Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Uveitis, Posterior: Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.Uveitis, Intermediate: Inflammation of the pars plana, ciliary body, and adjacent structures.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Iridocyclitis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the iris and ciliary body characterized by exudates into the anterior chamber, discoloration of the iris, and constricted, sluggish pupil. Symptoms include radiating pain, photophobia, lacrimation, and interference with vision.Eye ProteinsVitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Uveitis, Suppurative: Intraocular infection caused mainly by pus-producing bacteria and rarely by fungi. The infection may be caused by an injury or surgical wound (exogenous) or by endogenous septic emboli in such diseases as bacterial endocarditis or meningococcemia.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Behcet Syndrome: Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retinal Vasculitis: Inflammation of the retinal vasculature with various causes including infectious disease; LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC; MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; BEHCET SYNDROME; and CHORIORETINITIS.Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Retinal DiseasesRetinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Rats, Inbred LewRetinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by bilateral granulomatous UVEITIS with IRITIS and secondary GLAUCOMA, premature ALOPECIA, symmetrical VITILIGO, poliosis circumscripta (a strand of depigmented hair), HEARING DISORDERS, and meningeal signs (neck stiffness and headache). Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals a pattern consistent with MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p748; Surv Ophthalmol 1995 Jan;39(4):265-292)Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Retinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Fluocinolone Acetonide: A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Mice, Inbred C57BLRetinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute: Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Hyphema: Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Pars Planitis: Form of granulomatous uveitis occurring in the region of the pars plana. This disorder is a common condition with no detectable focal pathology. It causes fibrovascular proliferation at the inferior ora serrata.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ophthalmia, Sympathetic: Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lens DiseasesEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Ocular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Darkness: The absence of light.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Paracentesis: A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Spondylarthropathies: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Epiretinal Membrane: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative: Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Rats, Inbred BNSclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Blood-Aqueous Barrier: The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Intraocular Lymphoma: A form of malignant cancer which occurs within the eyeball.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.HLA-B51 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.Nerve Tissue ProteinsFovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Endophthalmitis: Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.
... (MEWDS) is an uncommon inflammatory condition of the retina that typically affects ... Basic and Clinical Science Course; Intraocular inflammation and uveitis (2011-2012 ed.). American Academy of Ophthalmology. ... Basic and Clinical Science Course; Retina and vitreous (2011-2012 ed.). American Academy of Ophthalmology. 2012. ISBN 978- ... during the acute phase of the disease reveals multiple discrete white to orange spots at the level of the RPE or deep retina, ...
Woods AC; Wahlen HE (1959). "The probable role of benign histoplasmosis in the etiology of granulomatous uveitis". Transactions ... Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.). 29 (10): 1418-23. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181babdf1. PMID 19898179. ... Uveitis There is a Dutch website about POHS. ( http://www.pohs.nl ) Macher A, Rodrigues MM, Kaplan W, Pistole MC, McKittrick A ...
Silicone glaucoma - glaucoma due to Silicone used to repair a detached retina. Infantile/Juvenile glaucoma - often associated ... Cases of Uveitis - acute or chronic inflammation of the eye. Traumatic glaucoma - glaucoma associated with injury to the eye. ...
It is a form of posterior uveitis. If only the choroid is inflamed, not the retina, the condition is termed choroiditis. The ... Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. ... Uveitis Retinitis "Choroiditis (definition)". WebMD. Retrieved July 11, 2012. Berman, Eric L. "Choroiretinitis". NYU Langone ... Retina. 32 (3): 468-72. doi:10.1097/IAE.0b013e318229b220. PMID 21817958. Ejere HO, Schwartz E, Wormald R, Evans JR (2012). " ...
In this condition the posterior uveitis shows a geographic pattern. The inflammation begins in the juxtapapillary choroid and ... The overlying retinal pigment epithelium and the outer retina are involved in the inflammatory process. A closely related ... American academy of Ophthalmology (2012). Basic&Clinical Science Course: Intraocular inflammation and uveitis (2011-2012 last ...
ARN can progress into other conditions such as uveitis, detachment of the retina, and ultimately can lead to blindness. The ... The disease presented itself more so in the outer retina until it progressed far enough to then affect the inner retina. The ... The American Uveitis Society has established the following guidelines for ARN diagnosis: Retinal necrosis with one or more ... Though the disease may be present itself, the inflammation of the retina may not been visualized for decades after the initial ...
The vitreous humour is in contact with the retina. It does not adhere to the retina, except at the optic nerve disc and the ora ... uveitis). The collagen fibres of the vitreous are held apart by electrical charges. With aging, these charges tend to reduce, ... The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other ... If the vitreous pulls away from the retina, it is known as a vitreous detachment. As the human body ages, the vitreous often ...
... (SO) or Sympathetic uveitis is a bilateral diffuse granulomatous uveitis (a kind of inflammation) of ... The retina, however, usually remains uninvolved, although perivascular cuffing of the retinal vessels with inflammatory cells ... The disease may progress to severe uveitis with pain and photophobia. Commonly the eye remains relatively painless while the ... ISBN 0-8385-6300-7. Zaharia, MA; Lamarche, J; Laurin, M (Aug 1984). "Sympathetic uveitis 66 years after injury". Canadian ...
The uvea provides most of the blood supply to the retina. Increased eye pressure in uveitis can result from the inflammation ... Uveitic Glaucoma is due to uveitis, the swelling and inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. ... to the retina and optic nerve head. The first drug to reduce IOP, pilocarpine, was introduced in the 1870s. Early surgical ... uveitis), known as uveitic glaucoma. The underlying cause of open-angle glaucoma remains unclear. Several theories exist on its ...
... is a rare form of posterior uveitis and accounts for 1-3% of uveitis cases in general. Birdshot ... In an eye examination, light-colored spots on the retina are seen. Complete loss of visual acuity may happen[citation needed] ... Birdshot chorioretinopathy now commonly named "Birdshot Uveitis" or "HLA-A29 Uveitis" is a rare form of bilateral posterior ... uveitis affecting the eye. It causes severe, progressive inflammation of both the choroid and retina. Affected individuals are ...
... uveitis and other disorders of the retina. Combination with other monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and pethidine is also ...
"Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU)". The Appaloosa Project. Retrieved 2010-03-21. Loving, Nancy (April 19, 2008). "Uveitis: Medical ... While the retina is a normal shape, the nerve signal triggered when light reaches rod cells does not reach the brain. Rod cells ... Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) is also present in the breed. Appaloosas have an eightfold greater risk of developing Equine ... Uveitis in horses has many causes, including eye trauma, disease, and bacterial, parasitic and viral infections, but ERU is ...
Chronic uveitis and intermediate uveitis can be a cause. Blockage of a vein in the retina can cause engorgement of the other ... causing the capillaries in the retina to dilate and leak fluid into the retina. Less common today with modern lens replacement ... A number of drugs can cause changes in the retina that can lead to macular edema. The effect of each drug is variable and some ... "Complications of Uveitis". Her Majesty's Government, UK. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2016. Lusby, Franklin W (8 May ...
It is used to allow better examination of the lens, vitreous humor, and retina. Due to its relatively short duration of effect ... Cycloplegic drops are often also used to treat anterior uveitis, decreasing risk of posterior synechiae and decreasing ...
... bilateral uveitis, and sudden onset of marked visual loss associated with the appearance of multiple lesions in the retina. ... White dot syndromes Uveitis Comu, S; Verstraeten, T; Rinkoff, JS; Busis, NA (May 1996). "Neurological manifestations of acute ... Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an acquired inflammatory uveitis that belongs to the ... lesions begin to form in the macular area of the retina. Early in the course of the disease, the lesions cause acute and marked ...
Kepler discovered how the retina in the eye creates vision. From 1773 until around 1829, Thomas Young discovered the disability ... Common eye conditions managed include: infections (bacterial/viral), allergy, inflammation (uveitis), diabetic retinopathy, ... cataract/retina surgery) like ophthalmologists are. However, In Oklahoma and Louisiana, optometrists may perform minor ...
Some ophthalmologists receive additional advanced training (or fellowship) in specific areas of ophthalmology, such as retina, ... cornea, glaucoma, laser vision correction, pediatric ophthalmology, uveitis, pathology, or neuro-ophthalmology. An ophthalmic ...
... agents and are used as such during eye examination to better visualize the retina. When cycloplegic drugs are used as a ... and the treatment of uveitis. All cycloplegics are also mydriatic (pupil dilating) ...
... and uveitis. The exit exam is the European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma (EBOD). At the end of the programme, graduates ... Training in ophthalmology followed by 1.5 years of specialist medical ophthalmology training which includes medical retina, ... diabetic eye disease glaucoma macular degeneration strabismus uveitis COPs also perform screening programmes for amblyopia, ...
... uveitis, oculoplastics, medical and surgical retina, ocular oncology, ocular pathology, or neuro-ophthalmology. About 35 ... A ciliary body was then discovered and the sclera, retina, choroid, and cornea were seen to meet at the same point. The two ... Medical retina and vitreo-retinal surgery sometimes together called posterior segment subspecialisation. Theodor Leber ... retina, etc. by completing a fellowship program which varies in length depending on each program's requirements. In the United ...
... retina, pediatric, neuro, oculoplastics and uveitis), having carried out at least 5000 operations, possessing research and ...
Diagnosis And Management Uveitis.org Pediatric Retina edited by Mary Elizabeth Hartnett Most widely held works by Albert Mooren ...
Faculty and staff service of patients with eye disorders and diseases in the following areas:Retina and Vitreous Diseases and ... Ophthalmic Oncology Ophthalmic Plastic and Orbital Surgery Pediatric ophthalmology Ophthalmic pathology Uveitis Comprehensive ... a devastating infection of the retina often associated with AIDS. In a successful effort to restore the vitality to ocular ...
Medical retina Neuro-ophthalmology Oculoplastic and reconstructive surgery Oncology Pathology Pediatric Refractive Uveitis ...
... focusing on ocular inflammatory diseases such as Uveitis and his early work was in this field was as an uveitis and retina ... "History". Uveitis Society of India. 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-04-01. "Executive Team". Uveitis Society of India ... Foster". Uveitis.org. 2017. Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. "Biography on Orcid". Orcid. 2017. Archived from the ... Known for his research on limbal stem cells, Sangwan is the founder secretary and an adviser of the Uveitis Society of India. ...
Retina. *Retinitis *Chorioretinitis. *Cytomegalovirus retinitis. *Retinal detachment. *Retinoschisis. *Ocular ischemic syndrome ...
... the retina and/or choroid. It has therefore been designated as one of the diseases of a family of intermediate uveitis. ... Uveitis. Medical Encylopedia. MEDLINEplus. Update: 12/22/2002. 3pp.. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/print/ency/article/001005.htm ... Cystoid macular edema is characterized by swelling (edema) of the central part of the retina as a result of abnormal leakage of ... Swelling can occur inside the eye, particularly on the peripheral retina or macula that may lead to decreased vision. Glaucoma ...
Anterior uveitis is a more technical term for iritis. There are many possible causes, and sometimes the cause cannot be ... a sudden onset of blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the tissues around the retina and causing pressure). ... Learn more about iritis and uveitis. Learn more about our vision protection protocol - lifestyle, activity and diet to support ... Iritis is the most common form of uveitis, a condition involving one or more of the three structures that comprise the ...
It is characterized by inflammation of the layer of blood vessels beneath the retina. The symptoms of posterior uveitis include ... Iritis (Anterior Uveitis). Iritis, also called "anterior uveitis" is an inflammatory disorder of the iris, the colored portion ... Posterior Uveitis. As the name implies, the inflammation occurs in the posterior or rear of the eye. ... This is because, unlike anterior uveitis, the inflammation is located at the back of the eye and the drops simply would not ...
Medical Retina/Uveitis Fellowship Medical Retina/Uveitis Fellowship ... Uveitis Update Course, North Coast Retina Symposium, Cole Eye Imaging Summit (Pre-ASRS), Cole Retina Summit (Pre-ARVO), (ISOO) ... While obviously the fellowship is focused on medical retina, 10 of our 12 retina staff doctors are surgeons; medical retina ... Uveitis and pediatric retina built into core rotation. *Exposure to retinal dystrophies and tumor/oncology service also ...
Differential expression of Kir4.1 and aquaporin 4 in the retina from endotoxin-induced uveitis rat.. [Xiao-Qiang Liu, Hideyuki ... In this study, we investigated the expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina during endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. ... After an intravitreal LPS injection, the expression of Kir4.1 in the retina showed a significant decline at both the protein ... EIU differently alters the expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 in the retina. The differential expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 during ...
Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation Predominantly in Müller Cells of Retina with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis ... Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation Predominantly in Müller Cells of Retina with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis ... Increased nitric oxide production in endotoxin-induced uveitis: reduction of uveitis by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. ... Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation Predominantly in Müller Cells of Retina with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis. ...
In Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis the Mitochondrial Proteomics Reveal Mitochondrial Specific Oxidative Stress in the Retina ... In Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis the Mitochondrial Proteomics Reveal Mitochondrial Specific Oxidative Stress in the Retina ... In Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis the Mitochondrial Proteomics Reveal Mitochondrial Specific Oxidative Stress in the Retina. ... Conclusions:: The presence of mitochondrial specific oxidative stress related proteins in the early EAU retina along with ...
UVEITIS/RETINA SPECIALIST COLUMBUS, OHIO: Retina and Uveitis practice in Columbus, Ohio is seeking a full-time Board certified/ ... The American Uveitis Society is a 501(c)6 non-profit organization. ...
Causes of uveitis can include allergy, infection, chemical exposure or trauma. ... Uveitis is an inflammation of the inside of the eye. ... Our Retina Physicians*Introduction. *David Orth, MD, FACS, ... Uveitis. What Is Uveitis?. The uvea is the pigmented middle layer of the eye - between the sclera and the retina - which also ... Smoking increases your risk of getting uveitis. How is Uveitis Diagnosed?. A dilated eye exam will be performed. Additional ...
Board-certified retina specialist Robert C. Wang, MD, has cared for Texas Retina patients for more than 16 years and currently ...
Texas Retina Associates welcomes board-certified ophthalmologist and retina specialist Rene Y. Choi, MD, PhD, to our practice ... Texas Retina Associates Participating in New Phase II Clinical Trial for Choroidal Melanoma ... Ashkan M. Abbey, MD, Presented at the American Society of Retina Specialists 2020 Virtual Annual Meeting ...
India which also provides Best Diabetic Retinopathy treatment in India as well treatment for Uveitis. ... Centre For Sight is the Top Retina Surgery Hospital in Delhi, ... What is Uveitis?. Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea which ... Understanding Uveitis. Uveitis is the inflammation of the Uvea which is made up of Iris, Ciliary body and Choroid. If we think ... At Centre for Sight, our experienced Retina & Uvea specialists are fully equipped to provide the best Uveitis treatment in ...
Uveitis is inflammation in the uvea or uveal layer of the eye. This is the middle of the three layers of the eye, including the ... What is Uveitis and is it Treatable?. Uveitis is inflammation in the uvea or uveal layer of the eye. This is the middle of the ... Types of Uveitis. There are different types of uveitis, and its important to be accurately diagnosed by an ophthalmologist so ... Empire Retina Consultants is a New York Retina practice directed by Dr. Alexander Aizman, MD. ...
The uvea provides most of the blood supply to the retina.. What are the symptoms of uveitis?. Symptoms include light ... There are four types of uveitis and tests target specific diagnoses: Iritis is the most common form of uveitis. It affects the ... What are treatments for uveitis?. Treatment varies based on the etiology, location, and severity of the uveitis and it includes ... What are the causes of uveitis?. Uveitis has many potential causes, including infections (viral, fungal, bacterial, parasitic ...
... is dedicated to helping patients with retina problems like uveitis at Comprehensive Retina Consultants in Ocala, FL. Uveitis ... TREAT UVEITIS. As an experienced retina specialist, Dr. Shalesh Kaushal is dedicated to treating conditions like uveitis at his ... ABOUT UVEITIS. Uveitis, also known as iritis, is an eye condition that causes inflammation in the middle layer of the eye wall ... UVEITIS DIAGNOSIS. If you have signs or risk factors for uveitis, Dr. Kaushal will start with a thorough eye examination to ...
Enjoy the opportunity for close interactions with your target market by exhibiting at the First Retina and Uveitis Update where ... medical retina specialists, vitreo-retina specialists, uveitis specialists, ophthalmologists, ophthalmic technicians, and ... nurses convene to learn about the latest on retina and uveitis diseases. ...
Clinically, uveitis may also involve other parts of the eye such as the retina, vitreous and optic nerve. ... What is Uveitis?. Uveitis is a collection of inflammatory diseases of the eye and uveal tract. The uvea is the middle layer of ... Diffuse uveitis involves all parts of the eye.. Common symptoms of uveitis include ocular pain, light sensitivity, redness, ... Rarely malignancies such as lymphoma or leukemia may cause uveitis.. How Do You Treat Uveitis?. There is not one treatment for ...
What is uveitis?. Uveitis is inflammation of the part of the eye called the uvea. The uvea is the middle layer of the eye, ... What are the symptoms of uveitis?. Uveitis can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms can develop rapidly and may include:. *Blurry ... you should be examined immediately by a Board Certified Retina Specialist at Retina Vitreous Associates. Request an appointment ... Uvea blood vessels nourish important parts of the eye, such as the retina. If the uvea becomes inflammed, it can harm your ...
Uveitis may recur if the underlying disorder is still present.. Posterior Uveitis is a less common type of uveitis that affects ... UVEITIS. Condition typically affecting patients 20 to 50. Condition. Uveitis is a swelling of the uvea, the center section of ... Different types of uveitis are treated differently.. Iris or anterior uveitis is often a result of an autoimmune disorder such ... UVEITIS IS A SWELLING OF THE UVEA. the center section of the eye made up of the iris, ciliary body and choroid.. ...
Uveitis. What is uveitis?. Uveitis (pronounced you-vee-EYE-tis) is inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of your eye. The ... How is uveitis treated?. Uveitis is a serious eye condition that may scar the eye and lead to permanent vision loss. You need ... Are there different kinds of uveitis?. There are different types of uveitis depending on which part of the eye is affected:. ... In most cases of uveitis, the cause remains unknown.. How is uveitis diagnosed?. A careful eye examination by an ...
Who gets uveitis?. Uveitis may be caused by a traumatic injury to the eye or by an infection inside the eye (like herpes or ... Uveitis: Cause and Treatment.. Turning Vision Impairment into Vision Restored.. What is uveitis?. The uvea (Lat. uva, grape) is ... How is uveitis treated?. Uveitis is a serious condition that requires careful medical therapy to prevent complications like ... Uveitis can usually be treated and put into remission, but is often incurable. Steroid drops, pills, or injections are usually ...
Ozurdex injection for uveitis. One of the many challenges in managing patients with uveitis is the side effects due to the long ... where blood vessels in the retina do not form normally. The retina is a thin sheet ... ... It has been developed for use as treatment of non infectious uveitis and macula edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. ... Many patients who have received ozurdex for uveitis were able to reduce or stop their oral steroids and other immunosuppressive ...
Uveitis is a term for inflammation of the eye. It can occur in one eye or both eyes and affects the layer of the eye called the ... Detached retina. This is a possible complication of posterior uveitis and panuveitis. Uveitis can increase the risk of ... Living with Uveitis. Living with Uveitis. Modern treatments help control uveitis and can often prevent vision loss and ... Intermediate Uveitis Intermediate uveitis is inflammation of the ciliary body, the front end of the retina, and the vitreous. ...
These spots are mainly distributed in the posterior pole and in the mid periphery of the retina. ... is an uncommon chronic posterior uveitis characterized by vitritis and multiple ovoid spots, which are orange to cream in color ... encoded search term (Birdshot Chorioretinopathy (Birdshot Uveitis)) and Birdshot Chorioretinopathy (Birdshot Uveitis) What to ... Co-director of Uveitis Service, Director, Uveitis Fellowship, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary; ...
The term uveitis is synonymous with inflammation of the uveal tract, which consists of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. ... also known as anterior uveitis, is the most common form of intra-ocular inflammation and often causes a painful red eye. ... Retina Society, American College of Healthcare Executives, American Uveitis Society. Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. ... Causes of uveitis in the general practice of ophthalmology. UCLA Community-Based Uveitis Study Group. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 Jan ...
  • Cystoid macular edema is characterized by swelling (edema) of the central part of the retina as a result of abnormal leakage of fluid from capillaries. (rarediseases.org)
  • Causes of uveitis in the general practice of ophthalmology. (medscape.com)
  • Cover Image: Provided by Dean Eliott, MD, a member of the Retina Today Editorial Advisory Board, and Kareem Moussa, MD. Dr. Eliott is the Stelios Evangelos Gragoudas Professor of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School. (optos.com)
  • 36-month data from the PSV-FAI-001 study, presented at The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) annual conference in April 2019, showed that significantly more eyes treated with ILUVIEN ® experienced no recurrence* of uveitis over three years compared to those in the treated control group (34.5% of eyes treated with ILUVIEN ® versus 2.4% treated control). (pharmiweb.com)
  • He has been the Program Chairman for the past two ASRS Annual Meetings and the Program Chairman for the past two Retina Subspecialty Day Programs at the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Meetings. (healthgrades.com)
  • He is a scientific reviewer for all of the leading journals within ophthalmology and retina, and on the editorial board of several. (healthgrades.com)
  • Dr. Sobrin shares her in-depth knowledge of rare and complex cases with uveitis and retina fellows as well as ophthalmology residents. (massgeneral.org)
  • Candidates must have completed an ophthalmology residency and a uveitis fellowship, be eligible for medical licensure in the state of Oklahoma, and be certified or eligible for certification by the American Board of Ophthalmology. (uveitissociety.org)
  • In many situations, a specific cause cannot be found and it is called "idiopathic" uveitis. (rcseattle.com)
  • A significant proportion (up to 50%) of uveitis cases may occur without a known cause (termed as 'idiopathic' uveitis). (retina-ded.org)
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a leading cause of uveitis in children. (preventblindness.org)
  • Peripheral ischemia with I.R.V.A.N. (Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneu-rysms, and neuroretinitis) Five Optos California Ultra-wide images were montaged inPhotoshop so that all of the retina could be viewed in a single image, by Chris Barry (LionsEye Institute, Australia). (optos.com)
  • Other immunosuppressive medicines are added for severe and chronic forms of uveitis. (rcseattle.com)
  • AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. (nyee.edu)
  • Previous work by our group developed and validated the Dublin Uveitis Evaluation Tool (DUET), a highly sensitive and specific algorithm to streamline referrals between ophthalmologists and rheumatologists 15 . (jrheum.org)
  • It has been developed for use as treatment of non infectious uveitis and macula edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. (eyeretina.my)
  • Uveitis caused by an infection ('infectious uveitis') usually improves with treatment of the underlying infection. (retina-ded.org)
  • For patients with non-infectious uveitis, corticosteroids are usually the first choice of treatment. (retina-ded.org)
  • Coritosteroids are usually the way to treat most non-infectious uveitis quickly, but for "birdshot", the way in which they are given may have an effect on the disease course. (uveitis.org)