Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Presence of blood in the urine.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The consumption of liquids.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.
Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
... "urinate" (sic., probably shito 尿 "urine"), or Portuguese xixi "urinate". There is a Japanese kanji joke based on 五-四-四 "5-4-4 ... Shishi: Urine or urination, used in "go shishi" or "make shishi". The Double-Tongued Dictionary gives three possible ... etymologies for "shishi": imitative from the sound of urinating, Japanese reduplicated shi from shiko " ...
One line described men urinating Soma; this recalled the practice of recycling urine in Siberia. Soma is mentioned as coming " ... In eastern Siberia, the shaman would take the mushrooms, and others would drink his urine. This urine, still containing ... The drinking of urine of those who had consumed the mushroom was commented on by Anglo-Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith in his ... Among the Koryaks, one report said that the poor would consume the urine of the wealthy, who could afford to buy the mushrooms ...
Signs include blood in the urine and straining to urinate and defecate. Castration is the treatment of choice. Prostatis can be ... Signs include blood in the urine (hematuria), difficulty urinating (dysuria), and frequent urination (polyuria). The most ... Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. Kidney ... Glomerulonephritis* is the presence of immune complexes in the glomerulus, resulting in leakage of protein into the urine. It ...
When urine is made alkaline, elimination of acidic drugs in the urine is increased. The converse applies for alkaline drugs. ... Thus, the hand in warm water trick (immersing the hand of a sleeping person in water to make him/her urinate) has no support ... This method is only of therapeutic significance where the drug is excreted in active form in urine and where the pH of urine ... increased urine formation by diuretics and fluid) may enhance the excretion of certain drugs in urine and is used to treat drug ...
Many men urinate in a standing position although they can also urinate sitting down or squatting. For women, the urine ... Women most commonly urinate sitting or squatting, depending on the type of toilet. Many women are able to urinate standing, ... For men, because of the flexible and protruding nature of the penis, it is simple to control the direction of the urine stream ...
Lions use urine to mark their territories. They often scrape the ground while urinating, and the urine often flows in short ... "urine washing", in which the monkey rubs urine on its feet.[77] Urine washing, in which urine is rubbed on the hands and feet, ... A male porcupine urinates on a female porcupine prior to mating, spraying the urine at high velocity.[61][62][63][64][65] ... They often urinate on vegetation, or on tree trunks at least one meter high.[142] Male lions spray 1-20 jets of urine at an ...
Having to urinate, Hoss decides to use his own urine in place of water. Too weak to do it himself, he asks Jasmine to pull his ... He urinates on the grave and blesses the urine, which works as holy water, killing Andre. The movie ends with Hoss and Jasmine ...
... "to urinate" (referring to the substance urea, found in urine). Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical ...
Odorous urine is being exhibited.. *Irritability in their personality.. *Urinating in other places of the house; not in their ... These crystals lead to an obstruction causing stagnant urine to evolve in their bodies. The urine will eventually build up to a ... Stagnant urine will also create a perfect atmosphere for bacteria to build up even faster.[5] The main reason as to why feline ... Experiencing pain when urinating. Pathophysiology[edit]. Feline cystitis blocks a cat's urinary tract. This blockage can be ...
Blood in the urine. *Pressure, or difficulty urinating. *Unusual amounts of urination, usually in large quantities ... Starting around 1847, this included reduced urine output, which was thought to be caused by the urine mixing with the blood ... Acute: Decreased urine production, increased serum creatinine[2]. Chronic:Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) , 15[6]. ... decreased urine production, quantified as less than 400 mL per day in adults,[13] less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children or less ...
He would wrap his cap over the faulty valve and urinate on it. The minus-297-degree liquid oxygen would freeze the urine on ...
... "urine" or "to urinate". Likewise, sip in Tok Pisin could have represented English "ship", "jib", "jeep", "sieve" or "chief". In ...
Among young children, urinating 8 to 14 times each day is typical. This decreases to 6 to 12 times per day for older children, ... It is often, though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence and polyuria (large total volume of urine). However, ... Frequent urination is the need to urinate more often than usual. Diuretics or medications that will increase urinary frequency ... Frequent urination is strongly associated with frequent incidents of urinary urgency, which is the sudden need to urinate. ...
Enuresis is defined as the involuntary voiding of urine beyond the age of anticipated control. Both of these conditions can ... Children with daytime wetting may have frequent urination, have urgent urination or dribble after urinating. The DSM-V ... Bladder stretching exercises (where the person tries to hold their urine as long as possible) are no longer recommended. ... Urinating on a regular basis is suggested. Daytime wetting is more common in girls, while bedwetting is three times as ...
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) advertises its territory with urine scent marks. When it is urinating for marking purposes ... The alpha female usually urinates on a scent post that her breeding partner has just urinated on, although during the mating ... Prosimians and New World monkeys also use scent marking, including urine washing (self-anointing the body with urine), to ... urine marking. Mittermeier, R. A.; Rylands, A. B.; Konstant, W. R. (1999). "Primates of the world: An introduction". In Nowak, ...
The amount of urine passed during each urination is relatively small. Pain while urinating suggests that there is a problem ... The frequent need to urinate may occur during the day, at night, or both. If there is loss of bladder control then it is known ... If bladder spasms occur or there is no urine in the drainage bag when a catheter is in place, the catheter may be blocked by ... Additionally, urine culture may be done to rule out infection. The frequency/volume chart may be maintained and ...
Throughout the year, deer rub-urinate, a process during which a deer squats while urinating so urine will run down the insides ... Bucks rub-urinate more frequently during the breeding season. Secretions from the tarsal gland mix with the urine and bacteria ... They often rub-urinate into these scrapes, which are often found under twigs that have been marked with scent from the forehead ...
Finally we have to obtain the next urine, 2nd urine, for potential ejaculation fraction, which will be stored in the third ... Before masturbation we have to urinate to empty the bladder. This must go to the first recipient. - Just after that, the ... At infancy, there are daily check-ups by the mothers on the son's erection and urine quality. When the son reaches puberty, ... This will neutralize acidic urine and will turn it alkaline, near semen's pH, so spermatozoa can survive. - ...
The monkeys will urinate on their hands and rub the urine over the soles of their feet. The urine is then evaporated off the ... For marking territory, squirrel monkeys rub their tail and their skin with their own urine. Squirrel monkeys are omnivores, ... Ruiz, J.C (2005). "Relative humidity, ambient temperature, and urine washing behavior in Bolivian squirrel monkeys, Saimiri ... They will also make use of a technique to maximize evaporative cooling known as urine washing. ...
In later stages, it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine or pain in the pelvis, back, or when urinating. A ... Diagnosis is typically based on measuring the amount of urine in the bladder after urinating. Treatment is typically with a ... Symptoms include feeling the need to urinate right away, needing to urinate often, and pain with sex. IC/BPS is associated with ... Symptoms may include frequent urination, trouble starting to urinate, weak stream, inability to urinate, or loss of bladder ...
While they are visiting the intended's family, a baby next to Manu begins urinating. Manu takes a nearby tea-cup to catch the ... urine and prevent getting wet. Everyone sees this and his prior behavior as confirmation that he is mentally unstable. Manohar ...
Male felids urinate backwards by curving the tip of the glans penis backward. When male cheetahs urine-mark their territories, ... During musth, a male elephant may urinate with his penis still in the sheath, which causes the urine to spray on the hind legs ... Some deer species spray urine on their bodies by urinating from an erect penis. One type of scent-marking behavior in elk is ... It is a passage both for urine and for the ejaculation of semen. In males, the expulsion of urine from the body is done through ...
... awards the player a score based on how hard and how much they can urinate. Graffiti Eraser requires the player to spray urine ... If the player's urine stream is stronger, his opponent is blasted out of the ring. The Toylet records players' scores and ... The strength and direction of the urine is calculated and used to control the navigation of a 3D Earth globe, leaving a trail ... The system gave warnings to players about drunk driving if their urine was off-target. It was shut down after the Belgian ...
... bloody urine, straining to urinate. Infected cats are usually over 8 months of age. Clinical signs or symptoms of affected cats ... Diagnosis is based on finding larvae and fragments of adult stages in urine sediment. The ova are characteristic in appearance ...
Incorporation of a urine collection device (UCD) starting with the MR-4 suit. Shepard, going through long countdown delays, had ... had to urinate into the heavy cotton underwear in his suit; the engineers had felt a UCD was not needed because the flight ...
When the person wants to urinate, he presses the pump (implanted in the scrotum), to deflate the cuff, and allow the urine to ... Urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine occurring while suddenly feeling the need or urge to urinate, usually ... The bladder stores urine then releases it through the urethra, the canal that carries urine to the outside of the body. ... Collecting systems (for men) - consists of a sheath worn over the penis funneling the urine into a urine bag worn on the leg. ...
The act of holding one's own urine until the need to urinate is urgent, making another hold in their urine, or watching another ... or by lurking in locations where people are urinating or are likely to have an urge to urinate. Jennifer Eve Rehor of San ... During the activity, urine may be consumed or the person may bathe in it. Other variations include arousal from wetting or ... What Rehor calls "urine play" is relatively infrequent, with only 36.52% of her sample reporting having done it or having had ...
Diagnosis is typically based on measuring the amount of urine in the bladder after urinating. Treatment is typically with a ... A post-void residual urine greater than 50 ml is a significant amount of urine and increases the potential for recurring ... Cancer of the bladder, prostate or ureters can gradually obstruct urine output. Cancers often present with blood in the urine, ... "Inability to urinate" Archived 2010-03-05 at the Wayback Machine 2010-02-10. National kidney and urologic diseases information ...
Urine collects in the bladder, fed from the two ureters that connect the bladder with the kidneys. Urine leaves the bladder via ... Males with an enlarged prostate urinate more frequently. One definition of an overactive bladder is when a person urinates more ... they tend to have high rates of urine production to offset this high water intake, and have urine which is low in dissolved ... The urinary bladder usually holds 300-350 ml of urine. As urine accumulates, the rugae flatten and the wall of the bladder ...
While being housebroken, the kitten mistakenly answers to "Chi" (as in shi- from shikko, the Japanese word for "urine") and ... While Chi and the black bear cat head home, they spot another cat urinating on a car. Black bear cat, furious because the car ... Unfortunately, the car's owner sees the urine on his bumper and blames the black bear cat. Chi and the black bear cat are ...
This construction leads to a smaller space consumption and thus to more possibilities for urinating, while promoting better ... Urine-related aspects. *Female urinal. *Female urination device. *Interactive urinal. *Pissoir. *Pollee ... "You are where you urinate". The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide. 18 (4): 18. ...
Lions use urine to mark their territories. They often scrape the ground while urinating, and the urine often flows in short ... and the urine marking behavior, where the tail is held up in display and only a few drops of urine are used.[70][71] The urine- ... A male porcupine urinates on a female porcupine prior to mating, spraying the urine at high velocity.[61][62][63][64][65] ... in which the monkey rubs urine on its feet.[73] Urine washing, in which urine is rubbed on the hands and feet, is also used by ...
Adult males urinate backwards, as far as 3-4 m behind them, often in response to being disturbed by observers. Like all rhinos ... They drink for a minute or two at a time, often imbibing water filled with rhinoceros urine.[11] ...
The extra glucose going through the kidneys causes more urine to be created. When a person urinates more, they lose more ... Polyuria (urinating a lot; this is the body's way of trying to get rid of the extra glucose in the bloodstream) ... DKA is diagnosed through blood and urine testing. These tests will show high blood sugar, which does not happen with other ... It also replaces the fluids that people with DKA lose by urinating so much. ...
... may also arise in untreated diabetics due to the presence of glucose in their urine giving rise to infection in the ... to distinguish physiological phimosis from pathological phimosis if an infant appears to have discomfort while urinating or ...
The most common symptoms are burning with urination and having to urinate frequently (or an urge to urinate) in the absence of ... urine microscopy, looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive ... the urine may appear bloody[6] or contain visible pus in the urine.[19] ... Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine among men over 75 are between 7-10%.[10] Asymptomatic bacteria in the urine occurs ...
... and magnesium in the blood and decreased calcium excretion in the urine.[1] In contrast to people with Gordon's syndrome, those ... waking up at night to urinate, salt cravings, abnormal sensations, chondrocalcinosis, or weakness expressed as extreme fatigue ... decreased excretion of calcium in the urine, and elevated blood pH.[1] The disorder is caused by genetic mutations resulting in ... Large doses of potassium and magnesium are often necessary to adequately replace the electrolytes lost in the urine.[1] ...
... one of them being urine diversion which can make them similar to urine-diverting dry toilets. Urine diversion can significantly ... In an attempt to stop city residents from urinating and defecating in public, a city council in western India is planning to ... Bucket toilets and urine diversionEdit. Bucket toilets are a simple portable toilet option. They can be upgraded in various ... Examples of using this type of toilet to reduce open defecation are the "MoSan"[46] toilet (used in Kenya) or the urine- ...
Around 17% is excreted unchanged in the urine. About 15% to 20% is excreted in feces.[1][2] Steady-state clearance is similar ... frequent urge to urinate, and seizures.[4] Donepezil is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and ...
None, difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating[1][2]. ... In later stages it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating.[2] A ... difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, hematuria (blood in the urine), and dysuria (painful urination). ... The prostate surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder during urination and semen during ...
It also serves as a passage for urine to flow.[1] Urine typically contains epithelial cells shed from the urinary tract. Urine ... Females use their urethra only for urinating, but males use their urethra for both urination and ejaculation.[1] The external ... and if urine samples are inadequate, the urinary tract can be assessed via instrumentation. In urine cytology, collected urine ... Urine cytology.. Catheterization[edit]. During a hospital stay or surgical procedure, a catheter may be inserted through the ...
The current WADA limit for ephedrine in an athlete's urine is 10 µg/ml.[17][18][19][20] ... Genitourinary: decreased urination due to vasoconstriction of renal arteries, difficulty urinating is not uncommon, as alpha- ... Ephedrine may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor possible abuse by athletes, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning ... and inability to urinate.[1] Serious side effects include stroke, heart attack, and abuse.[1] While likely safe in pregnancy, ...
But it makes one urinate like it was beer. OrangeMarlin Talk• Contributions 06:33, 26 January 2008 (UTC) Simply because the ... water it contains has retained the memory of the urine it once was. Jim62sch 07:01, 26 January 2008 (UTC) I thought so. Well, ...
Those with DI continue to urinate large amounts of dilute urine in spite of water deprivation. In primary polydipsia, the urine ... If desmopressin reduces urine output and increases urine osmolarity, the hypothalamic production of ADH is deficient, and the ... This test measures the changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition when fluids are withheld to induce ... Urinalysis demonstrates a dilute urine with a low specific gravity. Urine osmolarity and electrolyte levels are typically low. ...
Many of the pheromone chemicals can be found dissolved in a dog's urine, and sniffing where another dog has urinated gives the ... not only use urine but also their stools to mark their territories. The anal gland of canines give a particular signature to ... dog a great deal of information about that dog.[1]:250 Male dogs prefer to mark vertical surfaces with urine and having the ...
... and may require a man to sit down while urinating.[57] When the surgery is not performed in a hospital or by a licensed medical ... while a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual blood; afterwards the vagina will be opened after the wedding ...
It relates to Sanskrit mehati, "urinates", Persian mīz, "urine", Lithuanian myža, "he/she urinates", Greek ὀμείχειν (omeikhein ... Urine[edit]. The most usual word for urine was ūrīna, which is attested in Latin as early as Cicero, and became the usual ... Another word for urine, but less commonly used, was lōtium. This word relates to lavāre, "to wash". The Romans, innocent of ... "Cabbage is good for the digestion and for the urine."). Etymology[edit]. Meiere is an inherited Indo-European word. ...
Urinating is how the body gets rid of unwanted or unneeded substances in the blood. Urine is the liquid that these substances ... Many descriptions of urine say that some toxins are removed in urine, but do not say what toxins these are). ... Urine is a liquid created by the body in the kidneys. It is stored in the bladder and comes out of the human body through the ... Urine is mostly water, and contains mineral salts, and about 2% urea, which is produced in the liver to remove ammonia, which ...
"Metabolism and urine analysis of the new synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA" (PDF). Toxichem Krimtech. 82: 192. Grigoryev, ... spontaneous urinating and defecating, shortness of breath, somnolence, respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, collapse, ... "Phase I metabolism of the highly potent synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA and detection in human urine samples". Drug Testing ...
It allows people and animals to remove urine from the body. People and animals control urination using the urethral sphincter. ... It often pain when urinating.. *Urethral syndrome is related to urethritis.. *Kidney stones that go through the urethra can be ... To send a tube up the urethra to help drain urine is a common type of catheterization. ...
University physicists study urine splash-back and offer best tactics for men (w/ video), Bob Yirka, Phys.org, Nov 07, 2013. ... By contrast, if the stream contacts a surface while still in a stable state - such as by urinating directly against a urinal or ... The stream of urine experiences instability after about 15 cm (6 inches), breaking into droplets, which causes significant ...
... the clinician may measure the amount of urine left in the woman's bladder after she urinates called the postvoid residual. This ... This x-ray shows the shape of the bladder and lets the doctor see any problems that might block the normal flow of urine.[1] A ... The initial assessment of cystocele can include a pelvic exam to evaluate leakage of urine when the women is asked to bear down ... urine culture and sensitivity test will assess the presence of a urinary tract infection that may be related to urinary ...
The veins forming the prostatic plexus do not contain valves and it is thought that straining to urinate causes prostatic ... allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine»։ ...
The flehmen response also occurs, primarily in males in response to contact with female urine or genitals. Females will urinate ... They also test the female's urine. Usually, a female chooses the most dominant and fit male to mate with. Sometimes she runs ... Their need for water is quite low because they produce urine with a high-urea content, but they require a substantial grazing ...
Urinating very little, with darkly colored urine, or not urinating at all ... Urinating more than usual (this can happen if a person has uncontrolled diabetes or takes medicines like diuretics which cause ...
By 3-5 days, of age, the infant should be stooling 3-4 times per day and urinating 3-5 times per day.[4] By 5-7 days of age, ... there should be 3-6 stools per day and 4-6 urines.[4] ...
It is possible for a woman to aim her urine from a standing position without using a device. This was the norm in much earlier ... Changes to women's clothing in the twentieth century made the use of urination aids practical for women who wanted to urinate ... A similar device was patented in 1956: "an efficient urine conductor for use by females eliminating all need for contacting a ... and the urine is led off without danger of soiling the clothes of the user or the closet". It was to be "made of a cheap ...
... clean urine, presumably to help him pass a drug test. ... The older man "stated he was high and needed clean urine." The ... Man who needed clean urine, presumably for drug test, asked Thiensville boy to urinate in cup. Bill Kurtz, Now News Group ... Man who needed clean urine, presumably for drug test, asked Thiensville boy to urinate in cup. A man who said he was high ... Man who needed clean urine, presumably for drug test, asked Thiensville boy to urinate in cup A man who said he was high ...
Checked with doctor, took USG of abdominal and pelvis region, blood test, urine test and culture. Nothing significant in the ... 8 months back I had a episode of blood streaks in urine. ... Communities>Urology>Weak urine stream, burning while urinating ... Last month again I had burning sensation while urinating and pain in lower abdomen. Urine analysis and culture was done. Urine ... After this, sometimes I feel burning sensation while passing urine and masturbating. I also feel urine flow had slowed down ...
pain in urethra, dark urine, and trouble with urinating. How to fix?. Asked. 21 Nov 2014 by lisadiana. Active. 22 Nov 2014. ... Having alot of pain and trouble urinating, dark urine. I would like to know if this is a side effect and if so how to treat it. ... high blood pressure, arrhythmia, pain, metoprolol, side effect, blood pressure, urine, heart, blood, pressure. Details:. ... You should check with your doctor immediately since dark urine is listed as a side effect. https://www.drugs.com/sfx/metoprolol ...
how long have you noticed this phenomenon? tracing the roots here is gonna be tricky because we urinate so often that it almost ...
A student at a northeastern Pennsylvania Roman Catholic college is facing charges for allegedly urinating on a public nativity ... Urine trouble! Police: Student urinated on nativity scene. none. Get the latest Philadelphia news and headlines from across the ... A student at a northeastern Pennsylvania Roman Catholic college is facing charges for allegedly urinating on a public nativity ...
You should have your ,a href="/topics/urine" track_data="{ ... Dark urine cloudy urine with an odor? * Occasionally urinating ... Dark urine cloudy urine with an odor? * Occasionally urinating causes my penis burning pain, and my urine is dark and murky and ... I have a burning feeling in my penis when I urinate. My urine is dark and smells. What could this be? Have dark urine with an ... Occasionally urinating causes my penis burning pain, and my urine is dark and murky and smells, on these occasions! Why? ...
When i urinate and then i try to stop, urine continues to leak out. Is this a serious problem?. 2 doctors weighed in ... When i urinate and then i try to stop, urine continues to leak out. Is this a serious problem? ... When I urinate and then I try to stop, why does urine continue to leak out? ... Hi I have a leaking urine problem from last two years. When i done peeing and come out from toilet pee leak in my more Hi I ...
The reason? He was upset with dogs urinating on his lawn so he decided do retaliate with his own urine. Benjamin… ... reportedly told police that he was not remorseful after he sprayed a woman walking her dog with his own urine. ... 20 thoughts on "Florida Man Upset With Dogs Urinating On His Yard . . . Sprays Owner With His Own Urine" * Anonymous says: ... The reason? He was upset with dogs urinating on his lawn so he decided do retaliate with his own urine. ...
The doctor can usually do an initial dipstick urine test while you wait, which can give an indication of if there is... ... If you are feeling urinary burning and there is a pink color to the urine, then you should go in to have a urinalysis. ... What causes burning sensation with pink-colored urine while urinating?. Answered by. ... Whenever i drink less water and go to urinate i feel burning sensation and pink color urine. Constipation is also another cause ...
... unable to urinate. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Blood clots, Ask a Urologist ... Had blood in urine ..then a hard time urinating... along with blood clots. No pain . I am 64 years old usually get up 3 or 4 ... if it is small in size will enter the urethra and may cause obstruction of urine. other posibility is prostrate infection. as a ... if it is small in size will enter the urethra and may cause obstruction of urine. other posibility is prostrate infection. as a ...
If the urine is clean, then incontinence or the inability to hold the urine may be to blame. There are medications that help ... Why is my dog urinating frequently?. I have a 10 month old Yorkie, he seems to constantly have to urinate and its driving me ... My 5yr old french bulldog urinates and spots in the house my 5yr old french bulldog urinates and spots in the house even though ... hi my dog is weeing a lot in the house, even if the back door is open even if the back door is open he has had a urine sample ...
... after being dismissed for urinating behind his goal. ... ShottsBonAccord Oi! Gary! Urine trouble!. - garchbo (@garchbo) ... Shettleston goalkeeper sent off for urinating behind his own goal in bizarre non-league dismissal. *Garry Whyte has received ... The Shettleston Juniors goalkeeper was dismissed for urinating behind his goal *Play continued as Whyte went about his business ... after being instantly dismissed by the referee for urinating behind his own goal. ...
The constant need to go to the bathroom to urinate is a classic pregnancy sign that almost all pregnant women will experience. ... Leaking Urine in Pregnancy?. Many women will experience temporary urinary incontinence during pregnancy. Sometimes referred to ... If the frequent urge to urinate is accompanied by a burning pain with urinating, you may have a urinary tract infection. You ... Most women notice they have to urinate more urgently and frequently during pregnancy. The constantly need to urinate is a ...
... the amount of urine your body produces decreases at night. This allows most people to sleep 6 to 8 hours without having to ... Waking to urinate more often continues over several days.. *You are bothered by the number of times you must urinate during the ... How often do you urinate each night and how much urine do you release each time? ... Keep a diary of how much fluid you drink, how often you urinate, and how much you urinate. ...
Urinate , Dream Interpretation for urine / urinate: Release of sexual feelings; other peoples sexual attitudes, or their ... negative sexual attitudes; the flow... , Dream Meanings for urine / urinate ... URINE, URINATING. Vision: Dreaming about urinating: it may just be an actual need to relieve yourself.. If thats not it, ... URINE. In many cases, to dream you have the urge to urinate stems simply from the physiological needs you experience while you ...
Remove Cat Urine Prefer video? Watch this! Health issues that cause litter box problems Tweets by @CatProbsSolved Learn cat ... Posted in: Cat Urination Behavior , Tagged: cat urinate on bed, cat urinate on furniture, cat urinating everywhere, cats pee on ... Check out Cat Urine Problems Eliminated to discover proven-effective ways to remove that nasty urine, retrain your cat and ... Cat Urine Problems Eliminated. Save Your Home and Your Sanity!. Menu. Get the Book! *RSS Feed ...
Urine is only sterile while its inside your bladder.. Urine is sterile to you unless you have a urinary tract infection. It ... Urine is only sterile while its inside your bladder.. Urine is sterile unless you have a urinary tract infection. It doesnt ... Urine is only sterile while its inside your bladder.. That said, what do you expect from a bunch of anti-vaxxers who refuse to ... Heres how long that Portland kid would have had to urinate in the city reservoir before making it unsafe to drink ( slate.com) ...
Im urinating light red urine after 20 days of having an ipill ? what do I do ?im 16 yrs old .. on 14th feb I had an I pill .. ... Im urinating light red urine after 20 days of having an ipill ? what do I do ?. by a1000 8 years ago ... im having abdominal pains when i try to urinate. and when i do unrinate its blood instead of.... urine... could i be pregnant ... My dog tries to urinate several times during a walk; why and how do I stop this habit?My dog (a yellow lab) has an odd habit of ...
Is it normal to urinate when climaxing? On the other hand I d... ... I think it could be urine. Is it normal to urinate when ... I think it could be urine. Is it normal to urinate when climaxing? On the other hand I d.... 20/12/2010 ... Until about 35 years ago, doctors thought this was always urine. Then American researchers announced that it was a special sex ... climaxing? On the other hand I dont think all of it is urine - if it is at all - because I can do it over and over again ...
Timmer, who appeared to be drunk, denied doing the nasty deed to deputies while sporting shorts wet with urine, according to ... Kenneth Lee Timmer, 41, is accused of intentionally urinating on a woman, who was an acquaintance of his, in a bathroom of a ...
Cloudy urine can be caused by a number of medical conditions, including dehydration, a urinary tract infection, sexually ... Urine. Straining to Urinate?. I have to push, or strain, in order to urinate. There is no pain, no burning, and no smell to my ... Urine. How Does Your Urine Change When Youre Pregnant?. Changes in urine can be both an indicator of pregnancy and a sign of ... Urine. Ketones in Urine: When and Why to Test for Them and What They Mean. In people with diabetes, high levels of ketones in ...
He is whimpering loudly while urinating and has had blood in his urine. He was given pain medication for and injury a few weeks ... Dog has brown urine smelling. Why?. I have just taken custody of a dog that was rescued. The urine has a very unusual odor and ... In the last day or two, my puppy has started squatting frequently and trying to urinate. She passes a small amount of urine ... He was having difficulty urinating. Now, the opening is pulling in on itself, like the skin is too tight, and urine is pooling ...
Weak urine stream, burning while urinating goingred 8 months back I had a episode of blood streaks in urine. Checked with ...
1 x Monkey Dong Strap-on urinating device (Choose Color Below) 5 x Heat Packs 1 x Freeze Dried packet of synthetic urine 1 x ... The best synthetic urine and personal urinating device on the planet packaged together! Buy together and save! Whats included ... Quick Fix - Synthetic Urine. Only buy the best when it comes to the latest Synthetic Urine formula. This synthetic urine ... The best synthetic urine and personal urinating device on the planet packaged together! Buy together and save! ...
Symptoms do not usually appear until the cancer has grown - when this happens, you may notice a telltale sign in your urine. ... Prostate cancer symptoms: Have you spotted this when you urinate? Warning sign. PROSTATE cancer is the most common cancer in ... Symptoms do not usually appear until the cancer has grown - when this happens, you may notice a telltale sign in your urine.. ... This means that to cause symptoms the cancer needs to be big enough to press on the tube that carries urine from your bladder ...
Sudden urge to pass urine. *Frequent urination. *Waking up in the night to urinate (nocturia) ... Measuring the flow of the urine using an uroflowmeter, to identify the volume of urine and the speed of the urine voided. ... Training of the bladder and also setting a time for voiding urine. Practice should also include complete voiding of urine so as ... Local conditions at the urinary bladder level or the flow of urine can also result in irritation and spasm.. What Causes ...
Lions use urine to mark their territories. They often scrape the ground while urinating, and the urine often flows in short ... "urine washing", in which the monkey rubs urine on its feet.[77] Urine washing, in which urine is rubbed on the hands and feet, ... A male porcupine urinates on a female porcupine prior to mating, spraying the urine at high velocity.[61][62][63][64][65] ... They often urinate on vegetation, or on tree trunks at least one meter high.[142] Male lions spray 1-20 jets of urine at an ...
Cat urinating bloody mucus. CVMA , Documents , Raise Urinary Dissertation Conditions stylish Cats. Estate Capital Parking-lot ... Blood in Cat Urine: What Does it Mean?. Cat urinating bloody mucus. Urinary Tract Infections In Older. Garden City Park NY ... Popular man urinating cats through add diminish piddle, urinary pamphlet corruption know how to converge little near the vesica ... Cat urine harmful. Malaysia Correct english. Netherlands - Nederland. Late Zealand. Norway - Norge. Philippines Received ...
if i had to rate the pain 1-10 it would be a 1. There is no blood in my urine. It doesnt hurt to pee or ejaculate, however ... urinate in spurts and a slight pinching feeling at tip of penis reyburna ... Communities>Mens Health>urinate in spurts and a slight pinching feeling at tip of penis ...
The third part is urine. It might be a little less obvious to see, but if you find a dropping on newspaper, you should see it ... They do urinate, actually!. If you look closely (but not too closely) at a chickens dropping, you should see that it is made ... If you urinate on an electric fence will it shock you? Started by Brandon Zalinsky Board Physics, Astronomy & Cosmology ... Why do male dogs sniff, and then urinate on, things like lampposts, trees etc? Started by thedocBoard Cells, Microbes & Viruses ...
  • Besides frequent urination, signs of a UTI include a burning feeling when you pee, discolored urine and constantly feeling like you have to pee (even after peeing). (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • Symptoms can include trouble with urination, a weak urine stream, and not feeling empty after urination. (bestofchinesemedicine.com)
  • Solifenacin is used to treat bladder problems, including neurogenic detrusor overactivity and symptoms of an overactive bladder, such as incontinence (loss of bladder control), a strong need to urinate right away, or a frequent need to urinate. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There are a few things you can look out for if your pet is prone to bladder stones: abnormal urine patterns, difficulty urinating or bloody or cloudy urine are all signs of urinary infection. (medicanimal.com)
  • Dreaming that you are urinating is indicative of the difficulty you have been through and about to end. (beneficialstory.com)
  • Difficulty urinating or holding your urine. (wakespine.com)
  • Low estrogen levels may lead to lower muscular pressure around the urethra (the tube draining urine from the bladder), as well as a shorter urethral length, increasing the risk of leakage. (tasteforlife.com)
  • The urethra is the tube that carries urine (and also semen, in men) out of the body. (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • A blocked urethra means the dog cannot urinate, which can lead to kidney infection and failure. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Your prostate surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of your penis. (bestofchinesemedicine.com)
  • These structures include the urinary bladder and the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). (prettylitter.com)
  • An enlarged prostate, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can block the urethra from transporting urine from the bladder and out of the penis. (ayurleafherbals.com)
  • So when it's enlarged due to age or other reasons, it presses on the urethra enough to block urine flow to varying degrees. (tyemedical.com)
  • This is a swelling of the urethra and possibly blood in the urine. (umassmemorial.org)
  • It sits underneath the bladder and surrounds the urethra, which is the tube men urinate and ejaculate through. (movember.com)
  • Urinating after sexual intercourse may help purge the urethra of bacteria. (medcoer.com)
  • It surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine and semen exit the body. (uniquehomeo.com)
  • It should never be painful when she urinates, and you should contact your baby's doctor if she experiences any problems. (baycare.org)
  • It works on the muscles of the bladder to increase the amount of urine your bladder can hold and prevent them from causing incontinence. (mayoclinic.org)
  • People who smoke for many years, harmful chemicals pass into their bloodstream and are filtered by the kidneys into urine. (com.pk)
  • How often a person needs to urinate depends on how quickly the kidneys produce the urine that fills the bladder. (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • Aquetic works as a wonder therapy that not just keeps diabetes in check but also helps in cleaning of the kidneys and controls the sugar levels in blood and urine. (ayurleafherbals.com)
  • Urine is usually made up of excess fluids and waste products that are filtered from the body by the kidneys. (bas-soft.ru)
  • This can cause your urine stream to be weak, waking you up a lot at night to go to the bathroom. (bestofchinesemedicine.com)
  • It's difficult or impossible to get started, the flow starts and stops, urine flow is weak, and you don't empty. (tyemedical.com)
  • Other symptoms include a burning sensation while passing urine and an urge to urinate frequently. (com.pk)
  • An urge is felt and suddenly, there is difficultly holding back the flow of urine. (disposablesdelivered.com)
  • Urge incontinence is involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while suddenly feeling the need or urge to urinate. (tasteforlife.com)
  • You may be feeling sick, sore and/or swollen breasts, urinating more often, feeling dizzy, and of course missing your period. (answers.com)
  • The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in urine. (com.pk)
  • Update: Zachary just finished 3 weeks of Bactrim for the blood that was originally found in his urine, and squeaking when urinating/defecating. (guinealynx.info)
  • Other signs of trauma that should prompt you to go to the doctor include bruising, swelling, trouble urinating, blood in the urine, an injury that penetrates the scrotum, and fever after the injury. (express.co.uk)
  • Whether it be a blood or urine test is your decision. (answers.com)
  • But it frequently happens when the urine stays in the blood for a very long time. (bas-soft.ru)
  • Do you have any urgency that is unable to control passing urine once you got the thought of passing urine? (icliniq.com)
  • This medicine may increase the amount of urine or cause you to urinate more often when you first start taking it. (internetdrugcoupons.com)
  • With over 25 million Americans experiencing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction at some point in their life and 80% of them being women, many experts believe that all women will have urine leakage in one form or another. (clrn.org)
  • But urine leakage doesn't have to be a constant in your life and you can eliminate it safely and naturally. (clrn.org)
  • Pelvic Floor Strong System is an online program that teaches you 3-step regime that uses a series of movements and gentle pelvic strengthening exercises, so you can stop urine leakage for good. (clrn.org)
  • This includes step-by-step instructions, diagrams, photos, and videos that teach you about the movements and the way they will strengthen your pelvic floor to stop urine leakage. (clrn.org)
  • Two months is also ample time to experience the effects of the program and see how you can do all the things you love without having to worry about embarrassing urine leakage. (clrn.org)
  • Urinary incontinence (UI) is any involuntary leakage of urine. (tasteforlife.com)
  • Urine may get cloudy and foul-smelling. (urolife.in)
  • It is the loss of small amounts of urine associated with coughing, laughing, sneezing, exercising or other movements that increase intra-abdominal pressure and thus increase pressure on the bladder. (tasteforlife.com)
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced primarily by cells in the prostate, a small gland present in males, in between the bladder (organ for storing urine) and the penis (male genital organ). (metropolisindia.com)
  • The science behind it is quite simple - your pelvic relaxes when you urinate or have a bowel movement and it contracts and tightens the vaginal opening to stop the flow of urine, stool, or gas. (clrn.org)
  • The muscles may also stay partially clenched after the urine is released, which can lead to pelvic cramps. (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • For others, urinary and sexual issues can result, including impeded urine flow leading to bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems. (bestofchinesemedicine.com)
  • You shouldn't have to use your muscles to force urine out. (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • A healthy bladder works best if the body just relaxes so that the bladder muscles naturally contract to let the urine flow, rather than using the abdominal muscles to bear down as with a bowel movement. (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • The muscles of the bladder wall remain relaxed while the bladder fills with urine. (rehabilitationrobotics.net)
  • The constant holding of urine in the bladder - because you're not emptying - weakens these muscles over time. (tyemedical.com)
  • Therefore, your bladder muscles aren't squeezing forcefully enough to expel all the urine they need to expel. (tyemedical.com)
  • Weakened bladder muscles also mean you can't hold urine for as long and must go more frequently. (tyemedical.com)
  • Is it normal to constrict your muscles to urinate? (icliniq.com)
  • Is there involuntary dribbling of urine when coughing? (icliniq.com)
  • This UV light is able to detect the presence of urine, making rodent inspection easier and more efficient. (doyourownpestcontrol.com)
  • The constant presence of urine in the bladder can lead to bladder infections, a common symptom of overflow incontinence. (tyemedical.com)
  • These stones can form in sterile urine and are not associated with urinary tract infections. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • When he was at home, his mother asked him cialis india Free Sample to best over the counter sex drive pills get up and pimple like bump on penile shaft urinate once every night. (opec.go.th)
  • You get up multiple times during the night to urinate. (cultivating-character.com)
  • The symptoms are mainly due to the enlarged prostate partially blocking the flow of urine from the bladder, causing urine to back up in the bladder. (bestofchinesemedicine.com)
  • Obstruction of urine flow. (health-tourism.com)
  • The cats are starting to scratch neighbors vehicles, urinate on cars AGAIN, and leave feces in driveways. (seeclickfix.com)
  • He seems to be drinking the same amount, but urine output seems to have increased. (guinealynx.info)
  • Your child is drinking enough fluids when his or her urine is normal in colour and amount, and your child is urinating every 2 to 4 hours. (alberta.ca)
  • Generally it is normal to have some amount of oil like material once in a while in your urine. (bas-soft.ru)
  • This is a whole new concept for me but the person that I am with would like me to urinate whilst I'm inside her. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Shewee is a moulded plastic funnel that provides women with a simple, private and hygienic method of urinating without removing clothes whilst standing AND sitting. (environmenstruals.co.nz)
  • You will feel immense pain while urinating. (urolife.in)
  • For stress incontinence, consider low dose bioidentical estrogen and progesterone (see Menopause) applied daily vaginally near where the urine comes out. (tasteforlife.com)
  • What is different about the urine she wants to test again that she told you to get on your own? (guinealynx.info)
  • The law caught up with him when he was 19, but he managed to escape imprisonment when his urine test proved negative for drugs. (straitstimes.com)
  • The concept uses the same technology as a standard pregnancy test, which scans urine for the pregnancy hormone hCG and changes colour if it's detected. (mamamia.com.au)
  • If you need a comprehensive, reliable urine drug test cup for your pre-employment testing, workplace drug testing or clinical laboratory, look no further than the 10 Panel T-Cup Urine Drug Test Cup. (testcountry.com)
  • If you're searching for an affordable 10 panel drug test, you can't go wrong with the 10 Panel T-Cup Urine Drug Test Cup. (testcountry.com)
  • Remove the test cup lid and have the donor urinate directly into the device, making sure to provide the minimum required specimen level. (testcountry.com)
  • I can either take him to our local vet for another urine test, or take him back to the exotics vet an hour from here if more extensive tests seem in order. (guinealynx.info)
  • Would a second set of xrays be in order now, or another urine test, or what? (guinealynx.info)
  • Do a urine culture and sensitivity test for infection. (tasteforlife.com)
  • From the Stinger Detox to the Detoxify Xxtraclean Herbal Cleanse & Rescue Detox, we tested these detox drinks that say they'll help you pass a urine test. (stashcannabiscompany.com)
  • If you leak after 90 minutes, go to urinate every 75 minutes while awake. (tasteforlife.com)
  • In addition, if you leak urine, you may develop skin problems or infections and give off an unpleasant odor. (buyhealth.com)
  • Once the donor has collected their urine sample, ask them to securely place the lid back on the T-Cup, then return the cup to the collection official. (testcountry.com)
  • Check the color of your urine to detect if you re adequately hydrated. (undercurrent.org)
  • A simple urine sample is all that's needed to be able to detect the presence of bacteria. (gtchildrens.com)
  • He walked around his truck to the passenger side and began urinating. (beacononlinenews.com)
  • Denish Kishorchandra Parekh (24) may have been inebriated when he urinated on a 50-year-old Japanese passenger while they were on a flight from Chicago to Tokyo. (boingboing.net)
  • So when additional urine enters your bladder, the remaining space fills quickly. (tyemedical.com)
  • While struvite crystals are common in dog's urine, struvite is not. (worlddogfinder.com)
  • Common, but odd, dreaming of urine does n't always mean that you're really tight to go to the bathroom. (beneficialstory.com)
  • For the past five years, my urine stream has become slow. (icliniq.com)
  • As the stream is slow, I cannot stand and urinate. (icliniq.com)