Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Mice, Inbred BALB CHemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tetanus ToxoidPoliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.United StatesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Mice, Inbred C57BLEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.SqualeneChad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Rubella Syndrome, Congenital: Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Administration, Mucosal: Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (1/8916)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt. (2/8916)

BACKGROUND: In 1995, Egypt continued to experience endemic wild poliovirus transmission despite achieving high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) and implementing National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually for several years. METHODS: Parents of 4188 children in 3216 households throughout Egypt were surveyed after the second round of the 1995 NIDs. RESULTS: Nationwide, 74% of children are estimated to have received both NID doses, 17% one NID dose, and 9% neither NID dose. Previously unimmunized (47%) or partially immunized (64%) children were less likely to receive two NID doses of OPV than were fully immunized children (76%) (P < 0.001). Other risk factors nationwide for failure to receive NID OPV included distance from residence to nearest NID site >10 minute walk (P < 0.001), not being informed about the NID at least one day in advance (P < 0.001), and residing in a household which does not watch television (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, subsequent NIDs in Egypt were modified to improve coverage, which has resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: In selected situations, surveys can provide important information that is useful for planning future NIDs.  (+info)

Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group. (3/8916)

BACKGROUND: Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS: Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics were collected retrospectively for the years 1985-1994. RESULTS: Meningitis (42%) was most frequent, followed by pneumonia (28%) and bacteraemia (26%). The overall annual incidence was 2.7 cases per 100000 children <17 years old and 11 cases per 100000 children <2 years old. Annual incidence rates were stable over the study period. Lethality was high for meningitis (8.6%) and bacteraemia (8.9%). A history of basal skull fracture was reported in 3.3% of children with pneumococcal meningitis. Residence in a rural region was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection (relative risk = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease seems to be less frequent in Switzerland than in other European and non-European countries. This may be due to differences in diagnostic strategies and lower frequency of risk factors such as the use of day care. Children with a history of basal skull fracture are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. Further investigation of the association of invasive pneumococcal infection with rural residence and the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections might give new insight into the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and the development of antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa hybrid outer membrane protein F-I vaccine in human volunteers. (4/8916)

A hybrid protein [Met-Ala-(His)6OprF190-342-OprI21-83] consisting of the mature outer membrane protein I (OprI) and amino acids 190 to 342 of OprF of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni2+ chelate-affinity chromatography. After safety and pyrogenicity evaluations in animals, four groups of eight adult human volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at 4-week intervals and revaccinated 6 months later with either 500, 100, 50, or 20 microg of OprF-OprI adsorbed onto A1(OH)3. All vaccinations were well tolerated. After the first vaccination, a significant rise of antibody titers against P. aeruginosa OprF and OprI was measured in volunteers receiving the 100- or the 500-microg dose. After the second vaccination, significant antibody titers were measured for all groups. Elevated antibody titers against OprF and OprI could still be measured 6 months after the third vaccination. The capacity of the elicited antibodies to promote complement binding and opsonization could be demonstrated by a C1q-binding assay and by the in vitro opsonophagocytic uptake of P. aeruginosa bacteria. These data support the continued development of an OprF-OprI vaccine for use in humans.  (+info)

Protective efficacy of recombinant Yersinia outer proteins against bubonic plague caused by encapsulated and nonencapsulated Yersinia pestis. (5/8916)

To evaluate the role of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) in conferring protective immunity against plague, six yop loci from Yersinia pestis were individually amplified by PCR, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were purified and injected into mice. Most Yop-vaccinated animals succumbed to infection with either wild-type encapsulated Y. pestis or a virulent, nonencapsulated isogenic variant. Vaccination with YpkA significantly prolonged mean survival time but did not increase overall survival of mice infected with the nonencapsulated strain. The only significant protection against death was observed in YopD-vaccinated mice challenged with the nonencapsulated strain.  (+info)

Sustained reduction in the carriage of Neisseria meningitidis as a result of a community meningococcal disease control programme. (6/8916)

The effect of a community intervention programme of antibiotics and meningitis vaccine on pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was investigated. Carriage rates were determined in pupils at both secondary schools (ages 11-18 years) included in the community intervention programme and compared with two schools outside the area matched for socio-economic status. A total of 1869 pupils were studied 6 months after the programmes, and 2457 pupils after 11 months. Six months after the programme was completed there was a 72% reduction in pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in pupils attending the schools in the intervention area compared with pupils in the control schools. After 11 months this difference persisted in the 11-14 age group but not in the 15-18 age group. No resistance to the antibiotics used in the programme was found. A community intervention programme of antibiotics and vaccine for the control of meningococcal disease led to a long-term reduction in Neisseria meningitidis carriage in some age groups.  (+info)

Seroepidemiological evaluation of 1989-91 mass vaccination campaigns against measles, in Italy. (7/8916)

In 1989-91 anti-measles vaccination campaigns were conducted in several Italian regions to vaccinate all children aged between 13 months and 10-12 years without a history of measles or measles vaccination. This study was conducted to evaluate serological status after the mass vaccination campaigns. In 1994, capillary blood samples were collected from randomly selected children, aged 2-14 years, living in 13 local health units. Antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Blood spot samples were analysed for 4114 (75.6%) of 5440 selected children. Among the 835 that reported measles before 1990, 806 (96.5%) were immune and of the 2798 vaccinated, 2665 (95.2%) were immune. The Edmoston-Zagreb (E-Z) strain vaccine was associated with a lower level of immunity than the Schwarz (SW) strain. A history of measles identified almost all immune children. Vaccination with the SW strain conferred persistent immunity (at least 5 years) in 98% of vaccinees. The strategy was able to unite natural and induced immunity.  (+info)

A model-based evaluation of the national immunization programme against rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands. (8/8916)

In order to improve the prevention of cases of congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands, in 1987 the selective vaccination strategy against rubella infection in girls was replaced by mass vaccination. This decision was supported by mathematical model analyses carried out by Van Druten and De Boo. In order to compare the predicted impact of the rubella vaccination programme with the current available data in more detail, a similar model was built. Although the model predicts elimination of the rubella virus, data show that virus circulation is still present at a higher level than expected by the model. Simulation studies indicate that import of infection and a lower vaccine effectiveness, related to possible asymptomatic reinfection of vaccinated people, could be sources contributing to the present virus circulation. Even though the number of infections is much higher than the number of reported cases of disease, limited serosurveillance data and case notification data show that females of childbearing age are well protected by immunization.  (+info)

  • Generally, they noted "a downward trend in vaccination rates" in recent years, and that none of the three variables -- severity of the current influenza season, severity of prior season or vaccine effectiveness -- had a significant effect on these numbers. (upi.com)
  • Fortunately, in the just released CDC influenza vaccination data, the downward trend in vaccination was reversed this past season," Stockwell said. (upi.com)
  • Vaccination is the best way that we can protect ourselves and our families from influenza," she said. (upi.com)
  • These questions are specifically urgent given that, on the one hand the World Health Organization, the Netherlands Health Council and other institutions recommend governments to implement indirect vaccination programs (e.g. against pertussis and influenza). (wur.nl)
  • Flu (influenza) and pneumonia vaccinations are associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease, according to new research reported at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference® (AAIC®) 2020. (brightsurf.com)
  • Analysis of CDC vaccination data suggests too few children receive the flu shot each year, in spite of virus severity and vaccine effectiveness. (upi.com)
  • A major barrier to increased adolescent vaccination levels is the lack of parental and provider recognition that an adolescent is due for vaccine doses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For providers, there are the dual challenges of getting adolescents to come in for annual preventive care visits and also minimizing 'missed opportunities' for vaccination (i.e. clinical interactions with a patient where a needed vaccine could have been provided but was not). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vaccination records will be reviewed to identify adolescent patients in both practices who are newly eligible for a vaccine and/or overdue for a vaccine at the start of every other month. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These are all examples of indirect vaccination: the persons who receive the vaccine are not the ones at highest risk, but their immunization offers protect to specific other persons or to the group at large. (wur.nl)
  • The rate of seasonal flu vaccinations among people over age 50 and nursing home residents is extremely low, and those who do get the flu vaccine can significantly lower their risk of heart attack, TIA (transient ischemic attack), death and cardiac arrest. (brightsurf.com)
  • about which vaccinations your child needs and when they should receive them to get full vaccine coverage. (canada.com)
  • All children aged two - around 650,000 in total - will be offered a nasal flu vaccine from September 2013 as part of a comprehensive vaccination programme. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • The decisions to introduce the new vaccination programmes and updates to existing programmes were made after the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation - the Government's independent vaccine experts - studied all the available evidence and advised that these changes are made to protect more people against disease. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • Currently, administration of the pneumococcal vaccine is suboptimal despite efforts to increase vaccination rates in both outpatient and inpatient settings. (pfizer.com)
  • These strategies may include targeted education for health-care professionals on why patients refuse pneumococcal vaccination and tools to help health-professionals mitigate the reasons for vaccine refusal. (pfizer.com)
  • All OECD countries have established vaccination programmes based on their interpretation of the risks and benefits of each vaccine. (oecd.org)
  • If children have had one of a series of vaccinations and parents want to avoid giving the same vaccine again, antibody titers can be measured. (iprogressivemed.com)
  • Despite this, adolescent vaccination rates lag substantially behind national goals of 80% coverage for adolescent vaccines set forth by Healthy People 2020. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The project specifically looks at maternal immunization, vaccination of health care workers, and vaccinations that primarily contribute to herd immunity and produce little benefits to the vaccines themselves. (wur.nl)
  • The vaccinations must however be administered at a baby and toddler clinic, municipal health service or Youth and Family Centre, using vaccines supplied by the State. (government.nl)
  • To examine the effect of email vaccination reminders, new immunization doses of children of parents who receive email vaccination reminders, versus those who do not receive email reminders during the study period will be determined. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The American Cancer Society has updated its guideline for HPV vaccination, adapting a 2019 update from the Federal Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (brightsurf.com)
  • For example, the 2010-2011 flu season, which the CDC deemed "high severity," vaccination rates for most age groups of children hovered around 60 percent or less, with the exception of infants between 6 and 23 months old. (upi.com)
  • Stockwell and her colleagues reviewed CDC data for eight flu seasons, from 2010 to 2017 on vaccination rates for children between 6 months and 17 years of age. (upi.com)
  • OECD (2020), Child vaccination rates (indicator). (oecd.org)
  • The researchers also compared vaccination rates to effectiveness of the shot against the virus during the prior flu season. (upi.com)
  • As studies have shown, a sizable portion of hospital admissions, and the associated morbidity and mortality are potentially preventable through vaccination. (pfizer.com)
  • Find specific immunisation and vaccination elearning materials using our search function, located in the top right of this page. (skillsplatform.org)
  • Pinterest said Wednesday that it would no longer return any search results , including pins and boards, for terms related to vaccinations, whether in favor or against them. (cnbc.com)
  • This story has been updated to reflect that anti-vaccination misinformation was still findable through some search terms that Pinterest was unable to block. (cnbc.com)
  • The current vaccination schedule requires that children come to a health clinic five separate times during their first year of life. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • For many families, traveling to a health clinic takes time or money-making it very difficult for them to get complete vaccination coverage for their children, especially when they have many children. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Marie-Josephine Hantomalala, head of the clinic in Ankareira which does vaccinations twice a week, is worried she will have to turn away the crowd of women and their children waiting outside, many of whom left their homes at dawn to reach the clinic by foot. (irinnews.org)
  • United States immigration law requires immigrant visa applicants to obtain certain vaccinations (listed below) prior to the issuance of an immigrant visa. (state.gov)
  • Before mass vaccination campaigns in Australia, measles was a significant contributor to hospitalization, morbidity (such as pneumonia, meningitis and encephalitis) and sometimes death www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/cda-cdi3901a.htm . (allergy.org.au)
  • Pinterest is taking steps to clamp down on anti-vaccination content. (cnbc.com)
  • Pinterest also CNBC that it's been hard to remove this anti-vaccination content entirely, so it put the ban in place until it can figure out a more permanent strategy. (cnbc.com)
  • While different countries have slightly varying vaccination schedules, there is literally no debate as to the efficacy and critical importance of vaccination. (aish.com)
  • In South Carolina and Iowa, for example, vaccination rates rose 8.5 percentage points between 2009 and 2018. (forbes.com)
  • Some countries require proof of vaccination (for example, for polio or yellow fever vaccination), which must be documented on an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) before you enter or when you leave a country. (www.nhs.uk)
  • For more detailed information, please visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Panel Physician Technical Instructions for Vaccination . (state.gov)
  • Yet just 26 percent of private providers statewide are recording vaccinations in GRITS, according to state data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - even though Georgia law has required it for years. (ajc.com)
  • A new Health Testing Centers study about vaccination rates found that more than half of U.S. states have experienced a decline over the past decade. (forbes.com)
  • And now I'm Chief Operating Officer of Families Fighting Flu (FFF), an organization dedicated to educating people about the seriousness of influenza and the importance of annual vaccination for everyone 6 months and older, per the recommendation of the Centers for Disease Control and. (researchamerica.org)
  • In support of this and following the successful uptake of the flu vaccination voucher scheme run in early October, the University has decided to fund an additional scheme allowing all staff the opportunity to book an appointment to receive a free flu vaccination at one one of the clinics run on campus during November to December. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among these groups is a key strategy to reduce the burden of influenza in the European Region. (who.int)
  • Carers:- In what context is it cost effective to increase uptake of flu vaccination among carers? (nice.org.uk)
  • The limited evidence suggests it is not cost effective to increase uptake of vaccination in all carers. (nice.org.uk)
  • Evidence about the effect on uptake of increasing the identification and offer of vaccination to carers through opportunistic engagement in all settings would enable more specific recommendations to be made. (nice.org.uk)
  • The unit begins with the early history of smallpox - the first infectious disease to be eradicated by a vaccination programme. (merlot.org)
  • At the end of section 1," you will be asked to "read an article on the history of smallpox, then, before continuing further with this unit, you should turn to the case study on polio, where we discuss the prospects for making this the second infectious disease to be eradicated by vaccination. (merlot.org)
  • The BSAVA strongly supports the use of vaccination in the control of infectious disease in companion animals. (bsava.com)
  • The concept of T cell vacination is, at least partially, analogous to classical vaccination against infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The point needs to be underlined on account of the bad publicity that vaccination received from the swine-flu program. (washingtonpost.com)
  • On July 13, a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Alert headlined, "WHO recommendations on pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccinations" suggest that universally mandated ones are coming. (infowars.com)
  • At the end of the day, because every vaccination carries real risks. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Q&A: What are the cancer risks with feline vaccinations? (petfinder.com)
  • The BSAVA recommends that consideration is given to annual vaccination of domestic rabbits against Myxomatosis and the two forms of Rabbit Viral Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) caused by RHDV-1 and RHDV-2 strains where local risks and individual veterinary advice indicate the need. (bsava.com)
  • Of the respondents, 34.4% believed the risks of the vaccination outweighed the benefits, 33% did not, and 32.6% were unsure. (nih.gov)
  • Also addressed are the potential legal implications of immunisation and vaccination, including diligent record-keeping, and compliance with vaccination schedules. (skillsplatform.org)
  • WSAVA stress that that their guidelines "do NOT serve as a set of globally-applicable rules", but are intended to be used by national associations and individual veterinary practices to develop vaccination schedules relevant to the local situation. (bsava.com)
  • Adhere to stringent regulations surrounding immunisation and vaccination training procedures by ensuring your staff have access to adequate training and up-to-date information on best practices. (skillsplatform.org)
  • An electronic immunisation record system, which aims to better monitor vaccination among populations, will need clear privacy rules and individuals should be the owners of their own data, Patricia Massetti told EURACTIV.com in an interview. (euractiv.com)
  • Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudes to vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. (rand.org)
  • See current Annex 1 and country list on the WHO International Travel and Health webpage at www.who.int/ith/en/index.html ). (cdc.gov)
  • The GP or practice nurse may be able to give you general advice about travel vaccinations and travel health, such as protecting yourself from malaria. (www.nhs.uk)
  • By mid-2004, health officials plan to have smallpox vaccinations available on a voluntary basis for all Americans. (faqs.org)
  • Public health authorities at EU and national level have started working to "occupy more of the space on social media", as it is currently almost entirely taken up by people who are against vaccination, Dr Andrea Ammon told EURACTIV.com in an interview. (euractiv.com)
  • Mary Holland , a research scholar at NYU School of Law, discussed issues related to vaccination, health, and human rights. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Another vaccination campaign will start in December, health officials said. (yahoo.com)
  • All students and employees of the TU Ilmenau and the State Student Services can participate in the general flu vaccination, if they have a statutory or private health insurance. (tu-ilmenau.de)
  • No vaccination is possible for people who have only a foreign health insurance and no German public or private health insurance. (tu-ilmenau.de)
  • In fact, according to epidemiological data, the public health campaign of vaccinations is the greatest medical achievement of mankind. (aish.com)
  • Ukraine is battling a recession and the Health Ministry says the state budget finances only some 65 percent of its vaccination needs - 302 million hrvyna ($38 million or euro30 ) of the needed 465 million ($58 million or euro45 million). (yahoo.com)
  • Vaccination has long been a familiar, highly effective form of medicine and a triumph of public health. (mit.edu)
  • And when the most significant recent event in the health of the child was a vaccination, as can be said for many moments in the life of a young American, we might identify that as a potential cause and deem that link worthy of further examination. (kottke.org)
  • The National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS) and the National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations (NASPA) this week are encouraging state legislators to help sustain the momentum behind a critical public health message: getting the flu vaccination this year is critical to prevent a perfect storm of flu and COVID-19 that could harm patients and communities. (prweb.com)
  • Our results support public health interventions to improve flu vaccination during economic recessions. (springer.com)
  • The best way to keep the United States polio-free is to maintain high immunity (protection) in the U.S. population against polio through vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Although reported cases of human disease are the principal indicator of disease risk, case reports may be absent because of a low level of transmission, a high level of immunity in the population (because of vaccination, for example), or failure of local surveillance systems to detect cases. (cdc.gov)
  • this is referred to as "herd immunity" or "community protection," and is an important benefit of vaccination. (pnas.org)
  • Its administration induces the development of immunity and protection against a pathogen or toxin and is called a vaccination. (answers.com)
  • This training is a mandatory legal requirement for all staff involved in the management or administration of vaccinations and immunisations across all branches of the healthcare sector. (skillsplatform.org)
  • For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. (rand.org)
  • Nonetheless, for most people, vaccination is a prudent step to avoid the threat of a disease. (faqs.org)
  • It is thought that more than 15 million people a year receive a post-bite vaccination that prevents hundreds of thousands of deaths. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • You are taking a great responsability, since you say that all the people who contributed to the discussion on this group and were pro-vaccination did not know the matter. (bio.net)
  • The point here is that it has been my experience that the people most passionate in fight vaccination, often do not even know the basic facts. (bio.net)
  • Still, Dr. Baltimore says that he envisions that some people might be leery of a vaccination strategy that means altering their own DNA, even if it prevents a potentially fatal disease. (infowars.com)
  • Only then will people understand that vaccination could have saved them. (yahoo.com)
  • Anti-vaccination sentiments seem to strike a chord with relatively well-educated segments of the population - the same people who favor organic food and want to use "natural" products as much as possible. (forbes.com)
  • In this way, even people who cannot be vaccinated can still gain protection to some extent, because the germ has been contained by the vaccination of the general population. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • There are many people claiming that their child has developed a disease following vaccination," he continued. (healthline.com)
  • However, mandatory vaccination can worsen inequities in access to resources, because penalties for not complying can disproportionately affect disadvantaged groups. (nature.com)
  • Not all travel vaccinations are available free on the NHS, even if they're recommended for travel to a certain area. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you are already eligible to receive the free NHS flu vaccination from your GP surgery, you are encouraged to use this instead of attending one of the clinics. (bath.ac.uk)
  • This free, online text/course introduces the student to vaccinations. (merlot.org)
  • Furthermore, you can check your vaccination records free of charge and get information about current and future necessary vaccinations. (tu-ilmenau.de)
  • He rejected criticisms that vaccination would mark a permanent end to Britain's disease-free status. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Mr Scudamore said the government had not ruled out vaccination but warned it would have "serious implications" for the nation's disease-free status. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Vaccination Panic in Australia analyses this campaign from the point of view of free speech. (lulu.com)
  • The book will be of interest to readers interested in the vaccination debate and in struggles over free speech and citizen participation in decision-making. (lulu.com)
  • The benefits of vaccinating adolescent girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) are already evident by the midteenage years, according to an analysis of data from a Canadian program that offers free school-based vaccination to eighth-grade girls. (medscape.com)
  • We actually don't know enough about the influence of misinformation available online upon vaccination intentions and behaviours," she told Radio Free Europe. (news.com.au)
  • Maternal vaccination is especially important for infants less than 6 months old, who are ineligible for vaccination. (answers.com)
  • In all, the investigators compared HPV-related outcomes between 131,781 girls who were ineligible and 128,712 girls who were eligible for the vaccination program. (medscape.com)