Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Viruses that produce tumors.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Purighalla, R; Shapiro, R; McCauley, J; Randhawa, P (1995). "BK virus infection in a kidney allograft diagnosed by needle ... Decoy cells are virally infected epithelial cells that can be found in the urine. Decoy cells owe their name to their strong ... Van Aalderen, MC; Heutinck, KM; Huisman, C; Ten Berge, IJ (2012). "BK virus infection in transplant recipients: Clinical ... Moriyama, Takahito; Sorokin, Andrey (2008). "Repression of BK Virus Infection of Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells ...
Throughout his career, Major has conducted research on viruses including BK virus, adenoviruses, JC virus, simian virus 40 ( ... and polypeptide composition of human papovaviruses isolated from urine". Journal of Virology. 17 (3): 762-775. doi:10.1128/JVI. ... Olive, DM; Lampert, M; Major, EO (1980). "Comparison of wild-type BK virus DNA and BK virion DNA rescued from virus-transformed ... Major, E. O.; Di Mayorca, G. (1973). "Malignant Transformation of BHK21 Clone 13 Cells by BK Virus-A Human Papovavirus". ...
The BK virus was first isolated in 1971 from the urine of a renal transplant patient, initials B.K. The BK virus is similar to ... The BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family. Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant ... Overview of the BK virus MicrobiologyBytes: Polyomaviruses Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (July 2001). "Bk virus: a ... BK virus is an abbreviation of the name of the first patient whom the virus was isolated from in 1971 (the patient was then 29 ...
BK virus or Simian virus. The Ebola virus may also be found in urine from an infected person. The exact survival time of this ... Vanchiere, John A. (12 January 2005). "Detection of BK virus and simian virus 40 in the urine of healthy children". Journal of ... Urine may accumulate in the urine diversion section of the toilet due to blockages in the urine pipe. Attention should be paid ... Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems. ...
Teriflunomide also has antiviral effects against numerous viruses including CMV, HSV1 and the BK virus, which it achieves by ... and urine (43%). Teriflunomide is the main active in vivo metabolite of leflunomide. Upon administration of leflunomide, 70% of ... Polyoma BK virus nephropathy Kimura's disease Systemic lupus erythematosus Felty's syndrome Takayasu arteritis Granulomatosis ... Blanckaert K, De Vriese AS (December 2006). "Current recommendations for diagnosis and management of polyoma BK virus ...
JC virus and BK virus. A 2010 proposed classification recommended the division of the polyomaviruses into three genera, ... and it is not clear that WU virus itself causes disease. WU virus has not been detected in urine, although many polyomaviruses ... WU virus was one of two new human polyomaviruses discovered in 2007; the other was KI virus. The complete genome of the WU ... WU polyomavirus (also known as WU virus, WUPyV, or Human polyomavirus 4) is a virus of the family Polyomaviridae. It was ...
... though it can result from BK virus as well. A chemical hemorrhagic cystitis can develop when vaginal products are inadvertently ... Normal human urine is sterile. The presence of bacteria or pus in the urine usually indicates infection. The presence of ... Laboratory testing of urine samples now can be performed with dipsticks that indicate immune system responses to infection, as ... In immunocompromised patients, pus is present in the urine but often no organism can be cultured. In children, polymerase chain ...
BK virus Epstein-Barr virus infection Glomerulosclerosis--WebMD. ... Proteinuria (large amounts of protein in urine) is one of the ... Scarring disturbs the filtering process of the kidneys and allows protein to leak from the blood into urine. However, ...
Updated: 5 December 2008 Chong S, Antoni M, Macdonald A, Reeves M, Harber M, Magee CN (July 2019). "BK virus: Current ... In most cases, the kidney will soon start producing urine. Depending on its quality, the new kidney usually begins functioning ... BK virus is now being increasingly recognised as a transplant risk factor. Infection is the cause of death in about one third ... If complications arise, additional medications (diuretics) may be administered to help the kidney produce urine. ...
... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... urine cytology, quantification of the viral load in both urine and blood, and a renal biopsy. The reactivation of polyomavirus ... Most of these viruses are very common and typically asymptomatic in most human populations studied. BK virus is associated with ... Kuppachi S, Kaur D, Holanda DG, Thomas CP (April 2016). "BK polyoma virus infection and renal disease in non-renal solid organ ...
BK virus is now being increasingly recognised. Infection is the cause of death in about one third of people with renal ... In most cases, the kidney will soon start producing urine. Depending on its quality, the new kidney usually begins functioning ... If complications arise, additional medications (diuretics) may be administered to help the kidney produce urine. ...
Meyer BK, Pray-Grant MG, Vanden Heuvel JP, Perdew GH (February 1998). "Hepatitis B virus X-associated protein 2 is a subunit of ... "Indirubin and indigo are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands present in human urine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... also known as hepatitis B virus X-associated protein 2 (XAP2), AhR interacting protein (AIP), and AhR-activated 9 (ARA9). The ... "Subcellular localization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is modulated by the immunophilin homolog hepatitis B virus X- ...
... (STLPyV, also known as Saint Louis polyomavirus or Human polyomavirus 11) is a virus of the polyomavirus ... Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid". PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e62764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062764. PMC ... this pattern is similar to both MWPyV and the much better characterized BK polyomavirus. A distinctive characteristic of the ... In the 2015 taxonomic update to the polyomavirus group, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified STLPyV in ...
... shedding virus particles in the urine. In addition, recent studies suggest that this virus may latently infect the human semen ... Tagliapietra A, Rotondo JC, Bononi I, Mazzoni E, Magagnoli F, Maritati M (2019). "Footprints of BK and JC polyomaviruses in ... Human polyomavirus 2, commonly referred to as the JC virus or John Cunningham virus, is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly ... The virus then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract and can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys, ...
... (MWPyV, also known as Human polyomavirus 10 and briefly as MXPyV) is a virus of the polyomavirus family that ... Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid". PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e62764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062764. PMC ... this pattern is similar to that seen in BK polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analyses of the MWPyV genome suggest different ancestries ... In the 2015 taxonomic update to the polyomavirus group, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified MWPyV in ...
Fischer A (2013). Link between amphetamine-type stimulant use and the transmission of HIV and other blood-borne viruses in the ... Under normal conditions, around 5 to 30% of amphetamine is excreted unchanged in the urine. However, the urinary excretion of ... Mitchell CM, El Jordi O, Yamamoto BK (January 2019). "Inflammatory mechanisms of abused drugs.". In Aschner M, Costa LG (eds ...
... shedding virus particles in the urine. JCV can cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it infects ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
The distemper virus is very short-lived in hot, dry weather, but may persist on hands or surfaces for much longer in cool, damp ... Ferrets may also use urine marking for sex and individual recognitions. Males, if not neutered, are extremely musky. It is ... Jerry Murray, DVM (16 April 2014). "What's New With Ferret FIP-like Disease?" (xls). Clapperton, BK; Minot EO; Crump DR (April ... The virus can be passed via fluids and indirectly between humans. Although it was often fatal when first discovered, ECE is ...
"Allogeneic BK Virus-Specific T Cells for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy". New England Journal of Medicine. 379 (15 ... based on viral shedding into the urine from the site of asymptomatic infection in the kidney. The virus causes disease only ... JC virus infectionEdit. The cause of PML is a type of polyomavirus called the JC virus (JCV), after the initials of the person ... It is caused by the JC virus, which is normally present and kept under control by the immune system. The JC virus is harmless ...
Body fluids that may contain Ebola viruses include saliva, mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine and semen.[4][ ... BK; Strong, JE; Grolla, A; Wolz, A; Kargbo, B; Kargbo, DK; Formenty, P; Sanders, DA; Kobinger, GP (19 February 2015). " ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Krull IS, Nunnally BK (2004). Prions and mad cow disease. New York: Marcel Dekker. p. 6. ISBN 0824740831. Brown DR, Qin K, ... It is thought that prions may be deposited in the environment through the remains of dead animals and via urine, saliva, and ... Prions". ICTVdB Index of Viruses. U.S. National Institutes of Health website. 2002-02-14. Retrieved 2010-02-28. Babelhadj B, Di ... Brown P, Rau EH, Johnson BK, Bacote AE, Gibbs CJ, Gajdusek DC (March 2000). "New studies on the heat resistance of hamster- ...
2014). "Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the precise quantification of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 proviral loads in peripheral ... 2016). "A Prospective Blinded Evaluation of Urine-DNA Testing for Detection of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma in Patients with ... "Footprints of BK and JC polyomaviruses in specimens from females affected by spontaneous abortion". Hum Reprod. 34 (3): 433-440 ... urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Early detection of ctDNA (as in molecular relapse) may lead to earlier administration of an ...
Virus in Ferrets is Intermediate between That Due to Seasonal H1N1 Virus and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus". ... Clapperton, BK; Minot EO; Crump DR (April 1988). "An Olfactory Recognition System in the Ferret Mustela furo L. (Carnivora: ... Ferrets may also use urine marking for sex and individual recognition.[12] ... The human influenza virus (Influenza type A) was transmitted from an infected ferret to a junior investigator, from whom it was ...
2018-10-11). "Allogeneic BK Virus-Specific T Cells for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy". New England Journal of ... based on viral shedding into the urine from the site of asymptomatic infection in the kidney. The virus causes disease only ... It is caused by the JC virus, which is normally present and kept under control by the immune system. The JC virus is harmless ... A number of drugs work against JC virus in cell culture, but no proven, effective therapy is known in humans. For example, 1-O- ...
B-K mole, Clark's nevus, dysplastic melanocytic nevus, nevus with architectural disorder) Dysplastic nevus syndrome (B-K mole ... Viscerotropic leishmaniasis Wheat warehouse itch Virus-related cutaneous conditions are caused by two main groups of viruses- ... Iron deficiency Kwashiorkor Lycopenemia Maple syrup urine disease Marasmus Niacin deficiency (pellagra, vitamin B3 deficiency) ... Alphavirus infection Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood (unilateral laterothoracic exanthem) B virus infection ...
在美國食品藥品監督管理局(FDA)已發出警告,指接受黴酚酸酯和黴酚酸的患者受機會性感染的風險有所增加,例如激活潛在的病毒感染,如帶狀皰疹、其他單純皰疹感染、鉅細胞病毒,和與腎病相關的BK病毒(英语:BK virus)。此外,FDA正在調查16名在服用該藥 ... Urine (93%),. faeces (6%)[2]. 识别信息. CAS注册号. 24280-93
Because herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins are richer in arginine and poorer in lysine than the cells they infect, lysine ... Hudson AO, Bless C, Macedo P, Chatterjee SP, Singh BK, Gilvarg C, Leustek T (January 2005). "Biosynthesis of lysine in plants: ... Hyperlysinuria is marked by high amounts of lysine in the urine. It is often due to a metabolic disease in which a protein ... Sacksteder KA, Biery BJ, Morrell JC, Goodman BK, Geisbrecht BV, Cox RP, Gould SJ, Geraghty MT (June 2000). "Identification of ...
Kim SG, Kim BK, Kim K, Fang S (December 2016). "Bile Acid Nuclear Receptor Farnesoid X Receptor: Therapeutic Target for ... Ivermectin is also being studied as a potential antiviral agent against the viruses chikungunya and yellow fever.[66] ... Feces; ,1% urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a + 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b ...
Walian P, Cross TA, Jap BK (2004). "Structural genomics of membrane proteins". Genome Biology. 5 (4): 215. doi:10.1186/gb-2004- ... Eukaryotes, bacteria, archaea and viruses have on average 15145, 3200, 2358 and 42 proteins respectively coded in their genomes ... including assembled viruses;[54] a variant known as electron crystallography can also produce high-resolution information in ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... dark urine and abdominal pain.[1] Often these symptoms last a few weeks and rarely does the initial infection result in death.[ ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family.[36] The virus particle (virion) consists of an outer lipid ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... urine rare ingestion of undercooked or raw freshwater fish Guinea worm - Dracunculiasis Dracunculus medinensis subcutaneous ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
Are viruses alive? What about prions?» *↑ 5,0 5,1 5,2 Masel J, Jansen VAA, Nowak MA (March 1999)։ «Quantifying the kinetic ... Brown P, Rau EH, Johnson BK, Bacote AE, Gibbs CJ, Gajdusek DC (2000)։ «New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted ... Detection of Prion Protein in Urine-Derived Injectable Fertility Products by a Targeted Proteomic Approach»։ PLoS One 6 (3) ( ... Viruses.. - 2013. - В. 5(1). - С. 374-405. - doi:10.3390/v5010374. *↑ Cohen FE, Pan KM, Huang Z, Baldwin M, Fletterick RJ, ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Thus the use of urine testing or ultrasounds is generally not needed.[41] ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... Gastroenteritis viruses: A = rotavirus, B = adenovirus, C = norovirus and D = astrovirus. The virus particles are shown at the ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Other studies analyzed urine, semen, and blood and found varying amounts of HPV,[119] but there is no publicly available test ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
When CIN3 lesions lead to cancer, most of them have the assistance of the HPV virus, but that is not always the case, which is ... Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK (September 2004). "Persistent area socioeconomic disparities in U.S. incidence of ... leakage of urine or feces from the vagina. Bleeding after douching or after a pelvic exam is a common symptom of cervical ... HPV vaccines protect against two to seven high-risk strains of this family of viruses and may prevent up to 90% of cervical ...
Many bacteria and viruses elicit a TH1-mediated immune response, which down-regulates TH2 responses. The first proposed ... Panda R, Ariyarathna H, Amnuaycheewa P, Tetteh A, Pramod SN, Taylor SL, Ballmer-Weber BK, Goodman RE (February 2013). " ... urine autoinjection, skin titration (Rinkel method), and provocative and neutralization (subcutaneous) testing or sublingual ... "Exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses in relation to atopy and allergic asthma: epidemiological ...
Individuals with certain Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative, non-Epstein-Barr virus malignant lymphoid, or other ... Singh S, Mann BK (2013). "Insect bite reactions". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 79 (2): 151-64 ... bloody urine, proteinuria, and/or wheezing; or very rarely, symptoms of overt anaphylaxis such as hives, angioedema (i.e. skin ... Upon reactivation, the virus expresses certain of its gene products, particularly that of its LMP-1 oncogene, as well as ...
Brandt C, Pedersen BK (2010). "The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic ... this highly contagious virus normally causes a milder illness called Hand, foot, and mouth disease but can cause life- ... has been purified from human serum and urine. Many neuronal cells are unresponsive to stimulation by IL-6 alone, but ... Petersen AM, Pedersen BK (April 2005). "The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise". Journal of Applied Physiology. 98 (4): 1154- ...
Robson D. "The viruses that may save humanity". Retrieved 2018-09-25. "The Next SpaceX Launch Will Carry Deadly Bacteria". 7 ... Normally, a bacterium must be cultured from blood, urine, sputum, or other body-fluid samples, and in sufficient quantities to ... Zinderman CE, Conner B, Malakooti MA, LaMar JE, Armstrong A, Bohnker BK (May 2004). "Community-acquired methicillin-resistant ... viruses that infect bacteria). The source of MRSA could come from hospital waste, farm sewage, or other waste water. Livestock ...
There are several reports of the analysis of urine produced by kidneys during perfusion storage. Kastagir analysed urine ... Kastagir BK, Kabb K, Leonards JR (1969). "Ultrastructure in the canine kidney preserved for 24 hours". Trans Am Soc Artific ... and there was the potential risk from hepatitis virus and cytotoxic antibodies. The absence of lipo-proteins from the perfusate ... Woods noted protein casts in the tubules of viable kidneys after 5 day storage, but he did not analyse the urine produced ...
A virus lethality study performed in 1977 demonstrated that a particular pesticide did not increase the lethality of the virus ... The former involves taking direct measurement of the parent compound or its metabolites in various types of media: urine, blood ... Mink PJ, Mandel JS, Lundin JI, Sceurman BK (November 2011). "Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and non-cancer health outcomes ... In general, a pesticide is a chemical (such as carbamate) or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, or fungus) that ...
Less than 0.2% of a dose is excreted unchanged in urine and less than 6% of a dose is excreted in urine as glucuronide ... Provinciali N, Suen C, Dunn BK, DeCensi A (October 2016). "Raloxifene hydrochloride for breast cancer risk reduction in ... research conducted by the consortium which has shown efficacy in countering the replication of the virus in cells. The IP for ...
Urine. Search our extensive database of medical/laboratory tests and review in-depth information about each test. ... Polyoma BK Virus, PCR, Quantitative, Urine. a.k.a. BKV, Polyoma BK Virus, Polyomavirus, BK virus ... Information about Polyoma BK Virus, PCR, Quantitative, ...
Virus is pelleted from the urine, inoculated onto pre-formed monolayers of human embryo lung (HEL) fibroblasts, and infected ... The sensitivity of the IF method is 91%. Positive isolates may be confirmed as BK virus using specific rabbit antisera on the ... Furthermore, a virus stock may be grown up by passage from the original culture fluids for further studies such as DNA analysis ... As a broadly-reactive human serum is used for screening the cultures, other viruses which grow in HEL cells, such as CMV, may ...
Polyoma virus studies. We prospectively performed quantitative PCR for BK virus on urine samples collected before admission, ... 2004) Association between a high BK virus load in urine samples of patients with graft-versus-host disease and development of ... 2008) Diagnostic value of JC/BK virus antibody immunohistochemistry staining in urine samples from post-transplant ... Among patients who were BK virus positive prior to transplant (n=96), the median log BK viral load pre-hematopoietic stem cell ...
Centrifuge purple top promptly and send 1 mL (minimum 0.5 mL) of EDTA plasma or urine, refrigerated. ... Centrifuge purple top promptly and send 1 mL (minimum 0.5 mL) of EDTA plasma or urine, refrigerated. ...
Detection or quantitation of BK virus DNA. Used for monitoring nephropathy in transplant patients; determining BK virus ...
... which is a conserved sequence specific for BK virus. This assay does not detect JC virus or SV-40 (other polyomaviruses). The ... which is a conserved sequence specific for BK virus. This assay does not detect JC virus or SV-40 (other polyomaviruses). The ... Supplies Instructions by Specimen Type Microbiology Culture Tests Light Protection Tests Urine Preservatives Phlebotomist ...
A prospective and diagnostic marker for the development of BK virus nephropathy in renal transplant recipients This test should ... BK Virus PCR, Quant, U. Aliases Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching. BK PCR Quant. BK Virus. BKV ... A prospective and diagnostic marker for the development of BK virus nephropathy in renal transplant recipients ... Supplies Instructions by Specimen Type Microbiology Culture Tests Light Protection Tests Urine Preservatives Phlebotomist ...
... which is a conserved sequence specific for BK virus (BKV). This assay only detects BKV; it does not detect JC virus or SV-40 ( ... Specimens with unknown levels of BKV DNA are then compared to the standard curve to determine the copy level of the virus.( ... other polyoma viruses). The LightCycler instrument (Roche Applied Science) amplifies and monitors the development of target ... which is a conserved sequence specific for BK virus (BKV). This assay only detects BKV; it does not detect JC virus or SV-40 ( ...
Care guide for Bk Virus Infection (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options ... Blood and urine tests will show if you are infected with the BK virus. They can also check your kidney function and get ... A BK virus (BKV) infection is a common viral infection that usually does not cause problems. The virus normally remains ... Antiviral medicine may be used to kill the BK virus.. *Antirheumatic drugs may be used to help your immune system and kill the ...
Detection of BK virus and JC virus in urine and brain tissue by the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 27: 1174-1179 ... Detection of BK virus and JC virus DNA in urine samples from immunocompromised (HIV-infected) and immunocompetent (HIV-non- ... Incidence of BK virus and JC virus viruria in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected subjects. J Infect Dis 167: ... Humans are the natural hosts for JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), two viruses classified within the Poliomaviridae family. ...
Primary infection of BK virus occurs early in life. It is unclear how BK is spread. Since it is detected mostly in urine and ... How does BK virus cause disease? * What other clinical manifestations may help me to diagnose and manage BK virus associated ... Pre-emptive screening for BK virus in blood and urine after renal transplant are implemented to detect any signs of BK ... BK virus is a human polyomavirus that resides in the kidneys of up to 90% of healthy individuals. Reactivation of the BK virus ...
This is the first study to identify BK virus proteins in clinical samples by MS and that this approach makes it possible to ... Following reactivation of latent virus, impaired cellular immunity enables sustained viral replication to occur in urothelial ... we observed an association between higher decoy cell numbers and the presence of the VP1 subtype Ib-2 in urine samples derived ... based method for the detection of BKV derived proteins directly isolated from clinical urine samples. Peptides detected by MS ...
Human polyoma virus in renal allograft biopsies: morphological findings and correlation with urine cytology. Hum. Pathol.30:970 ... Prospective monitoring of BK virus load after discontinuing sirolimus treatment in a renal transplant patient with BK virus ... Donor origin of BK virus in renal transplantation and role of HLA C7 in susceptibility to sustained BK viremia. Am. J. ... Human polyomavirus infections with JC virus and BK virus in renal transplant patients. Ann. Intern. Med.92:373-378. ...
b,BK virus has been detected both in blood and urine.,/b, What is BK virus? How can my creatinine level be managed? ... BK virus has been detected both in blood and urine. What is BK virus? How can my creatinine level be managed? ... A:BK virus can infect and result in kidney allograft (transplanted) dysfunction, prevalence rate being around 5% within 10-12 ... After the diagnosis of BK virus disease or the nephropathy in the transplanted kidney, first line of approach is to reduce the ...
Pre-transplant shedding of BK virus in urine is unrelated to post-transplant viruria and viremia in kidney transplant ... Pre-transplant shedding of BK virus in urine is unrelated to post-transplant viruria and viremia in kidney transplant ... BK virus-(BKV) associated nephropathy (BKVN) is a major cause of allograft injury in kidney transplant recipients. In such ... Urine samples were obtained in the immediate pre-transplant period and during the first year after transplant on a monthly ...
BK virus (BKV) is an important pathogen and cause of nephropathy in recipients of renal transplants, but its clinical ... Prospective Measurement of BK Virus Blood and Urine Levels, and Associations with Morbidity, in Recipients of Allogeneic ... Only 16% (16/103) developed BK viremia. All patients with BK viremia also had detectable BK viruria. In 38 patients who ... Prospective Measurement of BK Virus Blood and Urine Levels, and Associations with Morbidity, in Recipients of Allogeneic ...
The BK virus was first isolated in 1971 from the urine of a renal transplant patient, initials B.K. The BK virus is similar to ... The BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family. Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant ... Overview of the BK virus MicrobiologyBytes: Polyomaviruses Reploeg MD, Storch GA, Clifford DB (July 2001). "Bk virus: a ... BK virus is an abbreviation of the name of the first patient whom the virus was isolated from in 1971 (the patient was then 29 ...
Detection of BK virus and JC virus in urine and brain tissue by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1989; 27(6): 1174- ... Detection of BK virus in urine from renal transplant subjects my mass spectrometry. Clin Proteomics. 2012; 9(1): 4. ... BK virus bas a potential co-factor for HPV in the development of cervical neoplasia. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2011; 42(2): 130-134. ... The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK and JC virus infections among patients with oral squamous cell ...
... as well as three clones each from the urine of one human immunodeficiency virus type 2-positive (BKVHI) and one healthy control ... The regulatory region of all clones corresponded to the archetypal regulatory region usually found in urine isolates. Analysis ... To determine the variability of BK virus (BKV) in vivo, the sequences of nine full-length molecular clones from the striated ... Yang, R. C. & Wu, R. ( 1979 ). BK virus DNA: complete nucleotide sequence of a human tumor virus. Science 206, 456-462.[ ...
Testing for molecular markers in the urine of kidney transplant patients could reveal whether the transplant is failing and why ... The study focused on a virus called BK. The BK virus causes a common infection which most people experience during childhood ... Another ten had been diagnosed with BK virus nephropathy, meaning the virus was destroying the kidney. The other ten patients ... However, in those with the viral infection, they were able to detect proteins that are known to come from the BK virus. These ...
Detection of BK virus and adenovirus in the urine from children after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Infect Dis ... such as BK virus, leading to the condition. [78] BK virus has also been suggested to be a causal transforming agent for bladder ... Association between a high BK virus load in urine samples of patients with graft-versus-host disease and development of ... Priftakis P, Bogdanovic G, Kokhaei P, Mellstedt H, Dalianis T. BK virus (BKV) quantification in urine samples of bone marrow ...
Blood and urine BK polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the favored screening tests. ... Does this patient have BK virus infection?. BK virus (BKV) is a DNA virus that typically infects children and remains latent in ... Does this patient have BK virus infection?*What tests to perform?*How should patients with BK virus infection be managed?*What ... "BK virus nephropathy and kidney transplantation". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. vol. 2. 2007. pp. S36-46. (Nice comprehensive review ...
From the 16 urines collected during BK viremia, 43.8% were PV-Haufen-positive, and 56.2% were negative. The PV-Haufen were not ... After hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), polyoma-BK virus is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and also with ... The Noninvasive Urinary Polyomavirus Haufen Test Predicts BK Virus Nephropathy in Children After Hematopoietic Cell ... In this proof-of-concept study, a positive PV-Haufen test was only seen in some patients with BK viremia and was not associated ...
BK virus or Simian virus. The Ebola virus may also be found in urine from an infected person. The exact survival time of this ... Vanchiere, John A. (12 January 2005). "Detection of BK virus and simian virus 40 in the urine of healthy children". Journal of ... Urine may accumulate in the urine diversion section of the toilet due to blockages in the urine pipe. Attention should be paid ... Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems. ...
Beta-hCG, Urine Qualitative. 7. BK Virus, Qualitative by PCR. 8. Drug Screen (Nonforensic), Urine, Qualitative. 9. Ethanol, ... Liquichek Qualitative Urine Toxicology Control. 3. bcr/abl, t(9;22) Translocation Qualitativeby RT-PCR. 4. Bence Jones Protein ... Qualitative Free Kappa & Lambda Light Chains, Urine. 5. Beta-hCG, Serum Qualitative. 6. ...
Noninvasive diagnosis of BK virus nephritis by measurement of messenger RNA for BK virus VP1 in urine. Transplantation 2002;74: ... Detection of BK virus and JC virus in urine and brain tissue by the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1989;27:1174-9. ... Quantitation of BK virus load in serum for the diagnosis of BK virus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. J ... Donor origin of BK virus in renal transplantation and role of HLA C7 in susceptibility to sustained BK viremia. Am J Transplant ...
... he persists with optimal graft function and is constantly BKV DNA negative in both urine and plasma. Our report indicates that ... Although polyoma BK virus (BKV)-associated interstitial nephritis has received increasing attention because of its clinical ... Retransplantation after kidney graft loss due to polyoma BK virus nephropathy: successful outcome without original allograft ...
Lavender (EDTA), pink (K2EDTA) or serum separator tube OR urine. Specimen Preparation. Transport 1 mL whole blood, serum, ... BK Virus DNA, Quant Source. PROMPT. N. 31208-2. 2002302. BK Virus DNA, Quant copy/mL. Resultable. N. cpy/mL. XXXXXXXXX. 48309-9 ... BK Virus DNA, Quant Interp. Resultable. N. 47251-4. For questions regarding the Interface Map, please contact interface.support ... BK Virus DNA, Quant copy/mL. 48309-9. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is ...
A cell found in the urine with inclusion bodies in its nucleus. It indicates infection with BK virus in renal transplant ... NK cells destroy cells infected with viruses and some types of tumor cells in cultures. They also secrete gamma interferon (INF ... 3. cell containing nonself antigens in its cell membranes that is a target for nonimmune and immune cytolysis, e.g. virus- ... CD8 T cells (cytotoxic T cells) directly lyse (kill) organisms, an important defense against viruses; most CD8 T cells also ...
  • Polyomavirus hominis 1 (genus Polyomaviridae ), the BK virus, is a non-encapsulated DNA virus that is highly prevalent in healthy adults with up to 90% seropositivity. (haematologica.org)
  • The BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do polyomavirus hominis strains BK and JC play a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma? (aaem.pl)
  • Bennett S, Broekema N, Imperiale M. BK polyomavirus: emerging pathogen. (aaem.pl)
  • Naumnik B, Kowalewska J, Zalewski G, Charkiewicz R, Myśliwiec M. The status of BK polyomavirus replication in adult renal transplant recipients in northeastern Poland. (aaem.pl)
  • The most divergent BKV CAP clones differed at 0·55 % of sites, implying a rate of nucleotide substitution of approximately 5×10 −5 substitutions per site per year, which is two orders of magnitude faster than estimated for the other human polyomavirus, JC virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • After hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), polyoma-BK virus is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and also with polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN). (ovid.com)
  • Aim Reactivation of latent BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection is relatively common following renal transplantation and BKV-associated nephropathy has emerged as a significant complication. (bmj.com)
  • BK polyomavirus (BKV) and JC polyomavirus (JCV) are both ubiquitous, causing sub-clinical infection within the first 10-15 years of life. (bmj.com)
  • BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) has emerged as a major cause of kidney graft failure (not due to rejection) in renal transplant patients (RTPs). (bmj.com)
  • Genomic sequences of the human polyomaviruses, JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), and simian virus 40 (SV40) have been reported from several types of human brain tumors, but there have been no population-based seroepidemiologic studies to evaluate the association between polyomavirus infection and brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The polyomavirus family includes two human viruses, JCV 3 and BKV. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although polyomavirus JC (JCV) is the proven pathogen of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the fatal demyelinating disease, this virus is ubiquitous as a usually harmless symbiote among human beings. (pnas.org)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a nonenveloped, ubiquitous human polyomavirus that establishes a persistent infection in healthy individuals. (asm.org)
  • This infection remains asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, but under conditions of immunosuppression, BKV can undergo reactivation resulting in viral shedding in the urine and may eventually lead to severe diseases, such as polyomavirus nephropathy in renal transplant patients and hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE This work reveals that one of the most frequently used cell lines for JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) research, the SV40-immortalized human fetal glial cell line SVG p12 obtained directly from ATCC, contains infectious BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) of strain UT and a spectrum of defective mutants. (asm.org)
  • BK virus is a polyomavirus that occurs worldwide with a prevalence of 60 to 80% in the general population[ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human polyomavirus JC virus genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genotype profile of human polyomavirus JC excreted in urine of immunocompetent individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brain tumors in owl monkeys inoculated with a human polyomavirus (JC virus). (biomedcentral.com)
  • BK polyomavirus (BKV) is the primary etiological agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVNA), which causes irreversible graft loss in 1% to 10% of kidney transplants (Hirsch 2005, Ramos et al. (nemours.org)
  • BK polyomavirus in solid organ transplantation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Polyomavirus (BK) in pediatric renal transplants: evaluation of viremic patients with and without BK associated nephritis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was first isolated from the urine of a patient on immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • BK polyomavirus has been associated with mild respiratory disease in children and can be detected in tonsils. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • BK polyomavirus uses several mechanisms to induce tumors. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • BK polyomavirus also causes structural changes in chromosomes and damages DNA repair mechanism. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is closely related to BKPyV and simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). (gopetsamerica.com)
  • KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) ( Karolinska Institutet virus ) was first isolated in 2007 from children less than 5 years of age with respiratory tract infections who had conditions ranging from a common cold to acute respiratory distress. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) ( Washington University virus ) was initially isolated in 2007 from a patient with acute respiratory tract infection. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The Orthopolyomavirus genus includes the JC virus (JCPyV), BK virus (BKPyV), the Simian virus SV40, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV, MCPyV) and trichodysplasiaspinulosa-associated polyomavirus (Benett et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • BK Polyoma(SV-40) is vital to evaluate renal allograft biopsies as a marker of Polyomavirus infection. (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • Urine samples and blood samples are assessed to determine the presence of BK virus (BK polyomavirus). (apollodiagnostics.in)
  • Background Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common cause of morbidity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, frequently associated with BK virus infection. (haematologica.org)
  • BK virus infection has been connected with development of hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic transplant, but most studies detected the virus at the time of bleeding, therefore not allowing the risk imposed by asymptomatic infection to be estimated. (haematologica.org)
  • A BK virus (BKV) infection is a common viral infection that usually does not cause problems. (drugs.com)
  • A BK infection may cause your kidneys or other organs to fail, and may become life-threatening. (drugs.com)
  • After asymptomatic BK virus primary infection in childhood of up to 90% of the general population, BK virus establishes lifelong residence in kidney epithelial cells. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant consequences of infection are uncommon, with the exception of the immunocompromised and the immunosuppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BK virus causes a common infection which most people experience during childhood mainly with no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Following infection the virus remains in the body, lying dormant in the kidneys and urinary tract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, in those with the viral infection, they were able to detect proteins that are known to come from the BK virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Does this patient have BK virus infection? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • How should patients with BK virus infection be managed? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • BK virus infection is considered to be contagious between people. (kidneypatientguide.org.uk)
  • Call your doctor right away if you have any signs of infection like fever, chills, flu-like signs, very bad sore throat , ear or sinus pain, cough, more sputum or change in color of sputum, pain with passing urine, mouth sores, or a wound that will not heal. (drugs.com)
  • Some people treated with this medicine (mycophenolate mofetil tablets) have had very bad kidney problems caused by a certain viral infection (BK virus). (drugs.com)
  • In people who have had a kidney transplant , BK virus infection may cause loss of the kidney. (drugs.com)
  • Primary infection with BKV is followed by dissemination to the kidney and urinary tract, in particular to kidney tubule epithelial cells and urinary tract epithelial cells, where the virus establishes a lifelong persistent infection ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • BK virus infection has emerged as a major complication in kidney transplantation leading to a significant reduction in graft survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are currently no proven strategies to prevent or treat BK virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that administration of a quinolone antibiotic, when given early post-transplantation, will prevent the establishment of BK viral replication in the urine and thus prevent systemic BK virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If the full trial shows that levofloxacin significantly reduces BK infection and improves outcomes, its use in kidney transplantation will be strongly endorsed given the lack of proven therapies for this condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This major advancement in care, however, has been replaced by a new threat, BK virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose to conduct a RCT to determine if we can prevent BK virus infection from occurring rather than trying to treat the virus once replication has been established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identifying patients at risk for reactivation of latent viruses or acquisition of new ones is important, as active infection and diseases can potentially be prevented with pre-emptive monitoring or tailored prophylaxis during the most critical periods. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • EM was instrumental in elucidating the viral agent of the first outbreak of Ebola virus in Zaire in 1976 ( 8 , 45 , 71 ) and in identifying the Ebola Reston infection of a monkey colony in Reston, VA, in 1989 as being caused by a filovirus ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection of human polyomaviruses JC and BK in peripheral blood leukocytes from immunocompetent individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • JC virus infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells, primary B lymphocytes, and tonsillar stromal cells: implications for viral latency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She was treated for cytomegalovirus infection and BK virus was demonstrated in the urine. (springermedizin.de)
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare, highly fatal demyelinating brain infection caused by the JC virus. (redorbit.com)
  • The association between BK virus infection and hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is well established. (gi.org)
  • The dosage of mycophenolate sodium was tapered from 720 to 360 mg daily and that of everolimus increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mg daily due to BK viral infection with BK nephropathy. (elsevier.com)
  • However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and Ribavirin in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection. (jove.com)
  • Host genetic factors influence treatment responses to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (jove.com)
  • Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients reduces BK virus infection at 3 months but not at 1 year. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Polyomaviruses are small DNA viruses capable of persistent infection. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The virus establishes a persistent infection in the kidneys and is reactivated under immunocompromised conditions. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Primary infection with this virus occurs during childhood or youth. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Young children may be susceptible to infection with this virus and occasionally the infection with this virus may cause severe disease. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Acyclovir (ACV) is the most commonly used drug for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection therapy. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Management of BK Viremia is Associated with a Lower Risk of Subsequent Cytomegalovirus Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK virus, Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in oropharyngeal cancer, and to test our hypothesis that BKV/HPV/EBV co-infection plays a role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. (pjmonline.org)
  • Only in two cases co-infection of all three viruses was found. (pjmonline.org)
  • PML occurs when immune control of persistent infection with JCPyV fails, the virus mutates and changes its cellular tropism, enters the brain and infects astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and, in particular cases, also neurones. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Renal TB may be suspected if the patient has signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection with a workup that demonstrates pyuria but a negative urine culture. (blogspot.com)
  • We hypothesized that patients with positive BK viruria before unrelated or mismatched related donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a higher incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis. (haematologica.org)
  • Pre-transplant BK viruria detected by quantitative PCR was positive in 96 patients. (haematologica.org)
  • Conclusions Hemorrhagic cystitis is the result of a complex interaction of donor type, preparative regimen intensity, and BK viruria. (haematologica.org)
  • Compared to healthy subjects, there is an increased incidence of viruria in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, ranging from 20-44% in most studies (Markowitz et al. (scielo.br)
  • Although BK viruria can occur in 0-20% of asymptomatic immunocompetent individuals, BK virus associated diseases (nephropathy, ureteral stenosis, hemorrhagic cystitis) are only seen in immunocompromised patients who had renal transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A rise in the optical density (OD) of anti-BK IgA (0.19), IgM (0.04), or IgG (0.38) had a sensitivity of 76.6 to 88.0% and a specificity of 71.7 to 76.1% for detection of viruria. (asm.org)
  • An anti-BK IgG- and IgA-positive phenotype at week 1 was less frequent in patients who subsequently developed viremia (14.3%) than in those who subsequently developed viruria (42.2%) ( P = 0.04). (asm.org)
  • BK viruria was manifest at any time during the period of measurement in 62% of the patients. (ashpublications.org)
  • All patients with BK viremia also had detectable BK viruria. (ashpublications.org)
  • In 38 patients who underwent BKV monitoring beginning immediately after transplant, development of BK viruria was an early phenomenon (median 26 days post-transplant, range = 4 to 274 days), while BK viremia occurred later (median 157 days post-transplant, range = 62 to 323 days). (ashpublications.org)
  • More recipients of alternative donor transplants compared to HLA-identical transplants developed BK viruria (75% vs 53%, P = 0.03) and BK viremia (24% vs 9%, P = 0.02). (ashpublications.org)
  • The presence of BK viremia and/or viruria were not significantly associated with renal function, as measured by the mean serum creatinine, although 2/16 patients with BK viremia developed biopsy proven BKV interstitial nephritis, with one requiring hemodialysis. (ashpublications.org)
  • In summary, BK viruria is a common early finding in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, especially in those who do not have HLA-identical donors. (ashpublications.org)
  • Conclusions Different patterns of reactivation were observed: BK viruria was detected after 3-6 months, and JC viruria was observed as early as 5 days post-transplantation. (bmj.com)
  • The primary outcome will be the time to occurrence of BK viruria within the first year post-transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If levofloxacin significantly reduces BK viruria and urine viral loads in kidney transplantation, it will provide important justification to progress to the larger trial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BK virus replication progresses through specific stages: appearing first in the urine (BK viruria), then in the blood (BK viremia) and finally in the kidney transplant as an inflammatory nephritis (BK virus nephropathy)[ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Incidence of BK virus and JC virus viruria in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Asymptomatic BK viruria has been reported in 5 to 60% of healthy people and 50 to 100% of patients after HCT. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Only 16% (16/103) developed BK viremia. (ashpublications.org)
  • 71.4% male) who were selected from repositories for having varying degrees of BK viremia (range, 0-1.0 × 108 copies/mL), hemorrhagic cystitis (present/absent), and data on kidney function. (ovid.com)
  • From the 16 urines collected during BK viremia, 43.8% were PV-Haufen-positive, and 56.2% were negative. (ovid.com)
  • The PV-Haufen were not present in the 5 urines from patients without concomitant BK-viremia. (ovid.com)
  • In this proof-of-concept study, a positive PV-Haufen test was only seen in some patients with BK viremia and was not associated with hemorrhagic cystitis. (ovid.com)
  • The patient subsequently developed BK viremia and was successfully treated by using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) after failing to respond to conventional treatment. (medworm.com)
  • Secondary outcomes include BK viremia, measures of safety (adverse events, resistant infections, Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea), measures of feasibility (proportion of transplanted patients recruited into the trial), proportion of patients adherent to the protocol, patient drop-out and loss to follow-up,and use of quinolone antibiotics outside of the trial protocol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The patient also had low-level of BK viremia (1,200 copies/mL). (gi.org)
  • Since viremia is considered the best predictor of the disease, monitoring the EBV DNA levels in the blood by quantitative real-time PCR in these patients may allow timely recognition of virus reactivation and permit installment and assessment of antiviral treatment (rituximab) and/or a decrease of immunosuppressive therapies. (nemours.org)
  • Evaluation of fluoroquinolones for the prevention of BK viremia after renal transplantation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • A kidney biopsy is a procedure to remove a small amount of tissue from your kidney to see if you are infected with the BK virus. (drugs.com)
  • Biopsy is crucial in deciphering rejection, for which increased immunosuppression is necessary for treatment, from BK virus associated nephropathy, for which decreased immunosuppression is instrumental in halting the viral replication. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • This virus can be diagnosed by a BKV blood test or a urine test for decoy cells, in addition to carrying out a biopsy in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 JCV has been identified in kidney biopsy tissue and urine by immunohistochemistry and PCR, respectively, from a subset of RTPs with tubulointerstitial nephritis. (bmj.com)
  • 3/97 patients had biopsy-proven PVN, all in the third month, 1-6 weeks after first positive urine samples. (bmj.com)
  • After reduction of immunosuppression, eight patients (15.3%) developed acute rejection and six (11.5%) became negative for PV in biopsy and urine. (asnjournals.org)
  • Escherichia coli with the same antibiotic sensitivity spectrum as that in the urine was cultured from the biopsy. (springermedizin.de)
  • METHODS: Levels of mRNAs encoding proteins implicated in inflammation and fibrosis were measured in urine collected at the time of biopsy diagnosis of BKVN in 29 kidney graft recipients and analyzed for prognosticating graft failure using logistic regression. (elsevier.com)
  • The next step is to have another kidney biopsy to determine if the virus is still causing active inflammation in my kidneys. (blogspot.com)
  • BK virus (BKV) belongs to the genus Polyomaviridae and is now a well-recognized pathogen in kidney transplant recipients. (asm.org)
  • BKV reactivation with urinary excretion of virus occurs in 10 to 60% of kidney transplant recipients. (asm.org)
  • BK virus-(BKV) associated nephropathy (BKVN) is a major cause of allograft injury in kidney transplant recipients. (usp.br)
  • We examined urine samples from 34 kidney transplant recipients, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect BKV. (usp.br)
  • Prospective Measurement of BK Virus Blood and Urine Levels, and Associations with Morbidity, in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplants. (ashpublications.org)
  • BK virus (BKV) is an important pathogen and cause of nephropathy in recipients of renal transplants, but its clinical significance in patients following hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is less well described. (ashpublications.org)
  • The aim of the study was to determine reactivation patterns for these polyomaviruses in renal transplant recipients using an in-house quantitative real-time multiplex PCR assay and IgG serological assays using recombinant BK and JC virus-like particles. (bmj.com)
  • Although polyoma BK virus (BKV)-associated interstitial nephritis has received increasing attention because of its clinical relevance in kidney allograft recipients, data on risk for repeated renal transplantation after BKV-related allograft loss are limited, and the need to perform an original graft nephrectomy is the object of debate. (nih.gov)
  • In kidney transplant recipients, immunosuppression leads to reactivation of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monthly urine samples (n = 392) were received from 97/108 transplant recipients in 2005. (bmj.com)
  • Polyoma virus (PV) can cause interstitial nephritis and lead to graft failure in renal transplant recipients. (asnjournals.org)
  • Further, the Henipavirus ( Hen dra and Nipa h) outbreaks in Australia and Asia were first described by use of EM ( 15 , 42 , 44 ), and in 2003, EM recognized lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as the cause of fatalities of recipients of organs transplanted from a single donor ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Prospective study of the human polyomaviruses BK and JC and cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, BK virus-associated HC has not been described in liver transplant (LT) recipients. (gi.org)
  • 1,2 There have been some case reports showing the association between HC and BK virus in solid organ transplant recipients such as kidney transplant and lung transplant. (gi.org)
  • BK virus causes tubulointerstitial nephritis, ureter stenosis, and even graft failure in KT recipients with impaired immune system. (elsevier.com)
  • Does reduction in immunosuppression in viremic patients prevent BK virus nephropathy in de novo renal transplant recipients? (jamanetwork.com)
  • Ryan J, Zanabli A, Cosio F, Stegall M, Larson T, Griffin M. Outcomes of immunosuppression reduction in BK viremic kidney transplant recipients screened at 4 months post-transplant. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Impact of preemptive reduction of immunosuppression with serial monitoring for BK virus replication in renal transplant recipients undergoing short-term evaluation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Among kidney transplant recipients, a 3-month course of the antibiotic levofloxacin following transplantation did not prevent the major complication known as BK virus from appearing in the urine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This assay does not detect JC virus or SV-40 (other polyomaviruses). (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the urinary excretion of the BK (BKV) and JC (JCV) human polyomaviruses in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents. (scielo.br)
  • Schowalter R, Reinhold W, Buck C. Entry tropism of BK and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in cell culture. (aaem.pl)
  • Hachana M, Amara K, Ziadi S, Gacem RB, Korbi S, Trimeche M. Investigation of human JC and BK polyomaviruses in breast carcinomas Breast Cancer Res Treat. (aaem.pl)
  • The family of human polyomaviruses now includes 12 viruses that seem to at least partly coexist in the human host ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The first identified and best-studied human polyomaviruses are JC virus (JCPyV) and BK virus (BKPyV) ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) are human Polyomaviruses of the papovavirus family, which also includes a simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). (urofrance.org)
  • Human Polyomaviruses were first isolated in 1971 from the brain (JCV) and urine (BKV) of two different patients. (urofrance.org)
  • BK viruses belong to a class of viruses called human polyomaviruses. (gi.org)
  • Polyomaviruses belong to Polyomaviridae family of viruses which comprises one genus, eleven species, seventeen subspecies, and nineteen unclassified members. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • BK virus DNA detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction in clinical specimens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Single urine samples from both groups were screened for the presence of JCV and BKV DNA by polymerase chain reaction at enrolment. (scielo.br)
  • Use urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to make a diagnosis of the culprit virus. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Detection of BK virus and JC virus in urine and brain tissue by polymerase chain reaction. (aaem.pl)
  • Blood and urine BK polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the favored screening tests. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The herpes simplex virus and enterovirus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing were also negative. (redorbit.com)
  • Diagnosis of adenovirus or polyoma virus is made by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • Virus is pelleted from the urine, inoculated onto pre-formed monolayers of human embryo lung (HEL) fibroblasts, and infected cells are detected in an indirect fluorescent antibody test using a human serum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Serum antibodies against BK virus have also been found in spontaneous abortion affected women as well as in women who underwent voluntary interruption of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • We recommend following serial Urine PCR tests and when positive also check for serum PCR to estimate burden of disease. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Serial monitoring of serum PCR is indicated once urine PCR turns positive. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Lavender (EDTA), pink (K2EDTA) or serum separator tube OR urine. (aruplab.com)
  • Transport 1 mL whole blood, serum, plasma or urine in a sterile container. (aruplab.com)
  • This capture reagent is useful for the separation and isolation of nucleic acids from complex unpurified biological solutions such as serum, sputum, blood, and urine. (google.com)
  • Urine creatinine, 8-hydroxylated-guanosine, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), and kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) levels were also assessed. (asnjournals.org)
  • Late onset BK reactivation in patients more than 1 year from transplant is associated with changes in immunosuppression such as steroid pulse to treat chronic rejection. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • BK virus reactivation is a result of host predisposition, renal system damages, and immunosuppression. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • After the diagnosis of BK virus disease or the nephropathy in the transplanted kidney, first line of approach is to reduce the immunosuppression by cutting back on the dosage of various immunosuppressive medications. (ndtv.com)
  • It is thought that up to 80% of the population contains a latent form of this virus, which remains latent until the body undergoes some form of immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • BKV is the consequence of modern potent immunosuppression aimed at reducing acute rejection and improving allograft survival which suppresses the immune system so well that dormant and or caught viruses can take hold. (kidneypatientguide.org.uk)
  • We present a study, in which the JC virus was found in a 68-year-old man who had received a postorthotopic heart transplant 3 years earlier and who was receiving sirolimus and prednisone for immunosuppression. (redorbit.com)
  • BK-virus and the impact of pre-emptive immunosuppression reduction: 5-year results. (jamanetwork.com)
  • MRI brain showed characteristic appearances of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), confirmed by detection of the JC virus in CSF, despite the absence of any evidence of immunosuppression. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 4 - 8 Reported predisposing factors include allogeneic transplant, advanced age at transplantation, possibly graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy and viral infections (polyoma BK virus, cytomegalovirus and adenovirus). (haematologica.org)
  • BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV). (eviq.org.au)
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis: In the setting of stem cell transplantation, Hemorrhagic cystitis can also be caused by other viruses, such as adenovirus and CMV. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Urine cytology for BK, Adenovirus, and CMV can contain decoy cells, which are enlarged nuclei with single basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • To provide a treatment algorithm for the appropriate use of cidofovir in Adenovirus and Polyoma virus infections. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • The diagnosis of adenovirus and Polyoma virus is confirmed by PCR. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • Because his symptoms failed to resolve with an antibiotic course, we evaluated the urine for BK and adenovirus titers. (gi.org)
  • To review the first year of a monthly urine cytology screening service, introduced to identify renal transplant patients at risk of polyoma virus nephropathy (PVN), at an early, potentially treatable, stage. (bmj.com)
  • Urine cytology specimen. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Are you sure your patient has BK associated nephropathy (PVAN), ureteral stenosis, or hemorrhagic cystitis? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • How did the patient develop BK associated nephropathy (PVAN), ureteral stenosis, or hemorrhagic cystitis? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Infectious causes of hemorrhagic cystitis include bacteria and viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis results from damage to the bladder's transitional epithelium and blood vessels by toxins, viruses, radiation, drugs (in particular, chemotherapeutic drugs), bacterial infections, or other disease processes. (medscape.com)
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) secondary to BK virus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has been well characterized. (gi.org)
  • The virus then disseminates to the kidneys and urinary tract where it persists for the life of the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Raeesi N, Gheissari A, Akrami M, Moghim S. Urinary BK virus excretion in children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (aaem.pl)
  • High incidence of urinary JC virus excretion in nonimmunosuppressed older patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 The virus also commonly infects the urinary tract. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Detecting acid-fast bacilli from the urine is another possibility though apparently this is less specific than culture or PCR as there are some environmental mycobacterial species which may colonize the lower urinary tract. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the host is not able to completely control BK virus replication, the active replication of the virus can attract immune cells to the renal system. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • This study sought to evaluate serology and PCR as tools for measuring BK virus (BKV) replication. (asm.org)
  • Titers for anti-BK IgG, IgA, and IgM were higher in patients with BKV replication than in those without BKV replication. (asm.org)
  • This paper describes the use of intravenous cidofovir for mitigating BK virus replication in transplant patients. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The aims of this study are to (1) describe the management of patients undergoing retransplantation after allograft loss in the setting of BKVN and (2) to identify risk factors for BK virus replication in the retransplant. (elsevier.com)
  • After repeat transplant, 11 (35%) had BKV replication in urine and plasma with two patients experiencing BKVN. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Children with renal diseases are typically treated with immunosuppressive drugs, which place them at high risk of reactivation of the BK virus (BKV). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • CYP450-Mediated Metabolism of Mitragynine and Investigation of Metabolites in Human Urine. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To test this assumption we performed inhibition assessment on DNA extracts from human urine samples, fresh urine and EDTA using different PCR reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specimens with unknown levels of BKV DNA are then compared to the standard curve to determine the copy level of the virus. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Although without any clinical symptoms, footprints of BK virus have been detected in specimens from females affected by spontaneous abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lemaitre D, Elaichouni A, Hundhaus- ed their presence in fecal specimens selected on the basis of an in vitro S. en M, Claeys G, Vanhaesebrouck P, Vaneechoutte M, et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcus was not cultured from urine at that time or from several subsequent specimens. (springermedizin.de)
  • Fresh mid stream urine specimens were collected from 19 healthy adult volunteers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family, which also includes the well-studied simian virus 40 (SV40) and human JC virus (JCV) ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The human fetal glial cell line SVG was generated in 1985 by transfecting primary fetal brain cells with a plasmid containing an origin-defective mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, three major genotypes (A to C) have been identified in urine samples collected from Europe, Africa, and Asia ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the other case with persistent viral excretion, a range of 2.45-3.98 log copies/mL of BKV DNA was detected in the four urine samples collected between the 9th and 12th sampling time points. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Reactivation and excretion of the virus is associated with moderate to severe vesical mucosal damage with ensuing macroscopic haematuria. (eviq.org.au)
  • The new research suggests that the two problems could be distinguished from each other via the detection of cocktail of proteins shed from the kidney into the patient's urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Centrifuge purple top promptly and send 1 mL (minimum 0.5 mL) of EDTA plasma or urine, refrigerated. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Antiviral medicine may be used to kill the BK virus. (drugs.com)
  • If the kidney function doesn't improve over a period of few weeks to months, then one would be treated with antiviral agents against the BK virus. (ndtv.com)
  • There is no definite set of antiviral drugs known to be effective against the virus. (ndtv.com)
  • Monitoring CMV DNA levels in blood by quantitative real-time PCR in these patients may allow timely recognition of virus reactivation and permit installment and assessment of antiviral treatment (ganciclovir) and/or a decrease of immunosuppressive therapies. (nemours.org)
  • Monitoring AdV DNA levels of blood by quantitative real-time PCR in these patients may allow timely recognition of virus reactivation and permit installment and assessment of antiviral treatment (IVIG and also cidofavir in severe cases) and/or decrease of immunosuppressive therapies. (nemours.org)
  • 1988). Monitoring BKV DNA levels of urine and plasma by quantitative real-time PCR in these patients may allow timely recognition of virus reactivation and permit installment of antiviral treatment (IVIG and Levaquin® when identified in urine) and/or a decrease of immunosuppressive therapies. (nemours.org)
  • Tognon M, Corallini A, Martini F, Negrini M, Barbanti-Brodano G. Oncogenic transformation by BK virus and association with human tumors. (aaem.pl)
  • Strain UT has been previously found in urine and in tumors of different patients but is also frequently used for research. (asm.org)
  • Estimates of how often JCV occurs in colon cancers vary considerably, from studies that find the virus in almost all colon tumors to those unable to find so much as a trace. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The development of virus-specific assays allows for the detection of antibodies specific to SV40, BKV, and JCV in human sera, as well as the ability to determine the degree of serologic cross-reactivity by competitive absorption studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BKV DNA is detectable in urine prior to plasma and hence serves as an indication of impending BKV nephropathy. (lalpathlabs.com)
  • The median time from transplantation to the last follow-up virus sampling was 422 days (range = 12 to 3456 days), and the cohort included patients undergoing transplants as early as 1998 through 2007. (ashpublications.org)
  • BK virus causes kidney problems for patients with organ transplants. (osu.edu)
  • Human polyoma virus-associated interstitial nephritis in the allograft kidney. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A negative result (less than 2.6 log copies/mL or less than 390 copies/mL) does not rule out the presence of PCR inhibitors in the patient specimen or BK virus DNA concentrations below the level of detection of the assay. (aruplab.com)
  • If the assay DETECTED the presence of the virus but was not able to accurately quantify the number of copies, the test result will be reported as 'Not Quantified. (aruplab.com)
  • The number of copies of BK has now reduced. (kidneypatientguide.org.uk)
  • In two of the cases with persistent viral shedding, high copy numbers (range, 4.57-7.69 log copies/mL) of BKV DNA were detected in all 12 urine samples collected. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Additionally, high copy numbers (range, 3.12-4.36 log copies/mL) of BKV DNA were detected intermittently in the urine samples of the other four cases. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Viral loads >100,000 copies / ml in urine also indicate a risk for BKV Nephropathy. (lalpathlabs.com)
  • 5,000,000 copies/mL) were identified in urine. (gi.org)
  • An indirect immunofluorescence method for detection of infectious BK virus in urine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Knowles1989AnII, title={An indirect immunofluorescence method for detection of infectious BK virus in urine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method is described for the detection of infectious BK virus in urine within seven days in contrast to up to three months or longer using routine tissue culture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Testing for molecular markers in the urine of kidney transplant patients could reveal whether the transplant is failing and why, according to research presented at the 27th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The infectious disease consultant ordered comprehensive testing on the CSF, blood, and urine that included cultures for mycobacteria and fungi. (redorbit.com)
  • Genitourinary TB may be diagnosed by culture or PCR of the organism from the urine (or sputum, if there is pulmonary involvement). (blogspot.com)
  • Methods Retrospective analysis of urine and plasma samples collected from 30 renal transplant patients from February 2004 to May 2005 at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. (bmj.com)
  • Comparing Urine and Blood Screening Methods to Detect BK Virus After Renal Transplant. (harvard.edu)
  • Detection and quantification of BK virus DNA in plasma by PCR is potentially useful for the identification of patients with clinically significant PV reactivation ( 19 ), but these methods have yet to be standardized. (asnjournals.org)
  • Other tests involving molecular and serological methods require that a specific probe be available for virus identification. (asm.org)
  • EM, though it may not be able to identify a virus beyond the family level, at least points the way for more specific identification by other methods such as biochemical assays for specific pathogens. (asm.org)
  • One important step towards this goal is finding methods that can efficiently concentrate viruses from sewage samples. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Detect and quantify BK virus in blood or urine. (aruplab.com)
  • BK virus can infect and result in kidney allograft (transplanted) dysfunction, prevalence rate being around 5% within 10-12 months after having received the transplant, though it can occur much sooner as in your case. (ndtv.com)
  • What happens to patients with polyoma virus allograft nephropathy? (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Retransplantation after kidney graft loss due to polyoma BK virus nephropathy: successful outcome without original allograft nephrectomy. (nih.gov)
  • Polyoma virus nephropathy (PVN) has been associated with premature loss of kidney function in renal transplant patients and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction ( 1 - 18 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • determining BK virus reactivation disease in bone marrow and renal transplant patients. (umich.edu)
  • Involvement of JC virus-infected mononuclear cells from the bone marrow and spleen in the pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The BK virus causes the tubes in the kidneys that allow urine to drain to the bladder (ureters) to swell. (osu.edu)
  • Urine titers are 4-6 logs higher than blood titers. (umich.edu)
  • These are known as primary BK infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK and JC virus infections among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (aaem.pl)
  • These viruses independently infect most humans early in life and thereafter establish lifelong latent infections in the epithelial cells of the renourinary tract, with occasional reactivation and shedding in urine ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Disease manifestations may occur due to reactivation of latent infections, such as with herpes viruses, which are often already present in the recipient before transplant, or as a consequence of de-novo acquisition after the transplant. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • As both viruses are commonly occurring in the natural population, it is not uncommon for this patient population to test positive for these infections. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • In some renal transplant patients, the necessary use of immunosuppressive drugs has the side-effect of allowing the virus to replicate within the graft, a disease called BK nephropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they looked more closely at the human proteins, the researchers also found that they could use the levels of those proteins to differentiate between patients who had TCMR, BK virus nephropathy or a stable graft. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The patient received a second transplant without an original graft nephrectomy, and 15 months after retransplantation, he persists with optimal graft function and is constantly BKV DNA negative in both urine and plasma. (nih.gov)
  • BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is an important cause of renal graft loss in recent years. (elsevier.com)
  • Retransplantation is safe and effective for patients with previous graft loss due to BKVN preferably post-BK viral clearance. (elsevier.com)
  • BACKGROUND: BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) is associated with an increased risk of graft failure. (elsevier.com)
  • BK virus associated nephropathy is a significant complication following KT, and it can result in graft failure. (elsevier.com)
  • The separate collection of feces and urine without any flush water has many advantages, such as odor-free operation and pathogen reduction by drying. (wikipedia.org)
  • While dried feces and urine harvested from UDDTs can be and routinely are used in agriculture (respectively, as a soil amendment and nutrient-rich fertilizer-this practice being known as reuse of excreta in agriculture), many UDDTs installations do not apply any sort of recovery scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urine-diverting composting toilets are similar to UDDTs in that they also collect urine and feces separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the separate collection of feces and urine without any flush water, many advantages can be realized, such as odor-free operation and pathogen reduction by drying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early virus classification depended heavily on morphology as shown by EM ( 2 , 4 , 60 ), and many of the intestinal viruses were discovered by EM examination of feces after negative staining ( 32 , 46 , 54 , 96 ). (asm.org)
  • The regulatory region of all clones corresponded to the archetypal regulatory region usually found in urine isolates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • or, it may be active therapy, for example, on the finding of a positive urine + blood BK virus result in the context of haemorrhagic cystitis. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • Conclusion: Early detection of BK nephropathy and decreasing immunosuppressant agents are the mainstay of treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • The time between urine positivity and clinical PVN is short. (bmj.com)
  • More frequent early urine screening would be required to achieve clinical benefit. (bmj.com)
  • The clinical course of patients with polyoma virus nephritis (PVN) is not well understood, partially due to its relatively low incidence. (asnjournals.org)
  • There are no specific modified fluid schedules to reflect the fractionated 1mg/kg dosing therefore the above schedules should be used but potentially modified depending on clinical status and urine output. (leedsth.nhs.uk)
  • At each period, a complete clinical examination was performed and blood and urine samples were taken. (asnjournals.org)
  • It is estimated that 70-80% of the world population is infected with this virus early in childhood without apparent clinical symptoms. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Consequently, providers frequently rely on rapid results of the urine dipstick to decide whether to initiate empiric antibiotic therapy for a presumed UTI while awaiting culture results. (google.com)
  • BK virus (BKV) is a DNA virus that typically infects children and remains latent in the immunocompetent host. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Viral mediated HC represents reactivation of a latent form of the virus in the post transplant period. (eviq.org.au)
  • Aproximately 80% of the population contains a latent form of BK virus, which manifests in cases of immunosupression. (lalpathlabs.com)