Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.United StatesModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Great BritainBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Validity and utility[edit]. The content of the MBTI scales is problematic. In 1991, a National Academy of Sciences committee ... Utility[edit]. Isabel Myers claimed that the proportion of different personality types varied by choice of career or course of ... There is insufficient evidence to make claims about utility, particularly of the four letter type derived from a person's ...
Utilities[edit]. A public utility (or simply "utility") is an organization or company that maintains the infrastructure for a ... Common examples of utilities are electricity, natural gas, water, sewage, cable television, and telephone. In the United States ... Thomas DiLorenzo asserts, however, that during the early days of utility companies where there was little regulation, there ... public utilities are often natural monopolies because the infrastructure required to produce and deliver a product such as ...
Utilities[edit]. Electricity and natural gas are provided by National Grid.[142] Providence Water is responsible for the ... "Electric utility buying R.I. gas company". Providence Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2007.. ... Over one third of Providence's economy is based in trade, transportation, utilities, and educational and health services.[74] ...
Utilities[edit]. The island's power grid is connected to mainland plants by the HVDC Haenam-Cheju, and electricity is also ...
Utility lines. In areas with trees, utility distribution lines on poles are less susceptible to snow loads than they are ...
When utility power fails, the battery carries the load without needing to switch. With this simple though somewhat expensive ... In recent years, large units of a utility power station are usually designed on a unit system basis in which the required ... the consuming equipment and floats continuously on the output of the rectifiers that normally supply DC rectified from utility ...
Setup utility[edit]. Historically, the BIOS in the IBM PC and XT had no built-in user interface. The BIOS versions in earlier ... "HP BIOS Configuration Utility". Hewlett-Packard. 2013. Archived from the original on 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2015-01-12.. ... A modern BIOS setup utility has a menu-based user interface (UI) accessed by pressing a certain key on the keyboard when the PC ... "BIOS configuration utility" (BCU[9]) or "BIOS setup utility", accessed at system power-up by a particular key sequence. This ...
Utilities[edit]. Brattleboro's electricity is supplied by Green Mountain Power.[107] Brattleboro's surface water supply is the ...
Utilities[edit]. Memphis's primary utility provider is the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW). This is the largest ... three-service municipal utility in the United States, providing electricity, natural gas, and pure water service to all ...
Utilities[edit]. Electricity and natural gas in Horsham Township is provided by PECO Energy Company, a subsidiary of Exelon.[16 ... Area Code 215 and 267 Map (PDF) (Map). Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission. Retrieved June 22, 2011.. ...
Utilities[edit]. #[edit]. *3D Precision, High-Precision Imaging System, Digital Precision. A[edit]. *Abacus (Spreadsheet), ... CST Disk Utilities (Backup, Convert, Filed, Disced, Ramdrive), Cambridge Systems Technology. D[edit]. *Data Design (Database), ...
The headerquarters of Iberdrola, a multinational electric utility company are located in Bilbao. The company was created in ...
Utility cooperative[edit]. Main article: Utility cooperative. A utility cooperative is a type of consumers' cooperative that is ... See Rural Utilities Service. In the case of electricity, cooperatives are generally either generation and transmission (G&T) co ... tasked with the delivery of a public utility such as electricity, water or telecommunications services to its members. Profits ...
Utilities[edit]. Water and sewer service is provided by Beaufort-Jasper Water and Sewer Authority (BJWSA). South Carolina ...
Utility players[edit]. Players who have the ability to play a number of positions in a team are called utility players.[95] ... an Australian utility forward who played at flanker, number 8, lock and prop for the Wallabies from 1955 to 1967.[80] Utility ... Another famous utility player was Austin Healey, who started and played test matches for England and club matches for Leicester ... Players that play multiple positions are called "utility players". The scrum (a contest used to restart play) must consist of ...
Yellow/amber: Utility vehicles, Security Company. Spain[edit]. The law used to allow only the Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, ... Alberta also allows red lights on certain classes of utility vehicles, such as natural gas utilities which may need to ... Amber only: Utility vehicles, Civil Aid Service, all vehicles in the air-side of the airport (for pilots' visibility), Hong ... Amber: Municipality police, utility and construction vehicles, heavy machines, slow vehicles.. South Korea[edit]. *Red: Fire ...
Utility[edit]. The main use of these search engines is the increasing creation of audiovisual content and the need to manage it ... Each one has some utilities and special specifications. Keep in mind that converting from one format to another can lose much ...
Avista Utilities provides both power and natural gas services in the area.[124] The city draws its water supply from the ...
Utilities and oligopoly[edit]. See also: Oligopoly and Microgrid. Due to the enormous capital outlays, utilities were a ... In 1934, with the passage of the Public Utility Holding Company Act (USA), electric utilities were recognized as public goods ... "As Cyber Threats To The Electric Grid Rise, Utilities And Regulators Seek Solutions". Forbes. Retrieved 2018-09-27.. ... Utilities may impose load shedding on service areas via targetted blackouts, rolling blackouts or by agreements with specific ...
Utility pipes and cables: risks[edit]. Natural gas and propane supply pipes to structures often prove especially dangerous ... Primary structure undamaged and the structure is undiminished in utility for its primary application. A high level of retrofit ...
Clinical utility[edit]. A use of ion chromatography can be seen in the argentation ion chromatography.[citation needed] Usually ...
Utilities[edit]. Water storage, supply and Power for Darwin is managed by Power and Water Corporation, which is owned by the ...
Walkerton Public Utilities Commission[edit]. System operators. In 2000, the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission was under the ... Initial Public Utilities Commission response[edit]. By May 18, rumours were already circulating that Walkerton Public Utilities ... Excerpt from May 20th telephone conversation between Stan Koebel, of the Walkerton Public Utilities Commission, and Christopher ... Public Utility Commission staff:. *Inadequate training and continuing education among staff of the Walkerton PUC meant that ...
Utilities[edit]. Power in the city is operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company.[66] ...
Utility[edit]. Police motorcycles are job-related motorcycles. Some motorcycles are specially adapted for specific job ...
The ELFEMFs exposed subjects (n = 142) included the electric utility workers, who were compared with age, and socioeconomic ... The ELFEMFs exposed subjects (n = 142) included the electric utility workers, who were compared with age, and socioeconomic ... Related Oxidative Stress in Electric Utility Workers Exposed to 132 kV Substation," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and ... Related Oxidative Stress in Electric Utility Workers Exposed to 132 kV Substation ...
... materially reduce raw water consumption and even enable the utility to begin treating acid mine drainage for use in its plants. ...
The PSSDiag utility in this article only applies to SQL Server 7.0 and SQL Server 2000. A version has been created for SQL ... Because PSSDIAG is a console utility, not a service, logging out of the session where PSSDIAG is running will shut down the ... PSSDIAG will also shut down automatically whenever it finds a file named Pssdiag.stop in the utilitys output folder. This can ... PSSDIAG can also run custom utilities or custom Transact-SQL scripts for support cases that require data outside the natively ...
... utility analytics solutions from SAS help organizations in the utilities and energy industries harness the power of big data ... Utilities and the Internet of Things. Find out how CPS Energy, the largest city-owned utility in the nation, harnesses the ... Utility analytics solutions from SAS enable you to:. *Stop revenue leaks. Spot fraud faster and avoid many types of losses ... Utility analytics solutions from SAS help you:. *Know your customers. Cleanse and integrate data from billing and operational ...
And the utilities are rewarding shareholders while taking fewer chances with the business. Although some U.S. utilities own ... So far this year, DNP, which has about two-thirds of its assets in utility stocks and one-third in utility bonds, has delivered ... The best low-cost alternative is one of two exchange-traded funds: Utilities Select Sector SPDR (XLU) or iShares Dow Jones U.S ... The best non-leveraged utility-stock funds, such as Franklin Utilities A (FKUTX), have also produced double-digit returns this ...
Utility and its measure [3]BIBLIOGRAPHY [4]In a broad perspective the history of economics emerges as a struggle with the ... UtilityThe principle of decreasing marginal utility [1]Revealed preference; multiple choice [2] ... Replacing the utilities of all such purchases by a single utility-the utility of money hoarded, or encaisse desiree, as Walras ... As we now say, cardinal utility is replaced by ordinal utility, i.e., by ophelimity. Or, to put it differently, utility can be ...
... an abstract concept where the units that assign an amount of utility are arbitrary and are only used for representing relative ... The Top 5 Utility ETFs for 2016 (XLU, IDU) Discover the top utility company ETFs, and learn more about how you can get exposure ... How Utilities ETFs Deal With Rising Rates Utilities stocks and ETFs may be vulnerable to rising interest rates, but there are ... Top 4 Utilities Mutual Funds Discover which mutual funds in the utilities industry are top rated, and learn how investors can ...
Utility programs are small programs that perform a variety of useful functions for Registry Plus programs. They are implemented ... Utility programs are small programs that perform a variety of useful functions for Registry Plus programs. They are implemented ... data in reserved areas of the version 18 NAACCR record will not be preserved during conversion using CDCs conversion utility. ...
UTILITY REPORTS. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ... UTILITY REPORTS. MARCH 30, 1952. Continue reading the main ...
With the IBM Storage Utility Offering, you only pay for the storage you use. With usage-based, pay-as-you-go storage options, ... What IBM Storage Utility Offering can do for your business. The IBM® Storage Utility Offering improves storage provisioning and ... IBM Storage Utility Offering. Buy storage your way with a procurement choice, featuring usage-based billing, so your storage ...
With the IBM Storage Utility Offering, you only pay for the storage you use. With usage-based, pay-as-you-go storage options, ... How is the IBM Storage Utility Offering different from other utility or on-demand solutions?. ... The IBM Storage Utility Offering is ideal for all industries and customers with more than 250TB capacity needs and growing. ... IBM Storage Utility Offering. Buy storage your way with a procurement choice, featuring usage-based billing, so your storage ...
... and other utilities get more value from the network, the digital grid, and critical infrastructure. ... Utilities at Cisco Live. Connect and be inspired by Ciscos top experts. See whats possible for power, water, and other ... Utilities industrial security Manage risk by leveraging the network, data, and IoT. Protect operations and defend proactively ... Romanian utility digitizes infrastructure. SDEE Muntenia Nord has modernized and added software and services for remote ...
... utility) that a consumer derives from buying an additional unit of a commodity or service. The concept implies that the utility ... Marginal utility,, in economics, the additional satisfaction or benefit ( ... utility and value: Marginal utility. The classical economists suggested that this leads to a paradox. They argued that utility ... utility and value: Marginal utility. The classical economists suggested that this leads to a paradox. They argued that utility ...
3D Utility Location Data Repository (R01A), Utility Locating Technologies (R01B), Identifying and Managing Utility Conflicts ( ... Utility Investigation Technologies (R01B) * Listen to the webinar recording for the Utility Bundle to learn about the Round 7 ... Eliminate or reduce costly utility relocations, or costs related to delays from construction or from loss of utility services. ... productive coordination with utility owners during the design process helps minimize utility conflicts, and can save lives, ...
Water Utility Scholarship is available to residents of Washington State and to employees, elected officials, and family members ... The Sewer/ Water Utility Scholarship is available to residents of Washington State and to employees, elected officials, and ... Sewer/Water Utility Scholarship. Provided by: Washington Association of Sewer and Water Districts ...
Consumer surplus Envelope theorem Hicksian and Marshallian demands Homothetic utility functions Indirect utility function ... Constancy of the marginal utility of money. In Studies in mathematical economics and econometrics: In memory of Henry Schultz, ... Silberberg E. (2018) Marginal Utility of Money. In: Macmillan Publishers Ltd (eds) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. ... constant marginal utility of money. For much of the 20th century economists debated the meaning of that phrase and its ...
Many U.S. utilities use hydrogen gas to cool power plant generators, said Steve Kilmartin, director of products and markets at ... Utility crews and other investigators were still examining the damaged facility Friday. The cause of the blast was not ... Government and utility officials said they could not comment on the potential cause of the explosion since their investigations ... If the company is deemed at-fault for the accident and it causes electricity costs to rise, the utility could face financial ...
Warehousing workers, couriers, messengers, utilities workers, baggage handlers. Surveillance Research. Activity Goal 7.8.1 ( ... Long-haul truck drivers, short-haul truck drivers, bus and transit drivers, rail workers, aviation, utility workers, maritime, ... Long-haul truck drivers, short-haul truck drivers, couriers, rail transit and bus, warehousing workers, utilities workers. ... Obesity is a national problem and is prevalent in the transportation, warehousing and utilities (TWU) sector. Health conditions ...
The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) is expected to decide by years end how much to reduce rates for customers ... who get their electricity and natural gas from the states four largest investor-owned utilities. ... Utilities cite high-risk state. The utilities say they need their proposed rates to attract investors who may view California ... The CPUC periodically reconsiders the return on equity that utilities can earn. Earlier this year, it required the utility ...
Guide Water Utility Resilience Program. This program supports local drinking water and wastewater utilities in their efforts to ... GIS technical assistance for up to 40 water utilities; *quality control review of over 400 water utility service area maps with ... Water Utility Resilience Program Address Contact: Kristin Divris 8 New Bond Street. Worcester, MA 01606 ... Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA): WUCA is a collaboration of 10 of the nations largest water ...
Heres what we do know: The Illinois utility experienced a pump failure. The software vendor that supports the utility was ... A hacker named Pr0f compromised the SCADA software used by a South Houston water utility and posted proof attack on Pastebin, a ... Reports say that a cyberattack carried out by foreign nationals successfully shut down a pump at an Illinois water utility. But ... In fact, that very thing happened to another water utility in Houston on Nov. 18, shortly after the media reported the Illinois ...
Assembly: Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Utility (in Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Utility.dll). Inheritance Hierarchy. ... SQL Server API Reference SQL Server Management Objects Reference Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Utility ...
Trends in the measurement of health utilities in published cost-utility analyses. Value Health 2006; 9 (4): 213-8PubMedCrossRef ... Health utilities in Alzheimers disease: a cross-sectional study of patients and caregivers. Med Care 1999; 37 (1): 27-32PubMed ... Methods for measuring temporary health states for cost-utility analyses. Pharmacoeconomics 2009; 27 (9): 713-23PubMedCrossRef ... Prosser LA, Wittenberg E. Trends in utility elicitation methods: is there still a role for direct elicitation? [abstract]. Med ...
French utilitys Italian dilemma. By JAMES KANTER. FEB. 25, 2005. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue ... On Wednesday, the utilitys chairman and chief executive, Pierre Gadonneix, was in Rome to try to resolve a burgeoning feud ... The dispute began in 2001, when EDF and some allies set up an Italian holding company to buy out a utility that eventually ... PARIS - Électricité de France, the worlds largest power utility, has long benefited from protection at home while ...
United States civil utility aircraft by decade of first flight 1910s • 1920s • 1930s • 1940s • 1950s • 1960s • 1970s • 1980s • ... Civil utility aircraft of the 1960s by nation. International • Canada • Czechoslovakia • China • France • Germany • Italy • ... Pages in category "1960s United States civil utility aircraft". The following 67 pages are in this category, out of 67 total. ... Category:1960s United States civil utility aircraft. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ...
  • PARIS - Électricité de France, the world's largest power utility, has long benefited from protection at home while aggressively acquiring foreign rivals. (
  • About Sedaru: Sedaru operates the world's leading utility management software as the singular, exclusive interface for utilities to access information, automation, and control of the business and assets they run. (
  • The company, which serves the Tokyo region and is the world's fourth largest electrical utility, has raised electricity rates and sold assets to help staunch its flood of red ink. (
  • The combination of two Japanese utilities to form the world's biggest liquefied natural gas importer will give Asian buyers greater muscle to press producers for more flexible contracts and potentially deepen a new era of weaker prices. (
  • Find out how CPS Energy, the largest city-owned utility in the nation, harnesses the power of big data using big data analytics solutions from SAS. (
  • Find out how analytics can reveal new utility customer value. (
  • A utility network includes built-in schematics, expanded tracing, and improved analytics. (
  • Sedaru delivers critical asset management and operational analytics while integrating disparate information systems and sensor networks, empowering the enterprise with a shared user experience in 6 achievable steps for any utility to engage and grow with. (
  • We celebrate the amazing automation & analytics work of one of our favorite utilities, Kansas City Power & Light. (
  • In 2017, state grant funding through MassDEP's Water Management Act (WMA) program secured $300,000 to assist in jumpstarting GIS mapping for water utilities that lack the resources for such work. (
  • In 2016, a collaborative effort was initiated between MassDEP's WURP and MassDEP's GIS program to develop a uniform approach in tracking map availability, improve internal accessibility to water utility critical infrastructure, and develop a consistently formatted, statewide water utility infrastructure map for state agency use. (
  • However, energy companies, as well as all other utilities with similar infrastructure and situational awareness challenges, also need insight into their corporate or information technology (IT) and physical access control systems (PACS). (
  • SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - The state senators grilling the CEO of Pacific Gas & Electric Corp. were upset - like millions of other Californians, some spent days in the dark when the nation's largest utility shut off power during windstorms this fall. (
  • Fred John, vice president for regulatory affairs at what is the nation's largest gas utility, said the loss of both customers would cost it 600 million cubic feet of gas per day, or $6 million a month in revenue. (
  • Implementation Assistance Program - The Delaware Department of Transportation is adopting the Utility Conflict Matrix (UCM) to better analyze, track, and resolve utility conflicts while helping to further demonstrate their partnerships with utilities. (
  • Such an approach requires a utility to objectively analyze the potential of all available resources - supply and demand - and identify the mix of resources that produces a least-cost, reliable resource plan. (
  • As utilities respond, they require much better information for their employees, customers, and regulators. (
  • State regulators of investor-owned utilities (and their counterparts for publicly-owned utilities) are clearly in positions where their decisions and policies strongly influence utility investments and operations. (
  • State policymakers and regulators also can provide clear direction to regulated utilities about the importance of energy efficiency. (
  • COLUMBIA, S.C. (AP) - Federal environmental regulators have cited the parent company of a South Carolina utility for spilling hundreds of thousands of gallons of untreated sewage. (
  • The value of a deal can be significantly altered by utilities regulation - we sometimes see regulators take a tougher stance in allowed cost of capital and achievable cost performances from regulated activities. (
  • The importance of the concept known in modern economics by the name of utility derives precisely from the great light it shed upon this problem from the outset. (
  • It is curious, then, that after Aristotle set forth the concept of value in use (see below), it took more than twenty centuries for utility to become the basis of a revolutionary theory in economics. (
  • The viewpoint that people maximize utility, known as utilitarianism , has been taken up by the field of economics, but also criticized by some who claim that pleasure and freedom from pain are not the only goals that matter in life. (
  • International Portfolio Diversification with Generalized Expected Utility Preferences, " The Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue canadienne d'Economique, vol 32(4). (
  • Optimal Portfolio with Vector Expected Utility ," AMSE Working Papers 1308, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, France, revised 11 Feb 2013. (
  • Beyond the Risk Neutral Utility Function ," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201216, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2012. (
  • Money in the Utility Function: An Empirical Implementation ," Working papers 408, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics. (
  • Neoclassical economics has largely retreated from using cardinal utility functions as the basis of economic behavior. (
  • In modern economics, choice under conditions of certainty at a single point in time is modeled via ordinal utility, in which the numbers assigned to the utility of a particular circumstance of the individual have no meaning by themselves, but which of two alternative circumstances has higher utility is meaningful. (
  • The dispute began in 2001, when EDF and some allies set up an Italian holding company to buy out a utility that eventually became Edison, the second-largest power entity in Italy. (
  • The gas company has asked the Public Utilities Commission for emergency permission to cut the rates it charges its two largest customers, Southern California Edison and the city-owned Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, or risk losing them both to cheaper oil. (
  • Without the relief, the utility said, Edison and DWP have notified it that they would switch their boilers to burn oil instead of natural gas. (
  • The Edison Electric Institute claims that electric vehicles (EVs) could provide the load growth that utility companies so desperately need. (
  • A hacker named Pr0f compromised the SCADA software used by a South Houston water utility and posted proof attack on Pastebin , a site that hackers use to post stolen usernames, passwords, email addresses, and other content "liberated" from government or other targeted websites. (
  • While many utility companies work to maximize time spent helping customers, siloing and time-consuming methods of operation can hamper employee productivity. (
  • We compare the asset diver- sification patterns of agents who maximize a generalized expected utility (GEU) to the diversification of agents who maximize the conventional expected utility (EU). (
  • Specifically, we derive the patterns of diversification for agents who maximize a rank-dependent' expected utility, attaching more weight to bad' than to good' outcomes, in contrast to the probability weights used in a conventional expected utility maximization. (
  • The old-school economic answer to the question is that we humans, as rational actors seeking to maximize our own utility, divide our entire life's earnings into equal parts, which we spend each year (like an annuity). (
  • AARP California is working with The Utility Reform Network (TURN) and its communications director Mindy Spatt, above, to advocate for lower rates than those requested by four utility companies. (
  • David Pacheco, AARP California state president, said the association is seeking lower rates because 'in today's economy, many California seniors living on fixed incomes are struggling financially and simply cannot afford to pay high utility bills. (
  • The utilities say they need their proposed rates to attract investors who may view California as a relatively high-risk state. (
  • Implementation Assistance Program - The California Department of Transportation will adopt a Utility Conflict Matrix and implement a database approach to managing utility conflicts using the R15B research products. (
  • The collapse of oil prices has begun driving down California utility rates, bringing good news to electric and natural gas users but threatening Southern California Gas with the loss of 25% of its market. (
  • California gas rates charged to electric utilities have been tied to oil prices since February, 1983, as a means of encouraging the use of cleaner-burning gas. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO, California , August 15, 2008 (ENS) - Pacific Gas and Electric Company has entered into two utility-scale solar power contracts for a total of 800 megawatts of energy to be generated in California, the utility announced Thursday. (
  • An investigation into the cause of the largest-known release of methane in the U.S. faults a California utility for the way it maintained its natural gas storage field before the massive 2015 blowout. (
  • Southern California Gas Co. failed to investigate previous well failures at the Aliso Canyon storage field and didn't adequately assess its aging wells for disaster potential before the Oct. 23, 2015, blowout, the report released by the California Public Utilities Commission said. (
  • Utility is an abstract theoretical concept rather than a concrete, observable quantity. (
  • Abstract: Mining high utility itemsets from transactional information refers to the invention of itemsets with high utility like profits. (
  • Bentham was, nevertheless, disturbed by his own license, and late in life the architect of modern utilitarianism lamented, "Utility was an unfortunately chosen word. (
  • Extra power that's needed to meet peak demand trades in a spot market (and is often imported long distances) and so the utilities pay more for the power but pass on higher rates to users. (
  • See what's possible for power, water, and other utilities. (
  • Many U.S. utilities use hydrogen gas to cool power plant generators, said Steve Kilmartin, director of products and markets at Environment One Corp., which sells hydrogen-monitoring equipment to the power industry. (
  • When the power goes down, everyone depends on the response time and efficiency of their utility company. (
  • Publicly-owned utilities - which include rural electric cooperatives, municipal utilities and federal or state power authorities - are not generally regulated by state public service commissions. (
  • Nuclear power accounted for 44 percent of demand in Kansai's base in western Japan in the year to March 2011 -- making it the country's most nuclear-dependent utility. (
  • The mayors also expressed concern about the vulnerability of any utility relying on a single power source. (
  • On Wednesday, company executives outlined plans to revitalize TEPCO by cutting costs and making it competitive, arguing that in the long run, keeping the company as a public utility would run counter to the government's strategy of increasing competitiveness in the power sector. (
  • The electric utilities use natural gas to fire the boilers for the steam turbines that power most of their power plants. (
  • These landmark agreements signal the arrival of utility-scale PV solar power that may be cost-competitive with solar thermal and wind energy," said Jack Keenan, chief operating officer and senior vice president for PG&E. (
  • Today, high-efficiency photovoltaic technology is a competitively priced component of utility-scale peak power generation," said Tom Werner, chief executive officer of SunPower. (
  • A method to identify utility poles without being influenced by the measurement errors of Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed for an Augmented Reality (AR) system for supporting visual inspection of power distribution facilities. (
  • On the same day, at their Newark, NJ headquarters about 220 miles north of Washington, one of the nation's oldest electric utilities, PSEG, announced it is on track to reduce its carbon emissions for power generation 80 percent below 2005 levels by 2046 and outlined its plans to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 . (
  • Grid defection - as customers leave their utilities to rely on their own power generation - is a growing phenomenon in some regions, raising alarm bells in corporate offices. (
  • Certain aspects of utility regulation and policy are especially critical for enabling and supporting utility energy efficiency programs. (
  • The units to which we assign an amount of utility (known as utils), therefore, are arbitrary, representing a relative value. (
  • For example, suppose a cup of orange juice has utility of 120 utils, a cup of tea has a utility of 80 utils, and a cup of water has a utility of 40 utils. (
  • For example, if the "zero" of utility was located at -40, then a cup of orange juice would be 160 utils more than zero, a cup of tea 120 utils more than zero. (
  • Consequently, leading states have enacted regulations and policies to create new business models for their investor-owned utilities - models that eliminate the financial disincentives that prevent utilities from saving energy and provide incentives for developing successful and effective energy efficiency programs. (
  • The Sewer/ Water Utility Scholarship is available to residents of Washington State and to employees, elected officials, and family members of employees of the Washington Association of Sewer and Water Districts. (
  • Maps are also used during emergency response efforts and for non-emergency scenarios, such as MassDEP permitting, inspection and review of regulated facilities, troubleshooting water utility issues, watershed/resource protection, and climate change resilience planning. (
  • Available maps can vary from hand drawings and old blue-prints, to fully engineered Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or Computer-Aided Design (CAD) maps based upon the available resources of any given water utility. (
  • The inventory allowed MassDEP to identify water utilities that may potentially be in need of GIS mapping technical assistance. (
  • The work included confirming information contained within MassDEP's mapping inventory, updating PWS interconnection information, and providing GIS mapping services for up to 50 water utilities. (
  • The 49 water utilities were prioritized based upon factors that included system size, need(s) and interest in participation, and MassDEP regional program staff input. (
  • Cyberattack on an Illinois water utility. (
  • Why Was the Hacked Illinois Water Utility Even Connected to the Internet? (
  • Did foreign nationals hack into an Illinois water utility? (
  • Reports say that a cyberattack carried out by foreign nationals successfully shut down a pump at an Illinois water utility. (
  • In fact, that very thing happened to another water utility in Houston on Nov. 18, shortly after the media reported the Illinois story. (
  • The password the Houston utility used to guard its Siemens Simatic Human Machine Interface software-which gives human operators a visual display of how their water pumps, centrifuges, drilling equipment, robotics, etc. are functioning-consisted of only three characters. (
  • RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) - Rio de Janeiro police are investigating workers at a state utility after foul-smelling tap water began flowing into dozens of neighborhoods in the Brazilian city, raising health concerns and sparking a run on bottled water. (
  • RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) - After days of reports of foul tasting or smelling tap water in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Gov. Wilson Witzel has called for analysis of the water's quality as well as management at local utility Cedae. (
  • AP) - Coal ash is leaking from a dump complex at the largest coal-fired plant owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the utility is monitoring whether it's affecting public water supplies. (
  • The award, established in honor of Wendell R. LaDue, is presented to recognize distinguished water utility safety programs. (
  • Water Utility Hacked: Are Critical Systems at Risk? (
  • A water utility in Illinois was reportedly hacked in a cyber attack traced back to Russia. (
  • Powelson was recently appointed as co-vice chair of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, or NARUC, Committee on Water. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on Thursday said it had issued a notice of violation to Utilities Inc., the parent company of Tega Cay Water Services. (
  • PHOENIX (CN) - Customers of an Arizona water utility claim in court the company's owner bribed a state regulator for clearance to charge excessive prices. (
  • In a federal racketeering class action filed Monday, customers of Johnson Utilities say the water utility's owner, George Johnson, using a lobbyist as a go-between, bribed a former state regulator and his wife to "corruptly charge the public excessive prices. (
  • Johnson Utilities is headquartered in Scottsdale and provides water and wastewater service in central Arizona's Pinal County. (
  • This model is being developed for application in UK water utilities for demand side water resource planning to aid results presented to Ofwat, the UK Water regulator, as part of multi-billion-pound long term investment plans. (
  • With cardinal utility, it can be concluded that the cup of orange juice is better than the cup of tea by exactly the same amount by which the cup of tea is better than the cup of water. (
  • But it's far from industry standard on compact UTVs, largely because of high development and production cost," says Ross Lyons, product manager of the company's utility platform. (
  • The company's Precedent® golf cars and Carryall® turf utility vehicles are integral to successful operations at thousands of courses around the world. (
  • The term value [utility], therefore, does not express a quality inherent in a commodity, [but] a feeling of the mind, and is variable with the variations of the external circumstances which can influence that feeling, without any variation of the intrinsic qualities of the commodity which is the object of it. (
  • Simply stated, this principle is that each additional unit of the same commodity increases utility by a decreasing magnitude. (
  • There has been some controversy over the question whether the utility of a commodity can be measured or not. (
  • At one time, it was assumed that the consumer was able to say exactly how much utility he got from the commodity. (
  • Total utility is the aggregate sum of satisfaction or benefit that an individual gains from consuming a given amount of goods or services in an economy. (
  • In other words, total utility will increase at a slower pace as an individual increases the quantity consumed. (
  • Utilities require modern, real-time, digital applications to address critical asset management and regulatory challenges, and they appreciate that change management is central to implementing technology. (
  • Increased competition in the utilities sectors in recent years has entailed changes in regulatory frameworks and ownership structures of enterprises, in addition to business diversification. (
  • The flexibility and granularity of the approach has been shown to offer significant cost savings while still allowing a utility company to meet customer and stakeholder targets and Ofwat regulatory requirements. (
  • Create reliable, high-quality utility services with mobile workflows. (
  • A utility network uses web services to deliver capabilities to any device, anytime, anywhere building common understanding across the enterprise. (
  • Ronald Vance Singleton, 60, was booked into Ventura County Jail on suspicion of theft of utility services, a felony. (
  • Social dialogue plays a significant role in developing joint strategies by the social partners to improve utility services, with the common goal of extending access to services to all communities, enhancing efficiency of delivery and reviewing tariffs and other sources of income collection. (
  • Commissioners set policy on matters affecting utility rates and services, as well as on personnel, budget, fiscal and administrative matters. (
  • Learn how our services can help streamline your utilities operations. (
  • Contemporary mainstream economic theory frequently defers metaphysical questions, and merely notes or assumes that preference structures conforming to certain rules can be usefully proxied by associating goods, services, or their uses with quantities, and defines "utility" as such a quantification. (
  • As I commiserated with Charles, he mentioned that he also had money in utility stocks, specifically in a fund he referred to as Duff & Phelps Utilities Income (the fund's actual name is DNP Select Income Fund, symbol DNP ). (
  • So far this year, DNP, which has about two-thirds of its assets in utility stocks and one-third in utility bonds, has delivered a total return of 26.6% (results are through October 24 and are for the fund's shares rather than the underlying assets). (
  • In regards to sector allocations, the fund's portfolio is almost evenly split between the utilities, industrials, and energy sectors. (
  • Strategists from Alectra, Southern Company and Ervia reveal how their utilities are investing in new technology and new methodology to pave the way for that smart grid (and smart home) coming quickly to fruition. (
  • The gas company is asking the PUC to permit it to charge the electric utilities a $2.80 rate. (
  • But Crutchett "display a careless attitude toward business matters," Bittinger said in retelling his firm's history, and a group of area businessmen got together and formed the local gas company, the oldest public utility here and the oldest in the nation chartered by Congress. (
  • The company also offers a complete line of new and used golf cars, XRT™ utility vehicles and street-legal, low speed vehicles (LSVs) for personal use, all backed by Club Car's 50+ year legacy of superior design, manufacture and service. (
  • Metaenergia is the parent company of a group of five organizations operating in Italy's utilities sector. (
  • Deals are crucial to many utility company strategies. (
  • Decisions you make involving mergers, acquisitions, alliances and divestitures can have incredible significance for your utility company. (
  • The Houston attack, at least, demonstrates that despite the well-publicized risks, utilities and other sensitive organizations haven't secured their systems in the most basic ways. (
  • Electric utility stocks are in the sweet spot for yield and safety. (
  • The accident will also be reviewed by Georgia's Public Service Commission, which regulates electric utilities in the state. (
  • Learn how Esri's ArcGIS Utility Network Management extension provides a new foundation for electric utilities. (
  • Learn more on the key components for getting started with an Electric Utility Network using the latest version of the solution. (
  • Nearly half of the 41-stock fund is invested in pure electric utilities. (
  • The typical electric utility now has a price-earnings ratio about equal to that of Standard & Poor's 500-stock index. (
  • With this announcement, PSEG become one of several high profile electric utilities of late - Minnesota-based Xcel being another - to announce carbon-free generation plans by mid-century. (
  • When utilities and other groups discuss "energy efficiency as a resource," they are defining efficiency as an energy resource capable of yielding energy and demand savings that can displace. (
  • The utilization of broad quantitative imaging mass spectrometry holds immense utility for the identification and quantification of proteins that vary among patients in clinical trials. (
  • Quantitative concepts of utility allow familiar arithmetic operations, and further assumptions of continuity and differentiability greatly increase tractability. (
  • SAO PAULO, Brazil -- Lehman Brothers recommended that investors Thursday buy shares in Brazilian utilities, following a rate increase authorized by the sector's regulator Wednesday. (
  • During the years that followed, Washington Gas and its investors prospered, and the utility gained a good reputation among its customers, partly because of quick response to customer problems by a large service department. (
  • Below we feature the five highest yielding utilities ETFs for income hungry investors [see also 3 (Unexpected) High Yielding ETF Opportunities ]. (
  • Retrieved from Hull Museums Collections. (
  • Knowing the location, depth, and important attributes of utilities enables more efficient and productive coordination with utility owners during the design process helps minimize utility conflicts, and can save lives, money, and time through the sustainable application of SUE technologies. (
  • Implementation Assistance Program - The Iowa Department of Transportation is looking to minimize the negative impacts that utilities have during the key phases of a DOT project. (
  • How Low Will Utilities Rates Go? (
  • The rates for SCE and PG&E ranked among the highest in the nation in a 2010 survey by Public Utilities Fortnightly , an energy industry trade publication, she said. (
  • These utilities are primarily regulated at the state level, where public service commissions (PSCs) are responsible for overseeing and authorizing investment decisions, operations and customer rates. (
  • It is not appropriate or in the public interest to allow pass-through entities such as [Johnson Utilities] to recover personal income tax expenses through rates. (
  • In response to the shortage of clothing materials and labour due to the requirements of wartime austerity, the Board of Trade sponsored the creation of ranges of "utility clothing" meeting tight regulations regarding the amount of material and labour allowed to be used in their construction. (
  • The utility has real-time visibility to the business for quick response to what is happening in the field. (
  • Change is sweeping the utility business, bringing many new challenges. (
  • Energen Corp. is shopping its Alabama natural-gas utility as it looks to refocus its operations on its core oil-and-gas-extraction business, according to people familiar with the matter. (
  • On January 16, 2013, the Reaves Utility Income Fund (NYSE MKT: UTG) (the "Fund"), a closed-end sector fund, paid a monthly distribution on its common stock of $0.13125 per share to shareholders of record at the close of business on December 31, 2012. (
  • 2 (1) A gas utility that on April 14, 1954 was carrying on business as a gas utility in a municipality or rural area is authorized and empowered, subject to the Utilities Commission Act , to carry on its business as a gas utility in the municipality or rural area. (
  • 2) A gas utility to which a certificate of public convenience and necessity is granted after April 14, 1954 under the Utilities Commission Act or the legislation that preceded it is authorized and empowered, subject to the Utilities Commission Act , to carry on its business as a gas utility in the municipality or rural area mentioned in the certificate. (
  • 5 In this Part, "utility" means a gas utility authorized under section 2 to carry on its business as a gas utility. (
  • There is a growing recognition that storage will subject the utility business model to major disruption. (
  • Utilities should find ways to change their business models and allow for the distributed generation, and encourage people to remain on the grid and charge appropriately. (