Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Uroplakin II: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Uroplakin Ib: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN III to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Uroplakin Ia: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Cryoultramicrotomy: The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Cacodylic Acid: An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.Purinergic P2Y Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Tetraspanins: A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.Keratins, Type I: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Keratin-13: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Keratin-20: A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Rats, Inbred F344Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Gingivoplasty: Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (1/920)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (2/920)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

Frequent genetic alterations in simple urothelial hyperplasias of the bladder in patients with papillary urothelial carcinoma. (3/920)

In order to understand the origin of bladder cancer, very early urothelial lesions must be investigated in addition to more advanced tumors. Tissue from 31 biopsies of 12 patients with urothelial hyperplasias and simultaneous or consecutive superficial papillary tumors were used to microdissect urothelium from 15- microm sections of biopsies. The biopsies were obtained with the recently developed highly sensitive diagnostic method of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE). Besides flat and papillary urothelial neoplasms, the method of photodynamic diagnostics also detects simple urothelial hyperplasias as fluorescent positive lesions. In addition, 12 fluorescence-positive biopsies showing histologically normal urothelium were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was done using a dual color staining technique of biotinylated centromeric probes of chromosomes 9 and 17 and digoxigenin-labeled gene-specific P1 probes for chromosomes 9q22 (FACC), 9p21(p16/CDKI2), and 17p13(p53). Ten of 14 hyperplasias (70%) showed deletions of chromosome 9. In 7 out of 8 patients with genetic alterations in the hyperplasias the genetic change was also present in the papillary tumor. Six out of 12 samples of microdissected normal urothelium also showed genetic alterations on chromosome 9. Microdissection of urothelial lesions, obtained during AFE, has led to the first unequivocal documentation of genetic changes in urothelial lesions diagnosed as normal in histopathology. Thus, this technical approach is important to provide insight into the earliest molecular alterations in bladder carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinogenesis is associated with down-regulation of NF1 tumor suppressor gene in vivo and in vitro. (4/920)

The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T24 (representing grades 1 to 3, respectively). Decreased NF1 gene expression was observed in 23 of 29 (83%) TCC specimens as estimated by immunohistochemistry, the decrease being more pronounced in high-grade tumors. NF1 mRNA levels were markedly lower in TCC tissue compared with adjacent non-neoplastic urothelium, as studied by in situ hybridization for grade 3 TCC. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that TCC cell lines expressed NF1 protein at different levels, expression being almost undetectable in T24 (grade 3) cells. Northern blotting for cell lines demonstrated reduced NF1 mRNA levels in grade 3 TCC cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cell lines and selected grade 2 and grade 3 tissue samples demonstrated NF1 type II mRNA isoform predominance in all samples studied. Our results show that both NF1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in high-grade TCC, suggesting that alterations of NF1 gene expression may be involved in bladder TCC carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Primary uroepithelial cultures. A model system to analyze umbrella cell barrier function. (5/920)

Despite almost 25 years of effort, the development of a highly differentiated and functionally equivalent cell culture model of uroepithelial cells has eluded investigators. We have developed a primary cell culture model of rabbit uroepithelium that consists of an underlying cell layer that interacts with a collagen substratum, an intermediate cell layer, and an upper cell layer of large (25-100 micrometer) superficial cells. When examined at the ultrastructural level, the superficial cells formed junctional complexes and had an asymmetric unit membrane, a hallmark of terminal differentiation in bladder umbrella cells. These cultured "umbrella" cells expressed uroplakins and a 27-kDa uroepithelial specific antigen that assembled into detergent-resistant asymmetric unit membrane particles. The cultures had low diffusive permeabilities for water (2.8 x 10(-4) cm/s) and urea (3.0 x 10(-7) cm/s) and high transepithelial resistance (>8000 Omega cm2) was achieved when 1 mM CaCl2 was included in the culture medium. The cell cultures expressed an amiloride-sensitive sodium transport pathway and increases in apical membrane capacitance were observed when the cultures were osmotically stretched. The described primary rabbit cell culture model mimics many of the characteristics of uroepithelium found in vivo and should serve as a useful tool to explore normal uroepithelial function as well as dysfunction as a result of disease.  (+info)

Proteomics and immunohistochemistry define some of the steps involved in the squamous differentiation of the bladder transitional epithelium: a novel strategy for identifying metaplastic lesions. (6/920)

Here, we present a novel strategy for dissecting some of the steps involved in the squamous differentiation of the bladder urothelium leading to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). First, we used proteomic technologies and databases (http://biobase.dk/cgi-bin/celis) to reveal proteins that were expressed specifically by fresh normal urothelium and three SCCs showing no urothelial components. Thereafter, antibodies against some of the differentially expressed proteins as well as a few known keratinocyte markers were used to stain serial cryostat sections (immunowalking) of biopsies obtained from bladder cystectomies of two of the SCC-bearing patients (884-1 and 864-1). Because bladder cancer is a field disease, we surmised that the urothelium of these patients may exhibit a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from early metaplastic stages to invasive disease. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed three types of non-keratinizing metaplastic lesions (types 1-3) that did not express keratins 7, 8, 18, and 20 (expressed by normal urothelium) and could be distinguished based on their staining with keratin 19 antibodies. Type 1 lesions showed staining of all cell layers in the epithelium (with differences in the staining intensity of the basal compartment), whereas type 2 lesions exhibited mainly basal cell staining. Type 3 lesions did not stain with keratin 19 antibodies. In cystectomy 884-1, type 3 lesions exhibited the same immunophenotype as the SCC and may be regarded as precursors to the tumor. Basal cells in these lesions did not express keratin 13, suggesting that the tumor, which was also keratin 13 negative, may have arisen from the expansion of these cells. Similar results were observed with cystectomy 864-1, which showed carcinoma in situ of the SCC type. SCC 864-1 exhibited both keratin 19-negative and -positive cells, implying that the tumor arose from the expansion of the basal cell compartment of type 2 and 3 lesions. Besides providing with a novel strategy for revealing metaplastic lesions, our studies have shown that it is feasible to apply powerful proteomic technologies to the analysis of complex biological samples under conditions that are as close as possible to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Urothelium-specific expression of an oncogene in transgenic mice induced the formation of carcinoma in situ and invasive transitional cell carcinoma. (7/920)

Although many genetic alterations are known to be associated with human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, relatively little is known about the roles of these molecular defects, singular or in combination, in bladder tumorigenesis. We have developed a transgenic mouse model of bladder tumorigenesis using a 3.6-kb promoter of uroplakin II gene to drive the urotheliums-specific expression of oncogenes. In this study, we demonstrate that transgenic mice bearing a low copy number of SV40T transgene developed bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS), whereas those bearing high copies developed CIS as well as invasive and metastatic TCCs. These results indicate that the SV40T inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma gene products, defects frequently found in human bladder CIS and invasive TCCs, can cause the aggressive form of TCC. Our results also provide experimental proof that CIS is a precursor of invasive TCCs, thus supporting the concept of two distinct pathways of bladder tumorigenesis (papillary versus CIS/invasive TCC). This transgenic system can be used for the systematic dissection of the roles of individual or combinations of specific molecular events in bladder tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Specific p53 gene mutations in urinary bladder epithelium after the Chernobyl accident. (8/920)

After the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine population increased gradually from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 between 1986 and 1996. Urinary bladder epithelium biopsied from 45 male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia living in radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine demonstrated frequent severe urothelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and a single invasive transitional cell carcinoma, combined with irradiation cystitis in 42 cases (93%). No neoplastic changes (carcinoma in situ or transitional cell carcinoma) were found in 10 patients from clean areas (areas without radiocontamination). DNA was extracted from the altered urothelium of selected paraffin-embedded specimens that showed obviously abnormal histology (3 cases) or intense p53 immunoreactivity (15 cases), and mutational analysis of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene was performed by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing. Nine of 17 patients (53%) had one or more mutations in the altered urothelium. Urine sediment samples were also collected from the patients at 4-27 months after biopsy and analyzed by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis or yeast functional assay, and identical or additional p53 mutations were found in four of five cases. Interestingly, a relative hot spot at codon 245 was found in five of nine (56%) cases with mutations, and 11 of the 13 mutations determined (73%) were G:C to A:T transitions at CpG dinucleotides, reported to be relatively infrequent (approximately 18%) in human urinary bladder cancers. Therefore, the frequent and specific p53 mutations found in these male patients may alert us to a future elevated occurrence of urinary bladder cancers in the radiocontaminated areas.  (+info)

  • In urologic pathology, PUNLMP, short for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple-shaped (or papillary) pre-malignant growth of the lining of the upper genitourinary tract (the urothelium), which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • serotonin) on the contractile properties of the urothelium and lamina propria, as a better understanding of bladder physiology might aid the development of new treatments. (edu.au)
  • METHODS: Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution, and cumulative concentration-response curves for 5-HT were generated in the absence and presence of 5-HT antagonists, Nω-nitro-l-arginine and indomethacin. (edu.au)
  • RESULTS: Strips of urothelium/lamina propria developed spontaneous contractions, whereas the addition of 5-HT induced concentration-dependent increases in contractile tone with maximal contractions of 50.43 ± 2.78 mN/g tissue weight (n = 100). (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results show that contractile responses of the urothelium/lamina propria to 5-HT are predominantly mediated through the 5-HT2A receptor. (edu.au)
  • serotonin) on the contractile properties of the urothelium and lamina propria, as a better understanding of bladder physiology might aid the development of new treatments.METHODS: Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution, and cumulative concentration-response curves for 5-HT were generated in the absence and presence of 5-HT antagonists, Nω-nitro-l-arginine and indomethacin. (edu.au)
  • Responses to α-methyl-5-HT were also examined.RESULTS: Strips of urothelium/lamina propria developed spontaneous contractions, whereas the addition of 5-HT induced concentration-dependent increases in contractile tone with maximal contractions of 50.43 ± 2.78 mN/g tissue weight (n = 100). (edu.au)
  • However, the 5-HT2A antagonist, ketanserin (30-300 μmol/L), caused a shift of the 5-HT curve yielding an affinity estimate of 7.9.CONCLUSIONS: The results show that contractile responses of the urothelium/lamina propria to 5-HT are predominantly mediated through the 5-HT2A receptor. (edu.au)
  • Occasional T lymphocytes (CD3(+)) were seen in normal urothelium and lamina propria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Amniotic membrane scaffolds enable the development of tissue-engineered urothelium with molecular and ultrastructural properties comparable to that of native urothelium. (emc-proceedings.com)
  • To achieve this purpose, we've focused on the transmitters expressed on urothelium or secreted into urine of human IC patients. (nii.ac.jp)
  • With reference to detached matrix-free controls from standard plastic culture (left column) in vitro generated urothelium of PKH26-labelled HUC seeded in high-density on CCC (right column) showed comparable expression pattern of p63, K-20 (both: ongoing differentiation), E-cadherin and ZO-1 (both: junction formation). (omicsonline.org)
  • Tissue from 31 biopsies of 12 patients with urothelial hyperplasias and simultaneous or consecutive superficial papillary tumors were used to microdissect urothelium from 15- microm sections of biopsies. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Porcine urothelial cells cultured on de-epithelized AM scaffolds enriched with porcine bladder fibroblasts (A) established highly differentiated urothelium, whereas those maintained on AM scaffolds without integrated fibroblast (B) differentiated partially. (emc-proceedings.com)
  • Targeted disruption of the Klf5flox alleles by the ShhGfpCre transgene resulted in failure of the bladder urothelium to mature accompanied by hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and vesicoureteric reflux in all E18.5 fetuses. (omicsdi.org)
  • Although AM stroma scaffold allows establishment of differentiated urothelium, its orientation probably does not favour AM integration into surrounding tissue, if applied in vivo . (emc-proceedings.com)
  • At E18.5, an ectopic alpha smooth muscle actin positive layer of cells was identified subjacent to the undifferentiated Klf5-deficient urothelium. (omicsdi.org)
  • Objective - In this set of experiments, we have assessed the contribution of the urothelium to purinergic activity by quantifying the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from the urothelium of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and comparing these releases to those of controls. (edu.au)
  • Q-PCR analyses revealed significant ( p ≤ 0.01) CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor) dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR, and gp130 mRNA expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • CYP-induced cystitis significantly ( p ≤ 0.01) increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR) in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of these adrenoceptors in surgically separated human urothelium and detrusor muscle were investigated using RT-PCR. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results confirmed the presence of mRNA for ß1, ß2 and ß3-adrenoceptor in both human urothelium and detrusor. (bvsalud.org)
  • Existence of ß3-adrenoceptor mRNA exists in the urothelium in addition to the detrusor muscle suggest multiple site of actions for the ß3-adrenoceptor in the lower urinary tract . (bvsalud.org)
  • The capacity of Wolffian duct epithelial cells to replace damaged urothelium can potentially be leveraged for bladder replacement therapies which are often necessitated in patients with carcinoma or neurogenic bladder. (pnas.org)
  • Alteration of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell signaling contribution through noncell contact coculture or conditioned media did not enhance the production of urothelium. (ca.gov)
  • The trigone is the triangular area of the bladder bound by the ureteral orifices and the internal urethral sphincter, which is normally lined by urothelium, a type of transitional epithelial tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Although the urothelium maintains a tight barrier to ion and solute flux, a number of local factors (e.g. tissue pH, mechanical or chemical trauma, and bacterial infection) can modulate the barrier function of the urothelium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cells from minced tissue migrated, expanded and re-organised to a confluent cell layer on the top of the construct after two weeks and formed a multilayered urothelium after four weeks. (diva-portal.org)
  • To investigate the expression of AQP water channels by human urothelium in situ, in proliferating urothelial cell cultures and in differentiated tissue constructs. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Although AM stroma scaffold allows establishment of differentiated urothelium, its orientation probably does not favour AM integration into surrounding tissue, if applied in vivo . (emc-proceedings.com)
  • Amniotic membrane scaffolds enable the development of tissue-engineered urothelium with molecular and ultrastructural properties comparable to that of native urothelium. (emc-proceedings.com)
  • Twenty-six samples of normal control urothelium obtained from patients without urothelial carcinomas (C), 47 samples of non-cancerous urothelium without noticeable morphological changes obtained from patients with urothelial carcinomas (N), and 46 samples of the corresponding cancerous tissue (T) in the learning cohort and 64 N samples in the validation cohort, i.e. 183 tissue samples in total, were analyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • [ 7 , 8 ] Kvist et al did not find estrogen receptors in 36 historically collected samples of squamous metaplasia of the bladder urothelium, although the authors posited that relatively few existing receptors might have been destroyed in the tissue preparation process. (medscape.com)
  • A layer of tissue and blood vessels surrounding the urothelium. (cancersa.org.au)
  • Although the entire urothelium is at risk of urotoxicity, the bladder, which serves as a reservoir, is most frequently affected, because the contact time between acrolein and the urothelium is greatest at this site. (medscape.com)
  • The Northwestern Memorial Hospital (Chicago, IL) pathology database was searched for random, nonconsecutive patients over the period of April 2014 to April 2015 who had a biopsy- or surgical-resection diagnosis by a genitourinary specialty pathologist (X.Y.) of reactive urothelium, low grade UC (LG UC) and high grade UC (HG UC) and urothelial CIS (WHO, 2004). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protocol can be used to derive urothelium from other hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells. (elsevier.com)
  • High similarities were observed between the rodent urothelium carcinogenesis process and the corresponding process in humans, in regards to the histopathological features and biological alteration profile: DNA aneuploidy, p53 overexpression and high proliferative index measured by Ki-67 immunoexpression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Conclusions - These experiments suggested a significant rise in ATP release from the urothelium of bladders with NDO as well as those with IDO in comparison to controls. (edu.au)
  • Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that AQPs are expressed by human urothelium, suggesting a potential role in transurothelial water and solute transport. (hud.ac.uk)
  • In the urothelium the majority of these T lymphocytes (71%) were also CD8(+) and of these 68% expressed the CD103 marker. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One theory suggests that the multiple tumors are of monoclonal origin, arising from a single malignant transformed cell which proliferates and spreads throughout the urothelium either by intraluminal spread with secondary implantation at different sites within the urinary tract or by intraepithelial migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Research efforts into IC are focused on the urothelium, including newly discovered signaling molecules which suggest that the urothelium is far more than a barrier, as well as how the urothelium interacts with proximal nerves and smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the urinary bladder urothelium has classically been thought of as a passive barrier to ions and solutes, a number of novel properties have been recently attributed to urothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 , 6 , 7 The barrier function of the urothelium is dependent on several features of the umbrella cell layer: these features include tight-junction complexes that reduce the movement of ions and solutes between cells, and specialized lipid molecules and uroplakin proteins in the apical membrane, which reduce the permeability of the cells to small molecules (e.g. water, urea, protons). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 11 For example, when protamine sulfate was used to damage selectively only the umbrella cell layer, it was shown that the urothelium rapidly undergoes both functional and structural changes in order to restore the barrier. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The urothelium is no longer regarded as a passive barrier but rather as a complex "sensory web" transducing signals from inside the viscus (and in response to neuronal and local changes) through the activation of cell-surface receptors [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A1-I3 immunostaining was observed in interstitial spaces throughout the bladder (including submucosa) but not urothelium in intact and saline-treated rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In SP-treated rats, A1-I3 in the bladder increased and A1-I3 was observed traversing through the urothelium. (biomedcentral.com)