Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Wuchereria: A genus of filarial nematodes.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Microfilaria: The prelarval stage of Filarioidea in the blood and other tissues of mammals and birds. They are removed from these hosts by blood-sucking insects in which they metamorphose into mature larvae.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Brugia: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Loa: A genus of parasitic nematodes found throughout the rain-forest areas of the Sudan and the basin of the Congo. L. loa inhabits the subcutaneous tissues, which it traverses freely.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Setaria Nematode: A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the peritoneal cavity of wild or domestic cattle or equines.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Independent State of Samoa: An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Onchocerca: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Brugia pahangi: A species of parasitic nematode found in man and other mammals. It has been reported from Malaya and East Pakistan and may produce symptoms of tropical eosinophilia.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Sri LankaHelminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.IndiaAedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
  • Enk MJ, Oliveira e Silva G, Rodrigues NB (2012) Diagnostic accuracy and applicability of a PCR system for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human urine samples from an endemic area. (springer.com)
  • Schistosoma haematobium affects blood vessels in the bladder and causes pain during urination and bloody urine. (digital-campus.org)
  • The combination of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and serum circulating anodic antigen (CAA) for the detection of circulating antigens and the combination of the Schistosoma haematobium adult worm microsomal antigen (HAMA) Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the HAMA enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for detecting antibodies has significantly improved the sensitivity of antibody and antigen detection. (asmscience.org)
  • i) molecular xenomonitoring (MX) by PCR to detect parasite DNA in the vector, Culex ( Cx ) quinquefasciatus and (ii) survey of anti-filarial IgG4 in urine samples from schoolchildren. (springer.com)
  • Binax™ Legionella Urinary Antigen EIA kit is an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based system intended to qualitatively detect the presence of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine as an adjunct to culture for the presumptive diagnosis of past or current Legionnaires' disease. (alere.com)
  • they did not have eosinophilia, and results of a systematic investigation for helminthic infections (using stool samples, urine samples, and Knotts test) were negative. (cdc.gov)
  • Using an soluble egg antigen (SEA) monoclonal antibody, circulating schistosome antigen was undetectable in serum from patients with other parasitic infections and in 94% of serum samples and 84% of urine samples from S. mansoni -infected patients. (asmscience.org)
  • Five schools were selected considering Matotagama as the catchment area and all students who presented on the day were tested for urine anti-filarial IgG4 in 2015. (springer.com)
  • A total of 735 schoolchildren were tested for urine anti-filarial IgG4. (springer.com)
  • The combination of two non-invasive surveys, the urine anti-filarial IgG4 levels of schoolchildren and MX of vector mosquitoes, would be a convenient package to monitor the ongoing transmission (hotspots) of LF in the surveillance. (springer.com)
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format to diagnose Wuchereria bancrofti specific immunoglobulin G4 class in urine samples. (docphin.com)
  • For schistosomiasis, the bead assay had an estimated sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 45%, and it was more sensitive than ELISA or urine egg counts for diagnosing infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • 0.45×10 9 eosinophils/L). Direct parasitologic tests included the examination of 3 stool samples (both Kato-Katz and Ritchie techniques were used for each sample) and specific tests for Strongyloides stercoralis (Baermann test and agar culture) ( 1 ), optic microscopy of a terminal urine specimen, and Knotts test for microfilaremia. (cdc.gov)
  • Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. (nih.gov)
  • We report a case of microfilaria in achylous urine of a 30-year-old female who presented with pain abdomen and ureteric calculus on ultrasonography. (bvsalud.org)
  • Urine specimens were collected between 10:00 and 12:00 and checked for haematuria and proteinuria using a urine test strip (Chemstrips, Boehringer Mannheim Diagnostics, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA). (ac.ke)
  • A la luz de la circulación actual de COVID-19 en la región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar la identificación oportuna de casos sospechosos, la toma y el envío de muestras a los laboratorios de referencia, y la implementación de protocolos de detección molecular, según la capacidad del laboratorio. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of obstruction, subsequent local inflammation of the area leads to dilation of the lymph vessels and the development of a urinary fistulae due to rupture of the lymphatic vessel, which allows for the passage of white blood cells, fat, and fat-soluble vitamins into the urine. (wikipedia.org)