The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN III to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.
A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2Y RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2Y receptor subtypes.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (1/920)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (2/920)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

Frequent genetic alterations in simple urothelial hyperplasias of the bladder in patients with papillary urothelial carcinoma. (3/920)

In order to understand the origin of bladder cancer, very early urothelial lesions must be investigated in addition to more advanced tumors. Tissue from 31 biopsies of 12 patients with urothelial hyperplasias and simultaneous or consecutive superficial papillary tumors were used to microdissect urothelium from 15- microm sections of biopsies. The biopsies were obtained with the recently developed highly sensitive diagnostic method of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE). Besides flat and papillary urothelial neoplasms, the method of photodynamic diagnostics also detects simple urothelial hyperplasias as fluorescent positive lesions. In addition, 12 fluorescence-positive biopsies showing histologically normal urothelium were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was done using a dual color staining technique of biotinylated centromeric probes of chromosomes 9 and 17 and digoxigenin-labeled gene-specific P1 probes for chromosomes 9q22 (FACC), 9p21(p16/CDKI2), and 17p13(p53). Ten of 14 hyperplasias (70%) showed deletions of chromosome 9. In 7 out of 8 patients with genetic alterations in the hyperplasias the genetic change was also present in the papillary tumor. Six out of 12 samples of microdissected normal urothelium also showed genetic alterations on chromosome 9. Microdissection of urothelial lesions, obtained during AFE, has led to the first unequivocal documentation of genetic changes in urothelial lesions diagnosed as normal in histopathology. Thus, this technical approach is important to provide insight into the earliest molecular alterations in bladder carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinogenesis is associated with down-regulation of NF1 tumor suppressor gene in vivo and in vitro. (4/920)

The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T24 (representing grades 1 to 3, respectively). Decreased NF1 gene expression was observed in 23 of 29 (83%) TCC specimens as estimated by immunohistochemistry, the decrease being more pronounced in high-grade tumors. NF1 mRNA levels were markedly lower in TCC tissue compared with adjacent non-neoplastic urothelium, as studied by in situ hybridization for grade 3 TCC. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that TCC cell lines expressed NF1 protein at different levels, expression being almost undetectable in T24 (grade 3) cells. Northern blotting for cell lines demonstrated reduced NF1 mRNA levels in grade 3 TCC cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for cell lines and selected grade 2 and grade 3 tissue samples demonstrated NF1 type II mRNA isoform predominance in all samples studied. Our results show that both NF1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in high-grade TCC, suggesting that alterations of NF1 gene expression may be involved in bladder TCC carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Primary uroepithelial cultures. A model system to analyze umbrella cell barrier function. (5/920)

Despite almost 25 years of effort, the development of a highly differentiated and functionally equivalent cell culture model of uroepithelial cells has eluded investigators. We have developed a primary cell culture model of rabbit uroepithelium that consists of an underlying cell layer that interacts with a collagen substratum, an intermediate cell layer, and an upper cell layer of large (25-100 micrometer) superficial cells. When examined at the ultrastructural level, the superficial cells formed junctional complexes and had an asymmetric unit membrane, a hallmark of terminal differentiation in bladder umbrella cells. These cultured "umbrella" cells expressed uroplakins and a 27-kDa uroepithelial specific antigen that assembled into detergent-resistant asymmetric unit membrane particles. The cultures had low diffusive permeabilities for water (2.8 x 10(-4) cm/s) and urea (3.0 x 10(-7) cm/s) and high transepithelial resistance (>8000 Omega cm2) was achieved when 1 mM CaCl2 was included in the culture medium. The cell cultures expressed an amiloride-sensitive sodium transport pathway and increases in apical membrane capacitance were observed when the cultures were osmotically stretched. The described primary rabbit cell culture model mimics many of the characteristics of uroepithelium found in vivo and should serve as a useful tool to explore normal uroepithelial function as well as dysfunction as a result of disease.  (+info)

Proteomics and immunohistochemistry define some of the steps involved in the squamous differentiation of the bladder transitional epithelium: a novel strategy for identifying metaplastic lesions. (6/920)

Here, we present a novel strategy for dissecting some of the steps involved in the squamous differentiation of the bladder urothelium leading to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). First, we used proteomic technologies and databases (http://biobase.dk/cgi-bin/celis) to reveal proteins that were expressed specifically by fresh normal urothelium and three SCCs showing no urothelial components. Thereafter, antibodies against some of the differentially expressed proteins as well as a few known keratinocyte markers were used to stain serial cryostat sections (immunowalking) of biopsies obtained from bladder cystectomies of two of the SCC-bearing patients (884-1 and 864-1). Because bladder cancer is a field disease, we surmised that the urothelium of these patients may exhibit a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from early metaplastic stages to invasive disease. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed three types of non-keratinizing metaplastic lesions (types 1-3) that did not express keratins 7, 8, 18, and 20 (expressed by normal urothelium) and could be distinguished based on their staining with keratin 19 antibodies. Type 1 lesions showed staining of all cell layers in the epithelium (with differences in the staining intensity of the basal compartment), whereas type 2 lesions exhibited mainly basal cell staining. Type 3 lesions did not stain with keratin 19 antibodies. In cystectomy 884-1, type 3 lesions exhibited the same immunophenotype as the SCC and may be regarded as precursors to the tumor. Basal cells in these lesions did not express keratin 13, suggesting that the tumor, which was also keratin 13 negative, may have arisen from the expansion of these cells. Similar results were observed with cystectomy 864-1, which showed carcinoma in situ of the SCC type. SCC 864-1 exhibited both keratin 19-negative and -positive cells, implying that the tumor arose from the expansion of the basal cell compartment of type 2 and 3 lesions. Besides providing with a novel strategy for revealing metaplastic lesions, our studies have shown that it is feasible to apply powerful proteomic technologies to the analysis of complex biological samples under conditions that are as close as possible to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Urothelium-specific expression of an oncogene in transgenic mice induced the formation of carcinoma in situ and invasive transitional cell carcinoma. (7/920)

Although many genetic alterations are known to be associated with human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, relatively little is known about the roles of these molecular defects, singular or in combination, in bladder tumorigenesis. We have developed a transgenic mouse model of bladder tumorigenesis using a 3.6-kb promoter of uroplakin II gene to drive the urotheliums-specific expression of oncogenes. In this study, we demonstrate that transgenic mice bearing a low copy number of SV40T transgene developed bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS), whereas those bearing high copies developed CIS as well as invasive and metastatic TCCs. These results indicate that the SV40T inactivation of p53 and retinoblastoma gene products, defects frequently found in human bladder CIS and invasive TCCs, can cause the aggressive form of TCC. Our results also provide experimental proof that CIS is a precursor of invasive TCCs, thus supporting the concept of two distinct pathways of bladder tumorigenesis (papillary versus CIS/invasive TCC). This transgenic system can be used for the systematic dissection of the roles of individual or combinations of specific molecular events in bladder tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Specific p53 gene mutations in urinary bladder epithelium after the Chernobyl accident. (8/920)

After the Chernobyl accident, the incidence of urinary bladder cancers in the Ukraine population increased gradually from 26.2 to 36.1 per 100,000 between 1986 and 1996. Urinary bladder epithelium biopsied from 45 male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia living in radiocontaminated areas of Ukraine demonstrated frequent severe urothelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and a single invasive transitional cell carcinoma, combined with irradiation cystitis in 42 cases (93%). No neoplastic changes (carcinoma in situ or transitional cell carcinoma) were found in 10 patients from clean areas (areas without radiocontamination). DNA was extracted from the altered urothelium of selected paraffin-embedded specimens that showed obviously abnormal histology (3 cases) or intense p53 immunoreactivity (15 cases), and mutational analysis of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene was performed by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by DNA sequencing. Nine of 17 patients (53%) had one or more mutations in the altered urothelium. Urine sediment samples were also collected from the patients at 4-27 months after biopsy and analyzed by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis or yeast functional assay, and identical or additional p53 mutations were found in four of five cases. Interestingly, a relative hot spot at codon 245 was found in five of nine (56%) cases with mutations, and 11 of the 13 mutations determined (73%) were G:C to A:T transitions at CpG dinucleotides, reported to be relatively infrequent (approximately 18%) in human urinary bladder cancers. Therefore, the frequent and specific p53 mutations found in these male patients may alert us to a future elevated occurrence of urinary bladder cancers in the radiocontaminated areas.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: The development of urothelial malignancy is not solely a consequence of loss of proliferation constraints but also involves loss of cellular differentiation, defined histopathologically as grade. Although tumour grade is an independent prognostic marker for urothelial carcinoma (UC), the molecular events underpinning the loss of urothelial differentiation are poorly understood.. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of gene alterations implicated in UC development on the ability of human urothelial cells to undergo molecular differentiation and form a functional urothelial barrier.. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Laboratory study.. INTERVENTION: Normal human urothelial (NHU) cell cultures were transduced with recombinant retroviruses to produce stable sublines overexpressing wild-type or oncogenic mutated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Previously generated NHU sublines carrying dominant-negative CDK4 and p53 mutant genes or ...
U.S., April 14 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03113266) titled Safety and Efficacy of JS001 for Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma on April 6. Brief Summary: This is a multi-center, open-label, phase 2 study evaluating the humanized anti-PD-1 antibody JS001, as a monotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic bladder urothelial carcinoma who have failed in routine systemic treatment. Study Start Date: Study Type: Interventional Condition: Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Intervention: Biological: humanized anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody humanized anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (JS001) is a programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, which selectively interferes with the combination of PD-1 with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, resulting in the activation of lymphocytes and elimination of malignancy theoretically. Other Name: JS001 Recruitment Status: Recruiting Sponsor: Shanghai Junshi ...
The urinary tract is lined by a mitotically-quiescent, but highly regenerative epithelium, the urothelium. The mechanisms regulating urothelial regeneration are incompletely understood although autocrine stimulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway has been implicated. The hypothesis developed in this thesis is that urothelial homeostasis is regulated through resolution of interactive signal transduction networks downstream of local environmental cues, such as cell:cell contact. Here, canonical Wnt signalling was examined as a candidate key pathway due to the pivotal role of β-catenin in both nuclear transcription and intercellular adherens junctions. Normal human urothelial (NHU) cells isolated from surgical biopsies were grown as finite cell lines in monolayer culture. mRNA analysis from proliferating cultures inferred all components for a functional autocrine-activated canonical Wnt cascade were present. In proliferating cells, β-catenin was nuclear and ...
Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. In a previous study, nicotine enhanced rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis in a two-stage carcinogenesis model. Nicotine also induced cytotoxicity in the bladder urothelium in a short-term study. In the present study, male rats were treated with nicotine (40 ppm) in drinking water co-administered with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin (0, 250 or 750 mg/kg) in diet for 4 weeks. The apocynin treatment induced no clinical toxic effects. Reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by apocynin was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of 8-OHdG in the bladder urothelium. Incidences of simple hyperplasia, cell proliferation and apoptosis were reduced by apocynin treatment in the bladder urothelium. However, despite reduction of cell proliferation (labeling index), apocynin did not affect the incidence of simple hyperplasia, apoptosis, or ROS generation in the kidney pelvis urothelium, in addition to 8-OHdG ...
Prior studies well established that urothelial carcinoma harbors remarkable propensity for divergent differentiation [12-14]. Squamous differentiation has been suggested to be the most common histological variation in bladder urothelial carcinoma and it may present basaloid or clear cell features [15]. However, mechanisms of squamous differentiation in urothelial carcinoma is not very clear. In 1925, Wolbach and Howe found that long time vitamin A deficiency treatment could lead to bladder squamous differentiation in rats [16]. More recently, several findings together with previous studies on the development of squamous differentiation under condition of retinoid deficiency, strongly recommend that retinoid signaling pathways and related networks are significant in the development of squamous lesions in the urinary bladder [17-20]. Maraver et al. showed that downregulation of NOTCH signaling contributed to occurrence of aggression in squamous lesions [21, 22]. Some transcriptional regulators ...
Exposure of urothelium to ketamine resulted in apoptosis, with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and significant subsequent caspase 9 and 3/7 activation. The anaesthetic mode‐of‐action for ketamine is mediated primarily through N‐methyl Daspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism; however, NHU cells were unresponsive to NMDAR agonists or antagonists and no expression of NMDAR transcript was detected. Exposure to non‐cytotoxic concentrations of ketamine (≤1 mM) induced rapid release of ATP, which activated purinergic P2Y receptors and stimulated the inositol trisphosphate receptor to provoke transient release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. Ketamine concentrations ,1 mM were cytotoxic and provoked a largeramplitude increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] that was unresolved. The sustained elevation in cytosolic [Ca2+] was associated with pathological mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP deficiency ...
In urologic pathology, PUNLMP, short for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple-shaped (or papillary) pre-malignant growth of the lining of the upper genitourinary tract (the urothelium), which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra. PUNLMP is pronounced pun-lump, like the words pun and lump. As their name suggests, PUNLMPs are neoplasms, i.e. clonal cellular proliferations, that are thought to have a low probability of developing into urothelial cancer, i.e. a malignancy such as bladder cancer. PUNLMPs can lead to blood in the urine (hematuria) or may be asymptomatic. PUNLMPs are exophytic lesions that appear friable to the naked eye and when imaged during cystoscopy. They are definitively diagnosed after removal by microscopic examination by pathologists. Histologically, they have a papillary architecture with slender fibrovascular cores and rare basal mitoses. The papillae ...
In order to understand the origin of bladder cancer, very early urothelial lesions must be investigated in addition to more advanced tumors. Tissue from 31 biopsies of 12 patients with urothelial hyperplasias and simultaneous or consecutive superficial papillary tumors were used to microdissect urothelium from 15- microm sections of biopsies. The biopsies were obtained with the recently developed highly sensitive diagnostic method of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE). Besides flat and papillary urothelial neoplasms, the method of photodynamic diagnostics also detects simple urothelial hyperplasias as fluorescent positive lesions. In addition, 12 fluorescence-positive biopsies showing histologically normal urothelium were investigated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was done using a dual color staining technique of biotinylated centromeric probes of chromosomes 9 and 17 and digoxigenin-labeled gene-specific P1 probes for chromosomes 9q22 (FACC), 9p21(p16/CDKI2), and ...
Clinical samples and study approval. A total of 266 pairs of tumor tissues and NATs from patients with BCa who underwent surgery was obtained at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital (Cohort 1). Urine and blood samples were obtained from another 206 patients with BCa and 120 healthy participants (Cohort 2). In both cohorts, patients were eligible if they had pathologically confirmed BCa. The clinical features of the patients are summarized in Supplemental Table 1 and Supplemental Table 7. All experiments were conducted with the approval of the Committees for Ethical Review of Research involving Human Subjects at Sun Yat-sen University. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to sample collection.. Cell lines and cell culture. The human BCa cell lines UM-UC-3 (CRL-1749), 5637 (HTB-9), and T24 (HTB-4), and the immortalized normal human urothelial cell line SV-HUC-1 (CRL-9520) were purchased from American Type Culture Collection. UM-UC-3 and T24 cells were cultured in DMEM (Gibco) ...
Vinflunine is recommended in the European guideline for the treatment of advanced or metastatic urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) after failure of platinum-based therapy. This prospective, non-interventional study investigated the safety and efficacy of vinflunine in platinum-pretreated UCC patients in routine clinical practice. Data were prospectively collected on patients with advanced or metastatic UCC undergoing vinflunine treatment in 39 German hospitals and medical practices. Dosing of vinflunine, tumor assessments and concomitant medications followed physicians routine clinical practice. Primary endpoints were toxicity and assessment of vinflunine treatment modalities. Secondary aims included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS) time and a prognostic risk-model. Seventy-seven platinum-pretreated patients were recruited. Vinflunine was predominantly administered as second-line (66 %) therapy or in subsequent treatment lines (21 %). One third of the patients received at least six
The primary aim of this work was to survey normal urothelium and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) for the presence of T lymphocytes expressing the intraepithelial, CD103(+) phenotype. This antigen defines the alpha(E)beta(7)-integrin. The adhesive counter-receptor for alpha(E)beta(7) is E-cadherin, which is down-regulated during cancer progression. The secondary aim was to determine the pattern of distribution of CD103(+) lymphocytes in relation to E-cadherin expression in bladder cancer. Cryostat sections of normal bladder and TCC were treated with antibodies specific for human CD103, CD3, CD8 and E-cadherin. Visualization was performed by immunoperoxidase or alkaline phosphatase development with light and confocal microscopy. Dual staining and serial sections were used to assess the relationship between these antigens. Four samples of normal bladder and 26 TCC samples were assessed. Occasional T lymphocytes (CD3(+)) were seen in normal urothelium and lamina propria. In the urothelium the majority of
Professor Jenny Southgate is Director of the Jack Birch Unit for Molecular Carcinogenesis (JBU) and holds a Research Chair funded externally by York Against Cancer. The research of the JBU focuses on human epithelial tissues and their cancers. Our aims are to understand the processes that control proliferation, differentiation and cellular organisation in normal and wounded epithelial tissues and how dysregulation of these processes leads to the development and progression of malignant disease.. Most of the work in the Unit focuses on urothelium, the specialised epithelium that lines the urinary tract and gives rise to bladder cancer. A range of cell and tissue culture systems have been developed to study urothelial cells from normal and diseased tissues, and methods have been established using retroviruses to enable gene manipulation in order to recapitulate the early stages of neoplastic development. The capacity for in vitro-propagated normal human urothelial cells to undergo differentiation ...
Kruppel-like transcription factor 5 (Klf5) is expressed during late embryogenesis in the forming murine bladder urothelium. Targeted disruption of the Klf5flox alleles by the ShhGfpCre transgene resulted in failure of the bladder urothelium to mature accompanied by hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and vesicoureteric reflux in all E18.5 fetuses. The bladder urothelium did not stratify nor did it express terminal differentiation markers characteristic of basal, intermediate, and umbrella cells including keratins 20, 14, and 5, and uroplakins. At E18.5, an ectopic alpha smooth muscle actin positive layer of cells was identified subjacent to the undifferentiated Klf5-deficient urothelium. The effects of Klf5 deficiency were unique to the urothelium since maturation of the epithelium comprising the bladder neck and urethra were unaffected by the lack of KLF5. mRNA microarray analysis of whole E14.5 control and Klf5 deficient bladders identified Ppar and Grhl3 as putative downstream intermediary transcription
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of the urothelium/lamina propria on female porcine urethral contractility & effect of age. AU - Folasire, Oladayo S.. AU - Chess-Williams, Russ. AU - Sellers, Donna J.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - The urethral uroepithelium has been implicated in urethral sensation and maintenance of continence. However, relatively little is known about the function of the urethral urothelium compared with that of the bladder. The aim of the study was to examine the role of the urothelium/lamina propria on contractility of the porcine urethra, along with the influence of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and ageing. Porcine urethral tissues, intact and denuded of urothelium/lamina propria, were mounted in tissue baths and contractions to noradrenaline, phenylephrine and carbachol obtained. Contractions in the presence of Nώ-nitro-l-arginine (100 μmol/L) and indomethacin (10 μmol/L) were examined, along with contractions of tissues from young (6 months) and older (3 years) ...
Sinonimele și antonimele renal pelvis în dicționarul de papillary urothelial survival rate Engleză Home Urca cu prostata Prostata reprezinta acea structura complexa alcatuita din niste saculeti minusculi in care se pot acumula cu lejeritate bacterii, care papillary urothelial survival rate urca cu usurinta, in papillary urothelial survival rate raporturilor sexuale executate, in urma neglijentei acordate igienei, etc.
PHILADELPHIA and REHOVOT, Israel, Feb. 7, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Rosetta Genomics Ltd. , a leading developer and provider of microRNA-based molecular diagnostics, today announced that data from a study demonstrating the ability of microRNA expression to serve as a biomarker to predict the progression of bladder urothelial carcinoma were published online in the British Journal of Urology International, in an article entitled, Predicting progression of bladder urothelial carcinoma using microRNA
TY - JOUR. T1 - 5-HT2A receptor enhancement of contractile activity of the porcine urothelium and lamina propria. AU - Moro, Christian. AU - Edwards, Lily. AU - Chess-Williams, Russ. N1 - © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.. PY - 2016/11. Y1 - 2016/11. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) on the contractile properties of the urothelium and lamina propria, as a better understanding of bladder physiology might aid the development of new treatments.METHODS: Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution, and cumulative concentration-response curves for 5-HT were generated in the absence and presence of 5-HT antagonists, Nω-nitro-l-arginine and indomethacin. Responses to α-methyl-5-HT were also examined.RESULTS: Strips of urothelium/lamina propria developed spontaneous contractions, whereas the addition of 5-HT induced concentration-dependent increases in contractile tone with maximal ...
In this study, we used hUCs taken from the ureter during routine surgery. These cells are fairly similar to cells in the proximal part of the urethra, as the whole urinary tract except the distal part of urethra is covered by the urothelium and therefore these cells can be used in future urethral reconstruction applications [15]. Urothelial cells have also been widely studied in vitro for urothelial tissue engineering purposes; further, Fossum et al. [16] used bladder urothelial cells for clinical urethra reconstruction. Moreover, urethral stratified squamous epithelial cells could not be used for this since it would have been unethical to take tissue from the urethra because the urethra is susceptible to scarring [17].. The identity of hUCs was confirmed using FACS analysis. The markers CD44, CD73, CD105, CD133 and Keratin 8/18 were selected for this study as they have been previously used to characterize hUCs. Our characterization results were consistent with previous results for urothelial ...
Subjective assessment of flat urothelial lesions has often resulted in an under- or overdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in situ. To identify reproducible morphologic objective criteria, the authors used an image analysis system to measure several nuclear features (area, diameter, roundness, ellipticity, and optical density) in 20 cases each of CIS, urothelial dysplasia, and normal urothelium with adjacent lymphocyte controls. They did not analyze reactive urothelial lesions and umbrella cells. The most useful, statistically significant morphologic parameter was mean nuclear area of the largest 25 percent of nuclei. The mean upper quartile nuclear area relative to lymphocytes was 2.2 times (range, 1.4 to 2.8 times) in normal urothelium, 2.9 times (range, 1.8 to 3.6 times) in urothelial dysplasia, and 4.9 times (range, 4.0 to 7.6 times) in CIS. The nuclear size measurements for urothelial dysplasia and normal urothelium overlapped, but the separation between CIS and urothelial dysplasia was ...
Background: Urothelial pathogenesis is a complex process driven by an underlying network of interconnected genes. The identification of novel genomic target regions and gene targets that drive urothelial carcinogenesis is crucial in order to improve our current limited understanding of urothelial cancer (UC) on the molecular level. The inference of genome-wide gene regulatory networks (GRN) from large-scale gene expression data provides a promising approach for a detailed investigation of the underlying network structure associated to urothelial carcinogenesis. Methods: In our study we inferred and compared three GRNs by the application of the BC3Net inference algorithm to large-scale transitional cell carcinoma gene expression data sets from Illumina RNAseq (179 samples), Illumina Bead arrays (165 samples) and Affymetrix Oligo microarrays (188 samples). We investigated the structural and functional properties of GRNs for the identification of molecular targets associated to urothelial cancer. ...
Introduction: Human amniotic membrane (AM) is the innermost layer of placenta and is composed of three distinct strata, namely single epithelial layer, a thick basement membrane and avascular stroma. AM has been widely adopted as a biomaterial in tissue engineering and surgical reconstructions, since it promotes wound healing and epithelialization, has low immunogenicity, reduces inflammation and scarring, and was also shown to possess anti-cancer properties (1). We have shown that AM promotes formation of highly differentiated urothelium, in particular when urothelial cells are cultured on AM stromal side (2). Although AM stroma scaffold allows establishment of differentiated urothelium, its orientation probably does not favour AM integration into surrounding tissue, if applied in vivo. Therefore, we established an in vitro AM model which would allow incorporation of fibroblasts into the AM stroma as well as promote urothelial differentiation.. Materials and Methods: Porcine bladder fibroblasts ...
Persistence Market Research(PMR), in its recent market report, suggests that the Urothelial Carcinoma Diagnostics Market report is set to exceed US$ xx Mn/Bn. The report finds that the Urothelial Carcinoma Diagnostics Market registered ~US$ xx Mn/Bn in 2018 and is spectated to grow at a healthy CAGR over the foreseeable period 2017 - 2025.. The Urothelial Carcinoma Diagnostics Market research focuses on the market structure and various factors (positive and negative) affecting the growth of the market. The study encloses a precise evaluation of the Urothelial Carcinoma Diagnostics Market, including growth rate, current scenario, and volume inflation prospects, on the basis of DROT and Porters Five Forces analyses. In addition, the Urothelial Carcinoma Diagnostics Market study provides reliable and authentic projections regarding the technical jargon.. This Press Release will help you to understand the Volume, growth with Impacting Trends. Click To get SAMPLE PDF (Including Full TOC, Table & ...
2-Methoxyestradiol Induces Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, and Synergistic Cytotoxicity with Arsenic Trioxide in Human Urothelial Carcinoma Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Hsiu-Hua Wang, Meei-Maan Wu, Michael W Y Chan, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Chien-Jen Chen, Te-Chang Lee].
(2014) Telli et al. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. Bladder urothelial carcinoma is rare in young adults and occurs more commonly in older individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical behavior, pathologic characteristics, and prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of urinary b...
Thomas Powles, MD, of Barts Cancer Institute, discusses phase III study findings on atezolizumab vs chemotherapy in platinum-treated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, with an emphasis on immune biomarkers, tumor mutational burden, and clinical outcomes (Abstract 409).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - S100P as a Marker for Urothelial Histogenesis. T2 - A Critical Review and Comparison with Novel and Traditional Urothelial Immunohistochemical Markers. AU - Suryavanshi, Moushumi. AU - Sanz-Ortega, Julian. AU - Sirohi, Deepika. AU - Divatia, Mukul K.. AU - Ohe, Chisato. AU - Zampini, Claudia. AU - Luthringer, Daniel. AU - Smith, Steven C.. AU - Amin, Mahul. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - S100P, or placental S100, is a member of a large family of S100 proteins and considered to be a promising immunohistochemical marker to support urothelial differentiation. This review synthesizes published data regarding the expression of S100P in urothelial carcinoma across histological grade and variant patterns, and in other malignancies, in an effort to summarize the state of understanding of this marker and evaluate its potential. We provide also a broad comparison of S100P with other contemporary and traditional urothelial markers and outline the potential utility of S100P in various ...
Urothelial carcinoma Market is also called as transitional cell carcinoma which is a cancerous tumor of the bladder that can spread to other parts of the
Here, we combined a novel mathematical approach (MiPP probabilities) with comprehensive gene expression profiles of 40 urothelial cell lines to discover high-performance molecular prediction models for single and combination chemotherapeutic sensitivity. The high-performance characteristics of the predictive models obtained in this study may be due to several factors. First, we used a panel of cancer cell lines derived from only one histologic type: urothelial cancer. In contrast to the NCI-60 cancer cell panel, which is comprised of cell lines from multiple anatomic origins, a single anatomic origin should eliminate confounding and biased gene expression signals that represent tissue-dependent sensitivity to different chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the majority of the cell lines used in this study (14) are derived from invasive or metastatic human urothelial tumors that represent the typical patient population that would receive systemic chemotherapy. Hence, we anticipate that these ...
Among the AUA annual meeting take-home messages in basic science is that the immune co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4 is highly expressed in the luminal subtype of bladder urothelial carcinoma and is associated with poor survival.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential Regulation of Growth-Promoting Signalling Pathways by E-Cadherin. AU - Georgopoulos, Nikolaos T.. AU - Kirkwood, Lisa A.. AU - Walker, Dawn C.. AU - Southgate, Jennifer. PY - 2010/10/26. Y1 - 2010/10/26. N2 - Background: Despite the well-documented association between loss of E-cadherin and carcinogenesis, as well as the link between restoration of its expression and suppression of proliferation in carcinoma cells, the ability of E-cadherin to modulate growth-promoting cell signalling in normal epithelial cells is less well understood and frequently contradictory. The potential for E-cadherin to co-ordinate different proliferation-associated signalling pathways has yet to be fully explored.Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a normal human urothelial (NHU) cell culture system and following a calcium-switch approach, we demonstrate that the stability of NHU cell-cell contacts differentially regulates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular ...
Molecular stratification of bladder cancer has revealed gene signatures differentially expressed across tumor subtypes. While these signatures provide important insights into subtype biology, the transcriptional regulation that governs these signatures is not well characterized. In this study, we use publically available ChIP-Seq data on regulatory factor binding in order to link transcription factors to gene signatures defining molecular subtypes of urothelial carcinoma. We identify PPARG and STAT3, as well as ADIRF, a novel regulator of fatty acid metabolism, as putative mediators of the SCC-like phenotype. We link the PLK1-FOXM1 axis to the rapidly proliferating Genomically Unstable and SCC-like subtypes and show that differentiation programs involving PPARG/RXRA, FOXA1/GATA3 and HOXA/HOXB are differentially expressed in UC molecular subtypes. We show that gene signatures and regulatory systems defined in urothelial carcinoma operate in breast cancer in a subtype specific manner, suggesting
This is a Phase 3 multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of giving an oral targeted FGFR1-3 inhibitor, infigratinib, as adjuvant treatment following surgery in adult subjects with invasive urothelial carcinoma and susceptible FGFR3 genetic alterations (mutations, and gene fusions or translocations [ie, rearrangements) who have disease that is considered at high risk for recurrence with surgery alone. The study enrolls subjects with either bladder cancer post radical cystectomy or upper tract urothelial cancer post distal ureterectomy and/or nephrectomy. Study treatment is randomized between infigratinib or placebo with treatment until invasive local or distal disease recurrence. ...
Urothelial carcinomas are frequently multicentric, occurring at multiple separate sites within the urinary tract (4, 5). Urothelial tumor multifocality is often present before the onset of clinical symptoms (3), and patients with multiple, separate tumors are at higher risk for recurrence, progression, and cancer-related death (4, 5, 44). Although numerous studies have been done to address the clonal nature of multifocal urothelial carcinoma, no consensus currently exists on whether these lesions are monoclonal in origin or whether they arise independently. Two explanations have been proposed to explain tumor multifocality within the urothelium: the monoclonal theory and the field-effect theory. Whereas the two theories are not mutually exclusive, it is unknown which mechanism is more important in leading to urothelial tumor multifocality. Detailed characterization and comparison of genetic alterations in the cells of separate tumors may provide information about the clonal evolution of ...
FGF-10 is involved in the initial budding as well as the continuous outgrowth of vertebrate limbs, FGF10 mRNA is expressed preferentially in neurons but not in glial cells and may have a distinct role in the brain. human FGF-10 is mitogenic for fetal rat keratinizing epidermal cells but not for NIH 3T3 cells.Recombinant FGF10 induces the proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and induces the proliferation of transitional epithelium. FGF-10 is secreted by cultured mouse pre-adipocytes, prevention of FGF-10 signaling inhibits subsequent differentiation. The ability of embryonic fibroblasts derived from FGF-10 knock-out mice to differentiate into adipocytes is also impaired.
Comparing the relative utility of diagnostic tests is challenging when available datasets are small, partial or incomplete. The analytical leverage associated with a large sample size can be gained by integrating several small datasets to enable effective and accurate across-dataset comparisons. Accordingly, we propose a methodology for a holistic comparative analysis and ranking of cancer diagnostic tests through dataset integration and imputation of missing values, using urothelial carcinoma (UC) as a case study. Five datasets comprising samples from 939 subjects, including 89 with UC, where up to four diagnostic tests (cytology, NMP22®, UroVysion® Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Cxbladder Detect) were integrated into a single dataset containing all measured records and missing values. The tests were firstly ranked using three criteria: sensitivity, specificity and a standard variable (feature) ranking method popularly known as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) index derived from the mean
First: Your question is too long to answer here. Dintre toate procedurile, intervenţiile abdominale au cel mai mare impact, fie că este vorba despre laparotomie sau laparoscopie. Prostata este o glandă anexă a aparatului genital masculin, situată în jurul porţiunii iniţiale a uretrei.
Unfortuntely, as in every other body site, cytologic samples from the urinary tract are not always readily placed into distinct categories. An atypical
3148 Aim: Inverted papilloma of the urinary tract (IP) is thought to be benign, but some urothelial carcinomas show a prominent inverted growth pattern (invUC) which may pose a diagnostic dilemma to the pathologist and clinician. Ancillary markers may help to resolve diagnostically challenging cases and may contribute to the ongoing discussion of a possible malignant potential of some IP. We previously detected a frequent inverted growth pattern in urothelial carcinomas of the ureter and renal pelvis with microsatellite instability and loss of mismatch repair protein expression, raising the possibility that inverted growth of urothelial tumors in general could be associated with a mutator phenotype. The aim of the present study was to characterize the most frequent molecular alterations detected in urothelial carcinomas in a well defined cohort of inverted tumors of the urinary bladder. Methods: Seventy-two cases diagnosed as IP were reviewed by 5 uropathologists. Final diagnosis was IP in 63 ...
Although ras is a potent mitogenic oncogene, its tumorigenicity depends on cellular context and cooperative events. Here we show that low-level expression of a constitutively active Ha-ras in mouse urothelium induces simple urothelial hyperplasia that is resistant to progression to full-fledged bladder tumors even in the absence of Ink4a/Arf. In stark contrast, doubling of the gene dosage of the activated Ha-ras triggered early-onset, rapidly growing, and 100% penetrant tumors throughout the urinary tract. Tumor initiation required superseding a rate-limiting step between simple and nodular hyperplasia, the latter of which is marked by the emergence of mesenchymal components and the coactivation of AKT and STAT pathways as well as PTEN inactivation. These results indicate that overactivation of Ha-ras is both necessary and sufficient to induce bladder tumors along a low-grade, noninvasive papillary pathway, and they shed light on the recent findings that ras activation, via point mutation, ...
Research Hypothesis: Treatment with nivolumab will extend disease-free survival, compared with placebo, as adjuvant therapy in all randomized patients and in patients with PD-Ll expressing tumors (membranous staining in (great or equal to 1%) with high risk residual disease at radical resection of invasive urothelial carcinoma (IUC). Co-Primary Objectives: To compare the disease free survival (DFS) for nivolumab versus placebo in: Subjects with tumors expressing PD-LI (great or equal to 1% membranous staining in tumor cells) and; All randomized subjects. Secondary Objectives: To compare non-urothelial tract recurrence free survival (NUTRFS) for nivolumab versus placebo in subjects with tumors expressing PD-LI (great or equal to 1% membranous staining in tumor cells) and all randomized subjects. To compare the disease specific survival (DSS) for nivolumab and placebo in subjects with tumors expressing PD-LI (great or equal to 1% membranous staining in tumor cells) and all randomized subjects. To ...
OBJECTIVE: To identify the most useful method to detect the mitotic count (MC) by comparing different techniques, to determine a cutoff value for mitotic activity (MA), and to evaluate the correlation of this value with the recurrence of noninvasive low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasm (LGPUC). STUDY DESIGN: Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides of 55 LGPUC cases were evaluated for their MA. MC was determined using 4 different methods. In Method 1, cases with 3 mitoses in 1 single focus of a high-power field (HPF x 400) were found, and in Method 2, cases with ≥ 5 mitoses in 1 singlefocus of an HPF, in any level of the neoplastic epithelium, were determined ...
Inclusion Criteria: - Provide written, informed consent to participate in the study and follow the study procedures - Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of ≤ 2 - Measurable disease per RECIST 1.1 criteria - Tumor must be PD-L1 low defined by a Combined Positive Score (CPS) of , 10 utilizing the Dako PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 22C3 pharmDx assay - Histologically or cytologically documented inoperable, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cell carcinoma (also termed TCC) - Fresh biopsy or archival tissue - No prior systemic chemotherapy or investigational agent for inoperable locally advanced or mUC - Ineligible for cisplatin Exclusion Criteria: - Patients who have an active, known or suspected autoimmune disease - Patients must not have received prior IL-2 therapy - Prior treatment with an anti PD-1, anti PD-L1, or anti cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 (anti CTLA-4) antibody, agents that target IL-2, or any other antibody or drug specifically ...
Bladder cancer ranks the ninth in worldwide cancer incidence. Approximate 90% of bladder cancer is the malignancy of urothelium tissues, the urothelial
Microscopic description: Urothelial carcinoma may show features of low grade or high grade carcinoma (1). This particular FNA from an axillary lymph node shows a monomorphic population of relatively bland appearing epithelioid cells. If not for the scattered mitotic figures and location, it may be difficult at first glance to recognize this specimen as a malignant process. Urothelial carcinomas may appear cohesive, as in this example, or loose to discohesive. High grade urothelial carcinomas are usually more pleomorphic and discohesive. Cercariform cells and eosinophilic bodies (Melamed-Wolinska bodies) may be seen (2). Necrosis is a common occurrence in high grade lesions. Further complicating diagnosis is the occasional presence of squamous differentiation, glandular differentiation, or spindle cells usually seen in high grade lesions. Differential Diagnosis: Clinical history is important to keeping urothelial carcinoma in your differential, particularly in low grade appearing lesions. ...
KOZAKAI Tomonori , NISHIZAWA Kazuyo , ISHIDA Akiko , IIZUKA Keiji , OTA Hiroyoshi The Journal of the Japanese Society of Clinical Cytology 52(1), 17-22, 2013-01-22 J-STAGE Ichushi Web References (15) ...
What is papillary urothelial carcinoma? What are the signs of papillary urothelial carcinoma, what are the causes, and what are the risk factors?
The main objective of this presentation is to show and evaluate common and uncommon recurrence patterns of urothelial carcinoma (UC) in the urinary tract and elsewhere in the body.. ...
Clinical trial for Ulcerative Colitis | UC | Ulcerative Colitis (Pediatric) , A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Pemigatinib (INCB054828) in Subjects With Urothelial Carcinoma - (FIGHT-201)
Daniel P. Petrylak, MD, professor of Medicine and Urology, Yale Cancer Center, discusses combinations with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for patients with urothelial carcinoma.
See also: Urothelium. Under microscopy, the urinary system is covered in a unique lining called urothelium, a type of ... Urothelium covers most of the urinary system, including the renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder. ...
... www.urothelium.com is an online resource for information about Human Urothelium and the "Biomimetic Urothelium" Urothelium at ... Urothelium is susceptible to carcinoma. Because the bladder is in contact with urine for extended periods, chemicals that ... Transitional epithelium lines the organs of the urinary system and is known here as urothelium. The bladder for example has a ... For example, current research paves the way for use of pluripotent stem cells to derive urothelium, as they are highly and ...
Umbrella cells form the outermost layer of the urothelium, which is a special type of epithelium found in the renal pelvis, the ... These increase the strength of the urothelium. Born, Martin; Pahner, Ingrid; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Jöns, Thomas (July 2003). " ...
"Entrez Gene: UPK2 uroplakin 2". Lin JH, Wu XR, Kreibich G, Sun TT (1994). "Precursor sequence, processing, and urothelium- ... "Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium". Am J Pathol. 153 (6): 1957-67. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10) ...
1998). "Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium". Am. J. Pathol. 153 (6): 1957-67. doi:10.1016/ ... "Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium". Am. J. Pathol. 153 (6): 1957-67. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440( ...
UPK3B is a minor component of the apical plaques of mammalian urothelium that binds and dimerizes with uroplakin-1b (UPK1B; MIM ... 602380), one of the major conserved urothelium membrane proteins. The other major conserved integral membrane proteins of ...
... urethral sphincter urothelium and lamina propria bronchioles (although minor relative to the relaxing effect of β2 receptor on ... "Adrenoceptor function and expression in bladder urothelium and lamina propria". Urology. 81 (1): 211.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Moro C, Tajouri L, Chess-Williams R (January 2013). "Adrenoceptor function and expression in bladder urothelium and lamina ...
It is usually due to cancer of the urothelium, the cells that line the surface of the bladder. Bladder cancer is more common ... The inner wall of the bladder is called urothelium, a type of transitional epithelium formed by three to six layers of cells; ... Stromberga, Z; Chess-Williams, R; Moro, C (7 March 2019). "Histamine modulation of urinary bladder urothelium, lamina propria ... Moro, Christian; Tajouri, Lotti; Chess-Williams, Russ (2013). "Adrenoceptor Function and Expression in Bladder Urothelium and ...
Moro C, Tajouri L, Chess-Williams R (January 2013). "Adrenoceptor function and expression in bladder urothelium and lamina ... Secretion from sweat glands Contraction of the urinary bladder urothelium and lamina propria Na+ reabsorption from kidney ...
"Adrenoceptor function and expression in bladder urothelium and lamina propria". Urology. 81 (1): 211.e1-7. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... saprophyticus has the capacity to selectively adhere to human urothelium. The adhesin for S. saprophyticus is a lactosamine ...
ISBN 978-3-642-16498-9. Urothelium at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... 3 and in specimens of normal human urothelium and urothelial cancer". Cancer Cell Int. 12 (16): 16. doi:10.1186/1475-2867-12-16 ...
"2Areceptor enhancement of contractile activity of the porcine urothelium and lamina propria". International Journal of Urology ...
Blohmé I, Johansson S (November 1981). "Renal pelvic neoplasms and atypical urothelium in patients with end-stage analgesic ...
... lessons from urothelium and skin". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 127 (7): 1572-3. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700772. PMID ...
... and cisplatin for advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Efficacy and patterns of response and relapse". ...
Chow NH, Liu HS, Yang HB, Chan SH, Su IJ (Jun 1997). "Expression patterns of erbB receptor family in normal urothelium and ...
It can also contract for a long time whilst voiding, and it stays relaxed whilst the bladder is filling.[12] The urothelium and ... the urothelium (a form of transitional epithelium), a basement membrane, and the lamina propria.[7][8] The mucosal lining also ... "Adrenoceptor Function and Expression in Bladder Urothelium and Lamina Propria". Urology. 81 (1): 211.e1-211.e7. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Preliminary studies in bladder carcinoma, carcinoma of the urothelium and lymphomas are also promising. Another interesting ...
Moro, C; Leeds, C; Chess-Williams, R (January 2012). "Contractile activity of the bladder urothelium/lamina propria and its ...
The study should sufficiently evaluate the kidney and the urothelium lining the upper urinary tracts. If there are ...
They are also located on the detrusor muscle and urothelium of the bladder, causing contraction. The M4 muscarinic receptors: ...
2005). "Five-alpha-reductase expression in benign and malignant urothelium: correlation with disease characteristics and ...
Aristolochic acid activates peroxidase in the urothelium and causes transversion mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. ...
Regardless of the origin, most people with IC/BPS struggle with a damaged urothelium, or bladder lining. When the surface ...
Stromberga Z, Chess-Williams R, Moro C (March 2019). "Histamine modulation of urinary bladder urothelium, lamina propria and ...
"Prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha Modulate Urinary Bladder Urothelium, Lamina Propria and Detrusor Contractility via the FP Receptor ...
... often occurs as a result of irritation and/or inflammation of the bladder wall (urothelium). In interstitial ...
Colistin interactions with the mammalian urothelium.. Lewis JR1, Lewis SA.. Author information. 1. Department of Physiology and ... Addition of colistin to the mucosal solution of the rabbit urinary bladder epithelium (urothelium) resulted in an increase in ... This finding suggests that at long exposure times, there is a toxic effect of colistin on the urothelium. ...
Kidney, Urothelium - Hyperplasia in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. A focus of urothelial hyperplasia is present in the ... Kidney, Urothelium - Hyperplasia in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Urothelial hyperplasia in the renal pelvis is ... or secondary to an injury to the urothelium. Hyperplastic foci can be focal, multifocal, or diffuse. ...
In vivo replacement of damaged bladder urothelium by Wolffian duct epithelial cells. Diya B. Joseph, Anoop S. Chandrashekar, ... The capacity of Wolffian duct epithelial cells to replace damaged urothelium can potentially be leveraged for bladder ... In vivo replacement of damaged bladder urothelium by Wolffian duct epithelial cells ... In vivo replacement of damaged bladder urothelium by Wolffian duct epithelial cells ...
Urinary Bladder, Urothelium - Hyperplasia - Gallery. Urothelial hyperplasia (simple) from a male F344/N rat in a chronic study ...
... to high response rates but suboptimum overall survival for patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium ... Second-line systemic therapy and emerging drugs for metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium Lancet Oncol. 2010 ... to high response rates but suboptimum overall survival for patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium ...
... 2014-08-27 ... "Combination Chemotherapy Plus Filgrastim in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Advanced Urothelium Cancer". *Related ... Combination Chemotherapy Plus Filgrastim in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Advanced Urothelium Cancer ...
... progressive regional or metastatic cancer of the urothelium. Sorafeni ... mixed histologies containing a component of TCC) of the urothelium who have progressed on. one and only one prior systemic ... a component of transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (renal pelvis, ureter,. bladder, urethra) with manifestations of ...
The goal of this work was to develop an efficient in vitro protocol for the induction of hESCs into urothelium through an ... Additional hESC and hiPS cell lines could also be induced into urothelium using this in vitro system. These results demonstrate ... In vitro generation of human urothelium from stem cells would be a major advancement in the regenerative medicine field, ... Thus far, in vitro derivation of urothelium from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) ...
SENSORY ROLES OF THE UROTHELIUM. Transducer role of the urothelium. While the urothelium has been historically viewed primarily ... The urothelium is the epithelial lining of the urinary tract between the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder. Urothelium is ... within the urothelium indicate that NO has a role in the micturition reflex pathway.28,74 The release of NO from the urothelium ... RESPONSE OF THE UROTHELIUM TO INJURY. Basal cells, which are thought to be precursors for other cell types, normally exhibit a ...
urothelium or local/regional recurrence after cystoprostatectomy.. - Determine response in patients who receive GTP as the ... Histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium. (bladder, renal pelvis, or ureter) or TCC with ... Regional or distant metastases of TCC of the urothelium OR local/regional recurrence. after cystectomy, cystoprostatectomy, ... in Treatment of Advanced Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum ...
Finally, at 24 and 48 weks post-augmentation all three layers of the normal rat bladder (urothelium, smooth muscle and serosa) ...
Aquaporin water channels in the bladder urothelium as novel targets for treatment of lower urinary tract pathophysiology at ... Aquaporin water channels in the bladder urothelium as novel targets for treatment of lower urinary tract pathophysiology ... Expression and localisation of aquaporin water channels in human urothelium in situ and in vitro. Eur Urol. 2009 Dec;56(6):1013 ... Recent studies suggested that the bladder urothelium, which was believed to be a poorly permeable urine-blood-barrier, is ...
Dasatinib Is Preclinically Active against Src-Overexpressing Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium with Activated ... Dasatinib Is Preclinically Active against Src-Overexpressing Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium with Activated ... Dasatinib Is Preclinically Active against Src-Overexpressing Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium with Activated ... Dasatinib Is Preclinically Active against Src-Overexpressing Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium with Activated ...
Constructs of electrospun PLGA, compressed collagen and minced urothelium for minimally manipulated autologous bladder tissue ... and re-organised to a confluent cell layer on the top of the construct after two weeks and formed a multilayered urothelium ...
... this rise was even more significant for the IDO urothelium (2416.7 ± 479.8 pmol/g [p , 0.005]) than for the NDO urothelium ( ... The carefully dissected urothelium was stimulated by mechanically stretching as well as electrically stimulating and the ATP; ... Conclusions - These experiments suggested a significant rise in ATP release from the urothelium of bladders with NDO as well as ... Objective - In this set of experiments, we have assessed the contribution of the urothelium to purinergic activity by ...
To achieve this purpose, weve focused on the transmitters expressed on urothelium or secreted into urine of human IC patients ... Journal Article] CXCR3 binding chemokine and TNFSF14 over expression in bladder urothelium of patients with ulcerative ... Journal Article] CXCR3 binding chemokine and TNFSF14 over expression in bladder urothelium of patients with ulcerative ... Transmitters derived from vesical urothelium ? in association with the pathogenesis ofInterstitial Cystitis. Research Project ...
Urothelium is generally considered to be impermeable to water and constituents of urine. The possibility that human urothelium ... AQP3 was shown to be intensely expressed at cell borders in the basal and intermediate layers in both urothelium in situ and ... To investigate the expression of AQP water channels by human urothelium in situ, in proliferating urothelial cell cultures and ... This is the first study to demonstrate that AQPs are expressed by human urothelium, suggesting a potential role in ...
Samples of neoplastic and nonneoplastic human urothelium were immediately frozen, incubated in Krebs saline and then frozen, ... Electrolyte Levels in Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Human Urothelium After Ouabain Treatment: X-Ray Microanalysis of Bulk ... Electrolyte Levels in Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Human Urothelium After Ouabain Treatment: X-Ray Microanalysis of Bulk ...
... of the urothelium. Concern over cisplatin toxicity instigated a search for alternative regimens. The aim of the study was to ... plus carboplatin combination as first-line treatment in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. ... A phase II trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. *Nong Xu. 1. , ... From January 2003 to June 2006, 41 patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) of the urothelium were entered onto ...
... for metastatic and node positive carcinoma of the urothelium. Academic Article Overview. MeSH Major * Antineoplastic Combined ...
"Urothelium" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Urothelium" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Urothelium" by people in Profiles. ...
Tag Archive for Urothelium. July is Bladder Cancer Awareness Month!. July 5, 2013 / jsmith / No comments ... Category: Dominion Internal Medicine / Tags: Bladder Cancer, Urinary Bladder Cancer, Urine, Urothelium ...
In SP-treated rats, A1-I3 in the bladder increased and A1-I3 was observed traversing through the urothelium. Umbrella cells ... A1-I3 immunostaining was observed in interstitial spaces throughout the bladder (including submucosa) but not urothelium in ... showed A1-I3 in the interstitial spaces and in the lamina propria immediately below the urothelium, but not in the urothelium. ... but no A1-I3 was observed in the urothelium. Strong MIF staining was observed in the urothelium while weak MIF immunostaining ...
CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR) in urothelium, detrusor, and suburoth... ... CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR) in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial ... plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. These studies suggest that IL-6 and LIF may be ... Q-PCR analyses revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01) CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor) dependent increases in ...
Inorganic arsenic-induced intramitochondrial granules in mouse urothelium. Shugo Suzuki, Lora L. Arnold, David Muirhead, Lu ... Inorganic arsenic-induced intramitochondrial granules in mouse urothelium. Toxicologic Pathology. 2008 Dec;36(7):999-1005. ... Inorganic arsenic-induced intramitochondrial granules in mouse urothelium. / Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Muirhead, David; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Inorganic arsenic-induced intramitochondrial granules in mouse urothelium. ...
... and urothelium, our studies demonstrated that major sites of NO release were the urothelium and afferent nerves (Birder et al ... the location of afferent nerves that terminate in close proximity to the urothelium suggests that urothelium-derived NO may ... 2000) Urothelium-derived inhibitory factor(s) influences on detrusor muscle contractility in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 129:416-419. ... To establish the urothelium as a possible source of NO, the effects of β-AR agonists were examined on cultured urinary bladder ...
Program Project: Growth, Differentiation and Disease of Urothelium Sun, Tung-Tien New York University, New York, NY, United ... The apical surface of urinary bladder urothelium plays a key role in urothelial function. Our team will study, in a highly ... 2013) Retinoid signaling in progenitors controls specification and regeneration of the urothelium. Dev Cell 26:469-82 ... 2010) Overexpression of NGF in mouse urothelium leads to neuronal hyperinnervation, pelvic sensitivity, and changes in urinary ...
A phase II trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Nong Xu, Xiao Chen ... Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin for advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Efficacy and ... and cisplatin for advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Efficacy and patterns of response and relapse.}, ... II/III study of cabazitaxel versus vinflunine in metastatic or locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium ( ...
Jung, HJ, Lee, H, Im, YJ, Lee, YS, Hong, CH & Han, SW 2012, Prerequisite for successful surgical outcome in urothelium lined ... N2 - Purpose: Urothelium lined seromuscular colocystoplasty is an ideal method of augmentation cystoplasty that avoids various ... AB - Purpose: Urothelium lined seromuscular colocystoplasty is an ideal method of augmentation cystoplasty that avoids various ... Purpose: Urothelium lined seromuscular colocystoplasty is an ideal method of augmentation cystoplasty that avoids various ...
See also: Urothelium. Under microscopy, the urinary system is covered in a unique lining called urothelium, a type of ... Urothelium covers most of the urinary system, including the renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder. ...
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 5-HT onthe contractile activity of the urothelium and lamina propria, and the likely mediatingreceptor. (edu.au)
  • Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in 10mL organbaths filled with warm Krebs-bicarbonate solution. (edu.au)
  • 5-HTproduced concentration-dependent contractions in porcine urothelium and lamina propria andthis response was unlikely to be mediated by receptors 5-HT2, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4. (edu.au)
  • This study assessed the actions of PGE 2 , PGF 2 , PGD 2 , TXA 2 , and PGI 2 on urinary bladder urothelium with lamina propria (U&LP), and detrusor smooth muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prostaglandins are synthesised in both the bladder urothelium with lamina propria (U&LP) and in detrusor smooth muscle in response to stretch, nerve stimulation, U&LP damage or other inflammatory mediators [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, of interest is to determine how the actions of the prostaglandins affect urothelium with lamina propria that is separated from the detrusor smooth muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, this study aimed to assess the influence of PGE 2 , PGF 2α , PGD 2 , TXA 2 and PGI 2 on the urinary bladder urothelium with lamina propria and detrusor smooth muscle contractions and phasic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Occasional T lymphocytes (CD3(+)) were seen in normal urothelium and lamina propria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [7] The inner side of the bladder is lined with a mucosal membrane consisting of a surface glycocalyx that protects the cells beneath it from urine, the urothelium (a form of transitional epithelium ), a basement membrane , and the lamina propria . (wikipedia.org)
  • The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds the urothelium of each renal pelvis and ureter. (cancer.ca)
  • The urothelium is the epithelial lining of the urinary tract between the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Urothelium covers most of the urinary system, including the renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results Mitomycin C permeation across the ureteral urothelium was significantly greater than across the bladder and renal pelvis urothelium (9.07 vs 0.94 and 3.61 μg cm-2, respectively). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Umbrella cells form the outermost layer of the urothelium, which is a special type of epithelium found in the renal pelvis, the ureters, and the urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • The urothelium is the inner lining of each renal pelvis and ureter. (cancer.ca)
  • In vitro generation of human urothelium from stem cells would be a major advancement in the regenerative medicine field, providing alternate nonurologic and/or nonautologous tissue sources for bladder grafts. (ca.gov)
  • Thus far, in vitro derivation of urothelium from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells has not been reported. (ca.gov)
  • The goal of this work was to develop an efficient in vitro protocol for the induction of hESCs into urothelium through an intermediary definitive endoderm step and free of matrices and cell contact. (ca.gov)
  • Additional hESC and hiPS cell lines could also be induced into urothelium using this in vitro system. (ca.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that derivation and propagation of urothelium from hESCs and hiPS cells can be efficiently accomplished in vitro in the absence of matrices, cell contact, or adult cell signaling and that the induction process appears to mimic normal differentiation. (ca.gov)
  • Expression and localisation of aquaporin water channels in human urothelium in situ and in vitro. (findaphd.com)
  • In vitro release of adenosine triphosphate from the urothelium of huma" by Vivek Kumar, Christopher R. Chapple et al. (edu.au)
  • AQP3 was shown to be intensely expressed at cell borders in the basal and intermediate layers in both urothelium in situ and differentiated tissue constructs in vitro. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Bioengineering of bladder tissue, particularly for those patients who have advanced bladder disease, requires a source of urothelium that is healthy, capable of significant proliferation in vitro and immunologically tolerated upon transplant. (elsevier.com)
  • As pluripotent stem cells have the potential to fulfill such criteria, they provide a critical cell source from which urothelium might be derived in vitro and used clinically. (elsevier.com)
  • Herein, we describe the in vitro differentiation of urothelium from the H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line through the definitive endoderm (DE) phase via selective culture techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The relaxation responses of the bladder to isoprenaline do not appear to involve the urothelium or NO release in vitro. (shu.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the presence of functional ß1, ß2 and ß3-adrenoceptor in urothelium and detrusor muscle of human bladder through in vitro pharmacology of selective ß3 adrenoceptor agonist solabegron. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ex vivo porcine ureter is significantly more permeable to mitomycin C than bladder urothelium and consequently higher mitomycin C tissue concentrations can be achieved after topical application. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Human ureter wall lined by stratified urothelium and transitional epithelium, H&E stain. (gettyimages.be)
  • This is a specialized type of epithelium found lining organs that can stretch, such as the urothelium that lines the bladder and ureter of mammals. (bionity.com)
  • The capacity of Wolffian duct epithelial cells to replace damaged urothelium can potentially be leveraged for bladder replacement therapies which are often necessitated in patients with carcinoma or neurogenic bladder. (pnas.org)
  • Alteration of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell signaling contribution through noncell contact coculture or conditioned media did not enhance the production of urothelium. (ca.gov)
  • Over the past eleven years, we have worked as a Program Project team consisting of four investigators with diverse expertise in the areas of epithelial cell biology, structural biology and membrane trafficking to study, in several closely interrelated projects, the cell and molecular biology and diseases of mammalian urothelium. (grantome.com)
  • The trigone is the triangular area of the bladder bound by the ureteral orifices and the internal urethral sphincter, which is normally lined by urothelium, a type of transitional epithelial tissue. (medscape.com)
  • The inner epithelial compartment, the urothelium, is a three-tiered dilatable yet sealing tissue with a single layer of cuboidal basal cells (B-cells), one or two layers of similarly shaped intermediate cells (I-cells), and a luminal layer of large squamous superficial cells (S-cells) 1 . (nature.com)
  • It has been previously shown that p63 is expressed in normal urothelium. (nih.gov)
  • The primary aim of this work was to survey normal urothelium and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) for the presence of T lymphocytes expressing the intraepithelial, CD103(+) phenotype. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T lymphocytes of the CD103(+) phenotype are present in normal urothelium where they may play a role in immunosurveillance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Colistin interactions with the mammalian urothelium. (nih.gov)
  • Our research focuses on, as a central and unifying theme, a group of integral membrane proteins called uroplakins that represent major differentiation markers of mammalian urothelium. (grantome.com)
  • Data in this study correlate with the theory that mammalian upper tract urothelium represents a different cell lineage than that of the bladder and it is innately more permeable to mitomycin C. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Uroplakins (UPs) are integral membrane proteins that are synthesized as the major differentiation products of mammalian urothelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that in contrast to the skin and prostate, p63 is not required for formation of a bladder epithelium but is indispensable for the specific differentiation of a transitional urothelium. (nih.gov)
  • Addition of colistin to the mucosal solution of the rabbit urinary bladder epithelium (urothelium) resulted in an increase in the transepithelial conductance. (nih.gov)
  • Under microscopy, the urinary system is covered in a unique lining called urothelium , a type of transitional epithelium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor Southgate is a cell/molecular biologist who studies human urothelium, the epithelium of the urinary bladder. (york.ac.uk)
  • Transitional epithelium lines the organs of the urinary system and is known here as urothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The urothelium is also called the transitional epithelium. (cancer.ca)
  • Recent studies suggested that the bladder urothelium, which was believed to be a poorly permeable urine-blood-barrier, is indeed able to modify composition and volume of urine. (findaphd.com)
  • To achieve this purpose, we've focused on the transmitters expressed on urothelium or secreted into urine of human IC patients. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Urothelium is generally considered to be impermeable to water and constituents of urine. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Few studies have examined the carcinogenicity of chemicals toward the urinary bladder in hamsters, and the effect of diet on hamster urine and urothelium has not been reported. (nebraska.edu)
  • Although the urothelium maintains a tight barrier to ion and solute flux, a number of local factors (e.g. tissue pH, mechanical or chemical trauma, and bacterial infection) can modulate the barrier function of the urothelium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cells from minced tissue migrated, expanded and re-organised to a confluent cell layer on the top of the construct after two weeks and formed a multilayered urothelium after four weeks. (diva-portal.org)
  • To investigate the expression of AQP water channels by human urothelium in situ, in proliferating urothelial cell cultures and in differentiated tissue constructs. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Q-PCR analyses revealed significant ( p ≤ 0.01) CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor) dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR, and gp130 mRNA expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although AM stroma scaffold allows establishment of differentiated urothelium, its orientation probably does not favour AM integration into surrounding tissue, if applied in vivo . (emc-proceedings.com)
  • Amniotic membrane scaffolds enable the development of tissue-engineered urothelium with molecular and ultrastructural properties comparable to that of native urothelium. (emc-proceedings.com)
  • Purpose We compared the relative permeability of upper urinary tract and bladder urothelium to mitomycin C. Materials and Methods Ex vivo porcine bladder, ureters and kidneys were dissected out and filled with 1 mg ml-1 mitomycin C. At 60 minutes the organs were emptied and excised tissue samples were sectioned parallel to the urothelium. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS Paired (in the presence or absence of urothelium) longitudinal strips of pig bladder dome were set up in tissue baths and the developed tension recorded. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Twenty-six samples of normal control urothelium obtained from patients without urothelial carcinomas (C), 47 samples of non-cancerous urothelium without noticeable morphological changes obtained from patients with urothelial carcinomas (N), and 46 samples of the corresponding cancerous tissue (T) in the learning cohort and 64 N samples in the validation cohort, i.e. 183 tissue samples in total, were analyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • [ 7 , 8 ] Kvist et al did not find estrogen receptors in 36 historically collected samples of squamous metaplasia of the bladder urothelium, although the authors posited that relatively few existing receptors might have been destroyed in the tissue preparation process. (medscape.com)
  • A layer of tissue and blood vessels surrounding the urothelium. (cancersa.org.au)
  • or secondary to an injury to the urothelium. (nih.gov)
  • The involvement of prostaglandins in bladder physiology was first recognised from their release after urinary bladder distension or injury to the urothelium [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Front-line platinum-based combination chemotherapy leads to high response rates but suboptimum overall survival for patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (nih.gov)
  • 43-9006 in patients with progressing regional or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (or mixed histologies containing a component of TCC) of the urothelium who have progressed on one and only one prior systemic chemotherapy regimen for metastatic disease. (knowcancer.com)
  • Determine response to gemcitabine hydrochloride, paclitaxel, and cisplatin (GTP) among patients with regional or distant metastases of transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium or local/regional recurrence after cystoprostatectomy. (knowcancer.com)
  • Front-line chemotherapy for metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium with cisplatin-based combinations including methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatin, or gemcitabine and cisplatin yields a median survival of ∼15 months ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cisplatin-based combinations in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) of the urothelium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity and tolerability of gemcitabine plus carboplatin combination as first-line treatment in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the basis of these considerations, we conducted a single-arm phase II study to evaluate the objective response rate and tolerability of the combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin in Chinese patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M-VAC: methotrexate (MTX), vinblastine (VLB), adriamycin (ADM), and cisplatin (DDP) for metastatic and node positive carcinoma of the urothelium. (cornell.edu)
  • A randomized phase II/III study of cabazitaxel versus vinflunine in metastatic or locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (SECAVIN). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Purpose: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of single-agent paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (elsevier.com)
  • We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the expression of c-erb B-2 in non-neoplastic urothelium (n = 12) and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (n = 82). (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Urothelium is susceptible to carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (centerwatch.com)
  • Not sure for Transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (centerwatch.com)
  • To determine a safety profile of temsirolimus in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine hydrochloride, including dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Human urothelial carcinoma is thought to arise from a field change that affects the entire urothelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Porcine urothelial cells cultured on de-epithelized AM scaffolds enriched with porcine bladder fibroblasts (A) established highly differentiated urothelium, whereas those maintained on AM scaffolds without integrated fibroblast (B) differentiated partially. (emc-proceedings.com)
  • Here, we show that conditional inactivation of both RB1 alleles in mouse urothelium failed to accelerate urothelial proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the entire urothelium is at risk of urotoxicity, the bladder, which serves as a reservoir, is most frequently affected, because the contact time between acrolein and the urothelium is greatest at this site. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVES To investigate whether the responses of the pig bladder to isoprenaline (a nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist) are influenced by the presence of an intact urothelium and whether any influence might be attributed to the release of nitric oxide (NO), since stimulation of β-adrenoceptors induces a direct relaxation of detrusor smooth muscle and β-adrenoceptors are also present on the urothelium. (shu.ac.uk)
  • However, contractile responses to carbachol were inhibited in the presence of an intact urothelium, and this might reflect the release of an inhibitory factor other than NO. (shu.ac.uk)
  • The presence of an intact urothelium on isolated bladder strips inhibited contractions induced by carbachol but not KCl. (edu.au)
  • Contractions of a urothelium-denuded muscle strip were inhibited in the presence of a second bladder strip with an intact urothelium, but not if the second strip was denuded. (edu.au)
  • The function of the bladder urothelium in modulating contractile responses of the underlying detrusor smooth muscle to muscarinic stimulation has been examined in the pig bladder. (edu.au)
  • Saturation curves for [ 3 H]-QNB binding demonstrated a greater muscarinic receptor density in the urothelium than in the detrusor smooth muscle. (edu.au)
  • Saturation curves for [ 3H]-QNB binding demonstrated a greater muscarinic receptor density in the urothelium than in the detrusor smooth muscle. (edu.au)
  • CYP-induced cystitis significantly ( p ≤ 0.01) increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR) in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. (frontiersin.org)
  • chronic cystitis with glandlike metaplasia of urothelium. (drugs.com)
  • This difference in nuclear size may be used as a tool for differentiating the flat urothelial lesions from reactive urothelium in daily practice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pathologic studies have shown patient symptoms are correlated with lesions of the urothelium lining the bladder and the accumulation of mast cells throughout all layers. (massgeneral.org)
  • The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. (hindawi.com)
  • Distribution of lymphocytes of the alpha(E)beta(7) phenotype and E-cadherin in normal human urothelium and bladder carcinomas. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with this, urothelium-specific expression of a constitutively active Ha-ras oncogene in transgenic mice elicits urothelial hyperplasia, approximately half of which evolves, over a 28-month period, to low-grade, superficial papillary carcinomas that bear strong resemblance to the human counterparts ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 , 8 , 9 The apical surface of the urothelium is also covered with a sulfated poly saccharide glycosaminoglycan layer that is thought to act as a nonspecific anti-adherence factor and as a defense mechanism against infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The apical surface of urinary bladder urothelium plays a key role in urothelial function. (grantome.com)
  • The urothelium-induced inhibition of contractions was not prevented in the presence of L-NOARG, methylene blue, indomethacin, propranolol, suramin, TEA or apamin. (edu.au)
  • Kidney, Urothelium - Hyperplasia in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • The protocol can be used to derive urothelium from other hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The data suggest the presence of a diffusable, urothelium-derived inhibitory factor, which could not be identified but appears to be neither nitric oxide, a cyclo-oxygenase product, a catecholamine, adenosine, GABA nor an EDHF sensitive to apamin. (edu.au)
  • Guan NN, Gustafsson LE, Svennersten K. Inhibitory effects of urothelium-related factors. (springer.com)
  • Localization of afferent nerves next to the urothelium suggests that urothelial cells could be targets for neurotransmitters released from bladder nerves or that chemicals released by urothelial cells could alter afferent nerve excitability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Of the 18 patients who completed the 12-week intensive course, 13 (72.2%) showed a complete response, defined as negative cystoscopy including urothelium biopsy and negative cytology, and entered the 12-months maintenance phase. (prnewswire.com)
  • Complete response (CR) was defined as negative cystoscopy, including urothelium biopsy and negative cytology. (prnewswire.com)
  • Electrolyte Levels in Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Human Urothelium After Ouabain Treatment: X-Ray Microanalysis of Bulk Hydrated Samples. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Samples of neoplastic and nonneoplastic human urothelium were immediately frozen, incubated in Krebs' saline and then frozen, or incubated in 10-5 mol/L ouabain in Krebs' saline and then frozen. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • c-erb B-2 protein was localized in superficial and some intermediate cells of non-neoplastic urothelium. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • abstract = "Purpose: Urothelium lined seromuscular colocystoplasty is an ideal method of augmentation cystoplasty that avoids various complications caused by the use of gastrointestinal segments. (elsevier.com)
  • The possibility that human urothelium expresses aquaporin (AQP) water channels as the basis for water and solute transport has not previously been investigated. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel plus filgrastim in treating patients who have locally recurrent or advanced urothelium cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to establish permutation for cancer risk estimation in the urothelium. (elsevier.com)
  • Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis confirmed the feasibility of cancer risk estimation to identify urothelium at the precancerous stage by DNA methylation quantification. (elsevier.com)
  • PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of temsirolimus given together with gemcitabine hydrochloride and cisplatin as first-line therapy in treating patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic transitional cell cancer of the urothelium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Northwestern Memorial Hospital (Chicago, IL) pathology database was searched for random, nonconsecutive patients over the period of April 2014 to April 2015 who had a biopsy- or surgical-resection diagnosis by a genitourinary specialty pathologist (X.Y.) of reactive urothelium, low grade UC (LG UC) and high grade UC (HG UC) and urothelial CIS (WHO, 2004). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 , 6 , 7 The barrier function of the urothelium is dependent on several features of the umbrella cell layer: these features include tight-junction complexes that reduce the movement of ions and solutes between cells, and specialized lipid molecules and uroplakin proteins in the apical membrane, which reduce the permeability of the cells to small molecules (e.g. water, urea, protons). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 11 For example, when protamine sulfate was used to damage selectively only the umbrella cell layer, it was shown that the urothelium rapidly undergoes both functional and structural changes in order to restore the barrier. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both MUC1 and MUC4 were up-regulated in transposed ileal segments, genes expressed by the normal human urothelium. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This is supported by the fact that the bladder urothelium expresses the transmembrane water channels (aquaporins). (findaphd.com)
  • In the urothelium the majority of these T lymphocytes (71%) were also CD8(+) and of these 68% expressed the CD103 marker. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A1-I3 immunostaining was observed in interstitial spaces throughout the bladder (including submucosa) but not urothelium in intact and saline-treated rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One theory suggests that the multiple tumors are of monoclonal origin, arising from a single malignant transformed cell which proliferates and spreads throughout the urothelium either by intraluminal spread with secondary implantation at different sites within the urinary tract or by intraepithelial migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A total of 1085 urothelial cell nuclei from 60 cases were measured from reactive urothelium, low grade (LG) UC, HG UC and CIS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell proliferation of rat bladder urothelium induced by nicotine is suppressed by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. (illumina.com)
  • The urothelium is no longer regarded as a passive barrier but rather as a complex "sensory web" transducing signals from inside the viscus (and in response to neuronal and local changes) through the activation of cell-surface receptors [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nuclear receptor-activated transcriptomic signatures in human urothelium for the deconvolution of tumour transcriptomes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In relaxation experiments, isoprenaline relaxed carbachol pre-contracted tissues by ≈75%, and the potency and maximum relaxation were similar in the absence and presence of the urothelium. (shu.ac.uk)
  • In the presence of the urothelium there was a greater shift with 0.1 µm isoprenaline than in denuded tissues. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Objective - In this set of experiments, we have assessed the contribution of the urothelium to purinergic activity by quantifying the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from the urothelium of patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and comparing these releases to those of controls. (edu.au)
  • Although the urinary bladder urothelium has classically been thought of as a passive barrier to ions and solutes, a number of novel properties have been recently attributed to urothelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)