Embryo Implantation, Delayed
In Situ Hybridization
Estrogen Receptor alpha
Factor VII deficiency rescues the intrauterine lethality in mice associated with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor deficit. (1/6201)Mice doubly heterozygous for a modified tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) allele (tfpi delta) lacking its Kunitz-type domain-1 (TFPI+/delta) and for a deficiency of the factor VII gene (FVII+/-) were mated to generate 309 postnatal and 205 embryonic day 17.5 (E17. 5) offspring having all the predicted genotypic combinations. Progeny singly homozygous for the tfpidelta modification but with the wild-type fVII allele (FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta), and mice singly homozygous for the fVII deficiency and possessing the wild-type tfpi allele (FVII-/-/TFPI+/+), displayed previously detailed phenotypes (i.e., a high percentage of early embryonic lethality at E9.5 or normal development with severe perinatal bleeding, respectively). Surprisingly, mice of the combined FVII-/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were born at the expected mendelian frequency but suffered the fatal perinatal bleeding associated with the FVII-/- genotype. Mice carrying the FVII+/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were also rescued from the lethality associated with the FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta genotype but succumbed to perinatal consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, the rescue of TFPIdelta/delta embryos, either by an accompanying homozygous or heterozygous FVII deficiency, suggests that diminishment of FVII activity precludes the need for TFPI-mediated inhibition of the FVIIa/tissue factor coagulation pathway during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the phenotypes of these combined deficiency states suggest that embryonic FVII is produced in mice as early as E9.5 and that any level of maternal FVII in early-stage embryos is insufficient to cause a coagulopathy in TFPIdelta/delta mice. (+info)
Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (2/6201)The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens. (+info)
Daidzein and genistein glucuronides in vitro are weakly estrogenic and activate human natural killer cells at nutritionally relevant concentrations. (3/6201)Daidzein and genistein glucuronides (DG and GG), major isoflavone metabolites, may be partly responsible for biological effects of isoflavones, such as estrogen receptor binding and natural killer cell (NK) activation or inhibition. DG and GG were synthesized using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver microsomes. The Km and Vmax for daidzein and genistein were 9.0 and 7.7 micromol/L, and 0.7 and 1.6 micromol/(mg protein. min), respectively. The absence of ultraviolet absorbance maxima shifts in the presence of sodium acetate confirmed that the synthesized products were 7-O-glucuronides. DG and GG were further purified by a Sephadex LH-20 column. DG and GG competed with the binding of 17beta-(3H) estradiol to estrogen receptors of B6D2F1 mouse uterine cytosol. The concentrations required for 50% displacement of 17beta-(3H) estradiol (CB50) were: 17beta-estradiol, 1.34 nmol/L; diethylstilbestrol, 1.46 nmol/L; daidzein, 1.6 micromol/L; DG, 14.7 micromol/L; genistein, 0.154 micromol/L; GG, 7.27 micromol/L. In human peripheral blood NK cells, genistein at <0.5 micromol/L and DG and GG at 0.1-10 micromol/L enhanced NK cell-mediated K562 cancer cell killing significantly (P < 0.05). At > 0.5 micromol/L, genistein inhibited NK cytotoxicity significantly (P < 0.05). The glucuronides only inhibited NK cytotoxicity at 50 micromol/L. Isoflavones, and especially the isoflavone glucuronides, enhanced activation of NK cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2), additively. At physiological concentrations, DG and GG were weakly estrogenic, and they activated human NK cells in nutritionally relevant concentrations in vitro, probably at a site different from IL-2 action. (+info)
An ultrastructural study of implantation in the golden hamster. II. Trophoblastic invasion and removal of the uterine epithelium. (4/6201)Sixty six implantation sites from 18 golden hamsters were examined with light and electron microscopy between 4 and 5 1/2 days of pregnancy (post-ovulation). At 4 days some blastocysts began to invade the uterine epithelium, with trophoblastic processes penetrating and engulfing portions of the uterine epithelium. The majority of epithelial cells appeared normal before invasion, although at two implantation sites three or four adjoining epithelial cells were necrotic before penetration by the trophoblast. In general the epithelial cells were degenerating at the time the trophoblast invaded the epithelium. Inclusions, representing portions of the engulfed epithelium, and varying in size and electron density, were present throughout the invading trophoblast cells at 4 1/2 and 5 days of pregnancy. At 5 1/2 days the uterine epithelium had disappeared and the embryo was now almost completely surrounded by blood lacunae. (+info)
Molecular and cellular aspects of endometrial receptivity. (5/6201)Endocrine and paracrine controls regulate the endometrium during the luteal phase of the cycle to permit implantation. Part of this differentiation process is the production of a specific secretion which fills the intrauterine cavity and glandular lumen. Its molecular composition originates from the gland secretion, from transudations from stroma, from the endometrial blood vessels, and last, but not least, from cellular components of apoptotic and exfoliated cells. We have studied the secretions of all phases during the menstrual cycle using patterns evaluated by SDS-PAGE, by laser densitometry or Western blots. Uterine secretion electrophoresis (USE) permits detailed analyses of the intrauterine micromilieu and allows clinical assessment of the receptive stage of endometrium during the luteal phase. Several individual protein bands have been defined as characteristic markers for such receptive pattern. We have isolated and identified the molecular structure of several of these proteins, e.g. histones, cyclophilin, transthyretin, haptoglobin and uteroglobin. Investigations on the endocrine regulation of these proteins, were carried out on the uterine secretions of patients treated with progesterone antagonists (mifepristone and onapristone). The results demonstrate how progesterone-dependent components produce a receptive pattern, which can serve as a useful and precise marker in the clinical diagnosis of the luteal phase. Essential progesterone-dependent components differentiating during the luteal phase may provide new targets for contraceptive interventions by preventing the physiological changes typical of receptivity. (+info)
Mucin expression and function in the female reproductive tract. (6/6201)Reproductive tract epithelia are characterized by the presence of a thick, apical glycocalyx. This glycoprotein coat is drastically reduced in the uterus of many species during the time of embryo implantation. Recent studies indicate that mucin glycoproteins constitute a large proportion of the apical glycocalyx. One of these mucins, Muc-1, has particularly important functions at the luminal surface of the uterus and other female reproductive tract tissues. Muc-1 appears to play a dominant role in maintaining a functionally non-receptive uterine surface with regard to blastocyst attachment. Conversion to a receptive uterine state is brought about by the concerted actions of ovarian steroid hormones that in several species also strongly modulate Muc-1 protein and mRNA expression. Muc-1 also appears to serve a general function in protecting reproductive tract mucosa since Muc-1 null mice are particularly prone to bacterial infection. Collectively, these studies indicate that mucins, including Muc-1, play important barrier roles in reproductive processes and protection from bacterial pathogenesis in the female reproductive tract. (+info)
Human uterine lymphocytes. (7/6201)During the luteal phase and the early months of pregnancy, there is a dense mucosal infiltration of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. These uterine NK cells have a phenotype (CD56bright, CD16-, mCD3-) which distinguishes them from peripheral blood NK cells (CD56dim, CD16bright, mCD3-). The uterine NK cells are in close association with extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells which infiltrate into the decidua and maternal spiral arteries. This subpopulation of trophoblast expresses two human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, HLA-G and HLA-C. Circulating NK cells express receptors for HLA class I molecules. We have recently found evidence that similar receptors are present on decidual NK cells belonging to both the Killer Inhibitory Receptor (KIR) and CD94 families. The repertoire of NK receptors expressed varies between different women. The findings indicate that decidual NK cells do have receptors for trophoblast HLA class I molecules. Experiments are underway to determine the effects of this interaction on NK cell function. (+info)
Myometrial zonal differentiation and uterine junctional zone hyperplasia in the non-pregnant uterus. (8/6201)Human non-gravid myometrium differentiates in response to ovarian sex steroids into a subendometrial layer or junctional zone and an outer myometrial layer. Compared to the outer myometrial layer, the junctional zone myocytes are characterized by higher cellular density and lower cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio. These structural differences allow in-vivo visualization of the myometrial zonal anatomy by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The human myometrium is also functionally polarized. Video-vaginosonography studies have shown that propagated myometrial contractions in the non-pregnant uterus originate only from the junctional zone and that the frequency and orientation of these contraction waves are dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying zonal myometrial differentiation are not known, but growing evidence suggests that ovarian hormone action may be mediated through cytokines and uterotonins locally released by the basal endometrial layer and endometrio-myometrial T-lymphocytes. Irregular thickening of the junctional zone due to inordinate proliferation of the inner myometrium, junctional zone hyperplasia, is a common MR finding in women suffering from menstrual dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that junctional zone hyperplasia is further characterized by loss of normal inner myometrial function. Although irregular thickening of the junctional zone has been associated with diffuse uterine adenomyosis, the precise relationship between subendometrial smooth muscle proliferation and myometrial invasion by endometrial glands and stroma remains to be established. (+info)
The cervix uteri, also known as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus in the female reproductive system. It is a muscular, cone-shaped structure that connects the uterus to the vagina. The cervix is responsible for regulating the flow of menstrual blood and controlling the entry and exit of sperm during sexual intercourse. It also plays a role in childbirth by dilating and effacing to allow the baby to pass through the birth canal. In the medical field, the cervix is often examined during routine gynecological exams and is also a key site for cancer screening and treatment.
Uterine diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the female reproductive organ responsible for carrying and nourishing a developing fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be classified into several categories, including: 1. Infections: Infections of the uterus can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Examples include bacterial vaginosis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pelvic inflammatory disease. 2. Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and inflammation. 3. Fibroids: Fibroids are non-cancerous growths that develop in the uterus. They can cause heavy bleeding, pain, and other symptoms. 4. Polyps: Polyps are small growths that develop on the lining of the uterus. They can cause bleeding and other symptoms. 5. Cancer: Uterine cancer, also known as endometrial cancer, is a rare but serious condition that develops in the lining of the uterus. 6. Miscarriage: Miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week of gestation. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including uterine abnormalities. 7. Adenomyosis: Adenomyosis is a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows into the muscle wall of the uterus, causing pain and heavy bleeding. 8. Uterine prolapse: Uterine prolapse is a condition in which the uterus drops down into the vagina, causing discomfort and other symptoms. Treatment for uterine diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
In the medical field, decidua refers to the specialized tissue that forms during pregnancy in the lining of the uterus. It is responsible for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus, as well as protecting it from infection. The decidua is made up of two main layers: the decidua vera and the decidua basalis. The decidua vera is the outer layer and is in contact with the blastocyst (the early stage of the developing embryo), while the decidua basalis is the inner layer and is in contact with the uterine muscle. The decidua is shed after childbirth and is replaced by new tissue during the next pregnancy.
Estradiol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries in females and by the testes in males. It is a type of estrogen, which is a group of hormones that play a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in both males and females. Estradiol is a potent estrogen and is one of the most biologically active forms of estrogen in the body. It is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. Estradiol also plays a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the immune system. Estradiol is used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and gels, and is typically administered by mouth or applied to the skin. It is important to note that estradiol can have side effects, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.
Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the uterus, which is the female reproductive organ responsible for carrying and nourishing a developing fetus during pregnancy. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) in nature. Benign uterine neoplasms include leiomyomas (fibroids), adenomyosis, and endometrial polyps. These conditions are relatively common and often do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms such as heavy bleeding, pain, or pressure on other organs. Malignant uterine neoplasms, on the other hand, are less common but more serious. The most common type of uterine cancer is endometrial cancer, which develops in the lining of the uterus. Other types of uterine cancer include uterine sarcomas, which are rare and aggressive tumors that develop in the muscle or connective tissue of the uterus. Diagnosis of uterine neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Progesterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It is produced by the ovaries and the placenta during pregnancy and is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. Progesterone also helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and can be used as a contraceptive. In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone has a number of other effects on the body. It can help to reduce inflammation, promote bone density, and regulate mood. Progesterone is also used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. Progesterone is available as a medication in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, injections, and creams. It is important to note that progesterone can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and mood changes. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of using progesterone with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.
Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including childbirth, lactation, and social bonding. In the medical field, oxytocin is often used to induce labor and to facilitate delivery in cases of prolonged labor. It is also used to stimulate milk production in breastfeeding mothers and to treat conditions such as postpartum hemorrhage. In addition to its physiological effects, oxytocin has been shown to have a significant impact on social behavior and emotional regulation. It is often referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone" because it is released during social interactions, such as hugging, kissing, and sexual activity, and is thought to promote feelings of trust, empathy, and bonding. Research has also suggested that oxytocin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, depression, and autism spectrum disorder. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of oxytocin in these conditions and to develop effective treatments based on its effects.
Castration is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the testicles in males or the ovaries in females. In males, castration is often performed to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or advanced prostate enlargement. In females, castration is typically performed to treat conditions such as ovarian cancer or endometriosis. There are two main types of castration: surgical castration and chemical castration. Surgical castration involves the removal of the testicles or ovaries through surgery. Chemical castration involves the administration of drugs that suppress the production of hormones by the testicles or ovaries. Castration can have a number of effects on the body, including changes in hormone levels, sexual function, and mood. In males, castration can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, energy levels, and muscle mass. In females, castration can lead to a decrease in estrogen levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, bone density, and mood.
Uterine rupture is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of the uterus breaks or tears during pregnancy or childbirth. This can be a life-threatening situation for both the mother and the baby, as it can lead to severe bleeding, infection, and other complications. Uterine rupture is most commonly associated with previous cesarean deliveries, but it can also occur in women who have had a history of uterine surgery or who have certain medical conditions that increase the risk of uterine weakness. Symptoms of uterine rupture may include severe abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and a high-pitched fetal heart rate. If left untreated, uterine rupture can lead to severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Treatment for uterine rupture typically involves emergency surgery to repair the damaged uterus and remove the baby, if necessary. In some cases, a hysterectomy may be necessary to remove the uterus and prevent further bleeding.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that was widely used in the past to prevent miscarriages and to promote the growth of the uterus in pregnant women. It was also given to women who had had miscarriages or premature births to help prevent future miscarriages. However, it was later discovered that DES had harmful effects on the reproductive system of both males and females who were exposed to it in the womb. DES can cause a range of health problems, including vaginal cancer, breast cancer, and reproductive problems such as infertility and miscarriages. In addition to its use in pregnant women, DES was also given to postmenopausal women to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. However, this use of DES has been largely discontinued due to its harmful effects. Today, DES is no longer used in medical practice, and its use is strictly regulated and monitored to prevent its misuse and potential harm to individuals.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
In the medical field, a blastocyst is an early stage of human development that occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization. It is a hollow ball of cells that is about 0.1-0.2 millimeters in diameter. The blastocyst consists of three main layers of cells: the inner cell mass, the trophoblast, and the zona pellucida. The inner cell mass is a cluster of cells that will eventually develop into the embryo and placenta. The trophoblast is a layer of cells that will develop into the placenta and nourish the developing embryo. The zona pellucida is a protective layer that surrounds the blastocyst and prevents it from being absorbed by the mother's body. The blastocyst is a critical stage in human development because it is the time when the embryo implants itself into the lining of the uterus. If the blastocyst successfully implants, it will continue to develop into a fetus. If it does not implant, it will be shed from the uterus during menstruation.
Prostaglandins F (PGF) are a group of lipid signaling molecules that are produced in the body from arachidonic acid. They are synthesized by various cells, including platelets, leukocytes, and smooth muscle cells, and play a role in a wide range of physiological processes, including inflammation, pain, and reproduction. PGF is particularly important in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery, and is also involved in the production of breast milk. In addition, PGF has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may play a role in the development of certain types of cancer. In the medical field, PGF is sometimes used as a medication to induce labor or to treat conditions such as preterm labor, menstrual cramps, and uterine fibroids. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as osteoarthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Dinoprost is a synthetic prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is primarily used to induce labor in pregnant women who are past their due date or who are at risk of complications during delivery. Dinoprost is administered as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it works by causing the muscles of the uterus to contract, which helps to initiate labor. Dinoprost is also used to treat a condition called uterine fibroids, which are noncancerous growths that can cause pain and heavy bleeding. In this case, dinoprost is used to shrink the fibroids and reduce symptoms. In addition to its use in obstetrics and gynecology, dinoprost has also been used to treat other conditions, such as bleeding disorders and certain types of cancer. However, its use for these conditions is less common and is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective.
Pregnancy proteins are proteins that are produced during pregnancy and are specific to pregnancy. These proteins are produced by the placenta and are present in the mother's blood, urine, and other body fluids. They are used in medical testing to confirm pregnancy and to monitor the health of the pregnancy. Some examples of pregnancy proteins include human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and unconjugated estriol (uE3). These proteins are important for the development of the fetus and can be used to detect potential problems with the pregnancy, such as fetal abnormalities or complications.
Relaxin is a hormone that is produced by the corpus luteum, a gland in the ovaries, and by the placenta during pregnancy. It plays a role in regulating the muscles and ligaments of the uterus and other connective tissues in the body, helping to prepare them for childbirth. In the medical field, relaxin is often used to treat conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth, such as preterm labor, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. It can also be used to treat conditions related to connective tissue disorders, such as osteoarthritis and scoliosis. Relaxin is typically administered through injection or intravenous infusion, and its effects can last for several hours or even days. It is generally considered safe for use during pregnancy, although it may cause some side effects, such as headache, nausea, and dizziness.
Nafoxidine is a medication that is used to treat bacterial infections. It is a type of antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria. It is typically used to treat infections of the skin, respiratory tract, and urinary tract. Nafoxidine is available in both oral and intravenous forms. It is important to note that Nafoxidine should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it may interact with other medications and may not be appropriate for everyone.
Receptors, estrogen are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone estrogen. Estrogen is a sex hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and by the testes in men. It plays a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the development of secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Estrogen receptors are classified into two main types: estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). These receptors are found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, bone, and brain. When estrogen binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of receptor and the tissue in which it is found. In the breast, for example, estrogen receptors play a role in the development and growth of breast tissue, as well as in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. In the uterus, estrogen receptors are involved in the thickening of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy. In the bone, estrogen receptors help to maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. In the brain, estrogen receptors are involved in a variety of functions, including mood regulation, memory, and learning. Abnormalities in estrogen receptor function or expression have been linked to a number of health conditions, including breast cancer, uterine cancer, osteoporosis, and mood disorders.
Receptors, Oxytocin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone oxytocin and trigger a response within the cell. Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including uterine contractions during childbirth, milk ejection during breastfeeding, and social bonding and attachment. Oxytocin receptors are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the brain, uterus, mammary glands, and blood vessels. Activation of these receptors by oxytocin can have a range of effects, depending on the tissue and the specific receptors that are activated.
In the medical field, estrogen antagonists are drugs that block the effects of estrogen, a hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogen antagonists are used in a variety of medical conditions, including breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer. They work by binding to estrogen receptors in the body and preventing estrogen from binding to these receptors, thereby reducing the effects of estrogen on the body. There are several types of estrogen antagonists, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors, such as anastrozole and letrozole. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve outcomes for patients with certain types of cancer.
The adnexa uteri refers to the structures that are attached to the uterus and play a role in reproduction. These structures include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the cervix. The ovaries produce eggs, while the fallopian tubes transport the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. The adnexa uteri are important for the normal functioning of the female reproductive system.
Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition in which the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows abnormally thick and may become cancerous over time. It is a common condition that affects women of reproductive age, and is often associated with hormonal imbalances, such as those caused by unopposed estrogen (lack of progesterone) in the uterus. Endometrial hyperplasia can be classified into two types: simple hyperplasia and complex hyperplasia. Simple hyperplasia is a less severe form of the condition, characterized by the thickening of the endometrium without any atypia (abnormal cell growth). Complex hyperplasia, on the other hand, is a more severe form of the condition, characterized by the thickening of the endometrium with atypia. Endometrial hyperplasia can be detected through a pelvic exam, ultrasound, or biopsy. Treatment options for endometrial hyperplasia depend on the severity of the condition and the patient's age and reproductive goals. In some cases, treatment may involve hormonal therapy to regulate the menstrual cycle and prevent further growth of the endometrium. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the uterus (hysterectomy).
Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) is a protein found in the nuclei of cells in many tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, and brain. It is a type of nuclear receptor that binds to the hormone estrogen and regulates the expression of genes involved in a variety of physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, metabolism, and immune function. In the context of breast cancer, ERα is an important biomarker that is used to classify tumors and predict their response to hormone therapy. Breast cancers that express ERα are called estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, and they are more likely to respond to treatments that block the effects of estrogen, such as tamoxifen. Breast cancers that do not express ERα are called estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancers, and they are less likely to respond to hormone therapy. ERα is also an important target for drug development, and there are several drugs that are designed to target ERα and treat breast cancer. These drugs include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors, which block the production of estrogen in the body.
Endometriosis is a medical condition in which the tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside of the uterus, on other organs in the pelvic cavity, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the lining of the pelvis. This tissue can also grow on the surface of the bowel, bladder, or other abdominal organs. Endometriosis can cause a range of symptoms, including pelvic pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, pain during sex, and infertility. The severity of symptoms can vary widely from person to person, and some people with endometriosis may not experience any symptoms at all. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but it is thought to be related to the retrograde menstruation, which is the backward flow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity. This can cause the endometrial tissue to implant and grow in other areas of the body. Diagnosis of endometriosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, MRI, or laparoscopy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapy, and surgery to remove the endometrial tissue.
Uterus and Fire
Orifice of the uterus
Round ligament of uterus
Arcuate vessels of uterus
Broad ligament of the uterus
Artery of round ligament of uterus
Development of the reproductive system
Development of the urinary system
British Primitive goat
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- Inverted uterus is a rare medical emergency in which the corpus turns inside out and protrudes into the vagina or beyond the introitus. (msdmanuals.com)
- The uterine artery occasionally gives off the vaginal artery (although this is usually a separate branch of the internal iliac around), which supplies the upper vagina, and the arcuate arteries, which surround the uterus. (medscape.com)
- Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an experimental surgery which can enable women with absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) to receive a healthy uterus and experience a pregnancy. (bmj.com)
- Blood is provided to the uterus by the ovarian and uterine arteries, the latter of which arise from the anterior divisions of the internal iliac artery. (medscape.com)
- While the society had sought to draw up guidelines for ethical screenings of uterus transplants together with the Japan Society for Transplantation, the issue encompassed too wide a range of points for discussion. (mainichi.jp)
- Under Japan's Act on Organ Transplantation, uterus donations from deceased donors, including brain-dead patients, are prohibited. (mainichi.jp)
- Although research into uterus transplantation is still in an early phase, many see the donations as a success. (liu.se)
- Researchers at universities including Linköping University have studied ethical aspects of uterus transplantation. (liu.se)
- The results show that uterus transplantation with living donors is ethically just as problematic as altruistic surrogacy. (liu.se)
- A number of research projects on uterus transplantation are under way around the world. (liu.se)
- If uterus transplantation is to take the step from trials to becoming a reality in the Swedish healthcare system, there must first be an ethical debate on the procedure. (liu.se)
- With this white paper as a starting point, Lisa Guntram analysed the assumption that introducing uterus transplantation would be less problematic than altruistic surrogacy. (liu.se)
- Guntram's and Williams' research shows that many of the arguments against altruistic surrogacy can be applied to uterus transplantation as a treatment for involuntary childlessness. (liu.se)
- As in surrogacy contexts, little is known of the consequences of uterus transplantation for the child, because so few children have been born as a result of such a transplantation. (liu.se)
- The conclusion of Guntram's and Williams' study is thus that uterus transplantation is not necessarily less ethically complicated than altruistic surrogacy. (liu.se)
- If the arguments presented in the study are to apply to altruistic surrogacy, decision-makers should seriously consider whether they shouldn't also apply to uterus transplantation. (liu.se)
- Positioning uterus transplantation as a 'more ethical' alternative to surrogacy: Exploring symmetries between uterus transplantation and surrogacy through analysis of a Swedish government white paper. (liu.se)
- TOKYO -- The Japanese Association of Medical Sciences has begun looking into the pros and cons of allowing uterus transplants in the country to pave the way for wombless women to get pregnant and give birth. (mainichi.jp)
- The panel also plans to compare uterus transplants with surrogate deliveries, which are currently prohibited in Japan, with an eye on lifting the ban in the future. (mainichi.jp)
- In uterus transplants, a woman receives a womb from a donor and seeks to get pregnant after her egg fertilized in-vitro with her partner's sperm is implanted. (mainichi.jp)
- Uterus transplants have been carried out in countries including Sweden and the United States, and 14 children have been born from transplanted uteruses. (mainichi.jp)
- In November last year, a group of researchers at Keio University seeking to perform clinical trials on uterus transplants between relatives submitted a draft plan on such a study to the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (mainichi.jp)
- As the society has yet to determine its rules on uterus transplants, any clinical trials would require approval from an in-house ethical panel at the university. (mainichi.jp)
- As uterus transplants would inflict heavy physical burdens on living donors, however, there are calls for lifting the ban on surrogate deliveries in Japan. (mainichi.jp)
- Our study doesn't arrive at an opinion as to whether uterus transplants should be carried out. (liu.se)
- And unlike recipients, for whom receiving a uterus may be life-enhancing, there are no comparable benefits to donors for giving away their uterus. (bmj.com)
- There are, however, logistical challenges associated with UTx using deceased donors , on top of a shortage of suitable uteri. (bmj.com)
- In my view, however, the notion that uterus donors should necessarily be multiparous and/or be related to the recipient is highly problematic. (bmj.com)
- The requirement that otherwise eligible live donors should have previously given birth implies, by default, that women should not make decisions about giving away their uterus unless they have already 'used' it to have their own children. (bmj.com)
- Thus, I argue in my article that those who have a functional uterus but who may not necessarily want it (for whatever reason), ought to be equally considered as potential uterus donors. (bmj.com)
- I should clarify, however, that my point is not to say that these groups (or anyone in general, for that matter) should sign up to be uterus donors just because they may be medically eligible and willing to do so. (bmj.com)
- These types of tumors are called Müllerian tumors, since the uterus is derived from the Müllerian ducts in the embryo. (petmd.com)
- Treatment of an inverted uterus is immediate manual reduction by pushing up on the fundus until the uterus is returned to its normal position. (msdmanuals.com)
- that is, an anteflexed uterus, which is normal, is where the fundus tilts forward, and a retroflexed uterus is tilted backward. (medscape.com)
- The uterus adjusts to reflect changes in ovarian steroid production during the menstrual cycle and displays rapid growth and specialized contractile activity during pregnancy and childbirth. (medscape.com)
- The uterus can also exhibit normal variation in size and shape based on reproductive stage and exposure to ovarian steroid hormones. (medscape.com)
- The uterus is most commonly inverted when too much traction is applied to the umbilical cord in an attempt to deliver the placenta. (msdmanuals.com)
- If the placenta is still attached, the uterus should be replaced before the placenta is removed. (msdmanuals.com)
- Labor is a physiologic process during which the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord, and placenta are expelled from the uterus. (medscape.com)
- The uterus is a hollow muscular organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
- The uterus (Latin word for womb ) is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals, including humans. (phys.org)
- Similarly, there is a risk that with time, uteruses can become yet another organ, such as kidneys, on the black market. (liu.se)
- The uterus is a pear-shaped organ located in the female pelvis between the urinary bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly (see the image below). (medscape.com)
- It consists of the surgical removal of the uterus, female organ commonly associated with affection, fertility and sexuality. (bvsalud.org)
- For women who were born without a womb or had their womb removed due to a disease or other reasons to have a child, they can either adopt a child, undergo a uterus transplant operation or resort to surrogate delivery. (mainichi.jp)
- Under what circumstances, then, is it morally appropriate to ask a potential donor for their uterus? (bmj.com)
- Furthermore, the expectation that the live donor be related to the recipient places such persons under objectionable pressure to 'gift' their uterus to a family member. (bmj.com)
- If they are, further, willing to provide their uterus to someone who does wish for one, it seems like a recipient-donor match could be made which is more ethically palatable than those simply taken as a given in UTx, like mother-to-daughter pairings. (bmj.com)
- Diagnosis of an inverted uterus is clinical. (msdmanuals.com)
- The most common type of cancer of the uterus develops in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and is called endometrial cancer. (merckmanuals.com)
- Uterus was spared as she wanted to preserve her fertility . (bvsalud.org)
- PFC's Dr. Philip Chenette was quoted in an article by HealthyWay about women who have a tilted uterus and what you should know about the condition. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- The article focused on what is a tilted uterus, what causes it, and how it affects women. (pacificfertilitycenter.com)
- I started the clinic in order to help women with maintaining the proper health of their uterus at all times, for all age groups. (tellmeaboutmyuterus.com)
- Once the uterus is in place, women should be given a uterotonic drug (eg, oxytocin infusion) to reduce the likelihood of reinversion and hemorrhage. (msdmanuals.com)
- An anteverted uterus, which is normal, is tipped forward, whereas a retroverted uterus is tipped backward. (medscape.com)
- Estrogen promotes the growth of tissue and rapid cell division in the lining of the uterus (endometrium). (merckmanuals.com)
- Le programme national de lutte antituberculeuse en Iraq a eu un bon impact sur les connaissances des patients tuberculeux et des agents de santé. (who.int)
- Treatment usually involves removing the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes and sometimes involves removing nearby lymph nodes, often followed by radiation therapy and sometimes by chemotherapy or hormone therapy. (merckmanuals.com)
- However, they recommended the surgery as treatment for uterus diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- Most cancers of the uterus begin in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and are called endometrial cancer (endometrial carcinoma). (merckmanuals.com)
- Interestingly, these norms together reinforce the notion that if anyone should give away their uterus, it is ideally someone 's mother, if not the recipient's own: a woman who has both already fulfilled the expected duty to bear her own children, and has (allegedly) proved in so doing that her uterus is up to the task. (bmj.com)
- Being able to transfer a uterus from one woman to another, so that an infant is born, can be seen as a success in a medical sense. (liu.se)
- In the Swedish trials, the donated uteruses come from a relative, in most cases the mother of the woman who is involuntarily childless. (liu.se)
- The majority of the interviewed woman associated the uterus to reproduction and pointed negative repercussions in their sexuality after the surgery, such as lack of sexual desire and pleasure. (bvsalud.org)
- The clinic is completely dedicated to making sure your uterus is in perfect condition and you are ready to become a mother or you just want to keep this part of your body perfectly. (tellmeaboutmyuterus.com)
- In 2014, the first child to have been gestated in a donated uterus was born. (liu.se)
- I have retroverted uterus and 6 weeks pregnant. (pregnancy-info.net)
- the things i've experienced were rectal pressure when i was on my 1st month, then on third month, i had difficulty in urinating, one case that i had to be caterized to drain the urine (that was probably the uterus was about the tilt forward as the baby grows (15 weeks). (pregnancy-info.net)
- I have a tilted uterus, and with all my first ultrasounds around 7 weeks I had to have a transv____al one. (pregnancy-info.net)
- If attempts to return the uterus are unsuccessful, a laparotomy may be necessary. (msdmanuals.com)
- The scan also showed a very small (2mm) tear in my uterus. (mumsnet.com)
- Who should give away their uterus? (bmj.com)
- The uterus can be in various positions within the pelvis (see the image below). (medscape.com)
- I was told years ago that I have a tipped uterus. (pregnancy-info.net)