaccinations for their children, and exemptions have more than doubled since 1997 , according to the L.A. Times. (
  • Obama urges vaccinations for children President Obama says parents should get their vaccinated, and the failure to do so is contributing to outbreaks of measles. (
  • In conflict zones or natural disasters, when health care systems are disrupted and populations are displaced, children often have nowhere to get routine vaccinations. (
  • The current vaccination schedule requires that children come to a health clinic five separate times during their first year of life. (
  • For many families, traveling to a health clinic takes time or money-making it very difficult for them to get complete vaccination coverage for their children, especially when they have many children. (
  • In areas of ongoing conflict-like Syria, Chad, Somalia and Central African Republic-entire generations of children can miss out on vaccinations. (
  • Whether vaccinating children in refugee camps against measles, or vulnerable people during urban cholera outbreaks, MSF is increasingly prioritizing vaccination as a core health service. (
  • Marie-Josephine Hantomalala, head of the clinic in Ankareira which does vaccinations twice a week, is worried she will have to turn away the crowd of women and their children waiting outside, many of whom left their homes at dawn to reach the clinic by foot. (
  • Host Hank Green of the SciShow looks at the anti-vaccination movement from a scientific perspective: why are US parents growing less likely to vaccinate their children? (
  • Everyday, in health departments across the nation, someone is working on maintaining and improving childhood vaccination rates and keeping diseases like measles and mumps from regaining a foothold in the U.S. Fortunately for us, public health has been so successful that it's easy to forget what it was like just a few decades ago when measles was a common childhood illness. (
  • What a parent has to do when watching their baby getting poked with the needles, or when looking at the very long list of childhood vaccinations that we expect to be carried out on all infants and toddlers these days, is to relate the vaccination to what it is good for. (
  • There is no medical evidence to suggest that vaccinations in infancy and childhood increase the risk of developing asthma or other allergic diseases. (
  • The results of this survey have shown that achieving high vaccination coverage rates for those particularly at risk of developing severe complications remains a serious public health challenge" says Pasi Penttinen, ECDC Head of Influenza Disease Programme . (
  • Taweesilp Visanuyothin, spokesman for the Centre for Covid-19 Situation Administration, said on Tuesday that the vaccination programme will be divided into two phases. (
  • The Soil Association is instead calling for a vaccination programme. (
  • Before mass vaccination campaigns in Australia, measles was a significant contributor to hospitalization, morbidity (such as pneumonia, meningitis and encephalitis) and sometimes death . (
  • Early success brought widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions. (
  • Pinterest is taking steps to clamp down on anti-vaccination content. (
  • Pinterest also CNBC that it's been hard to remove this anti-vaccination content entirely, so it put the ban in place until it can figure out a more permanent strategy. (
  • On July 13, a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Alert headlined, "WHO recommendations on pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccinations" suggest that universally mandated ones are coming. (
  • Vaccination is an important method of reducing the risk of developing a number of infectious diseases. (
  • Partly in response to these outbreaks, some governments are now considering making vaccination for measles and other diseases a legal requirement 1 . (
  • For instance, a review of studies conducted mostly in the United States found that the need to provide documentation to access childcare or to attend school and college is associated with a median improvement of 18 percentage points in the rate of vaccination for diseases such as measles, hepatitis B and whooping cough (see ). (
  • An innovation-driven approach - ranging from vaccination to other health management solutions and appropriate biosecurity measures - will ensure more sustainable future livestock farming and protection of public health, as animal diseases do not recognise borders, Roxane Feller told (
  • Three states - Colorado, Kansas and Idaho - now have vaccination rates of less than 90% for measles, mumps and rubella which leaves their populations particularly vulnerable to serious outbreaks of those diseases. (
  • Although our country's vaccination program protects against many diseases, it can only do that if most people stick to the schedule. (
  • We bust the most common vaccination myths purported by the anti-vaccination movement, to put your mind at ease when getting your child immunised against diseases. (
  • As with any form of medical intervention, the benefits of vaccination (protection against infection) need to be balanced against the very low risk of adverse reactions. (
  • Scan these quick facts on the life-saving benefits of vaccination. (
  • Includes vaccinations received by age 24 months (before the day the child turns 24 months), except for the HepB birth dose, rotavirus vaccination, and ≥2 HepA doses by 35 months. (
  • Maintenant, la façon de distribuer les doses prend en considération le facteur épidémiologique, soit le nombre de personnes qui ont contracté la COVID-19 selon la région, précise-t-elle. (
  • En date du 19 février, 11 402 doses de vaccin contre la COVID-19 ont été administrées sur le territoire lavallois. (
  • The point needs to be underlined on account of the bad publicity that vaccination received from the swine-flu program. (
  • Clinic workers can reuse the screens in future vaccination sites or for other room dividing needs. (
  • Vaccination is protective against infection without the need of suffering through a bout of a disease. (
  • Booster vaccinations are recommended every 3 years if you continue to be at risk of infection with typhoid bacteria. (
  • Vaccination does not always mean full protection against the infection. (
  • Breastfeeding is fully compatible with flu vaccination, and preventing maternal infection provides secondary protection to the infant. (
  • In 2014, the department adopted an infection control plan that directed fire department staff to receive flu vaccinations. (
  • Herd immunity describes the way in which an entire population becomes protected from a disease after vaccinations, by stopping the germ responsible for the infection being transmitted between people. (
  • There was nothing new about the basics: All fifty states require some specific vaccinations for kids, yet all of them grant exemptions for medical reasons - say, for a child with cancer. (
  • Sufficient vaccination coverage also saves healthcare systems money in decreased consultation rates and hospitalisations. (
  • And several studies show that requiring vaccination can improve rates in high-income countries (see, for example, ref. 2 ), although there is limited evidence of the impact of such requirements in low- or middle-income nations. (
  • Studies conducted largely in the United States and Europe suggest that making vaccination a requirement for enrolment in childcare and school can help to increase rates (see, for example, ref. 2 ). (
  • A new Health Testing Centers study about vaccination rates found that more than half of U.S. states have experienced a decline over the past decade. (
  • The research focused on vaccination rates reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for MMR, DTAP, Varicella, Hepatitis B and Polio among kindergarten kids in all states with the exception of Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina and Wyoming (these states did not report their data to the CDC). (
  • Anti-vaccination sentiment is one of the reasons behind falling vaccination rates and between 2013-2014, they fell to 94% among kindergartners - the lowest level since 2009. (
  • Although overall vaccination rates are falling in most states, there are some exceptions and several have made exceptional progress over the past decade. (
  • In South Carolina and Iowa, for example, vaccination rates rose 8.5 percentage points between 2009 and 2018. (
  • During that period, Georgia and Arkansas saw their vaccination rates decline by more than six percentage points while both Utah and Oklahoma also experienced a decline of more than four percentage points. (
  • Each district planned well in advance of the change and acted early and successfully in their efforts," said the report, which listed year-by-year vaccination rates for 24 school districts in the county dating to the 2013-14 school year. (
  • The new paper, which is published in the journal Pediatrics , looked at what impact these reminders might have on second-dose flu vaccination rates. (
  • QUEENSLAND'S government is planning new child vaccination laws, but the opposition wants evidence they will increase vaccination rates. (
  • Have disease rates dropped due to factors other than vaccination? (
  • T he countercultural Left is and has always been the core of the anti-vaccination movement. (
  • For more detailed information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Panel Physician Technical Instructions for Vaccination . (
  • Yet just 26 percent of private providers statewide are recording vaccinations in GRITS, according to state data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - even though Georgia law has required it for years. (
  • Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudes to vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. (
  • Noymer suggests that public health officials consider targeting pandemic vaccination campaigns to adults under age 65, who are not at the greatest risk in regular, seasonal flu outbreaks. (
  • Nonetheless, for most people, vaccination is a prudent step to avoid the threat of a disease. (
  • Vaccination is strongly recommended if you're going to be staying or working with local people, or if you're going to be staying for prolonged periods in areas where sanitation and food hygiene are likely to be poor. (
  • Public health authorities at EU and national level have started working to "occupy more of the space on social media", as it is currently almost entirely taken up by people who are against vaccination, Dr Andrea Ammon told in an interview. (
  • It is thought that more than 15 million people a year receive a post-bite vaccination that prevents hundreds of thousands of deaths. (
  • No vaccination is possible for people who have only a foreign health insurance and no German public or private health insurance. (
  • You are taking a great responsability, since you say that all the people who contributed to the discussion on this group and were pro-vaccination did not know the matter. (
  • The point here is that it has been my experience that the people most passionate in fight vaccination, often do not even know the basic facts. (
  • Still, Dr. Baltimore says that he envisions that some people might be leery of a vaccination strategy that means altering their own DNA, even if it prevents a potentially fatal disease. (
  • Only then will people understand that vaccination could have saved them. (
  • Anti-vaccination sentiments seem to strike a chord with relatively well-educated segments of the population - the same people who favor organic food and want to use "natural" products as much as possible. (
  • At least 1,300 people received shots Thursday at the vaccination site at the Kentucky Horse Park at Lexington, he said. (
  • For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. (
  • In this way, even people who cannot be vaccinated can still gain protection to some extent, because the germ has been contained by the vaccination of the general population. (
  • There are many people claiming that their child has developed a disease following vaccination," he continued. (
  • THERE IS disturbing evidence of public apathy in the United States concerning vaccination against communicable disease. (
  • Nous avons besoin de gens qui aimeraient prêter main-forte pour la vaccination de masse, que ce soit du côté administratif ou pour l'évaluation et l'administration du vaccin. (
  • Poliovirus isn't going to be irradicated, simply it is hoped that the widespread vaccinations will remove the wt virus from the system. (
  • If you are already eligible to receive the free NHS flu vaccination from your GP surgery, you are encouraged to use this instead of attending one of the clinics. (
  • All clinics will take place on University campus and are run by FluXpress Ltd with a Nurse administering the vaccinations. (
  • All appointments for clinics must be booked in advance via the University of Bath Workplace Vaccinations Portal and bookings will close one week before each day of clinics. (
  • Proof of eligibility is required at all vaccination clinics and may include an employee ID card, medical records, a letter from an employer or affiliated organization, or a paycheck stub, depending on the specific priority status. (
  • See current Annex 1 and country list on the WHO International Travel and Health webpage at ). (
  • But in Georgia, health officials say, adults are even less likely to have their vaccinations recorded in GRITS. (
  • Both the Government and Public Health England have stressed the importance of making every effort to deliver flu vaccinations this coming winter as the flu vaccination is the most effective intervention available to reduce pressure on the NHS due to flu during the COVID outbreak. (
  • Mary Holland , a research scholar at NYU School of Law, discussed issues related to vaccination, health, and human rights. (
  • Another vaccination campaign will start in December, health officials said. (
  • All students and employees of the TU Ilmenau and the State Student Services can participate in the general flu vaccination, if they have a statutory or private health insurance. (
  • Ukraine is battling a recession and the Health Ministry says the state budget finances only some 65 percent of its vaccination needs - 302 million hrvyna ($38 million or euro30 ) of the needed 465 million ($58 million or euro45 million). (
  • Note that the health column was talking about booster shots, not the original vaccination. (
  • Vaccination has long been a familiar, highly effective form of medicine and a triumph of public health. (
  • I know that failure to follow the recommendations about vaccination may endanger the health or life of my child and others with whom my child might come into contact. (
  • And when the most significant recent event in the health of the child was a vaccination, as can be said for many moments in the life of a young American, we might identify that as a potential cause and deem that link worthy of further examination. (
  • Read more about routine NHS vaccinations . (
  • a recent outbreak in New York and New Jersey was traced to a child who'd traveled to Britain (where the vaccination rate is lower). (
  • When an outbreak of disease reaches an area, anyone is at risk, because no vaccination can claim to be 100 per cent effective. (
  • This is the point in the visit at which more and more pediatricians report a disheartening turn of events: although most parents agree to the inoculations without hesitation, a growing number say they would like to delay or even refuse some or all of the vaccinations for their infants. (
  • Maternal vaccination is especially important for infants less than 6 months old, who are ineligible for vaccination. (
  • Edward Jenner carried out some of the earliest experiments in vaccination more than 200 years ago. (
  • A combination of suspicion, funding problems, alleged corruption and inefficiency leave Ukraine with the lowest vaccination rate of the 15 former republics of the Soviet Union, even though it is one of the best developed - and the rate has fallen sharply in recent years. (
  • What kind of protection exists 10 or 20 years after vaccination? (
  • After years of vaccination programs, Pakistan is close to declaring that polio has been completely eradicated. (
  • The benefits of vaccinating adolescent girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) are already evident by the midteenage years, according to an analysis of data from a Canadian program that offers free school-based vaccination to eighth-grade girls. (
  • The concept of T-cell vaccination is, at least partially, analogous to classical vaccination against infectious disease. (
  • Appointments at mass vaccination sites are released weekly on Thursdays. (
  • Mass vaccination locations have the most appointments and update their schedules every Thursday. (
  • UT Southwestern offers immediate first-dose scheduling to make booking your vaccination as easy as possible. (
  • La directrice de vaccination ajoute que l'objectif est toujours d'offrir la deuxième dose du vaccin dans les 90 jours suivant le premier vaccin pour le moment. (
  • This training is a mandatory legal requirement for all staff involved in the management or administration of vaccinations and immunisations across all branches of the healthcare sector. (
  • However, mandatory vaccination can worsen inequities in access to resources, because penalties for not complying can disproportionately affect disadvantaged groups. (
  • A Texas fire department employee who refused a vaccination on religious grounds and who was offered the options of transferring to a new job or wearing additional safety equipment could not establish religious discrimination by the city, the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled. (
  • Vaccination efforts have been met with some reluctance on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds, although no major religions oppose vaccination, and some consider it an obligation due to the potential to save lives. (
  • Although reported cases of human disease are the principal indicator of disease risk, case reports may be absent because of a low level of transmission, a high level of immunity in the population (because of vaccination, for example), or failure of local surveillance systems to detect cases. (
  • Its administration induces the development of immunity and protection against a pathogen or toxin and is called a vaccination. (
  • In all, the investigators compared HPV-related outcomes between 131,781 girls who were ineligible and 128,712 girls who were eligible for the vaccination program. (
  • If you do not have a vaccination record, the panel physician will work with you to determine which vaccinations you may need to meet the requirement. (
  • Certain waivers of the vaccination requirement are available upon the recommendation of the panel physician. (
  • FILE - In this Thursday, Nov. 7, 2013 file photo, displaced Syrian displaced line up to receive vaccinations against polio at one of the Syrian refugee camps in the southern port city of Sidon, Lebanon. (
  • Typically, if your child is seen by a pediatrician at the same visit that s/he would receive a vaccination, the pediatrician will look the child over first, then get the hell out of Dodge before the inoculations nurse shows up with the needles. (
  • This free, online text/course introduces the student to vaccinations. (
  • Vaccination against typhoid fever is usually free on the NHS from GP surgeries. (
  • Furthermore, you can check your vaccination records free of charge and get information about current and future necessary vaccinations. (
  • He rejected criticisms that vaccination would mark a permanent end to Britain's disease-free status. (
  • Mr Scudamore said the government had not ruled out vaccination but warned it would have "serious implications" for the nation's disease-free status. (
  • Vaccination Panic in Australia analyses this campaign from the point of view of free speech. (
  • The book will be of interest to readers interested in the vaccination debate and in struggles over free speech and citizen participation in decision-making. (
  • Only a few of the EU Member States that participated in the survey come close to achieving the 75% vaccination coverage target, which has been set by the EU to protect tens of thousands of persons at risk of death and serious illness. (
  • Coverage for measles vaccination, for example, has fallen from 2007 levels of 81 percent to 64 percent in 2010. (
  • The Nurse will need access to your upper arm to administer the flu vaccination so it may help to wear loose clothing on the day or a long-sleeved shirt/top with sleeves that can be comfortably rolled up as far as top of shoulder. (
  • Our scheduler will identify the nearest CVS/pharmacy and MinuteClinic locations ready to administer the vaccinations you're seeking. (
  • Bassett Healthcare Network announced Tuesday it will assist New York state by providing clinical staff at the new vaccination site. (
  • The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. (