Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Presence of blood in the urine.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The consumption of liquids.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.
Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.

Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters. (1/2648)

Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer.  (+info)

Physicians' response to abnormal results of routine urinalysis. (2/2648)

To determine the clinical usefulness of routine urinalysis, the records of 400 patients were examined for results of the first urinalysis following admission to hospital, and the attending physician's response to abnormal findings was evaluated. Results were abnormal for 116 patients (29.0%); there were 22 (5.5% of total urinalyses) abnormalities of chemical constituents (protein, glucose or bilirubin was present) only, 56 (14.0%) of sediment only and 38 (9.5%) of both chemical constituents and sediment. The attending physician did not respond to abnormal results in 50.9% of the 116 instances.  (+info)

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (3/2648)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (4/2648)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration. (5/2648)

The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations +info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (6/2648)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

Serotypes and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats. (7/2648)

E. coli strains isolated from urine of dogs and cats with urinary tract infections (UTI) and from feces of healthy one's were serotyped, and the serotypes were correlated with uropathogenic virulence factors. The most prevalent O-serotypes, O4 and O6, were isolated from dogs and cats with UTI. In contrast, O11 and O102 strains were the most frequently found from feces of healthy dogs and cats. Most of type O4 and O6 strains possessed such virulence factors as pil, pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1, while most type O11 and O102 strains pil only or pil and aer. All strains of type O75 possessed afaI and aer. K1 antigen was negative in all strains obtained from UTI.  (+info)

Immunising potency of Leptospira interrogans serotype canicola after heat inactivation at different temperatures. (8/2648)

The immunogenicity of Leptospira interrogans serotype canicola suspensions inactivated by various degrees of heat exposure was examined in hamsters. No differences between leptospires killed at 50 degrees C and at 98 degrees C were shown. After exposure to 121 degrees C, suspensions retained their ability to protect against lethal infections but lost their ability to prevent leptospiruria. Tests with vaccines inactivated at or below 98 degrees C showed that the doses required for complete protection varied with the interval between vaccination and challenge. Larger doses were required to prevent the development of leptospiruria than to prevent death.  (+info)

Feline Urine Acidification with Sodium Bisulfate Pet™ Formation of struvite crystals in the lower urinary tract is a common cause of lower urinary tract diseases. In some cases, complete obstruction occurs. Urine acidification can dissolve existing crystals and prevent the formation of new crystals. A urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is an acceptable range to prevent the formation of crystals. Studies prove that sodium bisulfate significantly lowers feline urine pH.14 The mode by which it affects urine pH is twofold. The cation-anion balance of the diet affects urine pH of healthy cats.2 The more negative the balance, the greater the acidifying potential of the diet. Sodium bisulfate has a cation-anion balance of -1 which causes the urine to be acidified. Compounds that result in the absorption of hydrogen ions produce acidic urine.6 The addition of sodium bisulfate to the diet results in the absorption of hydrogen ions therefore lowering urine pH. Urine Acidification Research Results- Summit Ridge ...
Objective: To review the first year of a monthly urine cytology screening service, introduced to identify renal transplant patients at risk of polyoma virus nephropathy (PVN), at an early, potentially treatable, stage.. Methods and results: Monthly urine samples (n = 392) were received from 97/108 transplant recipients in 2005. Of 56 patients with follow-up ,6 months, 20% and 9% had significant (,10 decoy cells/cytospin) and non-significant positive cytology, respectively. The first positive urine samples occurred most commonly in the second and third month post-transplantation and patients with significantly positive samples had higher 3-month and 6-month serum creatinine levels than patients with negative urine cytology (p,0.01). Four patients with positive urine cytology had a subsequent positive plasma BK virus PCR; 3/97 patients had biopsy-proven PVN, all in the third month, 1-6 weeks after first positive urine samples.. Conclusions: Significant PV viruria is common following renal ...
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a widespread infectious disease in humans. Urine culture, a huge workload in the microbiology laboratory, is still the standard diagnostic test for UTI, but most of the cultures are negative. A reliable screening method could reduce unnecessary cultures and quicken reporting of negative results. We evaluated the usefulness of a flow cytometry (FC) screening method in the prediction of positive urine culture to reduce the number of urine cultures. The urine specimens sent to the laboratory for culture were tested with the flow cytometer Accuri C6. FC bacterial counts were compared to standard urine culture results to assess the best cut-off values. Two hundred nine urine samples were included, of which 79 (37.8 %) were culture positive. On comparing the culture and the FC data in the ROC curve, the FC bacterial counts of ≥106 bacteria/mL provided a reliable screening for bacteriuria with a sensitivity and specificity of 99 and 58 %, respectively. All negative FC results
The cytologic examination of voided urine and bladder washings was done in 220 patients with bladder tumors from January, 1986 to June, 1989. Sixty hundred and thirty six specimens including 415 voided urine specimens and 221 bladder washings were examined. Among those, 160 paired specimens of both voided urine and bladder washings were taken from one patient on the same day. Specimens were stained by the Papanicolaou method, and they were interpreted as being negative when the cytologic examination was normal or showed benign atypia and positive when malignant cells were suspected or clearly evident. Sensitivity and specificity of the cytologic examination were 41.8%, 91.9% as a whole, and 34,6%, 96.6% in voided urine and 54.4%, 82.4% in bladder washings. The sensitivity of voided urine and bladder washings was increased as the tumor size, number, grade and stage were increased. A positive urine cytology without a visible tumor in voided urine was seen in 5 cases and the tumor recurred in all 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical evaluation of the BTA trak assay and comparison to voided urine cytology and the Bard BTA test in patients with recurrent bladder tumors. AU - Ellis, William J.. AU - Blumenstein, Brent A.. AU - Ishak, Laura M.. AU - Enfield, David L.. AU - Sarosdy, Michael F.. AU - Hudson, Mliss A.. AU - Soloway, Mark S.. AU - DeVere White, Ralph. AU - Sheinfeld, Joel. AU - Jarowenko, Mark V.. AU - Schellhammer, Paul F.. AU - Schervish, Ed W.. AU - Patel, Jay V.. AU - Chodak, Gerald W.. AU - Lamm, Donald L.. AU - Johnson, Robert D.. AU - Henderson, Mary. AU - Adams, George. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by a grant from Bard Diagnostic Sciences, C.R. Bard, Inc., Redmond, Washington. * Members of the Multi Center Study Group are: Michael F. Sarosdy, Mliss A. Hudson, Mark S. Soloway, Ralph deVere WhiteJoel Sheinfeld, Mark V.Jarowenko, Paul F. Schellhammer, Ed W. Schervish, Jay V. Patel, Gerald W. Chodak, Donald L. Lamm, Robert D. Johnson, Mary Henderson, and George Adams From the ...
Anil K. Mandai, M.D., is one of the trailblazers in the use of the transmission electron microscope in the study of the urinary sediment. In this book, he reviews his extensive efforts to tie his vast clinical expe rience to his elegant basicMoreAnil K. Mandai, M.D., is one of the trailblazers in the use of the transmission electron microscope in the study of the urinary sediment. In this book, he reviews his extensive efforts to tie his vast clinical expe rience to his elegant basic research with the electron microscope.. The pictures are comprehensive, and the clinical correlates are nicely outlined in tables and text. It may astonish some readers that a book for fellows and clinical nephrol ogists has been written on the use of the transmission electron microscope in the study of urine.. Some may view this as a sophisticated research instrument. I, however, applaud the effort. So many discoveries and advances in basic science lie unutilized because clinicians are not aware of the tools ...
PURPOSE To study the phenomenon of positive urine cytology in patients with lung cancer in the absence of obvious urothelial metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS 150 patients with small (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of all stages and 3 control groups were prospectively studied. Immunocytochemical study (cytokeratins 7-20, TTF1) in all positive urine specimens and chemokine profile (CXCR4, CCL21) study of the primary tumor in selected positive patients was performed. In experimental study, C57Bl/6 BALB/C mice injected with LLC lung and 4T1 mammary cancer cells were used for the detection of positive urine cytology. RESULTS 11% of patients with NSCLC, 7% of patients with SCLC and none of the control group had positive urine cytology. In NSCLC, metastatic disease and high tumor burden positively correlated (p=0.01 and 0.03 respectively) with the phenomenon. In SCLC, correlation with extensive disease and multiple metastatic sites (p=0.02 and 0.04 respectively) was found. No correlation was
Dog Fashion Disco Pour Some Urine On Me lyrics & video : Urine love with a robot With dysfunctional genitals and violent mood swings. Urine love with an android queen Sci-fi ta...
How to prep mouse urine samples for SDS-PAGE and Coomassie staining? - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Hi. Im working with a kidney disease mouse model, and we want to analyse some urine samples by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie staining. However, Im concerned that the high salt and urea could interfere with the SDS coating of the proteins and the actual running of the gel. Is it desirable to centrifuge the samples before ?? 2000g 10 min?? We dont want to interfere to...
In either animals or humans, urine exits the body in acid form with a pH around 5 and or 6. Before leaving the body the urine is sterile, and has no damaging bacteria, pathogens, and or microorganisms. However, this is not the case if the animal has a bladder infection or urinary infection.. In mammals uric acid is the number one ingredient in the urine. Urochrome, (a yellow pigment) and cholesterol (also known as lipids), and urea are other main ingredients found in urine. The specific ingredients in urine including dog urine, will actually vary, and is dependent on diet and health, along with other factors. When urine is leaving the body it begins a process of significant changes. It picks up bacteria from the urethra and also from the skin. It also comes in contact with other microorganisms from sources such as carpeting and other surfaces.. These bacteria can now flourish. The warm acidic conditions of the urine are ideal for the bacteria to grow. The uric acid is broken down and becomes ...
Although we only detected GSTP1 methylation in under a third of voided urine samples, we have clearly demonstrated that molecular diagnosis of prostate neoplasia in urine is feasible. Moreover, albeit in a limited study, we observed absolute specificity, because we did not find any GSTP1 hypermethylation in the urine DNA from the six patients with unmethylated GSTP1 tumor DNA. We detected GSTP1 hypermethylation in a minority of paired urine, and this level of sensitivity can likely be improved upon. Goessl et al. (20) reported a higher percentage of positive cases with a fluorescence-based conventional PCR technique. It is possible that prostatic massage and the higher number of cycles used in their study yielded more positive urine DNAs, but specificity is known to decrease in MSP, as in other PCR protocols, with increased cycle number (21) . Indeed, in the study by Goessl et al. (20) , some urine samples were positive, yet the primary tumor was not found to harbor GSTP1 hypermethylation. ...
HPLC Application #19653: 5 Steroid Mix spiked in Human Urine on Kinetex 2.6u XB-C18 75x4.60mm @ 2.00mL/min. Column used: Kinetex® 2.6 µm XB-C18 100 Å, LC Column 75 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00C-4496-E0
Reference: Fedorov N.A., Kasatkin Iu.N., Separation of certain components of human urine on columns of polysaccharide gels and isolation of substance absorbing at 260 mmm, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1963, vol: 9(5), 522-526 ...
Urine is the best remedy for every external and internal disease of the body. It destroys poison and worms of the intestines. It gives new life, purifies blood and clears skin problems. It destroys disease of the eyes, makes body strong, improves digestion and destroys cough and colds. Urine repairs and rebuilds all the vital organs including lungs, pancreas, liver, brain, heart etc. Urine is also effective in dental and other oral troubles.. Urine is the best natural tonic, by drinking Urine, disease of kidneys, liver and bile, dropsy, stopping of sinuses, jaundice, plague and other poisonous fevers are cured. Outwardly applied it cleanses the skin and cures dandruff and is excellent against trembling, numbness and palsy. By applying Urine on body most complex diseases of skin are totally cured and the skin becomes clear and soft.. Urine is the watery part of the blood. Since Urine comes from the blood, it would qualify anyone who drank each others Urine provided if it is followed by the ...
Normal Urine Output=== {, class=wikitable , align=center style=background:#f0f0f0;,Age , align=center style=background:#f0f0f0;,Output , align=center style=background:#f0f0f0;,Comments ,- , Adult ,,>0.5 mL/kg/hr,, ,- , Child ,,>1 mL/kg/hr,, ,- , Neonate,,>2 mL/kg/hr,,,1 year old ,} ==See Also== *[[Vital signs]] ==References== ,references/> [[Category:FEN]] [[Category:Renal ...
Urine volume 80ml pus cell 50 55 hpf epithelial cell hpf - I am 55 female. Urine report shows pus cell- 6-8/HPF, R.C.BS- 1-2/HPF, EPITHELIAL CELLS 8-10/HPF. Is tht normal? Contaminated urine. If the urine was collected using good cleaning prior to urination, then it is not normal. If a woman does not use a good clean catch technique then the urine can be contaminated from surrounding secretions. There being more epithelial cells than blood cells indicates that this was most likely a contaminated urine specimen. The urine test should be repeated using good clean catch technique.
A 200 µL aliquot of urine sample (Bio-Rad Lyphochek quantitative urine control, normal level) was mixed with 10 µL (1 µg/mL in methanol) internal standard solution and 600 μL of 250 mM ammonium acetate solution. The mixture was loaded onto the EVOLUTE EXPRESS WCX 96-well plate (30 mg), washed with 1 mL water and 1 mL methanol:acetonitrile (60:40), eluted with 200 µL of 5% formic acid in water:methanol (95:5), and injected (2 μL) for analysis ...
Do you have questions about elderly skin care, such as can urine on skin cause a rash? Or how can bladder leakage rash cream help? Find the answers here
En route to jail, Charles Weatherford told Indiana cops that he sometimes keeps a bowl of urine on his balcony for self defense.
Symptoms such as dark yellow urine the first thing in the morning often causes one to panic into thinking that s/he might be suffering from a urine infection or UTI. Normal urine is colorless and if you have been drinking adequate quantities of water, you should not see dark urine at any point of the day. Needless to say, there are many reasons that could cause urine to turn dark yellow in color. Certain medications such as multivitamin-mineral supplements or even food dyes often get into the urine to cause a darkish color. However, if you also experience several other symptoms such as fever, pain, the frequent urge to go to the bathroom etc along with the dark yellow urine, you should not waste any time in seeing the doctor. ...
Thanks for asking. Concrete is porous so what you have is a situation where dog urine has been soaking into the porous surface (it sounds like continuously) for a couple years. At least some of the products you have used are working. The enzymes work by digesting the urine residue. The reason you keep them wet its two-fold. One: They have to be wet to be active. When they dry they do nothing. Two: To get them to soak into the concrete far enough to reach the urine, which would be in pretty deep. Bleach uses oxygen to break down the urine. It will work also if it can reach the urine in enough concentration and for a long enough time to work (which for oxygen is fast). Washing is good and it will remove the urine it can get to. You do need to be careful with power washing though because it can drive the urine even deeper into the concrete depending on how you do it. Neutralizer you asked about also has to come in contact with the urine to change the molecules. So your challenge is to get one of ...
A Routine Urine Culture test can help identify bacterial infections which cause UTIs. When you need lab testing, Request A Test is here for you. Our convenient, affordable lab testing makes it easy to take charge of your own health.
The Quaint Soda, liquid gold, yellow river, lemon cordial, dick juice, homemade lemonade and Hitlers Pride is a naturally-occurring form of ink used to write short phrases in snow or bathroom walls. It is also very nutritious if had in large quantities, but should not be mistaken for Apple Juice. The question that plagued man forever: Is pee pee one or two words? Im geussing two words, but you can never tell. Urine has some source of nutrition. Commonly used among hikers, George W. Bush, and Batman it is easily accessed from oneself. Male mammals have the ability to aim this refreshing drink directly into their mouths. Most urine can be found diluted in sewage, sea-water, or in that glass of water in your hand. Some individuals in the video editing and production business, particularly Kiss fans, enjoy a refreshing splash of urine in their face from time to time. Urine is also the main ingredient in the famous Lemon-Flavored Snow-Cone made by the Abominable Snowman. Urine can be found in your ...
Urine Flow Test What is a urine flow test? A urine flow test calculates the speed of urine flow over time. It may be used to check how the bladder and sphincter are working. The bladder is part of the urinary tract. Its a hollow muscular organ that relaxes and expands to store urine. It then contracts and flattens to empty urine through the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body (urethra). The sphincter muscle is a circular muscle. It closes tightly, like a rubber band, around the bla...
Which journal was the experiment published in? We need to see the details of the experimental procedure. Given the obvious anatomical differences, the claimed result may reveal nothing more than that it is harder to obtain a urine sample uncontaminated by fecal bacteria from a female infant than from a male infant (especially if you dont even bother trying). In the absence of bladder infections, urine is supposed to be quite sterile, and I cant see what effect gender could possibly have on this. I would also like to read the grant proposal for this project ...
Which journal was the experiment published in? We need to see the details of the experimental procedure. Given the obvious anatomical differences, the claimed result may reveal nothing more than that it is harder to obtain a urine sample uncontaminated by fecal bacteria from a female infant than from a male infant (especially if you dont even bother trying). In the absence of bladder infections, urine is supposed to be quite sterile, and I cant see what effect gender could possibly have on this. I would also like to read the grant proposal for this project ...
A urine flow test calculates the speed of urine flow over time. It may be used to check how the bladder and sphincter are working. For this test, you will urinate into a special funnel that is connected to a measuring instrument. The instrument calculates the amount of urine, rate of flow in seconds, and the length of time until all urine has been passed. This information helps evaluate how well the lower urinary tract is working. It also helps figure out if there is a blockage of normal urine outflow.
View Notes - 1 from HTEC 50 at DeAnza College. of urine cytology was 93.3% compared to 67.9% for NMP22 (p , 0.02). The mean turnaround time for the 2 tests was 0.75 hour (range 0.5 -1.0) and 44 hours
Urine can be simply obtained from a cow by stroking the escutcheon, instead of laborious catheterization. The urine sample can be a useful diagnostic tool for veterinarians to run a number of medical tests. Learn how to collect a urine sample for a cow by watching this video veterinary tutorial.
Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.. Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068). Collection Container/Tube: Clean, plastic urine container with no metal cap or glued insert. Submission Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube or a clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert. Specimen Volume: 10 mL. Collection Instructions:. 1. Collect urine for 24 hours.. 2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.. 3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.. Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens in Special Instructions for multiple collections.. ...
The 3rd step in a urine culture stewardship program--strategize initiatives and examples of appropriate & inappropriate use of urine cultures.
Urine tests are often offered during pregnancy. An initial dipstick test may signal that further investigation is needed, including for the presence of infection. At this point, a sample of urine may be sent off to the laboratory for culture.. Group B Strep may be found in a urine sample (it cannot be detected by a dipstick test). When cultured from a urine sample, depending on the level of bacteria found and whether the woman has symptoms, it may be that the woman has a group B Strep urinary tract infection (UTI) which will need treating with antibiotic tablets.. A negative urine test only means that group B Strep has not been found in the urine. It does not mean that group B Strep is not present in the vagina or rectum, which is where the large majority of the group B Strep bacteria is found. ...
Pet urine on grass can cause patches of brown, burned-looking sod, as the roots are damaged by the salts, uric acid or nitrogen content of the urine. Studies indicate the amount of urine, rather than the type (a cats urine is chemically stronger) is what has the most effect on the lawn. Although a dog typically can produce a greater volume of urine, cats using your yard regularly as a litter box can also cause damage that will require some work to repair. ...
Patient Instructions: Urine specimen: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Please provide a first-catch urine (approximately 20 mL to 30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup provided at the lab which is free of any preservatives. Collection of larger volumes of urine may result in specimen dilution that may reduce test sensitivity; lesser volumes may not adequately rinse organisms into the specimen. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen ...
The daily urine output is an indicator of a persons current state of health. Excessive or decreased urine output can be a sign of an underlying condition. The normal output of urine for a healthy adult is 2 liters per day. A decrease of urine output is less than 500 milliliters in a 24-hour period. Kidney Failure often results in decreased urine output ...
Yes urine therapy is effective in Candida and it is effective in most of all diseases and it can prevent most of all diseases In most of cases we have to drink fresh urine through nostrils and through mouth and do massage with urine to whole body once or more times daily then we do not require to visit any doctor or any hospital for any purpose so if any person who are interested may write at: [email protected]
RE Morse, DS Fairweather; Persistence of Reversed Orcadian Rhythm of Urine Production in Old Age under Conditions of Regular Fluid Intake. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1995; 88 (s32): 27P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Catheterized specimen urine culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs in a urine sample. Alternative Names: Culture - urine - catheterized specimen.
Physicians suspect that UTI exists based on the symptoms. A routine urine examination shows abnormalities like pus cells or blood in the urine. A culture can be done to determine the organism responsible so that the appropriate antibiotic can be administered.. Untreated patients of UTI can sometimes recover spontaneously without treatment in a few months. But the infection can also enter the blood stream, causing potentially fatal septicaemia. The kidneys may become scarred, too. This leads to high blood pressure and kidney failure. During pregnancy, recurrent or chronic UTI or asymptomatic UTI compromises the placental blood supply. This affects the babys nutrition, leading to low birth weight and sometimes causing the mother to go into premature labour.. There are several regimens for treating UTI. Depending on the organism and antibiotic, in adult women a three-day course is usually sufficient for mild infection. In most cases and in the case of men, however, a 7-10 or 14-day course is ...
protein in urine - MedHelps protein in urine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for protein in urine. Find protein in urine information, treatments for protein in urine and protein in urine symptoms.
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Urine Appearance, Urine Color, Urine Discoloration, Chromaturia, Dark Urine, Black Urine, Green Urine, Brown Urine.
The knowledge of the composition of normal human urine was markedly advanced in 2013 by the publication of the human urine metabolome . This was the first systematic study, using state-of-the-art analytic techniques, to define the chemical constituents of normal urine. As explicitly stated by the authors, this list of constituents is not expected to be complete, since as analytic techniques improve it is likely additional, chemical species will be discovered. Therefore an online database has been created for researchers to share future researches ( Currently ~3100 chemicals have been characterized in urine. This list does not include renally-excreted drugs or plant-derived food chemicals, the inclusion of which could considerably elongate the tally of known substances.. The main substances, other than water and simple sugars, include urea (via the breakdown of amino acids), salts (sodium, potassium and chloride), creatinine, ammonia, organic acids, pigments ...
RMPSU : Supplies: Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T465) Container/Tube: Plastic, 60-mL urine bottle and plastic, 5-mL tube (T465) Specimen Volume: 50 mL Collection Instructions: 1. Collect a random urine specimen. 2. Aliquot specimen between containers. 3. Label specimens appropriately (60-mL urine bottle for protein electrophoresis and immunofixation and 5-mL tube for protein, total). Additional Information: 1. Random urine, no volume is required. 2. Refrigerate specimen during collection and send refrigerated.
Let us study the various causes of urine infection in detail.. Every human being has a urinary tract system that is capable of making, storing and expelling urine as required. The system is highly complicated and intricate and used on a daily basis. Urine is normally sterile (which means that there is no bacteria present in it) but it does contain salts, fluids and waste products. Even if bacteria do enter the urine system for some reason, the bodys immune system is capable of removing it without difficulty. In case of UTI, the immune system fails to remove the bacteria leading to infection and urine problems. Based on the exact causes of urine infection, the age, gender as well as the overall health of the individuals, different problems arise due to such bacterial infection.. ...
When it comes to your body, there are many different conditions and symptoms that can cause concern. One of the most alarming is finding blood in your urine as this often leads a person to believe that they have some type of cancer.. However, cancer is only one of many different potential causes for blood to be in your urine, and in fact, cancer is not even the most common cause. There are several reasons that you may have blood in your urine. The condition of having blood in your urine is called hematuria and it is a common symptom for many different conditions. For this reason, while it can be alarming to find blood in your urine, your thoughts should not immediately jump to cancer. If you do find blood in your urine, it could be one of these 15 conditions. As always it is important to check with your doctor to determine the direct cause. ...
Brief Answer: It is mostly a UTI . Detailed Answer: Hello Thanks for query .Based on the sequence of events that you have narrated I would state that you have UTI ( Cystitis ) which has lingered on due to not taking antibiotic Get your routine urine test and urine culture done to find out the...
blood in urine - MedHelps blood in urine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for blood in urine. Find blood in urine information, treatments for blood in urine and blood in urine symptoms.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of fetal urine production in normal pregnancy by real-time ultrasonography. AU - Rabinowitz, Ron. AU - Peters, Mark T.. AU - Vyas, Sanjay. AU - Campbell, Stuart. AU - Nicolaides, Kypros H.. PY - 1989/11. Y1 - 1989/11. N2 - Serial measurements of fetal bladder volume were obtained by real-time ultrasonography at 2- to 5-minute intervals, and the hourly fetal urine production rate was calculated. The mean hourly fetal urine production rate increased from 5 ml/hr at 20 weeks gestation to 51 ml/hr at 40 weeks. These values are double those reported in previous studies that measured fetal bladder volumes at 15- to 30-minute intervals because the cycle length is shorter than previously thought.. AB - Serial measurements of fetal bladder volume were obtained by real-time ultrasonography at 2- to 5-minute intervals, and the hourly fetal urine production rate was calculated. The mean hourly fetal urine production rate increased from 5 ml/hr at 20 weeks gestation to 51 ml/hr ...
Objective:To study the reliability of flow cytometer UF-100 in detecting asymptomatic urinary tract infections(AUTI) in early pregnancy.Methods:Three-hundred and nine fresh midstream clean-catch urine sample were collected in accordance with standard guideline.10 μl of cleancatch midstream urine specimen was examined by cultures(colony counts of ≥10~() CFU/ml) the other portion was tested with UF-100 for presence of bacteria count and white blood cell.Results:Twenty-one patient(6.8%) had cultures of 10,000 or more colony-forming units of a uropathogen per milliliter.The sensitivities of the UF-100 test in identifying patients with positive cultures was 71.4%,and the specificities was 94.1%.Six patients(28.6% 6/21) had negative UF-100 screening tests but positive urine cultures,and other seventeen patients had positive UF-100 screening tests but negative urine cultures,The positive predict value(PPV) of urine UF-100 evaluation was 46.9%.There was a significant difference in positive rate between the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computed tomographic measurement of canine urine concentration. AU - Zwingenberger, Allison. AU - Carrade Holt, Danielle D.. PY - 2017/2/1. Y1 - 2017/2/1. N2 - Computed tomography (CT) is able to measure the attenuation of urine in Hounsfield units (HU) on abdominal imaging studies. This study was designed to measure the correlation of urine attenuation with urine specific gravity in urine samples of 40 dogs, providing a noninvasive measure of urine concentration. The HU of urine explained 72% of the variance in measured urine specific gravity [R2 = 0.72, F(1,38) = 95.55, P , 0.001]. This noninvasive measurement can be used to estimate urine concentration in dogs undergoing abdominal CT imaging.. AB - Computed tomography (CT) is able to measure the attenuation of urine in Hounsfield units (HU) on abdominal imaging studies. This study was designed to measure the correlation of urine attenuation with urine specific gravity in urine samples of 40 dogs, providing a noninvasive ...
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Urine is not just a liquid that comes out of your body. The color of urine, the large amount of urine, until the smell of urine can be a sign of the condition of your body. Get to know the meaning behind your urine condition, by knowing the meaning behind the color. Normal urine color is golden or light yellow, this color comes from a body pigment called urochrome. While colorless or clear urine indicates that you are well hydrated. Although clear urine color can also be caused by the consumption of drugs that specifically excrete urine ...
Urine Culture Testing Algorithm. for Adult and Pediatric ED and Inpatient Units. In order to reduce the risk of false positive/contaminated urine cultures and to help better guide clinicians in the interpretation of positive urine cultures, VUMC has implemented a standardized urine culture testing process (known as U/A with reflexive culture) as part of a multi-part program to reduce variability around urine cultures. This program also includes guidance on the indications for urine culture ordering that will be presented on order entry, standardized specimen collection protocols, and tracking of urine culture contamination rates.. For the U/A with reflexive culture process, a U/A will be sent with every culture specimen order. Clinicians will be asked on order entry if the patient has a recognized condition that could either impact the U/A interpretation or where national guidelines recommend treating positive cultures even in the absence of positive U/A results. These are 1) pregnant patients, ...
Urinalysis is an integral part of rutine laboratory work. Qualitative urinalysis includes visual inspection of urine, chemical and urinary sediment examination. European Urinalysis Guidelines were given by the European Confederation of Laboratory Medicine for better standardization of urinalysis. According to the guidelines a defined volume of urine, between 5 - 12 mL, should be centrifuged at 400 g for 5 min in a conical tube. Supernatant should be removed with an adjusted vacuum tool, supravitally stained and examinated under microscope. The aim of this research was to determine do the type of the tube and the method of removal of supernatant have an effect on urinary sediment findings and is the volume of 5 mL of urine enough for accurate urinary sediment analysis. The research was conducted in KBC Sestre Milosrdnice, in the Department of Chemistry. 110 samples were collected and each one was visually and chemically examined. 47 samples were used for the comparison of round bottom and conical ...
Acceptable Specimens:. Endocervical or patient-collected vaginal swabs (female only). First voided urine specimens (male or female). Endocervical Swab:. Obtain Xpert CT/NG Vaginal/Endocervical Specimen Collection Kit from the laboratory and collect as follows:. 1. Remove excess mucus from cervical os and surrounding mucosa using the large individually wrapped. cleaning swab.. 2. Insert second swab from collection kit into endocervical canal.. 3. Rotate swab for 10 to 30 seconds in endocervical canal to ensure adequate sampling.. 4. Withdraw swab carefully; avoid any contact with vaginal mucosa.. 5. Aseptically remove cap from tube, insert swab into Xpert CT/NG Vaginal/Endocervical Swab. Transport Reagent tube, and break swab at score line. Screw cap on securely.. 6. Maintain sterility and forward promptly at ambient temperature. Specimen stability is 60 days at 2 to. 30°C.. Note: Indicate specimen source on specimen container and in computer.. Patient -collected Vaginal Swab:. Obtain Xpert ...
pH Levels Differences Between Normal Urine and Diabetic Urine - Human Anatomy Paper Kidneys are bean-shaped organs that lie along the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity (Couch and Burger 2004). The two bean-shaped organs are located in the centers of the
Urine ketones are usually measured as a spot test. This is available in a test kit that you can buy at a drug store. The kit contains dipsticks coated with chemicals that react with ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ketones. This article describes the ketone urine test that involves sending collected urine to a lab.. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly ...
Now this is what I call a studio discussion. My personal highlights are: My shoe and my urine are more dignified than you. I spit on you and on your…
A urine protein test is a diagnostic procedure to detect the content of protein in a persons urine like Urobilinogen in urine cloudy or milky urine. The test is primarily used in the diagnosis of kidney damage and kidney diseases.. It is also called the 24-Hour Urine Protein test or the Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio (UPCR) test. When referring to specific protein detection, it is called a Proteinuria test or a Microalbuminuria test. Urine samples can be random or collected over a period of time (every 4 hours or for 24 hours).. Detecting traces of proteins in urine excretion is a sign that something is wrong with the kidney or the liver, the organs that filter waste products and flush them out of the body. Proteins are building blocks of the body and ideally absorbed 100%. As such, when a protein passes out of the body through urine, it is a sign of a kidney having problems by not being able to hold back the proteins.. Urine protein tests will determine albuminuria, the initial stage of ...
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0.3 mL/kg/hour how to increase urine output for kidney patient 24 hours or anuria for 12 hours trials! Above normal levels patient adherence could be as a marker of acute kidney injury but also to guide fluid in... Used to increase urine output indicates that less and less wastes products and toxins can not be out! No prospective how to increase urine output for kidney patient randomized trials designed to specifically address this how much urine youâ re producing daily remove. Most kidney patients, but standards for monitoring and reporting vary widely between ICUs eaten too salt! Also inhibits phosphodiesterase at higher concentrations, which is a noninvasive method how to increase urine output for kidney patient! Sought to determine if the intensity how to increase urine output for kidney patient UO could lead to earlier of. As well as essential mineral salts remove the excess water, causing increased urine production and increased frequency in.! Per day from diuresis stand to lose ...
Owners of even the best-trained pets will occasionally encounter pet urine accidents and leave urine stains on carpet. Often, the urine is not discovered until long after the accident. The types of damage from pet urine can be diverse and are dependent upon the makeup of the urine. Urine content will change over the pets life because of the pets diet, medications, age, health, sex, and reproductive cycles. Because of these variations, some urine stains may not be removable.. To treat urine spot damaged areas, blot damp areas as soon as the urine is detected with plain white paper toweling. Apply a solution of 1/4 teaspoon of a liquid dishwashing detergent (nonbleach and non-lanolin) with one cup of lukewarm water, by saturating paper towels and blotting. Do not use automatic dishwashing detergent or laundry detergent. Then, absorb the moisture with a paper towel, rinse with warm water and repeat the application of detergent. Continue rinsing and blotting with the detergent solution and water ...
If symptoms are suggestive of UTI, your doctor may ask for various tests for confirmation of diagnosis and for guidance of appropriate treatment. Routine urine analysis: your doctor may ask for routine lab test for urine analysis to ascertain if there are red blood cells, white blood cells or bacteria in urine, which are indicative of infection and UTI. It is important to remember that urine should be collected properly for urine analysis, because collection of urine in wrong way may give wrong or false positive result, which may lead to wrong treatment. For collection of urine (for urine analysis), collect a sample collection sterile bottle from the lab. The first morning urine (immediately after getting up in the morning urine should be collected) sample should be collected. Collect mid-stream urine sample. For this, allow some urine to pass and then collect the urine in adequate volume (as instructed by the lab from where you collected the sample bottle) before you finish urination. If the first
Tucson AZ Travelodge: DRIED URINE ON THE TOILET!!! THIS PLACE WAS FILTHY!!! - See 165 traveller reviews, 24 candid photos, and great deals for Tucson AZ Travelodge at TripAdvisor.
Cow Urine For Mouth Ulcer Ayurveda describes cow urine or gomutra as Amrita or elixir of life. According to Panchagavya Ghrita, cow urine has medical homes. It is used one by one or in.... No Comments Read More ...
Cow Urine For Mouth Ulcer Ayurveda describes cow urine or gomutra as Amrita or elixir of life. According to Panchagavya Ghrita, cow urine has medical homes. It is used one by one or in.... No Comments Read More ...
Course Description: This course covers the basics of urine microscopic examination, including numerous brightfield and phase-contrast images of urinary sediment elements. It is assumed that students have a basic knowledge of urinalysis macroscopic and dipstick examination. The course covers specimen collections and processing, casts, cellular elements, normal and abnormal crystals, parasites, artifacts, and basic biochemical tests to help identify certain elements. It describes a method of quantitation of urine specimens, and emphasizes the intelligent correlation of macroscopic and microscopic results, by the reported technologist ...
A container for liquid medical specimens such as urine specimens includes a container with a wide mouth opening for facilitating deposition of a urine sample, a removable cap for closing the mouth opening and an impermeable sheet liner under the cap for making a fluid tight seal with the rim. The liner is rupturable with the blunt tip of a laboratory pipette inserted through a small hole in the cap for drawing a sample of a urine specimen without removing the cap of the container. The hole in the cap may remain open after collection of a urine specimen in the container, as leakage is prevented by the liner. Alternatively, a small secondary cap may close the hole in the main cap. An optional decanter may be inserted through the hole in the cap for piercing the liner to facilitate pouring of the contents without removing the cap. A method of using the novel container for conveying a liquid medical specimen from a specimen collection site to a geographically removed laboratory site is disclosed.
BluEcoli Urine Biplate,A revolutionary new agar plate for economically screening urine specimens for E. coli.Inoculate both sides of this biplate with the urine specimen. If the infecting organism is E. coli, the colonies on the chromogenic side of the biplate will 3 Since 80-90% of all positive urine cultures are E.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
But to a doctor, urine can provide even more information. One way for doctors to find out whats going on inside the body is to examine what flows out of it. So dont be surprised the next time a doctor asks for a urine sample for a seemingly non-urinary complaint.. In fact, be a little proud. When you hand over that little cup, youre participating in a medical tradition more than 6,000 years in the making. Urine luck. Todays urinalysis can reveal a great deal about a persons heath. But even simple urine color can tell people when to seek medical attention. Urine color may change due to something as innocuous as medications or foods, or as malevolent as an infection or cancer.. Urine that appears pink or red from the presence of blood is one cause for alarm.. If you see blood in the urine, even once, it requires you to see a doctor, said Marshall Stoller, a professor of urology at the University of California, San Francisco. It could be nothing, he said, but it could be an early sign of ...
The Urine Sediment Analyzers market provides detailed market segment level data on the international market. The Urine Sediment Analyzers market sales repo
Pregnancy Test: Pregnancy is the period of time when a fetus develops inside a womans uterus and ends with the birth of infant. All pregnant women receive a variety of tests typically used prior to and throughout pregnancies. Doctors recommend some prenatal tests for all pregnant women. Only some women will need other screening tests […]. ...
Pyroluria is characterized by elevated urine kryptopyrrole levels, which result in a dramatic deficiency of zinc and vitamin B6. A high kryptopyrrole result is also known as pyroluria, pyrrole disorder, or elevated pyrroles. If you do not have a practitioner that will order this testing for you, you can order this test directly through our website.. Our laboratory will provide you with the most accurate kryptopyrrole result on the market. We are the only laboratory in the U.S.A. that provides a corrected kryptopyrrole result. Our corrected result accounts for the concentration or dilution of the urine specimen. For example, if the patient has consumed a large amount of water prior to collection, the pyrrole levels will be lower in the initial result. This is due to the fact that the specimen is diluted. DHA Laboratory performs a validated procedure that calculates the level of dilution. Our procedure allows us to compensate for dilution (or concentration) in the corrected result. This allows our ...
Blood in the urine can be intermittent and can resolve spontaneously. However, this does not mean that the underlying condition that caused it has resolved. This is why even a single episode of visible blood in the urine needs to be assessed. Sometimes kidney and bladder cancers only bleed once, and the next time it bleeds, the tumour has already progressed to a more advanced stage.. Visible blood in the urine is often attributed to infection, especially in women as they are more prone to urinary tract infections (UTI). This is reasonable if the blood in the urine comes with typical symptoms of UTI like burning pain when passing urine, or frequent urination with urgency. However, if the blood in the urine is painless, it should not be blamed on UTI. While it may disappear after taking antibiotics, this may a coincidence rather than proof that it was caused by a UTI, as bladder/kidney tumours can bleed intermittently and stop spontaneously.. Bladder cancer is more common in men, but women with ...
Things of course, have changed. The advent of over-the-counter glucose monitoring devices rather than double voided urine specimens alone as a tool to determine sliding scale insulin doses, has revolutionized the treatment of Type I diabetes. Good and complete studies have also indicated that very tight and intensive glucose control of adults and children with Type I diabetes can result in their having the same life expectancy as the rest of us. Insulin pumps dont take the job of endocrinologists and educated and well trained diabetics, but they can help to provide much better control and therefore a much better life than the autoimmune diabetic could have had otherwise. An insulin pump works by providing a subcutaneous infusion of a basal rate of insulin hourly. It is ideally the amount of insulin that the patient needs to live if she doesnt eat at all. Then,a calculated bolus doses of insulin can be dialed in to cover food. These are called meal boluses. This does not free the patient to eat ...
Background: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) may have similar clinical presentation, and the etiology is varied and region specific. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. All adult patients presenting with AUFI of 3-14 days duration were evaluated for etiology, and the differences in presentation and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 1258 patients. A microbiological cause was identified in 82.5% of our patients. Scrub typhus was the most common cause of AUFI (35.9%) followed by dengue (30.6%), malaria (10.4%), enteric fever (3.7%), and leptospirosis (0.6%). Both scrub typhus and dengue fever peaked during the monsoon season and the cooler months, whereas no seasonality was observed with enteric fever and malaria. The mean time to presentation was longer in enteric fever (9.9 [4.7] days) and scrub typhus (8.2 [3.2] days). Bleeding manifestations were seen in 7.7% of patients, mostly ...
In this study, we aimed to identify microRNA from urine of multiple myeloma patients that could serve as a biomarker for the disease. Analysis of urine samples was performed using Serum/Plasma Focus PCR MicroRNA Panel (Exiqon) and verified using individual TaqMan miRNA assays for qPCR. We found 20 deregulated microRNA (p | 0.05); for further validation, we chose 8 of them. Nevertheless, only differences in expression levels of miR-22-3p remained close to statistical significance. Our preliminary results did not confirm urine microRNA as a potential biomarker for multiple myeloma.
Epithelial cells, white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) may be present in urine sediment. Epithelial cells in the urine may originate from any site in the genitourinary tract. It is normal to find a few epithelial cells in the sediment ...
Bacteria are common in urine specimens because of the abundant normal microbial flora of the vagina or external urethral meatus and because of their ability to rapidly multiply in urine standing at room temperature. Therefore, microbial organisms found in all but the most scrupulously collected urines should be interpreted in view of clinical symptoms.Medical Tests Analyzer labtest bloodtest What does the test result mean?
Urine Culture, Comprehensive Test isolates and identifies bacteria present in low numbers in the urinary tract; isolates and identifies bacteria from females presenting with �urethral syndrome� for whom Urine Culture, Routine was not diagnostic.
Finding blood in your urine can be very frightening and must be investigated by a doctor, but its not usually a sign of anything life-threatening.. If you notice bright red blood in your urine, or if your urine has turned red or brown because it has blood in it, see your GP.. Sometimes, urine may contain only a small amount of blood invisible to the naked eye and is only apparent when a urine test is carried out for something else. This still needs to be investigated by your doctor, as healthy urine should not contain any detectable amounts of blood.. The medical name for blood in the urine is haematuria. If blood in the urine is obvious with the naked eye, it is called macroscopic, or visible haematuria. If the blood can only be detected with laboratory testing, it is called microscopic, or non-visible.. The blood will have come from somewhere within the urinary tract - the kidneys, bladder or the tubes that urine passes through. It is often the result of a urinary tract infection ...
Urinalysis, also called a routine urine test, is used to check for abnormalities in the urine. Urinalysis may be performed as part of a regular physical examination to screen for early signs of disease such as diabetes and kidney disease and to detect urinary tract infection and blood in the urine.
Control containing a comprehensive analyte menu for quantitative assays that monitor the precision of tests for general urine chemistry, biogenic amines, and hormones; contains hCG (Pregnancy) and Microalbumin
Apply the mixture to the urine stain. Blot the area with a white cloth to retrieve the moisture from the carpet. Use a different area of the cloth to see how much of the urine you are picking up. Continue this process until all of the urine has been removed. If you find you cannot retrieve the entire stain then add a dropper full of hydrogen peroxide to the remaining stain and repeat the blotting process. The urine may not be visible, but there still may be a faint odor. If the odor remains then you have not removed all of the urine. When the odor is gone, so is the urine.. ...
This is the second edition of a full colour reference atlas published first to excellent reviews in 1994. Every renal unit needs to have a reference text of this kind and urine microscopy is an important diagnostic aid innephrology. The primary audience is practicing nephrologists in training, and also those in internal medicine rotating through the renal unit. Clinical pathologists would also find this an attractive and useful book.
Although it is somewhat of a myth that eating too many blueberries can turn your urine blue, the fact is that the color it produces in urine is red.. There are a number of foods and drinks that can turn urine red, such as colored cereals, kool-aid, boysenberries, chocolate laxatives, and beets. Red urine can also be a sign of lead poisoning, though it is much more commonly caused by the consumption of certain foods and drinks such as the ones listed above.. In order for your urine to turn red, you will have to consume a considerable amount of blueberries. ...
A supercharged combination of 7 ingredients and the oxidizing power of hydrogen peroxide safely remove the most challenging urine stains.. Urine Stain Remover is the go-to solution for removing difficult urine stains from carpet. It uses surfactants to penetrate deeply into the fibers, delivering a potent shot of peroxide that removes stains caused by urine, vomit, blood and other organic stains. It also contains the odor encapsulating and bonding power of Bridgepoint Systems Hydrocide. As it neutralizes and eliminates the yellow stain, it also neutralizes the odor.. Many times normal pet odor decontamination procedures remove the yellow staining that accompanies many pet urine deposits. But when it doesnt, reach for Urine Stain Remover with Hydrocide. Simply spray the stain full strength and allow it to work for 3 to 8 hours and the stain will disappear. This is a product that will deliver truly amazing results and theres no need to neutralize or rinse. Urine Stain Remover goes on at an ...
• Ready to use easy grip spray bottle for convenient clean ups • Saves time and money! Why replace urine stained items when you can clean them! • Perfect for cleaning hard and soft surfaces, especially walls, flooring, grout and fabrics • Tough formula works on even old stains, removing odor & old urine deposits. • Removes urine odor and stains from kennels and carriers, leaving them clean and fresh smelling. • Use with Urine Finder Mini-LED Inspection Light to find the source of invisible odors.Urine Off is the only product that carries the Seal of Approval from the Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI), the U.S. Carpet Authority. Urine Off is the only product endorsed by Interface Flooring forefficiency and is the official show-ring cleaning agent for Crufts, the worlds largest dog show. All Urine Off products are Green; they meet strict EU standards for bio-degradability.
I have come across some sites that claim that fermented cow urine can be used against pests and diseases. But how true is this? Can it really tackle stubborn pests and diseases?
Protein in the urine (proteinuria) is best identified from a 24-hour urine collection.[8] ... Urine test[edit]. Microalbuminuria (moderate increase in the levels of urinary albumin) is a non-specific finding in patients ... This leads to an elevated concentration of albumin in the urine (albuminuria). This albuminuria usually does not cause symptoms ... "Normal variations in rate of albumin excretion and albumin to creatinine ratios in overnight and daytime urine collections in ...
Urine[edit]. The most usual word for urine was ūrīna, which is attested in Latin as early as Cicero, and became the usual ... "Cabbage is good for the digestion and for the urine."). Etymology[edit]. Meiere is an inherited Indo-European word. It relates ... Another word for urine, but less commonly used, was lōtium. This word relates to lavāre, "to wash". The Romans, innocent of ... soap, collected urine as a source of ammonia to use in laundering clothes. The early agricultural writer Cato, an advocate of ...
Urine drug screen[edit]. Main article: Urinalysis. Urine analysis is primarily used because of its low cost. Urine drug testing ... Urine drug testing[edit]. Urine drug test kits are available as on-site tests, or laboratory analysis. Urinalysis is the most ... Urine and oral fluid can be used "as is" for some tests, but other tests require the drugs to be extracted from urine. Strands ... Urine drug tests screen the urine for the presence of a parent drug or its metabolites. The level of drug or its metabolites is ...
Urine formation[edit]. Average urine production in adult humans is about 1-2 litres (L) per day, depending on state of ... Urine flows from the kidneys via the ureters into the bladder where it is stored. When urinating, urine flows through the ... Urine is formed in the kidneys through a filtration of blood. The urine is then passed through the ureters to the bladder, ... The formation of urine begins within the functional unit of the kidney, the nephrons. Urine then flows through the nephrons, ...
Supersaturation of urine[edit]. When the urine becomes supersaturated (when the urine solvent contains more solutes than it can ... when urine is acidic (decreased pH)[55]. Black/dark brown. Radio-opaque. Some of the oxalate in urine is produced by the body. ... when urine is alkaline (high pH). Dirty white. Radio-opaque. Tends to grow in alkaline urine especially when proteus bacteria ... Testing the urine periodically with nitrazine paper can help to ensure the urine pH remains in this optimal range. Using this ...
Urine replacement, which involves replacing dirty urine with clean urine from someone who is not taking banned substances. ... Urine Test[edit]. Under established doping control protocols, the athlete will be asked to provide a urine sample, which will ... However, a urine sample taken from Landis immediately after his Stage 17 win has twice tested positive for banned synthetic ... Urine replacement can be done by catheterization or with a prosthetic penis such as The Original Whizzinator. ...
Distilling urine[edit]. Using a condensation trap to distill urine will remove the urea and salt, providing one with drinkable ...
Urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *1-Acetoxyethyl (6R,7R)-3-[(carbamoyloxy)methyl]-7-{[(2Z)-2-(2-furyl)-2-(methoxyimino)acetyl] ...
"The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine" ...
Urine: 32%[1]. Breast milk: small quantities[1]. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *5-Chloro-1-(1-[3-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d] ...
Urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(R)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)benzene-1,2-diol ...
urine; Half-life: 18-26h (biological). Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(1S,2R,8S,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14,17-dihydroxy-14-(2- ...
"Detection and mass spectrometric characterization of novel long-term dehydrochloromethyltestosterone metabolites in human urine ...
urine'. Neapolitan. sbattere. [ˈʒbαttərə]. 'to slam'. Ngas. zhaam. [ʒaːm]. 'chin'. ...
... excreted in the urine unchanged.[5] In animals, the absolute bioavailability of phenibut was 64% after oral and intravenous ...
Urine: 54%[3]. Feces: 6%[3] Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F ... Estradiol is excreted in the form of glucuronide and sulfate estrogen conjugates in urine. ...
Urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-17-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17- ...
... in the urine and 15% in feces.[7][6] ...
urine rare ingestion of undercooked or raw freshwater fish Guinea worm - Dracunculiasis Dracunculus medinensis subcutaneous ... urine Africa, Middle East skin exposure to water contaminated with infected Bulinus sp. snails ...
Urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(2R,5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S,17S)-17-hydroxy-2,10,13-trimethyl-1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17- ...
An incidental consequence of this renal reabsorption of water is concentrated urine and reduced urine volume. AVP released in ... and so the urine is more concentrated. Release of von Willebrand factor and surface expression of P-selectin through exocytosis ... forming urine) back into the bloodstream. This effect is mediated by V2 receptors. Vasopressin also increases the concentration ... thus allowing water reabsorption and excretion of more concentrated urine, i.e., antidiuresis. This occurs through increased ...
... is eliminated unchanged in the urine.[1] ...
... is metabolized primarily in the liver and its metabolites are excreted in the urine. Oxidation is the primary ... of the excreted dose of phenelzine in the urine over the course of 96 hours after single doses. Acetylation to N2- ...
Urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S)-17-(1-Cyclopentenyloxy)-10,13-dimethyl- 6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17- ...
It is eliminated mostly in urine, and to a lesser extent in feces.[1] ...
"Urine color". Mayo Clinic, Patient Care and Health Information, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. 2016. ... The red colour compound betanin is not broken down in the body, and in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine or ... stools to assume a reddish colour, in the case of urine a condition called beeturia.[22] Although harmless, this effect may ...
... because folate is a water-soluble vitamin and is regularly removed from the body through urine. One potential issue associated ...
Mostly excreted in urine.. Severe pain (including labour pain); cough due to terminal lung cancer; angina; left ventricular ... Protein binding = 99%; volume of distribution = 0.2 L/kg; half-life = 3-5 hours; excretion = faeces (51%), urine (42%).[67][68] ... Extensive hepatic metabolism, mostly via CYP2D6, to morphine; half-life = 3-4 hours; excretion = urine (86%).[93]. Mild- ... Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122]. Chronic pain.. CNS toxicity (abnormal gait, ...
... dark urine, fever, fatigue, increased thirst and change in the amount of urine occur.[citation needed] Carcinogenic effects ...
Feces; ,1% urine. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a + 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b ...
... a compound that gives cat urine its typical odor. The MMB precursor felinine is synthesized in the urine from 3-methylbutanol- ... Rats and mice are highly averse to the odor of a cats urine, but after infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, they are ... Cat urine, especially that of male cats, contains the putative cat pheromone 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol (MMB), ...
Urea Nitrogen Clearance (Urine). Does this test have other names?. Urine urea nitrogen, 24-hour urine test ... This test needs a 24-hour urine sample. For this sample, you must collect all of your urine for 24 hours. Empty your bladder ... Then collect your urine every time you go to the bathroom over the next 24 hours. You will collect it in a container that your ... This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine.. Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks ...
Find out why urine tests are performed, and what to expect when the doctor orders them. ... Is your child having a urine culture or urinalysis performed? ... Getting a urine sample. It can be difficult to get urine ... Depending on the amount of protein or other cells in the urine, the doctor may repeat the urine test at another time, just to ... For example, a dehydrated child may have concentrated (darker) urine or a small amount of protein in the urine. But that might ...
Urine may accumulate in the urine diversion section of the toilet due to blockages in the urine pipe. Attention should be paid ... a b c d e f g h i j k l Rieck, C., von Münch, E., Hoffmann, H. (2012). Technology review of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs ... A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable ... Urine[edit]. Further treatment[edit]. The required degree of treatment for the collected urine depends entirely on whether this ...
Protesters at the G20 forum in Melbourne have thrown balloons filled with urine at police according to Federal Treasurer Peter ... They have been throwing balloons filled with urine at police, throwing bottles, throwing road signs, damaging vehicles and ...
The system is most notable for its ability to turn an astronauts urine into drinkable water. "Distilling urine in space with ... Purified Urine in Space NASA boldly goes where no filter has gone before.. *by Brittany Sauser ... In this system, urine is piped into a rotating drum that spins at high speeds, extracting water vapor, which is then compressed ... The system is the first to purify urine in space; the Russians have a similar, but smaller, water processing system that is ...
Infected Urine. Br Med J 1954; 1 doi: (Published 02 January 1954) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
Find out about blood in urine (pee). Its not usually anything serious, but sometimes it can be, so you should get it checked ... Blood in urine (pee) is not usually caused by anything serious but you must get it checked out by a GP. ... Possible causes of blood in urine. Other symptoms. Possible cause. Burning pain when peeing, need to pee often, smelly or ... Causes of blood in urine. Blood in your pee could come from anywhere in the urinary tract - the bladder, kidneys or urethra ( ...
The kidneys remove waste from the blood and make urine, also called pee. ... Urine. Say: yoor-in. The kidneys remove waste from the blood and make urine, also called pee. Urine is mostly water so if you ... If you drink lots of fluids, the extra fluid comes out in your urine, and it will be lighter. Urine is stored in the bladder ... dont take in a lot of fluids (or if you sweat a lot), your urine has less water in it and it appears darker. ...
Mesobilifuscin in Urine. Br Med J 1967; 2 doi: (Published 22 April 1967) Cite this as ...
Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you are healthy and drink plenty of fluids. ... Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. ... Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor ... For example, eating asparagus causes a distinct urine odor. Foul-smelling urine may be due to bacteria. Sweet-smelling urine ... Liver disease and certain metabolic disorders may cause musty-smelling urine.. Some conditions that can cause changes in urine ...
This is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is ... An increased amount of amylase in the urine is called amylasuria. Increased urine amylase levels may be a sign of:. *Acute ... This is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is ...
So youve already tried using urine to power your batteries and to fill up your gas tank. Why not now try using it as food (and ... Plankton Heart Human Urine. So youve already tried using urine to power your batteries and to fill up your gas tank. Why not ... including cow urine and dung and poultry droppings. Those that were reared on human urine started reproducing at least four ... "Human urine is a stable liquid and contains valuable nutrients. I see no reason why it couldnt be used for this purpose if it ...
Treatments and Tools for burning urine. Find burning urine information, treatments for burning urine and burning urine symptoms ... MedHelps burning urine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ...
PRNewswire/ -- Summary GlobalDatas Medical Devices sector report, Urine Analyzers - Medical Devices Pipeline Assessment, 2016 ... The report reviews the major players involved in the development of Urine Analyzers and list all their pipeline projects. - The ... Extensive coverage of the Urine Analyzers under development. - The report reviews details of major pipeline products which ... Identify and understand important and diverse types of Urine Analyzers under development. - Develop market-entry and market ...
In addition, using urine to get these cells isnt as disgusting as you might think. "Somebody may think that urine is very ... Dont expect your urine to just crystallize into a new set of dentures though. Pei and his colleagues needed to first convert ... Urine Can Also Power a Phone Sean Morrison, director of the Childrens Research Institute of University of Texas-Southwestern ... Duanqing Pei, a professor of stem cell biology at the research institute, took epithelial cells found in urine and converted ...
Predator urine uses the highly-developed sense of smell in these rodents and their instinct of predators to persuade them to ... Types of Animal Urine Commercially Available. Coyote, bobcat and fox urine is most widely available to gardeners and homeowners ... Safe Use of Animal Urine Products. Predator urine products are 100 percent natural, will not pollute the environment and is non ... Place the predator urine in any obvious tunnels the moles have dug. To repel voles, you must place the predator urine around ...
Neutralizing cat urine will get rid of offending odor. (Image: cat 1 image by Dragan Saponjic from Cat urine has ... Soak up fresh urine with paper towels. Do not rub the cat urine stain, this will only spread it around and make more of a mess ... If you are trying to neutralize cat urine from an old stain, repeat this process; the longer the urine sits, the more difficult ... Do not use ammonia-based products to get rid of the smell; cat urine is composed of ammonia and this scent is what draws your ...
How long opiates or opioids are detectable by urine drug tests varies depending on the type of drug, the frequency of use, and ... Do not use first morning urine for urine tests as the overnight urine usually contains more concentrated waste products (like ... Factors that decrease time of detectability of opiates in urine include:. *Drinking water in large amounts (dilutes urine ... How Long Are Opiates in Urine?. *Medical Author: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD. Dr. Charles " ...
Urine is a liquid waste material produced in and excreted by the body. Secreted by the renal tubules, it accumulates in the ... Urine Osmolarity. The urine osmolarity is a way to assess the concentration of the urine and may vary between 50 and 1200 ... Urine has large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Nitrogen content in urine is high, mostly in urea, which makes ... The specific gravity of urine may range from 1.002 to 1.037.. *The mean calorific content of urine may be approximately 100 ...
See our Urine Drinking Glasses and tip in style. Our unique pint glass assortment and custom pint glasses are great for your ... Make your next social gathering a festive time with your own cool Urine Drinking Glasses (8oz Pint Glasses). Or buy a full set ...
... D. Catlin,1,2 D. Cowan,2 M. Donike,2 D. Fraisse,2 H. Oftebro,2 and S. Rendic2 ... D. Catlin, D. Cowan, M. Donike, D. Fraisse, H. Oftebro, and S. Rendic, "Testing urine for drugs," Journal of Automatic ...
... is usually not a worrying problem at all, and the commonest cause for it to appear is because of a simple ... Protein in the urine. Protein in the urine is usually not a worrying problem at all, and the commonest cause for it to appear ... Protein in the urine is usually not a worrying problem at all and the commonest cause for it to appear is because of a simple ... It may also show up if any vaginal mucus has got into the urine sample, or if there is diabetes present. ...
So, females having an uterus giving us the term urine pouch. ... urine pouchunknown. It's that area below a person's ... So, females having an uterus giving us the term urine pouch.. You are walking down the street and you see a heavy set person ... coming towards you and you look at your buddy and state look at the urine pouch on that one. ...
the night time practice of locating the acceptable piss receptacle by listening to the sounds of urine hitting unacceptable ... urine triangulation unknown. the night time practice of locating the acceptable piss receptacle by listening to the sounds of ... Haans easily got 15-20% of his piss in the toilet by using simple urine triangulation. ... urine hitting unacceptable objects like carpet, toilet paper rolls, or cats. ...
U vertelt dat er andere, betere materialen zijn voor de opvang van urine dan maandverband. En u raadt haar aan om een afspraak ... van Gunst S., Pigmans V. (2010) Incontinentie voor urine. In: NHG-Standaarden voor praktijkassistente 2010. Bohn Stafleu van ...
Researchers have discovered children with autism have a different chemical fingerprint in their urine than non-autistic ... A urine test might enable professionals to quickly identify children with autism and help them early on," he added. ... "We hope our findings might be the first step towards creating a simple urine test to diagnose autism at a really young age, ... The researchers reached their conclusions by using H NMR Spectroscopy to analyze the urine of three groups of children aged ...
Your urine should be pale coloured or clear rather than dark yellow or orange and as a general rule the darker the urine the ... Urine with strong smell. Im taking Roaccutane for my acne. Ive been taking the tablets now for over five weeks and Ive ... Ive been taking the tablets now for over five weeks and Ive noticed in the last week or so that my urine has a very strong ... Although strong-smelling urine is not a side effect that is usually mentioned in connection with Roaccutane, it can cause ...
  • It's carried in your blood, filtered out by your kidneys, and removed from your body in your urine. (
  • Doctors order urine tests for kids to make sure that the kidneys and certain other organs are working as they should, or when they think that a child might have an infection in the kidneys, bladder, or other parts of the urinary tract . (
  • The kidneys make urine (pee) as they filter wastes from the bloodstream, while leaving substances in the blood that the body needs, like protein and glucose. (
  • The kidneys remove waste from the blood and make urine, also called pee. (
  • It's the amount and concentration of various waste products excreted by the kidneys that causes urine odor. (
  • For centuries European Gypsies have known about the curative properties of pee, using cow urine to cure Bright's Disease (several acute and chronic diseases of the kidneys which produce albumin in urine). (
  • I just recently found out that the reason that i keep urine infections is due to endo tissue attached to my bladder and kidneys and everything in between. (
  • Plasma proteins and red blood cells are not excreted in urine because they remain in the blood when it is filtered through the kidneys and into the ureters. (
  • Most other substances present in blood are also present in urine since the kidneys filter out poisonous substances as well as substances that are present in excess such as salt and water. (
  • It is an organic compound that is essential for metabolism in humans because it allows the kidneys to produce hyperosmotic urine. (
  • Researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) bioengineered rat kidneys that successfully produced urine both in a laboratory apparatus and after being transplanted into living animals. (
  • Bioengineered kidneys transplanted into living rats from which one kidney had been removed began producing urine as soon as the blood supply was restored, with no evidence of bleeding or clot formation. (
  • Doctors examining patients with abnormally colored urine can use a number of tests to uncover the cause, including blood tests, urinalysis and ultrasounds of the kidneys and bladder. (
  • Many substances in the blood can be detected in the urine, because your kidneys filter your blood and produce urine. (
  • If you're looking for stem cells, urine luck… Urine from premature babies could provide a rich supply of stem cells for medical treatments or for rebooting worn-out kidneys for transplantation. (
  • Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder. (
  • Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureter, bladder, and finally the urethra before passing from the body. (
  • If the dipstick test or the microscopic test shows white blood cells, red blood cells, or bacteria (possible signs of a kidney or bladder infection), the doctor may send the urine to a lab for a urine culture to identify the bacteria that may be causing the infection. (
  • If these bacteria contaminate the urine, the doctors might not be able to use the sample to tell if there is a true infection or not. (
  • Foul-smelling urine may be due to bacteria. (
  • Some bacteria in urine too break urea into ammonia. (
  • You could be having urine infection with the bacteria breaking the urea into ammonia. (
  • Enzymatic cleaners eat away at odor causing bacteria and this is how it neutralizes cat urine. (
  • Today's research shows that it is possible to distinguish between autistic and non-autistic children by looking at the byproducts of gut bacteria and the body's metabolic processes in the children's urine. (
  • The laboratory work, published in the Journal of Clinical Pathology, looked at two common bacteria that can cause urine and bladder infections - E. coli and Proteus mirabilis. (
  • And while recent studies show that urine isn't completely bacteria and "germ"-free, urine has been shown to have antibacterial and antiviral properties , likely leading to the the myth that urinating on a wound is a good idea (which it's not . (
  • What's more, the bacteria present in urine is similar to the so-called "flora" living symbiotically other places in the body such as the mouth or gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Contact with urine or urine-play as part of sexual activity would not facilitate the transfer of the "large amounts of causative bacteria and viruses needed," Handsfield explains. (
  • These bacteria produce an enzyme (indoxyl phosphatase/sulfatase) that converts the excreted indoxyl sulfate in the urine into red-and blue-coloured compounds (indirubin and indigo), which mix to form the purple colour. (
  • Urine is usually free of bacteria, hence it is considered sterile. (
  • In future studies, we hope to explore how bacteria and other microbes interact with the body of the individual they infect, and how these interactions alter metabolism in the body, resulting in unique metabolite profiles in the urine," she said. (
  • A urine sample will be tested for signs of infection, such as the presence of white blood cells and bacteria. (
  • However, urine culture is often ordered as a follow-up test to confirm the diagnosis and to identify the bacteria that may be causing the infection. (
  • Murky urine may also be caused by the presence of bacteria, mucus, white blood cells or red blood cells, epithelial cells, fat, or phosphates. (
  • The presence of bacteria in the urine, such as with a urinary tract infection (UTI), can affect the appearance and smell of urine. (
  • The clean catch method aims to prevent bacteria from the skin of the penis or vagina from contaminating the urine specimen. (
  • If the test results show the growth of several different types of bacteria, it likely means that the urine sample was contaminated during the collection process. (
  • The bricks are simultaneously grown and manufactured: Human urine, loose sand and live bacteria are mixed together and pressed into a mould. (
  • Catching the urine in "midstream" is the goal. (
  • But from our experience, if you look at midstream urine, it's sterile. (
  • Note that it's important to collect a urine sample midstream. (
  • Cat urine , especially that of male cats, contains the putative cat pheromone 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol (MMB), a compound that gives cat urine its typical odor. (
  • Rats and mice are highly averse to the odor of a cat's urine, but after infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii , they are attracted by it, highly increasing the likelihood of being preyed upon and of infecting the cat. (
  • Through the separate collection of feces and urine without any flush water, many advantages can be realized, such as odor-free operation and pathogen reduction by drying. (
  • Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. (
  • Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. (
  • For example, eating asparagus causes a distinct urine odor. (
  • Call your health care provider if you have signs of a urinary tract infection with abnormal urine odor. (
  • Neutralizing cat urine will get rid of offending odor. (
  • Cat urine has a strong, distinct odor because it is made up of ammonia, which is a byproduct of metabolism. (
  • Urine usually has a distinct odor, but under normal circumstances, the odor is relatively mild and not too noticeable. (
  • Certain conditions, however, may cause your urine to have an unusual or unpleasant odor, which may raise concerns about a problem or abnormality. (
  • Urine that contains a lot of water and few waste products has little to no odor. (
  • If urine becomes highly concentrated - a high level of waste products with little water - your urine may have a strong ammonia odor. (
  • Some foods and medications, such as asparagus or certain vitamins, can cause a noticeable urine odor, even in low concentrations. (
  • Most changes in urine odor are temporary and don't mean you have a serious illness, particularly if you have no other symptoms. (
  • When an unusual urine odor is caused by an underlying medical condition, other symptoms are also present. (
  • If you're concerned about the odor of your urine, talk to your doctor. (
  • Urine can be evaluated by its physical appearance (color, cloudiness, odor, clarity), also referred to as a macroscopic analysis. (
  • Recently I have had dark colored urine with bad odor. (
  • I don't think it's dehydration either because I... show more Recently I have had dark colored urine with bad odor. (
  • ps-a bad odor will always indicate the presence of infection,whether in urine,throat,ear,etc.if it smells bad,its infected. (
  • It is usually accompanied by a stronger urine odor. (
  • While the odor of urine can vary somewhat, in most cases, it does not have a strong smell. (
  • Consumption of certain foods, such as asparagus (which can impart a characteristic odor to urine), and taking some medications may be causes for changes in the odor of urine. (
  • When there is an infection in the urinary tract, the urine may take on a foul-smelling odor as well as appear cloudy or bloody. (
  • The urine may also have an abnormally sweet odor in uncontrolled diabetes , and some rare genetic conditions can also cause the urine to have an abnormal or strange odor. (
  • Clean up all urine marks as soon as possible with an enzymatic odor neutralizer. (
  • Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you are healthy and drink plenty of fluids. (
  • The smell of ammonia comes from nitrates in urine. (
  • The diluted urine does not smell. (
  • When you are dehydrated, the urine becomes concentrated and the smell of ammonia is noticeable. (
  • Predator urine uses the highly-developed sense of smell in these rodents and their instinct of predators to persuade them to avoid areas that might be too dangerous for them to inhabit. (
  • Neutralize cat urine with an enzymatic cleaner and get rid of the smell permanently. (
  • Some people, myself included, have a strong urine smell a while after eating asparagus. (
  • You should visit your doctor for a urine examination and evaluation to find out the exact cause and treatment for the foul smell. (
  • Urine can indicate changes in the body through its smell, clarity, and translucency as well as color. (
  • A pungent urine smell might just result from a change in diet, or it could also point to an infection. (
  • Urine can smell more like ammonia or even take on a fishy smell. (
  • The day after you experience pungent urine, try drinking eight to 10 glasses of water and see if the smell improves. (
  • Eating more leafy greens could also affect the smell of urine, so if you have been eating different foods than your body is used to, that could explain these changes. (
  • Cloudy, murky, or turbid (muddy) urine is characteristic of a urinary tract infection, which may also have an offensive smell. (
  • What gives urine a sulfur smell? (
  • A sulfur smell in urine is most often the result of eating asparagus, says WebMD. (
  • If this occurs, the color of your cat's urine and its smell will change, which can be a very helpful diagnostic indicator of which organ is causing the urine problem. (
  • If the color or smell of a cat's urine is not normal, something is wrong. (
  • Ammonia, however, is a natural element in a cat's urine, so a mild smell is normal. (
  • If cat urine has a sweet smell, this is a sign the feline may have diabetes. (
  • If you don't have enough fluid in your body (dehydration), you may have extra urea in your blood because you aren't passing much urine. (
  • Alternative names for UDDTs include " urine diversion " for the "UD" part (instead of "urine-diverting") in connection with terms like "dehydration", "dry", "drying", "desiccation" (for the second "D") which gives quite a high number of possible mutations of the terms that UDDT can stand for. (
  • Often, dehydration causes bright yellow urine. (
  • Often pungent urine smells are a result of dehydration. (
  • Other things can cause dark urine: dehydration (you don't think that's it) blood or blood proteins in the urine, pigments from foods/medications. (
  • With dehydration , the urine is more concentrated and may have a stronger ammonia scent than normal. (
  • It was not dehydration, as earlier that day I had light colored urine, and a few hours later, light colored urine again. (
  • Colorless urine indicates over-hydration, generally preferable to dehydration (though it can remove essential salts from the body). (
  • Dark yellow urine is often indicative of dehydration. (
  • Bright yellow urine is a sign of excess B-vitamins in the body, including B-2 and B-12, although this condition is harmless. (
  • While bright yellow urine does not necessarily indicate dangerous health issues, it is important to keep a close eye on the color of urine. (
  • The B-complex may result in bright yellow urine or increased odour as the vitamin is absorbed into the body. (
  • Sometimes your urine can be a few shades darker than the usual light yellow urine. (
  • What causes yellow urine? (
  • cat urine is composed of ammonia and this scent is what draws your cat back to the same spot to urinate again. (
  • In addition, if you are passing blood clots in your urine or are unable to urinate, contact your health care provider immediately. (
  • A urinalysis is usually ordered when a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause an abnormality in the urine. (
  • The urine was alkaline (pH 7.8), and Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection was diagnosed. (
  • The most common reason to get a clean catch urine sample is to test for a urinary tract infection (UTI). (
  • They have reported stronger smells and sometimes cloudy urine. (
  • If a cat's urine smells strongly of ammonia, this would indicate a bacterial infection. (
  • Settle for beer: looks like urine, smells like urine, tastes like urine, and comes out as urine. (
  • My urine smells like sandal wood why? (
  • Urinalysis, which is the examination of urine, allows the doctor to find microscopic red blood cells or, perhaps, white blood cells. (
  • A urinalysis is simply an analysis of the urine. (
  • A urinalysis test is performed by collecting a urine sample from the patient in a specimen cup. (
  • For example, urine infection is generally diagnosed based on results of urinalysis. (
  • A clean catch urine sample or specimen is one of the least invasive procedures for a urine culture or urinalysis. (
  • A urine test, also called a urinalysis, measures levels of proteins, blood cells and chemicals in the urine. (
  • If both urinalysis and metal testing are ordered, please submit a separate urine specimen (containing no additive) for the metal testing. (
  • Blood in the urine, known as hematuria, is a possible cause of red urine. (
  • See a doctor about red urine, as hematuria can be serious. (
  • Blood in one's urine, otherwise known as hematuria, may be alarming. (
  • Blood that is visible in urine is called gross hematuria, which indicates the presence of red blood cells in the urine. (
  • You should also contact your doctor if hematuria is accompanied by pain with sexual intercourse, urine dribbling, frequent urination or difficulty starting your urinary flow. (
  • Hematuria (Blood in Urine). (
  • Bloody urine is termed hematuria, a symptom of a wide variety of medical conditions. (
  • It is especially recommended when blood in the urine (hematuria) has been detected. (
  • In certain situations, a sterile bag can be placed around a baby's diaper area to collect a urine sample. (
  • To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. (
  • Is Urine Sterile? (
  • As many were quick to note after Trump's statement, however, urine is commonly believed to be sterile, thanks, in part, to survival television shows . (
  • I recently saw a sign, next to several others from AIDS prevention organizations, in a restroom of a bar in San Francisco that stated in block letters that "URINE IS STERILE. (
  • Don't fill urine to the top of the sterile container. (
  • Note: If an infant is providing the urine sample, the clean catch kit will consist of a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end that fits over the baby's genital area, as well as a sterile container. (
  • Pour the urine into the sterile container. (
  • In some cases (for instance, if a child is not toilet trained), the doctor or nurse will insert a catheter (a narrow, soft tube) through the urinary tract opening into the bladder to get the urine sample. (
  • The passage of bits of stringy material in men's urine may be due to debris from the bladder, discharge from the urethra, or blood. (
  • Urine is stored in the bladder until it's peed out. (
  • Duanqing Pei, a professor of stem cell biology at the research institute, took bladder epithelial cells found in urine and converted them into teeth. (
  • Patients often have a catheter fitted, either to drain urine stuck in the bladder or to monitor urine output. (
  • Rarely, mucus in the urine can be a sign of something more serious, such as bladder cancer . (
  • These images can reveal a tumor, a kidney or bladder stone, an enlarged prostate, or some other blockage to the flow of urine. (
  • The function of the ureter is to move urine from the kidney to the bladder. (
  • My objective is simple: to provide a low cost utility Urine Leg Bag Holder that provides comfort to the patient from dropping to the lower leg & causing penis and vaginal bladder pain. (
  • Creatinine is another important nitrogenous compound in urine, and its level depends on the body mass and muscle mass, as well as age. (
  • What Are Normal Urine Creatinine Levels? (
  • For men, normal urine creatinine levels fall between 0.8 and 1.8 grams per day, according to the University of Rochester Medical Center. (
  • Urine creatinine levels may fluctuate depending on race, muscle mass and certain medications. (
  • We evaluated the diagnostic value of spot urine (SU) potassium as an index of 24-hour urinary potassium excretion.We measured SU and 24-hour urinary collection potassium and creatinine in 382 patients. (
  • In addition, red urine may be a sign of kidney stones, urinary tract infections, injuries, liver disease, a blood clotting disorder or multiple other medical conditions. (
  • In general, opiates are detectable in urine for about 2 to 7 days depending on the individual's metabolism, frequency of use, opiate type, opiate detection test and effectiveness of your body's storage and clearance mechanisms (for example, body fat, kidney function, water intake). (
  • There are some rarer causes, usually involving more serious kidney problems, but if you are concerned about this, simply take a sample of your urine to your doctor for testing. (
  • Casts often signal kidney disease, as does excessive protein in the urine. (
  • Urea is one of the substances in urine, and urine is in your blood stream until the kidney extract the urine from your blood. (
  • Your body has to get rid of URINE because its contains poisonous substances which can cause problems to your kidney. (
  • The cause of urine of any of those colors may be hemolytic anemia, a kidney condition or a urinary tract injury. (
  • Having a high protein count in urine can be the result of kidney disease or other chronic medical condition, or it may be something temporary, states Ameri. (
  • For example, a type of stem cell destined to become kidney cells can be isolated from adult urine . (
  • I am plagued with kidney stones and I always have blood in my urine and when I start to pass one, it starts with pain in the back. (
  • Recent blood tests didn't even hint at any kidney disfunction and urine tests a week before, and now a week later, are absolutely normal. (
  • A team of ecological engineers at the University of Kalyani, India, discovered that plankton fed on a diet of ground water and human urine did better than those that were given alternate nitrogen-rich meals. (
  • Those that were reared on human urine started reproducing at least four days earlier, lived longer and produced more offspring than the rest. (
  • Human urine is a stable liquid and contains valuable nutrients. (
  • I see no reason why it couldn't be used for this purpose if it provides a suitable chemical environment for the zooplankton to grow," said Stephen Smith, an environmental biochemist at Imperial College London.Why makes human urine such an effective fertilizer? (
  • Not surprisingly, human urine is much cheaper to "produce" and is more eco-friendly than chemical fertilizers, whose frequent use often results in severe bouts of eutrophication. (
  • For many of the same reasons that it has shown itself to be such an effective fertilizer for zooplankton, human urine also has tremendous potential as an agricultural fertilizer, though worries about disease transfer and the presence of antibiotics and hormones may hinder its widespread use. (
  • We have not yet encountered any diseases or abnormalities in the zooplankton grown in tanks with human urine, but we are looking for hormone residues and antibiotics, just to be sure" he said. (
  • You run a hay farm that is entirely fertilized by human urine. (
  • University of Cape Town students have created a zero-waste building material made with human urine, which hardens at room temperature, as an alternative to environmentally taxing kiln-fired bricks. (
  • Human urine and feces are collectively referred to as human waste or human excreta, and are managed via sanitation systems. (
  • On an elemental level, human urine contains 6.87 g/L carbon, 8.12 g/L nitrogen, 8.25 g/L oxygen, and 1.51 g/L hydrogen. (
  • If the red color persists, however, or if there are other symptoms, it's important to be seen by your doctor, who may test the urine for signs of blood, infection or other problems. (
  • Women taking supplements to help ease menopause or pre-menopause symptoms may notice a change in urine because of the amount of B-complex in their vitamins. (
  • Doctors may soon be able to quickly and accurately diagnose the cause of pneumonia-like symptoms by examining the chemicals found in a patient's urine, suggests a new study led by UC Davis biochemist Carolyn Slupsky. (
  • Even if you have no overt symptoms, your doctor may request a urine culture as part of a complete physical. (
  • High levels of calcium in urine may mean low blood calcium levels, which can contribute to weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, confusion, lethargy and other symptoms. (
  • I have all the usual symptoms, but also lots of pain in my back, and blood in my urine. (
  • Lately my urine has been smelling ammonia like. (
  • Another source of ammonia is urea in urine, which in acidic pH breaks down to ammonia. (
  • An innovative osmosis system, originally developed by NASA, converts urine into water by draining it through a semi-permeable membrane that filters out salt and ammonia. (
  • Sometimes, when the urine contains white blood cells or protein, or the test results seem abnormal for another reason, it's because of how or when the urine was collected. (
  • Any changes in urine color, or the presence of an abnormal urine color that cannot be linked to the consumption of a food or drug, should be reported to the doctor. (
  • Abnormal proteins in the urine can indicate the presence of a disorder or disease. (
  • Urine cytology is a test that looks for abnormal cells in urine under a microscope. (
  • The urine osmolarity is a way to assess the concentration of the urine and may vary between 50 and 1200 mOsmol/kg. (
  • The amount and concentration of urine varies with the level of exertion, the environment, the level of hydration, and the intake of salt and protein. (
  • The yellow color darkens as the concentration of the urine increases. (
  • The little bit of sexual secretions or concentration of virus that would be in urine if you were exposed this way would be unlikely to cause disease. (
  • Urine samples from scrapie-infected sheep and age-matched healthy sheep were collected and analyzed by Western blot following concentration. (
  • Background concentration of PrPC in urine was found to be 0-0.16 ng/ml (adjusted to the initial nonconcentrated volume of the urine samples). (
  • Police in South Dakota are collecting urine samples from uncooperative suspects through the use of force and catheters, a procedure the state's top prosecutor says is legal but is criticized by others as unnecessarily invasive and a potential constitutional violation. (
  • Asparagus makes dark yellow or even green urine. (
  • Greenish urine can result from the consumption of asparagus or foods or beverages with green dyes. (
  • Rule out all possible medical causes of inappropriate urination by means of a urine analysis plus any other relevant veterinary tests. (
  • Urination results in urine being excreted from the body through the urethra. (
  • It can be difficult to get urine samples from kids to test for a possible infection. (
  • I think you should consult your doctor and get the urine examined for infection, ketones etc. (
  • Protein in the urine is usually not a worrying problem at all, and the commonest cause for it to appear is because of a simple water infection. (
  • It is more likely that mucus in the urine is related to an infection, digestive condition, or one of the other causes discussed above. (
  • While yeast infections become more uncommon as women age, an infection could still be the cause of cloudy or pungent urine. (
  • The vet will also perform a urine culture test and a urine analysis to find out if the dog is suffering from any bacterial infection. (
  • To increase the accuracy of the test, researchers also looked for another gene, called prostate cancer antigen 3, or PCA3, which is also found in urine. (
  • Urine typically contains epithelial cells shed from the urinary tract, and urine cytology evaluates this urinary sediment for the presence of cancerous cells from the lining of the urinary tract, and it is a convenient noninvasive technique for follow-up analysis of patients treated for urinary tract cancers. (
  • So when urine contains glucose, too much protein, or has other irregularities, it can be a sign of a health problem. (
  • For example, a dehydrated child may have concentrated (darker) urine or a small amount of protein in the urine. (
  • Depending on the amount of protein or other cells in the urine, the doctor may repeat the urine test at another time, just to make sure that everything is back to normal. (
  • When I've googled it, many things come up about being a sign of protein in the urine. (
  • Nitrate is a third nitrogenous compound in urine, with increased concentrations if the person has a high protein diet. (
  • Most often, it is done after a large amount of protein is found in the urine. (
  • Normally there is no protein, or only a small amount of protein in the urine. (
  • When there is protein in the urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. (
  • Protein electrophoresis - urine. (
  • In this study, attempts were made to characterize prion protein in urine samples from normal and scrapie-infected sheep. (
  • What does it mean if you have a high protein count in your urine? (
  • In healthy persons, urine contains very little protein and an excess is suggestive of illness. (
  • A chemical reaction triggered by the urease breaks down the urea in urine while producing calcium carbonate - also known as limestone, the principal component of cement. (
  • The largest excretion of these substances from the body is through urine. (
  • Nitrogen in urine is excreted mostly as urea, with about 11 g per day being the average excretion of nitrogen. (
  • The capacity of spot urine samples for detecting changes in population sodium and potassium excretion is unclear.Changes in urinary sodium and potassium excretion, over a 6-month to 2-year interval, were measured from 24-h urine samples and estimated from spot urine samples using several published methods in 3270 Chinese. (
  • The best way to make urine is to drink a lot. (
  • If you urine is a clear dark brown urine, see a doctor immediately. (
  • Pink, red, or smoky brown urine can be a side effect of a medication or may be caused by the recent consumption of beets, blackberries or certain food colorings. (
  • Another potential cause for concern is pink, red or smoky-brown urine that is not the result of drug or food intake. (
  • Clear, dark-brown urine is symptomatic of acute viral hepatitis and cirrhosis, both of which are liver disorders that require medical attention. (
  • Dark orange to brown urine can be a symptom of jaundice, rhabdomyolysis, or Gilbert's syndrome. (
  • Reddish or brown urine may be caused by porphyria (not to be confused with the harmless, temporary pink or reddish tint caused by beeturia). (
  • Given the normal urine/blood tests you have, I would not be concerned. (
  • Normal urine should be pale yellow. (
  • Normal urine is clear and has a straw-yellow color. (
  • Normal urine is a transparent solution ranging from colorless to amber but is usually a pale yellow. (
  • Urine consists mainly of water. (
  • Urine consists of Urea, salts and other waste products that do not get reabsorbed into the blood capillaries. (
  • The white part of bird droppings (the urine) consists of microscopically uniform spheres 2 to 8 micrometers in diameter. (
  • Diagnosing a cat urine problem consists of a thorough medical history that includes information about a cat's urinary habits and output, grooming habits and locations of such, indications of blood in a cat's urine, and urine found on the outside of a litter box. (
  • About 91-96% of urine consists of water. (
  • This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine. (
  • Urine has large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. (
  • Nitrogen content in urine is high, mostly in urea, which makes up more than 50 percent of the total organic acids. (
  • Urine plays an important role in the earth's nitrogen cycle. (
  • If you're an adult taking the test, your doctor may instruct you to stop taking drugs that could interfere with the accuracy of the porphyrins urine test. (
  • The normal range for a 24-hour porphyrins urine test is about 50 to 300 milligrams, although results vary among different laboratories. (
  • A cat's urine should be a shade of yellow, depending on his water intake. (
  • There are many things that can turn a person's urine red, pink or any number of different colors. (
  • Beets, berries and rhubarb have been known to make a person's urine turn red. (
  • How does having diabetes typically affect a person's urine? (
  • Researchers from the United Kingdom report that they've created a urine test that can predict the aggressiveness of a prostate cancer far sooner than standard methods. (
  • We're told Pitt voluntarily provided a urine sample in an attempt to show he had nothing to hide, and to clear up any "exaggerations. (
  • In a motion filed May 16 in Hughes County he argued the way in which police obtained the urine sample, through forced catheterization, was never authorized by the judge and violated his client's Fourth Amendment rights against unreasonable searches and seizures. (
  • While dried feces and urine harvested from UDDTs can be and routinely are used in agriculture (respectively, as a soil amender and nutrient-rich fertilizer-this practice being known as reuse of excreta in agriculture), many UDDTs installations do not make use of any sort of recovery scheme. (
  • Urine-diverting composting toilets are similar to UDDTs in that they also collect urine and feces separately. (
  • Bara Bihari Jana and his colleagues tried growing several Moina micrura (a zooplankton species commonly fed to hatchling fish in fisheries) stocks in a variety of different feces/urine cocktails, including cow urine and dung and poultry droppings. (
  • Livestock urine and feces also require proper management if the livestock population density is high. (
  • A little bit of blood (including clots) in the urine is typical after surgery. (
  • I began passing clots in my urine along with having the u.t.i 's themselves. (
  • After Sparks refused to cooperate, police transported him to Avera St. Mary's Hospital in Pierre, where he was strapped to a bed while a catheter was forced into his penis so that officers could obtain a urine sample. (
  • A 58-year-old man with an indwelling urinary catheter began producing urine with a deep purple colour ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Purple-coloured urine of a 58-year-old man with an indwelling catheter. (
  • Collected via a built-in catheter, urine is stored, filtered and used to irrigate the plants. (
  • For this process, urine must be collected in a reliable fashion, and if urine samples are inadequate, the urinary tract can be assessed via instrumentation, such as a catheter. (
  • The urethra is designed to move urine out of the body. (
  • A condition called porphyria causes urine to appear deep purple. (
  • Black or dark-colored urine is referred to as melanuria and may be caused by a melanoma or non-melanin acute intermittent porphyria. (
  • This test needs a 24-hour urine sample. (
  • For this sample, you must collect all of your urine for 24 hours. (
  • Next, the doctor or laboratory technologist also usually examines the same urine sample under a microscope to check for other substances that indicate different conditions. (
  • Getting a urine sample. (
  • A urine sample is needed. (
  • It may also show up if any vaginal mucus has got into the urine sample , or if there is diabetes present. (
  • An attorney for a man charged with felony drug ingestion is asking a judge to throw out evidence from an involuntary urine sample, saying it violated his client's constitutional rights. (
  • Police always take the person to a hospital if they are going to take a forced urine sample, said Tim Whalen, a Lake Andes attorney who has represented a couple of clients who have had urine samples taken without permission. (
  • Urine immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures immunoglobulins in a urine sample. (
  • The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. (
  • After you provide a urine sample, it is sent to the laboratory. (
  • There, the laboratory specialist will place the urine sample on special paper and apply an electric current. (
  • Urine chemistry is a group of one or more tests done to check the chemical content of a urine sample. (
  • Your health care provider will order certain tests, which will be done on the urine sample in a lab. (
  • If the minimum of 10 mLs of urine is not possible from one sample, it is acceptable to pool samples. (
  • Your health-care provider may also send a urine sample to the lab for culture testing (see below). (
  • One type of porphyrin urine testing is with a random, single urine sample, or they may ask you to complete a urine test over a 24-hour period. (
  • When a urine sample was taken, the urine initially was of normal colour but gradually became dark brown on exposure to air after several hours ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Your doctor may ask for a urine sample at any visit. (
  • Johns Hopkins scientist Roberta Ivey examines a lab sample of spaniel urine. (
  • A judge signed off on a search warrant for police to obtain blood or urine. (
  • In urine cytology, collected urine is examined microscopically. (
  • One limitation, however, is the inability to definitively identify low-grade cancer cells and urine cytology is used mostly to identify high-grade tumors. (
  • A new comprehensive life-support system for the International Space Station (ISS) centers on a water recycling system whose specially designed filters and chemical processes cleanse waste liquids-notably astronauts' urine and perspiration-so that they become refreshing, drinkable water. (
  • NASA's new water recovery system-shown here in a rack for transporting to the space station-can transform waste water, including astronauts' urine, into drinkable water by using specially designed centrifuges, filters, and chemical processes. (
  • The system is most notable for its ability to turn an astronaut's urine into drinkable water. (
  • One of the four astronauts on the Atlantis will be testing a device that Wired calls "a textbook-sized kit that can convert urine into drinkable water. (
  • I had sporadic old blood in my urine for about 3 months post-op. (
  • I saw a frightening amount (to me) of bright red blood in my urine. (
  • Bird urine has a varied composition, and x-ray analysis shows that it does not consist largely of uric acid, as has frequently been parroted. (
  • Scientists from Imperial College London and the University of South Australia suggest that their findings could ultimately lead to a simple urine test to determine whether a young child has autism . (
  • We hope our findings might be the first step towards creating a simple urine test to diagnose autism at a really young age, although this is a long way off - such a test could take many years to develop and we're just beginning to explore the possibilities. (
  • What does dark colored urine indicate? (
  • Astronauts, in fact, already have sampled recycled urine water in space, back in 2009-only, it was with a different device, one that uses an external power source. (
  • Total dissolved solids in urine constitute between 24.8 to 37.1 g/kg. (
  • Recommendation #10 from the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain states, "When prescribing opioids for chronic pain, clinicians should use urine drug testing before starting opioid therapy and consider urine drug testing at least annually to assess for prescribed medications as well as other controlled prescription drugs and illicit drugs. (
  • Sometimes, women may think that they are producing more mucus in their urine, but this mucus may be coming from the vagina. (
  • Women may, at times, believe that blood is in the urine when it is actually coming from the vagina (e.g., during menstruation). (