HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.United StatesVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.HIV Serosorting: The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.IndiaTuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.PrisonersSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.New York CityCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.AfricaChild, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.San FranciscoOrganophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Los AngelesPrenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.BrazilComorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.FloridaSexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Rhode IslandHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
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Current HIV Research. 5 (1): 129-37. doi:10.2174/157016207779316288. PMID 17266564. Amendezo E, Twagirumukiza M, Sebatunzi O, ... "Prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected African patients not receiving HAART: a multicenter, observational, ... 1 (1): 129-37. doi:10.4103/1755-6783.43071. The access to medicines in low and middle income countries Twagirumukiza M, ... 25 (1): 47-56. doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.32. PMID 20336148. Validation Rules for Assessing and Improving SKOS Mapping Quality G ...
... and HIV-1 infection. Annual Review of Immunology. 2000, 18: 529-560. ISSN 0732-0582. PMID 10837068. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol ... T细胞耗竭的直接原因包括持续的抗原刺激、以及CD4细胞的缺失[42]。长时间的抗原暴露和高病毒负载可以加重T细胞耗竭的程度。2-4周的持续抗原暴露就可导致T细胞耗竭[43]。另一个可以导致T细胞耗竭的因素是包括PD-1在内的一系列抑制性受体[44][45 ... ISBN
Access to scientific, verifiable, alternative information about HIV/AIDS and immune boosting treatments for health that most ... Non-HIV AIDS, HIV-negative AIDS, No Virologic Gold standard terms never seen in an HIV ad. But even if you do test repeatedly ... Abbott Laboratories HIV Test, 1997). If commerce laws were applied equally, the "knowing is beautiful" ads for HIV testing ... Vironostika HIV Test, 2003).. This is significant in Africa, because HIV estimates for African nations are drawn almost ...
HIV - Nucleic Acid Test - COBAS Ampliscreen HIV-1 Test - Package Insert. Supporting Documents. *Supporting Documents older than ... COBAS AmpliScreen HIV-1 Test Proper Name: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1/Polymerase Chain Reaction). Tradename: ... Qualitative in vitro test for direct detection of HIV-1 RNA in human plasma from donations of whole blood and blood components ... COBAS AmpliScreen HIV-1 Test, version 1.5. Manufacturer: Roche Molecular Systems, Inc. Indication: ...
HIV-1 inhibitor resistance is discussed in detail, and critical assessmen ... This volume thoroughly covers HIV-1 antiretrovirals currently in clinical use, together with their advantages and limitations. ... Fragment-based drug design HIV Gag protein HIV capsid HIV integrase protein HIV matrix HIV nucleocapsid protein HIV protease ... HIV reverse transcriptase protein HIV stem-loop HIV transcription HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment HIV-1 drug resistance HIV-1 ...
Infection with an HIV strain harboring drug resistance-related mutations is referred to as transmitted drug resistance (TDR) or ... Katzenstein DA, Holodniy M (1995) HIV viral load quantification, HIV resistance, and antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Clin Rev 96: ... Gianella S, Richman DD (2010) Minority variants of drug-resistant HIV. J Infect Dis 202(5):657-666PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed ... Boden D et al (1999) HIV-1 drug resistance in newly infected individuals. JAMA 282(12):1135-1141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Scientists have created a computational model that could change the way that researchers look at possibilities for an HIV-1 ... New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design. New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design. Scientists have created a computational model ... "An effective HIV-1 vaccine has proven elusive, partly due to the difficulty of causing an immune response that can neutralize ... "An effective HIV-1 vaccine has proven elusive, partly due to the difficulty of causing an immune response that can neutralize ...
HIV-1 doesnt evolve and stuff? Well, um, apparently its figuring out how to become invisible to an entire branch of our immune ... system.Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I Oh shi- ... HERV vs HIV. CTL-based vaccines and HIV-1. Ive written about them quite a few times here on ERV. Quick recap-- All of your ... Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of HIV. Even Charlie Sheen. Dr Sam I was ...
HIV/AIDS Treatment Options: An Overview What are your HIV treatment options, and how do you choose the right one? Our panel of ... Can You Get HIV By Doing This? Can HIV be transmitted through this sexual activity? Dr. Jose Gonzalez-Garcia answers this ... Black Women Still at High Risk for HIV/AIDS Despite the drop in new infections, black women are still at a high risk for HIV, ... I am concerned that I may have been exposed to HIV 2 but only tested for HIV 1. Does anyone know if HIV1 and HIV2 are routinely ...
... Varyc varyc.mmcri at OFFICE.MMC.ORG Tue Oct 18 12:02:28 EST 1994 *Previous message: Free BioTechniques Past Paper ... Does anyone know of an HIV-1 DNA test panel that can be used to establish sensitivity/specificity of a set of pcr reagents. Id ...
Most people with HIV have HIV-1. Genetic differences between the two viruses mean that diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1 and HIV ... HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the two main types of HIV. ... ... Hepatitis C and HIV coinfection People living with HIV are at higher risk of contracting hepatitis C. This because HIV can ... According to the HIV awareness charity Avert, around 95 percent of people living with HIV have HIV-1. ...
Engineering Anti-HIV gp120/41 BiAbs.. To produce antibodies that bind simultaneously to both gp120 and gp41 subunits of HIV-1 ... Broad and potent anti-HIV antibodies are rare in part because there are numerous features of the HIV envelope protein that make ... 2009) Challenges for structure-based HIV vaccine design. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:431-440. ... HIV) infection: Evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses. J Virol 80 ...
Allow for an added labeling claim for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in plasma specimens and the detection of ... Product: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. PMA number: BP010047. Indication for Use: Allow for an added labeling claim for ... Package Insert - OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. Supporting Documents. *Supporting Documents older than three years - ... the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in plasma specimens and the detection of HIV-1 antibodies in oral fluid specimen ...
2007) Antibody-mediated neutralization and simian immunodeficiency virus models of HIV/AIDS. Curr HIV Res 5:594-607. ... A macaque model of HIV-1 infection. Theodora Hatziioannou, Zandrea Ambrose, Nancy P. Y. Chung, Michael Piatak, Fang Yuan, ... A macaque model of HIV-1 infection. Theodora Hatziioannou, Zandrea Ambrose, Nancy P. Y. Chung, Michael Piatak, Fang Yuan, ... To generate the HIV-1 and stHIV-1 constructs used throughout these studies, the env gene in an HIV-1NL4-3 proviral plasmid was ...
The primary cellular receptor for HIV is CD4, but this molecule is insufficient to permit viral fusion. During 1996, the ... HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. ... Co-receptors for HIV-1 entry Curr Opin Immunol. 1997 Aug;9(4): ... HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. The primary cellular receptor for HIV is CD4, but this molecule ... 1 The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. [email protected] ...
Total HIV DNA: a global marker of HIV persistence Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV ... Inducible HIV RNA transcription assays to measure HIV persistence: pros and cons of a compromise With the increasing number of ... Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV ... HIV evolution and diversity in ART-treated patients Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral ...
Cellular entry of HIV-1 is mediated by interaction with CD4 and chemokine receptors that serve as entry coreceptors. The immune ... Host genetic influences on HIV-1 pathogenesis.. Michael NL1.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular Diagnostics and ... Genetic polymorphisms in these genes have recently been associated with effects on HIV-1 pathogenesis. The history and ... response against HIV-1 is regulated by genes of the HLA locus. ... Clinical Overview - HIV InSite. *HIV/AIDS - MedlinePlus Health ...
... an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV ... Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998-2003). Ben A Lopman, Ruanne Barnabas, Timothy B Hallett, Constance ... The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy ... and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. ... which has been severely affected by HIV.. METHODS. We compared ...
... ,Donor Screening: The Procleix System has added a significant layer of a safety to the nations blood ... VERSANT HIV RNA 3.0 Assay (bDNA). 7. Wampole PreVue B. Burgdorferi Antibody Detection Assay. 8. VerifyNow Aspirin Assay. 9. ... The Procleix HIV-1/HCV Assay can simultaneously detect the presence of HIV-1 and HCV in blood donor samples *The combination ... The combination HIV-1/HCV test system was developed and manufactured by Gen-Probe and is marketed worldwide as the Procleix ...
HIV-1 Nomenclature Proposal. By D. L. Robertson, J. P. Anderson, J. A. Bradac, J. K. Carr, B. Foley, R. K. Funkhouser, F. Gao, ... HIV-1 Nomenclature Proposal. By D. L. Robertson, J. P. Anderson, J. A. Bradac, J. K. Carr, B. Foley, R. K. Funkhouser, F. Gao, ... HIV/AIDS and Retrovirology Branch, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, USA; ... HIV/AIDS and Retrovirology Branch, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, USA; ...
AIDS virus »DNA »DNA virus »HIV-1 »RNA genome »T cells »cell nucleus »cytoplasm »immune response »infected cells »viral DNA ... Further reports about: , AIDS virus , DNA , DNA virus , HIV-1 , RNA genome , T cells , cell nucleus , cytoplasm , immune ... The AIDS virus HIV-1, which is a retrovirus, has an RNA genome that it temporarily converts into DNA in infected cells. This ... HIV-1: The undercover agent. 29.07.2020. Antibodies are not the only protection against viruses: At a much earlier stage, ...
CAEV vs HIV: But what if it could, tho?. Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of ... HIV and Charlie Sheen. ERV-,TMZ?. No, this is an education and outreach opportunity, and I want to use it to the… ... In the case of HIV-1, this is actually a pretty good idea. Yes, you could also do gene therapy to force B-cells to make broadly ... If you had asked me 6 years ago about using gene therapy to fight HIV/AIDS, I would have given you a nice rant about how ...
CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties.. Colin P1,2,3, Zhou Z1,2, Staropoli I1,2, Garcia-Perez J4, ... From a functional standpoint, we illustrate that the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which gp120/HIV-1 binds shapes sensitivity ... CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization ... We show that envelope glycoproteins (gp120s) from different HIV-1 strains exhibit divergent binding levels to CCR5 on cell ...
Bills Give Inaccurate Picture of HIV TransmissionMississippi Opens Education, Drug-Treatment Programs to HIV-Positive ... HIV Undetectable = Untransmittable (U=U) Fact Sheet. Who Tends to Gain Weight With HIV Treatment?. HIV/AIDS Cure: The Basics. ... HIV Charities Determined -- But Dimmer -- As Energy Rates Soar. We Need to Know More About How HIV Drugs Work in Women. Annan ... Pakistan Investigates Black Market Sale of HIV Kits. Advertisement. Syringe Prescription to Prevent HIV Infection in Rhode ...
Structure of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase in a Complex with the Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor Alpha-Apa R 95845 at 2.8 A Resolution. ... Crystal Structures of 8-Cl and 9-Cl TIBO Complexed with Wild-Type HIV-1 RT and 8-Cl TIBO Complexed with the Tyr181Cys HIV-1 RT ... Structure of HIV-1 RT/TIBO R 86183 Complex Reveals Similarity in the Binding of Diverse Nonnucleoside Inhibitors. Ding, J.,& ... The HIV-1 RT/HBY 097 structure reveals an overall inhibitor geometry and binding mode differing significantly from RT/NNRTI ...
  • However, there is little risk of transmitting HIV through sex if a person takes HIV medications correctly and is able to maintain an undetectable viral load. (
  • HIV 1 RNA viral load of greater then 500 copies/mL. (
  • The objective of the study, "Computerized Counseling Reduces HIV-1 Viral Load and Sexual Transmission Risk: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial," was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a computerized intervention made specifically to support patients towards positive behavioral change. (
  • After the nine-month period, CARE+ intervention participants overall had an average decrease in HIV viral load, had better ART adherence, and decreased the odds of transmission risks. (
  • Clinicians in those countries can also use the assay in testing dried blood spots to monitor viral load and disease progression in HIV-1 infected patients. (
  • Your viral load levels are usually used as an indicator of how well your immune system is dealing with HIV. (
  • This test detects and/or measures the amount (viral load) of RNA (ribonucleic acid) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1) in blood. (
  • Viral load" means the number of HIV particles or copies of the virus present in the blood. (
  • In addition, whereas the quantification of HIV-1 in the semen and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the viral load of seminal plasma have been relatively well documented [6- , similar features have not been studied so extensively in the saliva compartment. (
  • Globally, the viral load was higher in blood than in the mucosal compartments ( Table 1 ). (
  • However, four men exhibited a higher viral load in semen than in blood and another subject tested positive for HIV-1 RNA only in the saliva. (
  • Fig. 2: Viral load following 3BNC117/10-1074 infusions in HIV-1-infected participants. (
  • Additionally, HIV-infected individuals who take ART and maintain a low viral load can have a normal life and may never progress to AIDS. (
  • HIV-1 inhibitor resistance is discussed in detail, and critical assessments as to what will be required of future antiretrovirals in order to halt viral replication, reduce viral resistance, and alter the state of viral latency are presented. (
  • We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 strains are capable of high levels of replication in vitro in pig-tailed macaque ( Macaca nemestrina ) lymphocytes. (
  • stHIV-1 replication was controlled thereafter, at least in part, by CD8+ T cells. (
  • A major reason underlying the inability of HIV-1 to replicate in nonhuman primate cells is the existence therein of gene products that have evolved to inhibit retroviral replication. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV-1 replication but does not eradicate the virus. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into the host genome is a central event in the replication cycle and the pathogenesis of retroviruses, including HIV. (
  • Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. (
  • The study demonstrated that HIV-1 replication can be completely shut down and the virus eliminated from genomes in living animals. (
  • The team is the first to perform HIV-1 replication and shut down the virus, eliminating it from infected cells in three different animal models, including a "humanized" animal model where mice were transplanted with human immune cells and infected with HIV. (
  • A better understanding of the expression and activity of these non-canonical viral proteins will help to dissect their potential role in viral replication and reveal how HIV-1 optimized the coding potential of its genes. (
  • Immune activation induced by these microbial products may be the mechanism responsible for chronic inflammation that drives HIV-1 pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, despite successful control of HIV-1 replication by antiretroviral therapy", says Dr. Hel. (
  • We show that X4 as compared with R5 HIV-1 shows limited to no replication in CD1a+ VEDCs. (
  • Explanations for this increased risk include direct inoculation of HIV-1 into the blood through genital ulcers, and the induction of inflammatory cells by HSV-2 which act as sites of replication for HIV-1. (
  • Supercomputers helped model a key building block in the HIV-1 protective capsid, which could lead to strategies for potential therapeutic intervention in HIV-1 replication. (
  • The RT associated activities are both essential for HIV-1 replication and validated targets for drug development, but only the polymerase function has been widely investigated as drug target. (
  • Some believe that Vif operates during the late stages of HIV virus replication, somehow overcoming some cells' seemingly innate resistance to the virus--this innate resistance stems from the newly discovered CEM15 gene. (
  • Says Sundquist, "In a general sense, I think that it is important to identify all of the cellular proteins that are involved in HIV replication, and it appears likely that the newly identified VPS37 proteins play a direct role in HIV budding. (
  • The results from this study indicate that HIV-1 using CXCR4 replicates poorly in VEDCs but that a higher replication for HIV-1 using CCR5 strains is supported by VDECs. (
  • Therefore, new and innovative drugs are always in demand for the effective treatment of HIV due to its extremely high rate of mutagenesis and fast replication . (
  • Lysine 26 and 27 mutations in this domain was shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication only in non-dividing macrophages but not proliferating cells. (
  • With its integral role in HIV replication, HIV protease has been a prime target for drug therapy. (
  • However, due to the high mutation rates of retroviruses, and considering that changes to a few amino acids within HIV protease can render it much less visible to an inhibitor, the active site of this enzyme can change rapidly when under the selective pressure of replication-inhibiting drugs. (
  • One approach to minimizing the development of drug-resistance in HIV is to administer a combination of drugs which inhibit several key aspects of the HIV replication cycle simultaneously, rather than one drug at a time. (
  • sigh* Okay, there are two potential targets for an HIV-1 vaccine: 1-- The envelope protein. (
  • By virtue of its particular capsid and Vif protein sequences, HIV-1 avoids and antagonizes the human forms of TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins. (
  • Loss of important protein-inhibitor interactions may account for the reduced potency of HBY 097 against the Tyr188Leu HIV-1 RT mutant. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) negative factor (Nef protein) accelerates virulent progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by its interaction with specific cellular proteins involved in signal transduction and host cell activation. (
  • The crystal structure of HIV-1 Nef protein bound to the Fyn kinase SH3 domain suggests a role for this complex in altered T cell receptor signaling. (
  • Stability and proteolytic domains of Nef protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. (
  • Structure of the anchor-domain of myristoylated and non-myristoylated HIV-1 Nef protein. (
  • Furthermore, the Gottlinger laboratory investigates the function of an accessory HIV-1 protein called Nef, which is not essential for the virus to multiply, but for unknown reasons is crucial for its ability to cause disease. (
  • HIV type 1 is a retrovirus that predominantly infects lymphocytes that bear the CD4 surface protein, as well as coreceptors belonging to the chemokine receptor family (CCR5 or CXCR4), and causes AIDS. (
  • TNV/p28 tev , p18 6Drev , Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17 tev , or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. (
  • The paragon of such a multitasking or moonlighting protein is HIV-1 Nef, which has been described to downmodulate a variety of surface receptors including CD4, MHC class I, CD28, and CXCR4, counteracts the host restriction factors SERINC3/5, and upregulates the invariant chain/CD74 to suppress antigen presentation ( Pereira and daSilva, 2016 ). (
  • Human cells possess an antiviral activity that inhibits the release of retrovirus particles, and other enveloped virus particles, and is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu. (
  • By attaching to host protein CD4, BiIA-SG strategically ambushes invading HIV-1 particles to protect CD4 positive T cells. (
  • These findings, which come from analyzing the DNA of 1,955 people whose HIV status has been tracked for many years, provides the strongest evidence to date that treatments targeting CKR5 and/or its protein could help people infected with HIV-1 keep the virus in check. (
  • They determined that HIV anchors to not only the well-known CD4 protein that sits on the cell surface, but it also attaches to the CKR5 protein. (
  • They hypothesized that these typographical errors in the gene lead to changes in the shape of the CKR5 protein that, like changing the shape of a lock, blocks HIV from binding to the CKR5 protein that it uses to enter macrophages. (
  • While the scientists don't know yet why this is so, Dean speculated, "It may be that people with one normal and one altered copy of the gene produce a smaller amount of protein that is able to serve as a doorway for HIV-1 to enter certain cells. (
  • What Stampede2 allowed us to do is establish what the molecular interactions are between the HIV proteins and this small molecule and to test the hypothesis that it was stabilizing a particular part of the protein using molecular dynamics," said Juan Perilla. (
  • Mosaic vaccines are computationally designed from protein sequence data that were extracted from this wealth of sequences, and the computer code used to design them was inspired by the way HIV-1 itself naturally evolves. (
  • The HIV Gag protein contains a specific sequence of amino acids which it uses to recruit the human tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101). (
  • The full-length HIV-1 Env protein can be presented on the surface of VLPs composed of Gag protein and cellular membrane components. (
  • Protein-Protein Interaction between Surfactant Protein D and DC-SIGNviaC-Type Lectin Domain Can Suppress HIV-1 Transfer. (
  • Osel scientists have previously demonstrated that Lactobacillus could be engineered to secrete another anti-HIV-1 protein. (
  • HIV protease cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins (namely, Gag and Gag-Pol) at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. (
  • HIV protease's protein structure has been investigated using X-ray crystallography. (
  • According to the mechanism for HIV protease protein cleavage proposed by Mariusz Jaskolski and colleagues, water acts as a nucleophile, which acts in simultaneous conjunction with a well-placed aspartic acid to hydrolyze the scissile peptide bond. (
  • Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. (
  • CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. (
  • Naturally occurring HIV-1 resistant strains, however, are readily found against these so-called bnAbs and result in the failure of durable viral suppression in bnAb-based monotherapy. (
  • BiIA-SG not only displays a potent activity against all three panels of 124 genetically divergent global HIV-1 strains tested, but also prevents diverse live viral challenges completely in humanized mice. (
  • HIV-1 has an ability to mutate rapidly, which results in great global genetic diversity with multiple strains and subtypes prevalent in different parts of the world. (
  • 2013 Oct 24;155(3):531-9) and if the immune responses to mosaic vaccines elicited responses that could cross-react with highly diverse HIV strains. (
  • and nef -deleted HIV strains have been utilized as vaccine candidates (for a review see L evy 1998 ). (
  • Emergence of HIV-1 mutated strains after interruption of hig. (
  • We report the emergence of HIV-1 mutated strains after long-term viral suppression in four patients who interrupted highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (
  • However, in such interruptions, the risk of the re-emergence of HIV-1 mutated strains is not well established. (
  • Our objective was to study the emergence of mutated strains in HIV-1 chronically infected patients with undetectable viraemia after HAART interruption, and to investigate whether these mutations were present in proviral DNA before HAART interruption. (
  • In four out of 17 patients (23.5%), mutated strains were identified in the plasma 4 or 6 weeks after interruption ( Table 1 ). (
  • Scientists have created a computational model that could change the way that researchers look at possibilities for an HIV-1 vaccine. (
  • Luo and Perelson's research was supported by the National Institute of Health through a grant to the Duke Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID). (
  • HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: lol, we are screwed. (
  • HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: Did HIV-1 steal Harry Potters Invisibility Cloak? (
  • And vaccine against HIV? (
  • To end the HIV/AIDS pandemic, it is important to discover either an effective vaccine or a therapeutic cure. (
  • The HIV-1 mosaic vaccine in the trial was originally designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by theoretical biologist Bette Korber and her team. (
  • LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 30, 2017-Just in time for World AIDS Day (Dec. 1) international partners are announcing the first efficacy study for an investigational HIV-1-preventive "mosaic" vaccine. (
  • Historically, the search for an HIV vaccine has been challenging due in part to the virus's extraordinary diversity. (
  • Understanding the history, structure and complexity of the viral foe has been key to developing the mosaic vaccine antigens, assembled from natural sequences, which are optimized to achieve coverage of the many different versions of HIV proteins that are circulating. (
  • The goal of the mosaic vaccine is to elicit immune responses that can protect a vaccinated person from the world of HIV diversity that they might encounter. (
  • The new study will be conducted at clinical sites affiliated with the NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network. (
  • The discovery of bNAbs has led to an important area of research, namely, discovery of a vaccine, not only limited to HIV, but also other rapidly mutating viruses like Influenza, etc. (
  • In total, HIV-1 expresses 16 canonical proteins from only nine genes within its 10 kb genome. (
  • In addition to the canonically expressed proteins, a growing number of publications describe the existence of non-canonical fusion proteins in HIV-1 infected cells. (
  • The goal of this review is to provide an overview of previously described HIV-1 fusion proteins and to summarize our current knowledge of their expression patterns and putative functions. (
  • On episode #232 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent meets up with Roberto, Reuben, Lou, and Leslie at the University of Minnesota to talk about their work on HIV-1, APOBEC proteins, measles virus, and teaching virology to undergraduates. (
  • The naturally-occurring compound IP6 (red) facilitates the formation and assembly of HIV-1 structural proteins, results from XSEDE Stampede2 and Anton2 systems show. (
  • Perilla ran simulations of inositol phosphate interactions with HIV structural proteins CA-CTD-SP1 using NAMD through allocations on XSEDE , the Extreme Science and Engineering Environment, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). (
  • Through XSEDE, the Stampede2 system at the Texas Advanced Computing Center ran NAMD simulations of the Inositol phosphates IP3, IP4, IP5 and their interactions with HIV proteins CA-CTD-SP1. (
  • Vif proteins are produced by HIV-1 and other primate immunodeficiency viruses, although how they precisely work is still a mystery. (
  • An international team of researchers has identified a family of proteins that are involved in HIV-1 budding from host cells, and are therefore likely to be essential for the spread of the virus. (
  • In preliminary studies on the creation of VLPs carrying HIV-1 Env proteins, we have begun to address the challenges outlined above. (
  • Engineering Anti-HIV gp120/41 BiAbs. (
  • From a functional standpoint, we illustrate that the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which gp120/HIV-1 binds shapes sensitivity to inhibition by CCR5 ligands and cellular tropism. (
  • In der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte die in den Transport von zellfreien HIV-1 durch epitheliale Zellen beteiligte Domäne auf gp120 erstmals näher charakterisiert werden. (
  • Überlappende Oligopeptide -basierend auf der Aminosäurensequenz von gp120- wurden zur Hemmung der Transzytose von HIV-1 durch humane Amnionzellen verwendet. (
  • HIV can penetrate epithelial barriers by a receptor-mediated transport mechanism involving interaction of a lectin-like domain on the viral glycoprotein gp120 and a receptor on the epithelial surface. (
  • In this study the domain on gp120 involved in transcytosis of cell-free HIV-1 through epithelial cells was characterized in more detail. (
  • Overlapping oligopeptides of gp120 were used to inhibit transcytosis of HIV 1 through an amnion cell monolayer. (
  • The wells of the polystyrene microplate strips are coated with recombinant HIV antigens (gp41, gp120, and gp-36) expressed in E.coli. (
  • Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface expression of receptors or viral co-receptor signalling. (
  • Indeed, HIV-1 Env-gp120-induced F-actin reorganization and viral receptor capping were impaired under these experimental conditions. (
  • Moreover, gelsolin knockdown promoted HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated aberrant pseudopodia formation. (
  • existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. (
  • The divergence between human and simian viruses necessitates a 2-stage process for evaluation of candidate vaccines in macaques, with proof of concept-challenge studies using SIV followed by immunogenicity studies using the corresponding HIV-1 immunogens, which often cannot be directly evaluated for indications of efficacy before human trials. (
  • Julia Kazmierski, co-author of the current study, combined T cells and HIV-1 viruses in a petri dish. (
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 are closely related, but distinct viruses. (
  • Each of these viruses is thought to have arisen as a result of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) being introduced into the human population, although the origin for HIV-2 was the sooty mangabey (SIVsm), while for HIV-1, it was the chimpanzee (SIVcpz). (
  • The type of ART used to treat people with HIV-2 differs from that used to treat HIV-1, meaning it is essential to differentiate between the two viruses when testing people who are at risk of having HIV-2. (
  • Any samples that are submitted for HIV diagnostic testing should be screened using an enzyme immunoassay that is able to detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 and any laboratory performing this screening should include algorithms for differentiating between the two viruses in repeatedly reactive samples. (
  • Most HIV-1 quasispecies infect cells expressing CCR5 and are thus defined as CCR5- or R5-tropic, while a smaller proportion of viruses bind to CXCR4 and are defined as CXCR4- or X4-tropic. (
  • If the RNA polymerase mutation rate is 1 out of every 10,000 bases synthesized, then each base in the viral genome is substituted in a collection of 10,000 viruses. (
  • An HIV-1 infected person can make as many as 10,000,000,000 virus particles each day, so 10 10 /10 4 = one million viruses will be produced each day with resistance to one drug. (
  • Most viruses enter the human body through muscosal surfaces, and in women, the vagina and cervix are the major sites of entry for HIV-1 during sexual intercourse," said Laurel Lagenaur, Ph.D, senior author and Director of Research at Osel. (
  • HIV is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family of RNA viruses. (
  • HIV 1/O/2 tests for HIV-1, HIV-2 and group O. Your EIA HIV-2 is also an HIV-2 -specific assay. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Hologic said today that it has received two CE marks for its Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for use in testing dried blood spots and the early diagnosis of the disease in infants. (
  • Hologic said that as a result of receiving the CE marks, the assay can be used in European and African countries to qualitatively detect HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in infants that are less than 18 months old. (
  • The study, published ahead of print in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , was conducted in five clinics in Maputo, Mozambique, with the prototype of Alere's new POC nucleic acid test, the Alere q HIV-1/2 Detect assay, which provides results in less than 60 minutes. (
  • HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system. (
  • Taking these medications daily as they instruct can slow progression of HIV, prevent transmission, and help protect the immune system. (
  • HIV-1 virus is known to cause extensive intestinal tract damage, allowing whole bacteria and tiny pieces of microbes living in the intestines to enter the bloodstream and activate the immune system. (
  • Nonetheless, the findings could improve our understanding of how HIV-1 undermines the immune system and inform research into potential new treatments. (
  • This study's purpose is to learn how dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) affects the HIV virus, the immune system, hormone levels, body composition and quality of life. (
  • Scientists don't understand many of the details of how HIV-1 can fool our immune system cells so effectively. (
  • 1. Is 1 week after possible exposure too early for someone with a healthy immune system to experience acute HIV symptoms? (
  • THE nature of the evolutionary interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the human immune system has been the source of much debate, and increasingly so given the desire to understand how and why resistance appears to combinations of antiviral drugs ( L eigh B rown and R ichman 1997 ). (
  • The AIDS virus HIV-1, which is a retrovirus, has an RNA genome that it temporarily converts into DNA in infected cells. (
  • Another area of interest are cellular factors that are potentially involved in the organization of the viral RNA genome and its uptake into HIV-1 particles. (
  • The work continued a previous proof-of-concept study in which they used transgenic rat and mouse models with HIV-1 DNA incorporated into the genome of every tissue of the animals' bodies. (
  • Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. (
  • The HIV-1 viral genome, like that of HCV, is slightly less than 10,000 bases long. (
  • The HIV life cycle consists of viral entry, integration of viral genome into host DNA, transcription and translation of viral genome, virion assembly, and the budding of virions. (
  • Moreover, a key feature of the HIV-1 virus is its ability to integrate its genome into the genome of host cells. (
  • Blick G et al (2007) The probable source of both the primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 strain found in a patient with rapid progression to AIDS and a second recombinant MDR strain found in a chronically HIV-1-infected patient. (
  • Because their CTLs get so worked up, HIV-1 infected cells are slaughtered, lowering viral loads, thus slowing progression to AIDS. (
  • Moreover, the strong associations between certain HLA class molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, and slow disease progression may decline as the epidemic continues, particularly where these HLA alleles are highly prevalent, and where HIV transmission rates are high. (
  • Furthermore, no controlled clinical trials of ART for HIV-2 have been carried out and no recommendations exist to guide decision making in the management of the immunosuppression and disease progression that can occur as a result of this condition. (
  • To monitor the status of HIV 1 disease in conjunction with other lab tests and physical disease progression and to guide therapy. (
  • This volume thoroughly covers HIV-1 antiretrovirals currently in clinical use, together with their advantages and limitations. (
  • Several techniques were developed to assess HIV tropism, and treatment guidelines from different countries are not uniform in defining which methods should be employed in clinical practice. (
  • This test is intended for use in conjunction with clinical presentation and other laboratory markers of disease progress for the clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients. (
  • median age 49 years) who had an incident MI between January 1, 1996 and March 1, 2014 and were receiving care at eight clinical sites across the US. (
  • Clinical pharmacology in HIV cure research - what impact have we seen? (
  • Here we report on a phase 1b clinical trial ( NCT02825797 ) in which two potent bNAbs, 3BNC117 13 and 10-1074 14 , were administered in combination to seven HIV-1 viremic individuals. (
  • 7 The current clinical report offers companion guidance on the evaluation and management of the HIV-1-exposed infant after birth. (
  • During the clinical latency stage, HIV viral loads are extremely low and most people do not experience any HIV-related symptoms. (
  • The main treatment for HIV is antiretroviral therapy (ART), which can extend clinical latency stage for up to several decades [1]. (
  • The study, "Inositol phosphates are assembly cofactors for HIV-1," was published in the journal Nature on August 1, 2018. (
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is published by the Surveillance Branch of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - Surveillance and Epidemiology, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. (
  • Publication of this report would not have been possible without the contributions of the State and territorial health departments and the HIV/AIDS surveillance programs that provided surveillance data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Thus, the development of animal models that use HIV-1 as the challenge virus would undoubtedly facilitate the evaluation of candidate prevention and treatment strategies. (
  • It is a part of the publication CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update . (
  • The reports said the growing number of people living with HIV underscores the critical need to reach infected individuals with testing, treatment, and prevention services to reduce the impact of the disease. (
  • The results were positive and point to a new platform for further studies in HIV self-care and prevention. (
  • Understanding the interplay between HIV-1 and CD1a+ VEDCs is important for future prevention and cure strategies. (
  • Out of the total funding, $426 million will focus on ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services, with an emphasis on eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV and ensuring prevention programmes are serving adolescents, youth and key populations at higher risk of HIV. (
  • Some 50,000 people are infected with HIV each year in the United States, the agency said, citing statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Phenotypic assays determine HIV tropism by culturing host infected cells or by engineering a recombinant virus derived from the virus population of the subject (as discussed by Raymond et al. (
  • CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties. (
  • In particular, even if gp120s can bind both CCR5 monomers and oligomers, impairment of CCR5 oligomerization improved viral entry, suggesting that HIV-1 prefers monomers for entry. (
  • Collectively, our results support a role for CCR5 heterogeneity in diversifying the phenotypic properties of HIV-1 isolates and provide new clues for development of CCR5-targeting drugs. (
  • CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokines receptors are critical coreceptors for the binding of HIV to specific host cells. (
  • American Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents (2013) (as discussed elsewhere [ 11 ]) recommend the use of tropism testing whenever a CCR5 inhibitor is considered for use (AI) or in case of virologic failure in patients treated with CCR5 inhibitor (BIII). (
  • Individuals primarily acquire HIV-1 that utilizes the CCR5 receptor (termed either R5 or R5X4) during heterosexual transmission, and the mechanism for the block against variants that only use the CXCR4 receptor (classified as X4) remains unclear. (
  • On episode #278 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Kathy discuss disruption of the ccr5 gene in lymphocytes of patients infected with HIV-1. (
  • These cells express the HIV-1 receptors CD4 and CCR5, but not CXCR4, and can therefore be infected with CCR5-tropic* but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1. (
  • The public face of HIV is well-known: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that particularly preys on gay men, African Americans, drug users, and just about all of Africa, although we re all at risk. (
  • Collins JA et al (2004) Competitive fitness of nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants. (
  • There are two main types of this virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2. (
  • The immunodeficiency disease AIDS, which is caused by the HIV virus, can in most cases be treated very effectively with antiretroviral drugs. (
  • Nevertheless, Goffinet and her team will not give up their fight against the AIDS virus and will continue to search for promising new ways to target HIV-1 - including and especially in times of corona. (
  • Globally, HIV-1 is the most prevalent type of HIV and is generally the virus that people are talking about if they mention HIV without specifying a type. (
  • Research in the Gottlinger laboratory focuses on interactions between HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS, and the host cell in which it propagates. (
  • An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), has discovered a crucial missing link in the search for the origin of HIV-1, the virus responsible for human AIDS. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a severe population bottleneck during sexual transmission and yet adapts extremely rapidly to the earliest immune responses. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4 + T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (
  • These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. (
  • These assemblies reveal unique capsid-targeting mechanisms for each of the anti-HIV factors, TRIMCyp, MxB, and TRIM5α, linked to inhibition of virus uncoating and nuclear entry, as well as the HIV-1 cofactor FEZ1 that facilitates virus intracellular trafficking. (
  • According to UAB post-doctoral researcher Brandon Keele, Ph.D., lead author of the report, this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (
  • this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART), the primary type of treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can reduce sexual transmission, prevent illness, and increase longevity and quality of life for patients. (
  • With about six million people infected with the virus - more than 10% of the population - South Africa carries the world's heaviest HIV/Aids caseload and has around 2.5 million people taking antiretroviral (ARV) drugs daily. (
  • Specifically, CD317 expression correlated with, and induced, a requirement for Vpu during HIV-1 and murine leukaemia virus particle release. (
  • In the world, HIV/AIDS has resulted in estimated 40 million deaths while 36.9 million people are still living with the virus. (
  • The risk of being infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is substantially enhanced in individuals with other sexually transmitted diseases. (
  • In addition, the scientists report that people who have one normal and one altered copy of CKR5 do become HIV-positive, but they tend to progress slowly to full-blown AIDS and often live longer than most people infected with the virus. (
  • Now that we are beginning to see the benefits of attacking HIV with, not one, but a combination of different drugs, today's finding points out a different, but naturally proven, angle from which to attack the virus and make its life really rough," said Stephen O'Brien, Ph.D., leader of the AIDS genetics research group at NCI's Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center and senior author of today's paper. (
  • Last June, researchers made headlines when they discovered that a strain of HIV, believed to be important in person-to-person transmission of the virus, anchors to immune cells called macrophages in a very specific way. (
  • Following up on this new lead, two research teams reported independently last month that they had found a key piece to the long-standing puzzle of why some people exposed to HIV never become infected with the virus. (
  • Each group includes individuals who are HIV-positive with AIDS, those who are HIV positive but do not have AIDS, and a relatively large number of people who have been exposed to the virus but are HIV negative. (
  • The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test can detect these markers for the AIDS-causing virus in human serum, plasma and blood specimens, the agency said in a news release. (
  • One of the biggest medical miracles of our generation has been the development of antiretroviral drugs to control the HIV virus, said Dr. Luban, the David L. Freelander Memorial Professor in HIV/AIDS Research, professor of molecular medicine and lead author of the study. (
  • If HIV-1 is untreated, the virus reduces the number of CD4+ T cells in the body. (
  • Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. (
  • By 1993, 172,000 individuals in the United States had died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and another 1,000,000 were estimated to be infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the retrovirus that causes AIDS. (
  • Evidence for the importance of natural selection in HIV evolution comes from studies of both host and virus. (
  • Arguably the most prominent and deadly virus discovered in the twentieth century is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due its causative role in the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • The HIV virus is able to overcome these challenges and infect non-differentiating cells . (
  • Inhibition of Vpu function and consequent mobilization of tetherin's antiviral activity is a potential therapeutic strategy in HIV/AIDS. (
  • There are, however, two major scientific challenges: the tremendous HIV-1 diversity and the antiviral drug-unreachable latency. (
  • In this review, we describe the compounds, reported up to today, which inhibit the HIV-1 RNase H function, their chemical structures, the structure-activity relationships and the mechanism of action. (
  • Experts at the forefront of HIV-1 research provide overviews of approaches from the fields of virology, chemical biology and structural biology for obtaining small molecule inhibitors that target viral regulatory and structural components at multiple points in the viral lifecycle. (
  • On episode #314 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent travels to Albert Einstein College of Medicine where he speaks with Kartik, Ganjam, and Margaret about their work on Ebolavirus entry, a tumor suppressor that binds the HIV-1 integrase, and the entry of togaviruses and flaviviruses into cells. (
  • Using the deuterated (2H) glucose method for endogenous labeling, we have analyzed host factors that influence T-cell turnover in HIV-1-uninfected and -infected humans. (
  • HIV has been in humans for maybe 70 years, but the gene has been around a lot longer and is conserved down to mouse. (
  • In 2002, Gen-Probe received approval of its Biologics License Application (BLA) for the first FDA-approved nucleic acid test for HIV-1 and HCV in donated human blood. (
  • Nucleic acid sequences and methods for detecting HIV-1 nucleic acid (LTR and pol sequences) in biological samples by detecting amplified nucleic acids are disclosed. (
  • Kits comprising nucleic acid oligomers for amplifying HIV-1 nucleic acid present in a biological sample and detecting the amplified nucleic. (
  • detecting the amplified product of LTR sequences using a labeled detection probe that hybridizes specifically with LTR sequence in the amplified product, thereby indicating presence of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in the biological sample. (
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the contacting step uses a capture oligomer that hybridizes specifically to a target region in LTR sequences of HIV-1 nucleic acid complementary to SEQ ID NO:1 or complementary to LTR-specific sequence contained in SEQ ID NO:2. (
  • those tests detect HIV 1 and HIV2 simultaneously. (
  • The genetic differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 mean that if a person takes a test for HIV-1, it may not detect HIV-2. (
  • This test requires a plasma HIV-RNA of more than 1000 cps/mL and has recently been improved, being currently able to detect with 100% sensitivity CXCR4-tropic clones representing 0.3% or more of the viral population. (
  • Positive selection was also detected among 39 nef sequences from HIV-1 subtype B. In contrast, multiple pairwise comparisons of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates provided no good evidence for positive selection and sliding window analyses failed to detect most positively selected sites. (
  • But while HIV-1 evolves ways to hide from cytotoxic T-cells, this escape comes at a fitness cost. (
  • HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. (
  • Although most cells infected with HIV are rapidly eliminated in vi. (
  • Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV DNA is to date the most widely used. (
  • It allows an overall quantification of all viral forms of HIV DNA in infected cells, each playin. (
  • For their current study, Christine Goffinet's research group teamed up with scientists from the Hannover Medical School, TWINCORE, and others to demonstrate that HIV-1 does indeed manage to evade detection by this enzyme in T cells - the most important target cells of HIV-1 in vivo. (
  • The cells that HIV infects and destroys, called CD4+ cells, therefore decline in number at a slower rate than with HIV-1 and disease progresses more slowly. (
  • HIV enters target cells by interacting with specific surface receptors. (
  • However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. (
  • In CD + 4 T cells, HIV-1 buds from the host cell plasma membrane. (
  • Furthermore, in cells where HIV-1 virion release requires Vpu expression, depletion of CD317 abolished this requirement. (
  • In untreated HIV-1 disease, the average half life of circulating T cells was diminished without compensatory increases in cell production. (
  • a ) Correlations between k of total CD4+ T cells, percent naive CD4+ T cells, and thymic index are derived from the data presented in Table 1 . (
  • To improve HIV-1 neutralization breadth and potency, bispecific bnAb, which blocks two essential steps of HIV-1 entry into target cells, have been engineered and show promising efficacy in animal models. (
  • Moreover, gene transfer of BiIA-SG achieves pro-longed drug availability in vivo, leading to a promising efficacy of eliminating HIV-1 infected cells in humanized mice. (
  • People infected with HIV are diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 cells/mm 3 or if they develop an. (
  • HIV has evolved to make use of these small molecules present in our cells to essentially be infectious. (
  • The Luban lab observed that natural killer (NK) cells, another innate immune cell type in the blood, were altered by the chronic inflammation that accompanies loss of the innate lymphoid cells in people with HIV-1. (
  • It is believed that these memory NK cells may help control HIV-1 but also contribute to ongoing systemic inflammation. (
  • Now that we know these cells are gone, this provides a potential understanding for chronic inflammation in HIV patients. (
  • Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4 + T cells. (
  • Conversely, nonpermissive cells are those in which HIV-1 cannot replicate without Vif, indicating an innate defense system in those particular cells. (
  • To locate this anti-HIV cellular factor, researchers looked for genes that are expressed solely in the nonpermissive cells. (
  • This is a necessary step both for understanding how HIV-1 buds from cells and for defining the MVB pathway in human cells," says Sundquist. (
  • Proviral HIV DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients. (
  • Thus, mutation of HIV protease's active site or inhibition of its activity disrupts HIV's ability to replicate and infect additional cells, making HIV protease inhibition the subject of considerable pharmaceutical research. (
  • The conjugate is based on a second set of recombinant HIV antigens expressing the same epitopes as the pre-coated antigens, which is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. (
  • Barth RE et al (2012) Accumulation of drug resistance and loss of therapeutic options precede commonly used criteria for treatment failure in HIV-1 subtype-C-infected patients. (
  • A synthetic oligopeptide (Env362-420) with a length of 59 amino acids representing the sequence of the four inhibiting oligopeptides significantly reduced the transport of HIV, independent of the HIV 1 subtype. (
  • Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. (
  • The following table shows the characteristics of various HIV-1 bNAbs Recent years have seen an increase in HIV-1 bNAb discovery. (
  • Online databases like bNAber and LANL constantly report and update the discovery of new HIV bNAbs. (
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is not copyrighted and may be used and copied without permission. (
  • This thematic series in Retrovirology contains a collection of review articles that describe traditional and novel methods of quantitation of HIV persistence in vivo . (
  • The researchers suspect that the comparatively short HIV-1 DNA is present in the cytoplasm in insufficient quantities and is not long enough to be detected by cGAS. (
  • Based on this refined data set, researchers estimate HIV prevalence increased by 11 percent, or 112,000 people, since 2003. (
  • Researchers genetically inactivated HIV-1 in transgenic mice, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60 to 95 percent. (
  • Researchers determined the success of the strategy by measuring levels of HIV-1 RNA and used a new live bioluminescence imaging system. (
  • We discovered, in collaboration with other researchers, that HIV uses this small molecule to complete its function," said Juan R. Perilla, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware. (
  • While HIV remains a major health challenge in Zimbabwe, with 1.3 million people living with HIV at the end of 2016, the dramatic scale up of the HIV response is remarkable. (
  • Mountain View, CA (March 24, 2016): A normal, predominant bacterial species of the healthy vaginal microbiota can be engineered for potential use as a novel protective agent against HIV-1 transmission in women, according to a new publication from scientists at Osel, Inc. and their collaborators. (
  • However, these analyses make clear the advantages of longitudinal cohort data, which provide more complete ascertainment than household censuses, highlight possible inaccuracies in model assumptions, and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. (
  • Blood plasma HIV-RNA quantification was performed by the ultra-sensitive HIV-Monitor test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA). (