Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Urinary Bladder, Overactive
Purinergic P2Y Receptor Agonists
Keratins, Type I
Lewis Blood-Group System
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
Urinary Bladder Calculi
Rats, Inbred F344
Receptors, Purinergic P2X3
Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (1/920)The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma. (+info)
Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (2/920)Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (+info)
Frequent genetic alterations in simple urothelial hyperplasias of the bladder in patients with papillary urothelial carcinoma. (3/920)In order to understand the origin of bladder cancer, very early urothelial lesions must be investigated in addition to more advanced tumors. Tissue from 31 biopsies of 12 patients with urothelial hyperplasias and simultaneous or consecutive superficial papillary tumors were used to microdissect urothelium from 15- microm sections of biopsies. The biopsies were obtained with the recently developed highly sensitive diagnostic method of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE). Besides flat and papillary urothelial neoplasms, the method of photodynamic diagnostics also detects simple urothelial hyperplasias as fluorescent positive lesions. In addition, 12 fluorescence-positive biopsies showing histologically normal urothelium were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was done using a dual color staining technique of biotinylated centromeric probes of chromosomes 9 and 17 and digoxigenin-labeled gene-specific P1 probes for chromosomes 9q22 (FACC), 9p21(p16/CDKI2), and 17p13(p53). Ten of 14 hyperplasias (70%) showed deletions of chromosome 9. In 7 out of 8 patients with genetic alterations in the hyperplasias the genetic change was also present in the papillary tumor. Six out of 12 samples of microdissected normal urothelium also showed genetic alterations on chromosome 9. Microdissection of urothelial lesions, obtained during AFE, has led to the first unequivocal documentation of genetic changes in urothelial lesions diagnosed as normal in histopathology. Thus, this technical approach is important to provide insight into the earliest molecular alterations in bladder carcinogenesis. (+info)
Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinogenesis is associated with down-regulation of NF1 tumor suppressor gene in vivo and in vitro. (4/920)The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T24 (representing grades 1 to 3, respectively). Decreased NF1 gene expression was observed in 23 of 29 (83%) TCC specimens as estimated by immunohistochemistry, the decrease being more pronounced in high-grade tumors. NF1 mRNA levels were markedly lower in TCC tissue compared with adjacent non-neoplastic urothelium, as studied by in situ hybridization for grade 3 TCC. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that TCC cell lines expressed NF1 protein at different levels, expression being almost undetectable in T24 (grade 3) cells. Northern blotting for cell lines demonstrated reduced NF1 mRNA levels in grade 3 TCC cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cell lines and selected grade 2 and grade 3 tissue samples demonstrated NF1 type II mRNA isoform predominance in all samples studied. Our results show that both NF1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in high-grade TCC, suggesting that alterations of NF1 gene expression may be involved in bladder TCC carcinogenesis. (+info)
Primary uroepithelial cultures. A model system to analyze umbrella cell barrier function. (5/920)Despite almost 25 years of effort, the development of a highly differentiated and functionally equivalent cell culture model of uroepithelial cells has eluded investigators. We have developed a primary cell culture model of rabbit uroepithelium that consists of an underlying cell layer that interacts with a collagen substratum, an intermediate cell layer, and an upper cell layer of large (25-100 micrometer) superficial cells. When examined at the ultrastructural level, the superficial cells formed junctional complexes and had an asymmetric unit membrane, a hallmark of terminal differentiation in bladder umbrella cells. These cultured "umbrella" cells expressed uroplakins and a 27-kDa uroepithelial specific antigen that assembled into detergent-resistant asymmetric unit membrane particles. The cultures had low diffusive permeabilities for water (2.8 x 10(-4) cm/s) and urea (3.0 x 10(-7) cm/s) and high transepithelial resistance (>8000 Omega cm2) was achieved when 1 mM CaCl2 was included in the culture medium. The cell cultures expressed an amiloride-sensitive sodium transport pathway and increases in apical membrane capacitance were observed when the cultures were osmotically stretched. The described primary rabbit cell culture model mimics many of the characteristics of uroepithelium found in vivo and should serve as a useful tool to explore normal uroepithelial function as well as dysfunction as a result of disease. (+info)
Proteomics and immunohistochemistry define some of the steps involved in the squamous differentiation of the bladder transitional epithelium: a novel strategy for identifying metaplastic lesions. (6/920)Here, we present a novel strategy for dissecting some of the steps involved in the squamous differentiation of the bladder urothelium leading to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). First, we used proteomic technologies and databases (http://biobase.dk/cgi-bin/celis) to reveal proteins that were expressed specifically by fresh normal urothelium and three SCCs showing no urothelial components. Thereafter, antibodies against some of the differentially expressed proteins as well as a few known keratinocyte markers were used to stain serial cryostat sections (immunowalking) of biopsies obtained from bladder cystectomies of two of the SCC-bearing patients (884-1 and 864-1). Because bladder cancer is a field disease, we surmised that the urothelium of these patients may exhibit a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from early metaplastic stages to invasive disease. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed three types of non-keratinizing metaplastic lesions (types 1-3) that did not express keratins 7, 8, 18, and 20 (expressed by normal urothelium) and could be distinguished based on their staining with keratin 19 antibodies. Type 1 lesions showed staining of all cell layers in the epithelium (with differences in the staining intensity of the basal compartment), whereas type 2 lesions exhibited mainly basal cell staining. Type 3 lesions did not stain with keratin 19 antibodies. In cystectomy 884-1, type 3 lesions exhibited the same immunophenotype as the SCC and may be regarded as precursors to the tumor. Basal cells in these lesions did not express keratin 13, suggesting that the tumor, which was also keratin 13 negative, may have arisen from the expansion of these cells. Similar results were observed with cystectomy 864-1, which showed carcinoma in situ of the SCC type. SCC 864-1 exhibited both keratin 19-negative and -positive cells, implying that the tumor arose from the expansion of the basal cell compartment of type 2 and 3 lesions. Besides providing with a novel strategy for revealing metaplastic lesions, our studies have shown that it is feasible to apply powerful proteomic technologies to the analysis of complex biological samples under conditions that are as close as possible to the in vivo situation. (+info)
Urothelium-specific expression of an oncogene in transgenic mice induced the formation of carcinoma in situ and invasive transitional cell carcinoma. (7/920)Although many genetic alterations are known to be associated with human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, relatively little is known about the roles of these molecular defects, singular or in combination, in bladder tumorigenesis. We have developed a transgenic mouse model of bladder tumorigenesis using a 3.6-kb promoter of uroplakin II gene to drive the urotheliums-specific expression of oncogenes. In this study, we demonstrate that transgenic mice bearing a low copy number of SV40T transgene developed bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS), whereas those bearing high copies developed CIS as well as invasive and metastatic TCCs. These results indicate that the SV40T inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma gene products, defects frequently found in human bladder CIS and invasive TCCs, can cause the aggressive form of TCC. Our results also provide experimental proof that CIS is a precursor of invasive TCCs, thus supporting the concept of two distinct pathways of bladder tumorigenesis (papillary versus CIS/invasive TCC). This transgenic system can be used for the systematic dissection of the roles of individual or combinations of specific molecular events in bladder tumorigenesis. (+info)
Specific p53 gene mutations in urinary bladder epithelium after the Chernobyl accident. (8/920)After the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine population increased gradually from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 between 1986 and 1996. Urinary bladder epithelium biopsied from 45 male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia living in radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine demonstrated frequent severe urothelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and a single invasive transitional cell carcinoma, combined with irradiation cystitis in 42 cases (93%). No neoplastic changes (carcinoma in situ or transitional cell carcinoma) were found in 10 patients from clean areas (areas without radiocontamination). DNA was extracted from the altered urothelium of selected paraffin-embedded specimens that showed obviously abnormal histology (3 cases) or intense p53 immunoreactivity (15 cases), and mutational analysis of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene was performed by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing. Nine of 17 patients (53%) had one or more mutations in the altered urothelium. Urine sediment samples were also collected from the patients at 4-27 months after biopsy and analyzed by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis or yeast functional assay, and identical or additional p53 mutations were found in four of five cases. Interestingly, a relative hot spot at codon 245 was found in five of nine (56%) cases with mutations, and 11 of the 13 mutations determined (73%) were G:C to A:T transitions at CpG dinucleotides, reported to be relatively infrequent (approximately 18%) in human urinary bladder cancers. Therefore, the frequent and specific p53 mutations found in these male patients may alert us to a future elevated occurrence of urinary bladder cancers in the radiocontaminated areas. (+info)
Uroplakin II is a protein that is found in the cytoplasm of cells in the urinary tract, particularly in the urothelium (the lining of the bladder, ureters, and urethra). It is a member of the uroplakin family of proteins, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the urothelial barrier that protects the urinary tract from infection and injury. Uroplakin II is thought to play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the urothelium, and it may also be involved in the development of certain urological disorders, such as bladder cancer. It is typically measured in urine as a biomarker for the presence of urothelial cells, and it may be used to help diagnose and monitor certain urological conditions.
Uroplakin III is a protein that is found in the cytoplasm of cells in the urinary tract, particularly in the transitional epithelium of the bladder. It is a member of the uroplakin family of proteins, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the urothelial barrier that protects the urinary tract from infection and injury. Uroplakin III is a marker of urothelial cell differentiation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of bladder cancer. In normal cells, uroplakin III is expressed at low levels, but in cancer cells, its expression is often increased. This increase in uroplakin III expression has been associated with the progression of bladder cancer and may be used as a predictor of poor prognosis. In addition to its role in bladder cancer, uroplakin III has also been studied in other diseases of the urinary tract, such as interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. It is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions.
Urinary bladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the urinary bladder. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms include cysts, polyps, and adenomas, while malignant neoplasms are classified as urothelial carcinomas, which are the most common type of bladder cancer. Symptoms of urinary bladder neoplasms may include blood in the urine, frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and abdominal pain or discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell is a type of cancer that originates in the transitional cells lining the urinary tract, including the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis. These cells are responsible for regulating the flow of urine and lining the inner surface of the urinary tract. Transitional cell carcinoma can develop in any part of the urinary tract, but it is most commonly found in the bladder. It is the most common type of bladder cancer and can be either non-invasive (in situ) or invasive (infiltrating) depending on whether the cancer cells have spread beyond the lining of the bladder. Symptoms of transitional cell carcinoma may include blood in the urine, frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and abdominal pain or discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of recurrence.
Urinary bladder diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the urinary bladder, a muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra. These diseases can affect the bladder's ability to empty completely, leading to urinary retention, or cause pain, discomfort, and other symptoms. Some common urinary bladder diseases include: 1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the urinary tract, including the bladder, urethra, kidneys, and ureters. UTIs can cause symptoms such as pain, burning, and frequent urination. 2. Overactive bladder (OAB): This is a condition in which the bladder contracts involuntarily, leading to frequent and urgent urination. OAB can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, genetics, and certain medical conditions. 3. Interstitial cystitis (IC): This is a chronic condition that causes pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and surrounding areas. The exact cause of IC is not known, but it is thought to be related to inflammation and damage to the bladder lining. 4. Bladder stones: These are hard deposits that form in the bladder and can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty urinating. Bladder stones can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, certain medical conditions, and certain medications. 5. Bladder cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of the bladder lining. Bladder cancer can cause symptoms such as blood in the urine, pain, and frequent urination.
Urologic neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and prostate gland. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Urologic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including blood in the urine, pain or discomfort in the lower back or abdomen, frequent urination, and difficulty urinating. Treatment options for urologic neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Cystitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the bladder. It is a common condition that can affect people of all ages and genders. The symptoms of cystitis can include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, a burning sensation when urinating, and pain in the lower abdomen or back. Cystitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial infections, viruses, and irritants such as certain chemicals or detergents. Treatment for cystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat bacterial infections, and measures to relieve symptoms such as drinking plenty of fluids and avoiding irritants. In some cases, more serious forms of cystitis may require hospitalization for treatment.
Uroplakin Ib is a protein that is found in the cytoplasm of cells in the urinary tract, particularly in the urothelium (the lining of the bladder and urethra). It is a member of the uroplakin family of proteins, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the urothelial barrier that protects the urinary tract from infection and injury. Uroplakin Ib is thought to play a role in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration, as well as in the maintenance of the integrity of the urothelial barrier. It has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain types of bladder cancer, as well as in the pathogenesis of other urological conditions such as interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. In the medical field, uroplakin Ib is often used as a diagnostic marker for bladder cancer, as its levels can be elevated in the urine of patients with the disease. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of bladder cancer and other urological conditions.
Interstitial cystitis, also known as painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic condition that causes inflammation and pain in the bladder. It is characterized by symptoms such as a burning sensation when urinating, frequent urination, and pressure or pain in the lower abdomen. The exact cause of interstitial cystitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response or damage to the bladder's lining. Treatment options for interstitial cystitis may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Uroplakin Ia is a protein that is found in the cytoplasm of cells lining the urinary tract, particularly in the bladder. It is a component of the urothelial cytoskeleton and plays a role in maintaining the integrity and function of the bladder lining. Uroplakin Ia is also a marker of urothelial cell differentiation and has been studied in the context of bladder cancer. In some cases, the expression of uroplakin Ia may be altered in bladder cancer cells, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring the disease.
Urinary Bladder, Overactive, also known as Overactive Bladder (OAB), is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary contractions of the muscles of the urinary bladder, leading to frequent and urgent urination, often accompanied by a strong and sudden urge to urinate. This can result in leakage of urine, which can be embarrassing and affect a person's quality of life. OAB can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, genetics, certain medical conditions, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can be treated with a variety of medications, behavioral therapies, and in some cases, surgery.
Cryoultramicrotomy is a technique used in the field of electron microscopy to prepare thin sections of frozen biological samples for imaging. The technique involves freezing the sample, slicing it into thin sections using an ultramicrotome, and then transferring the sections to a grid for imaging. The process is called cryoultramicrotomy because it is performed at cryogenic temperatures to minimize the damage to the sample and preserve its ultrastructure. Cryoultramicrotomy is commonly used to study the structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs at the molecular level.
Urogenital neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the urinary and genital systems of the body. These neoplasms can occur in various parts of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, as well as in the genital system, including the prostate, testicles, ovaries, and uterus. Urogenital neoplasms can be either benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms, also known as cancers, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Some common types of urogenital neoplasms include kidney cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer. The symptoms of urogenital neoplasms can vary depending on the location and type of the tumor, but may include pain, blood in the urine or stool, difficulty urinating, and changes in bowel or bladder habits. Treatment options for urogenital neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and type of the tumor.
Intravesical administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances directly into the bladder through the urethra. This method of administration is commonly used to treat conditions such as urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, and interstitial cystitis. The medication is typically introduced into the bladder using a catheter, which is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into the urethra and guided into the bladder. The medication is then left in the bladder for a period of time to allow it to be absorbed into the body. This method of administration can be less invasive and have fewer side effects than other methods, such as oral or intravenous administration.
Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine (BBN) is a chemical compound that is used as a carcinogen in laboratory studies to induce cancer in animals. It is a nitrosamine, which is a class of compounds that are known to be potent carcinogens and mutagens. BBN is typically administered to laboratory animals by injection or by feeding it to them in their diet. It is used to study the mechanisms of cancer development and to test the effectiveness of potential cancer treatments. In humans, BBN is not used for any medical purpose and is considered to be a highly toxic substance.
Cacodylic acid is a chemical compound with the formula C2H2N2O2. It is a colorless, water-soluble solid that is highly toxic and has a strong, unpleasant smell. It is also known as cacodyl oxide or cacodyl dioxide. In the medical field, cacodylic acid is used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of certain types of bacteria in the body. It is also used as an antiseptic and as a treatment for certain types of skin infections. However, due to its toxicity, it is not commonly used in medicine and is only used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Tetraspanins are a family of transmembrane proteins that are found in many different cell types and play important roles in cell adhesion, signaling, and immune function. They are characterized by the presence of four transmembrane domains, which give them their name. Tetraspanins are involved in the formation of specialized membrane microdomains called tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), which are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of cell signaling and the formation of immune complexes. Tetraspanins are also involved in the regulation of cell migration and the formation of tight junctions, which are important for maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane.
Keratins, Type I are a group of intermediate filament proteins that are primarily found in the epidermis and hair of mammals. They are responsible for providing strength and resilience to the skin and hair, and are essential for maintaining the integrity of the epidermis. Keratins, Type I are composed of two subunits, alpha-keratin and beta-keratin, which are encoded by different genes and assemble into coiled-coil structures. Mutations in the genes encoding keratins, Type I can lead to a variety of skin and hair disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex and ichthyosis vulgaris.
Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ. It is a normal response to various stimuli, such as injury, inflammation, or hormonal changes, and can be either physiological or pathological. In a physiological sense, hyperplasia is a normal process that occurs in response to growth factors or hormones, such as estrogen or testosterone, which stimulate the growth of cells in certain tissues. For example, during puberty, the ovaries and testes undergo hyperplasia to produce more hormones. However, in a pathological sense, hyperplasia can be a sign of disease or dysfunction. For example, in the prostate gland, benign hyperplasia (also known as BPH) is a common condition that occurs when the gland becomes enlarged due to an overproduction of cells. This can cause symptoms such as difficulty urinating or frequent urination. In the breast, hyperplasia can be a precursor to breast cancer, as it involves an increase in the number of cells in the breast tissue. Similarly, in the uterus, hyperplasia can be a sign of endometrial cancer. Overall, hyperplasia is a complex process that can have both normal and pathological consequences, depending on the tissue or organ involved and the underlying cause of the increase in cell number.
Cystectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a cyst from the body. In the medical field, cystectomy can refer to the removal of a variety of cysts, including those found in the urinary system (such as a kidney cyst or bladder cyst), the reproductive system (such as an ovarian cyst or uterine fibroid cyst), or other parts of the body (such as a liver cyst or brain cyst). The type of cystectomy performed will depend on the location and size of the cyst, as well as the underlying cause of the cyst. In some cases, a partial cystectomy may be performed, in which only a portion of the cyst is removed. In other cases, a complete cystectomy may be necessary, in which the entire cyst is removed along with the surrounding tissue. Cystectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done as an open surgery or laparoscopic surgery, depending on the location and size of the cyst. After surgery, patients may need to stay in the hospital for a few days to recover, and may need to follow certain post-operative care instructions to ensure a full recovery.
Keratin-13 (KRT13) is a type of keratin protein that is expressed in the epithelial cells of the skin, hair, and nails. It is a type I cytokeratin, which means it is a filament-forming protein that helps to provide structural support to the cells. In the medical field, KRT13 is often studied in the context of skin diseases, particularly those that affect the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. For example, KRT13 has been found to be upregulated in certain types of skin cancer, such as squamous cell carcinoma, and may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases. KRT13 has also been implicated in other conditions, such as psoriasis and ichthyosis vulgaris, which are both characterized by abnormal skin cell growth and differentiation. In these cases, KRT13 may play a role in regulating the expression of other genes involved in skin development and function.
Keratin-20 (KRT20) is a type of keratin protein that is expressed in the basal layer of the epithelial cells in various tissues of the human body, including the skin, hair, nails, and respiratory tract. In the respiratory tract, KRT20 is specifically expressed in the basal cells of the bronchial epithelium, which is the lining of the airways that carry air from the nose and mouth to the lungs. In the medical field, KRT20 is often used as a diagnostic marker for various types of lung cancer, including small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. This is because KRT20 is not typically expressed in normal lung tissue, but is often overexpressed in cancerous cells. Therefore, the presence of KRT20 in a biopsy sample can help to confirm the diagnosis of lung cancer and guide treatment decisions. In addition to its use in cancer diagnosis, KRT20 has also been studied in the context of other respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In these conditions, KRT20 expression has been found to be altered in the bronchial epithelium, which may contribute to the development and progression of these diseases.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ located in the pelvis that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra. The term "neurogenic" refers to a condition or disorder that is caused by damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. Therefore, "Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic" refers to a condition where the normal functioning of the urinary bladder is affected due to damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. This can result in a variety of symptoms, such as difficulty emptying the bladder, frequent urination, and incontinence. The underlying cause of neurogenic bladder can be a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and diabetes. Treatment for neurogenic bladder typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.
Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, are solid masses of minerals and salts that form in the urinary bladder. These calculi can vary in size and number, and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, difficulty urinating, and blood in the urine. Bladder calculi can form when there is an imbalance of minerals and salts in the urine, or when the urine is not able to drain properly from the bladder. They are typically treated with medications to dissolve the calculi, or with surgery to remove them.
Papilloma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) growth that develops on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes. It is also known as a wart or verruca. Papillomas are caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV) and can appear on various parts of the body, including the hands, feet, face, and genitals. Papillomas can be solitary or multiple and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. They are usually painless and may be flesh-colored, brown, or black. Some types of papillomas, such as genital warts, can be sexually transmitted. Treatment for papillomas depends on their location, size, and type. Small papillomas can be removed with cryotherapy, electrocautery, or laser therapy. Larger or more complex papillomas may require surgical removal. In some cases, medication may be used to treat HPV infections that cause papillomas.
Receptors, Purinergic P2X3 are a type of ion channel receptors found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including sensory neurons, that respond to the presence of the neurotransmitter ATP (adenosine triphosphate). When ATP binds to P2X3 receptors, it causes the opening of ion channels, allowing positively charged ions to flow into the cell and generate an electrical signal. P2X3 receptors are known to play a role in a variety of physiological processes, including pain sensation, hearing, and regulation of heart rate. They are also involved in certain pathological conditions, such as chronic pain and hearing loss.
Cadherins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in cell-cell adhesion in the human body. They are responsible for the formation and maintenance of tissues and organs by linking neighboring cells together. There are over 20 different types of cadherins, each with its own unique function and distribution in the body. Cadherins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. In the medical field, cadherins are often studied as potential targets for therapeutic interventions. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of cadherin inhibitors to treat cancer by disrupting the adhesion between cancer cells and normal cells, which can help prevent the spread of the disease. Additionally, cadherins are being studied as potential biomarkers for various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.
Integrins are a family of transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in cell adhesion and signaling. They are composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which form a heterodimer that spans the cell membrane. Integrins bind to various extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, laminin, and collagen, and transmit signals across the cell membrane to the cytoplasm. This process is essential for cell migration, tissue development, and immune function. In the medical field, integrins are important targets for the development of drugs to treat various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
Biological functions of nitric oxide
Parasympathetic nervous system
H2 receptor antagonist
Prostaglandin Receptor EP1 and EP2 Site in Guinea Pig Bladder Urothelium and Lamina Propria<...
Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium<...
Three differentiation states risk-stratify bladder cancer into distinct subtypes
Mucin gene expression in human urothelium and in intestinal segments transposed into the urinary tract<...
The five primary prostaglandins stimulate contractions and phasic activity of the urinary bladder urothelium, lamina propria...
Distribution of lymphocytes of the alpha(E)beta(7) phenotype and E-cadherin in normal human urothelium and bladder carcinomas. ...
Erratum to 'Muscarinic receptors stimulate cell proliferation in the human urothelium-derived cell line UROtsa' [Pharmacol. Res...
Overactive Bladder: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy and Physiology
Abstract for DART-05
Actas Urol Esp - vol.29 issue8
Pathology Outlines - Anatomy & histology-vulva, vagina & female urethra
Surveillance for Recurrent Bladder Cancer: Practice Essentials, Imaging Studies, Complications of Cystoscopy
Author: Jia, Angela Yuanyuan / Type: Theses | Search Results | Academic Commons
Rebecka Godtman | Göteborgs universitet
Webpathology.com: A Collection of Surgical Pathology Images
Mouse Model Provides New Insight into Bladder Control - NIDDK
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf
Connexins 43 and 26 are different... | Archive ouverte UNIGE
Multidrug resistance in a urothelial cancer cell line after 1-hour mitomycin C exposure - ePrints Soton
Registration Dossier - ECHA
00225121 | PEIR Digital Library
Indication-specific dosing for American cranberry, black cranberry, European cranberry cranberry in combination, frequency...
New urologic frontiers explored for neurotoxins
Bladder Cancer: Metastatic, Stages, Life Expectancy, Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
IJMS | June 2018 - Browse Articles
Comprehensive analysis of HE4 expression in normal and malignant human tissues | Modern Pathology
- The primary aim of this work was to survey normal urothelium and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) for the presence of T lymphocytes expressing the intraepithelial, CD103(+) phenotype. (ox.ac.uk)
- The so-called transitional cells are normal cells that form the innermost lining of the bladder wall, the urothelium. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Normal urothelium expressed mRNA for all four uroplakins, although UPIII could be detected only by ribonuclease protection assay. (york.ac.uk)
- Further analysis revealed that these changes were accounted for by a fourfold increase in Cx43 mRNA of SMC but not urothelial cell and by a fivefold increase in Cx26 mRNA of urothelium. (unige.ch)
- This study assessed the actions of PGE 2 , PGF 2 , PGD 2 , TXA 2 , and PGI 2 on urinary bladder urothelium with lamina propria (U&LP), and detrusor smooth muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prostaglandins are synthesised in both the bladder urothelium with lamina propria (U&LP) and in detrusor smooth muscle in response to stretch, nerve stimulation, U&LP damage or other inflammatory mediators [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Specifically, of interest is to determine how the actions of the prostaglandins affect urothelium with lamina propria that is separated from the detrusor smooth muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
- Occasional T lymphocytes (CD3(+)) were seen in normal urothelium and lamina propria. (ox.ac.uk)
- Difficulties in routine diagnostics of urothelium lesions]. (bvsalud.org)
- In response to stretch urothelium releases various substances that modulate afferent nerve activity. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- The inner surface of the urinary tract is lined with epithelial tissue, or urothelium, which functions as a barrier to bacteria, environmental carcinogens, toxins, and the numerous and variable waste products in urine. (nih.gov)
- Distribution of lymphocytes of the alpha(E)beta(7) phenotype and E-cadherin in normal human urothelium and bladder carcinomas. (ox.ac.uk)
- Erratum to 'Muscarinic receptors stimulate cell proliferation in the human urothelium-derived cell line UROtsa' [Pharmacol. (unibs.it)
- Here we investigated the role of muscarinic receptors in mediating cell proliferation in the human UROtsa cell line, which is a widely used experimental model to study urothelium physiology and pathophysiology. (unibs.it)
- If the human bladder works similarly, then loss of normal urothelium mechanosensory signals due to disease or injury may lead to some forms of urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and urinary incontinence in people, and treatments based on this knowledge may follow. (nih.gov)
- T lymphocytes of the CD103(+) phenotype are present in normal urothelium where they may play a role in immunosurveillance. (ox.ac.uk)
- In contrast, strong prostaglandin receptor type 2 staining was seen in the urothelium and in suburothelial cells. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- Loss of β1‑integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype. (nih.gov)
- Purpose: Urothelium has 2 main functions. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
- Examination of some of these workers indicated the presence of a damaged urothelium consistent with premalignant conditions. (cdc.gov)
- 8. Transplantation of autologous differentiated urothelium in an experimental model of composite cystoplasty. (nih.gov)
- 10. Autologous transplantation of urothelium into demucosalized gastrointestinal segments: evidence for epithelialization and differentiation of in vitro expanded and transplanted urothelial cells. (nih.gov)
- Purpose: The repertoire of mucin (MUC) gene expression in the normal human urothelium is poorly defined and the alterations in MUC gene expression following transposition of intestinal segments into the urinary tract has not previously been studied. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Histologically confirmed, unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (UC) (including the renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, or urethra). (nih.gov)
- A focal ulcer of the urothelium, with inflammation of the underlying submucosa and muscularis layers, from a male B6C3F1 mouse in a chronic study. (nih.gov)
- Stage I (T1, N0, M0): Tumor invades urethral subepithelial connective tissue right under the urothelium (T1). (oncolink.org)
- Stage III (T1/T2/T3, N0/N1, M0): Tumor invades urethral subepithelial connective tissue right under the urothelium (T1), OR tumor invades the prostatic stroma surrounding ducts either by direct extension from the urothelial surface or by invasion from prostatic ducts (T2), OR tumor invades the periprostatic fat (T3). (oncolink.org)
- loss of the umbrella cell layer (superficial urothelium) was evident while intermediate and basal urothelial cells were preserved. (medscape.com)
- The basal expression patterns of the metallothionein (MT) and heat shock proteins 27, 60, and 70 were determined in these cells, and expression was in agreement with that known to occur for in situ urothelium. (nih.gov)
- primary_diagnosis A C191672 C177537 GDC Value Terminology C191672 Papillary Urothelial Neoplasm of Low Malignant Potential A papillary neoplasm of the urothelium. (nih.gov)
- Altogether the abovementioned findings were suggestive of a diffuse disruption of the urothelium. (medscape.com)
- The findings suggest that the UROtsa cells grown with a serum-free medium could be a valuable adjunct for studying environmental insult to the human urothelium in general and for the stress response in particular. (nih.gov)
- The overall morphology was most consistent with that found in the intermediate layers of in situ urothelium. (nih.gov)
- On bladder specimens an immunohistochemical study using mouse monoclonal anti-pan cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3 was performed in order to investigate the urothelium cells. (medscape.com)
- The UROtsa cell line was isolated from a primary culture of normal human urothelium through immortalization with a construct containing the SV40 large T antigen. (nih.gov)
- In patients with clam enterocystoplasty there was evidence of increasing up-regulation of MUC2, 3, 4 and 5AC expression in the urothelium toward the anastomotic site. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Figure Legend: Figure 1 Kidney, Urothelium - Hyperplasia in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
- The immortalized UROtsa cell line as a potential cell culture model of human urothelium. (nih.gov)
- The working hypothesis in the present study was that this cell line could be induced to differentiate and express known features of in situ urothelium if the original serum-containing growth medium was changed to a serum-free formulation. (nih.gov)