Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the diagnostic imaging of the renal cortex.
Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.
Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.
Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
Fluorescent antibody technique for visualizing antibody-bacteria complexes in urine. The presence or absence of antibody-coated bacteria in urine correlates with localization of urinary tract infection in the kidney or bladder, respectively.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Pivaloyloxymethyl ester of amdinocillin that is well absorbed orally, but broken down to amdinocillin in the intestinal mucosa. It is active against gram-negative organisms and used as for amdinocillin.
A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY PELVIS and KIDNEY CALICES where urine is collected before discharge, but does not involve the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS) where urine is processed.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
A topical anti-infective agent effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is used for superficial WOUNDS AND INJURIES and skin infections. Nitrofurazone has also been administered orally in the treatment of TRYPANOSOMIASIS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Presence of blood in the urine.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the urologic patient.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.
Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.
Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Lower urinary tract symptom, such as slow urinary stream, associated with PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA in older men.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.
Pathological processes involving the URETERS.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Nitrofurans are a group of synthetic antibacterial agents, characterized by a nitrofuran moiety, that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, primarily targeting gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in the urinary tract, and are used mainly for the treatment and prevention of lower urinary tract infections.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal electrolyte transport dysfunctions. Congenital forms are rare autosomal disorders characterized by neonatal hypertension, HYPERKALEMIA, increased RENIN activity and ALDOSTERONE concentration. The Type I features HYPERKALEMIA with sodium wasting; Type II, HYPERKALEMIA without sodium wasting. Pseudohypoaldosteronism can be the result of a defective renal electrolyte transport protein or acquired after KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.

Serotypes and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats. (1/2804)

E. coli strains isolated from urine of dogs and cats with urinary tract infections (UTI) and from feces of healthy one's were serotyped, and the serotypes were correlated with uropathogenic virulence factors. The most prevalent O-serotypes, O4 and O6, were isolated from dogs and cats with UTI. In contrast, O11 and O102 strains were the most frequently found from feces of healthy dogs and cats. Most of type O4 and O6 strains possessed such virulence factors as pil, pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1, while most type O11 and O102 strains pil only or pil and aer. All strains of type O75 possessed afaI and aer. K1 antigen was negative in all strains obtained from UTI.  (+info)

Correlation of periurethral bacterial flora with bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. (2/2804)

Periurethral bacteria are inoculated daily into the urine of children with neurogenic bladder during clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). We examined how frequently periurethral bacterial species produced bacteriuria in children followed longitudinally. When Escherichia coli was detected on the periurethra, bacteriuria was also present 93% of the time. When Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, or Enterococcus species or nonpathogens were detected on the periurethra, bacteriuria was present 80%, 40%, 40%, and 25% of the time, respectively. Clonal typing of multiple colonies of E. coli from each periurethral and urine culture revealed that children carried only one or two E. coli clones in their urinary tracts over months of surveillance. When E. coli was detected in the urine, the identical clone was on the periurethra. E. coli persisted for weeks in the urine without causing symptoms. Occasionally the same E. coli clone carried for weeks caused a urinary tract infection. Bacteriuria frequently occurs after inoculation of periurethral E. coli into the urine during CIC.  (+info)

Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is required for neutrophil passage across the epithelial barrier of the infected urinary tract. (3/2804)

IL-8 is a major human neutrophil chemoattractant at mucosal infection sites. This study examined the C-X-C chemokine response to mucosal infection, and, specifically, the role of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, one of the mouse IL-8 equivalents, for neutrophil-epithelial interactions. Following intravesical Escherichia coli infection, several C-X-C chemokines were secreted into the urine, but only MIP-2 concentrations correlated to neutrophil numbers. Tissue quantitation demonstrated that kidney MIP-2 production was triggered by infection, and immunohistochemistry identified the kidney epithelium as a main source of MIP-2. Treatment with anti-MIP-2 Ab reduced the urine neutrophil numbers, but the mice had normal tissue neutrophil levels. By immunohistochemistry, the neutrophils were found in aggregates under the pelvic epithelium, but in control mice the neutrophils crossed the urothelium into the urine. The results demonstrate that different chemokines direct neutrophil migration from the bloodstream to the lamina propria and across the epithelium and that MIP-2 serves the latter function. These findings suggest that neutrophils cross epithelial cell barriers in a highly regulated manner in response to chemokines elaborated at this site. This is yet another mechanism that defines the mucosal compartment and differentiates the local from the systemic host response.  (+info)

Isolation of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates that efficiently adhere to human bladder carcinoma T24 cells and inhibition of adhesion by fibronectin and trypsin treatment. (4/2804)

The adherence of Enterococcus faecalis strains to human T24 cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Five highly adhesive strains were identified from 30 strains isolated from the urine of patients with urinary tract infections. No efficiently adhesive strains were found among the 30 strains isolated from the feces of healthy students. The five isolated strains also adhered efficiently to human bladder epithelial cells. Analysis of restriction endonuclease-digested plasmid DNAs and chromosome DNAs showed that the five strains were different strains isolated from different patients. The adhesiveness of these strains was inhibited by treatment with fibronectin or trypsin, implying that a specific protein (adhesin) on the bacterial cell surface mediates adherence to fibronectin on the host cell surfaces, and the adhesin differs from the reported adhesins.  (+info)

Procedure for expediting determinations of antibiotic susceptibility of gram-negative, urinary tract pathogens. (5/2804)

Standardized direct disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing on monomicrobial urine specimens is compared with the Food and Drug Administration method. The direct procedure yields acceptable data and may conserve 24 h in reporting results.  (+info)

Value of cystography in urinary tract infections. (6/2804)

Fifty-one children with a bacteriologically proven urinary tract infection had both an intravenous urogram (IVU) and a micturating cystogram. The IVU was normal in 35. Only 6 of these children showed reflux in the cystogram, affecting 7 of the 70 ureters at risk. Since reflux on its own does not cause renal damage, which occurs only with super-added infection, detection of reflux is not important providing the urine is kept sterile. We suggest that cystography be deferred providing the IVU is normal until recurrent infections occur while under hospital care, and, with this policy this unpleasant and sometimes hazardous investigation could be avoided in many children with a single urinary tract infection.  (+info)

Urinary tract infections in adults. (7/2804)

Urinary tract infections remain a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. Recent studies have helped to better define the population groups at risk for these infections, as well as the most cost-effective management strategies. Initially, a urinary tract infection should be categorized as complicated or uncomplicated. Further categorization of the infection by clinical syndrome and by host (i.e., acute cystitis in young women, acute pyelonephritis, catheter-related infection, infection in men, asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly) helps the physician determine the appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are caused by a predictable group of susceptible organisms. These infections can be empirically treated without the need for urine cultures. The most effective therapy for an uncomplicated infection is a three-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complicated infections are diagnosed by quantitative urine cultures and require a more prolonged course of therapy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria rarely requires treatment and is not associated with increased morbidity in elderly patients.  (+info)

Renal stones and urinary infection: a study of antibiotic treatment. (8/2804)

Twenty-two patients in whom renal calculi and urinary infection were closely associated were studied over two to five years. Four patients had previously had stones surgically removed, and five underwent pyelolithotomy during the course of the study. Urinary infection was treated with an appropriate antibacterial agent, and treatment was followed by long-term prophylaxis, usually with cotrimoxazole. A sterile urine was maintained for long periods in all these patients. In four patients, however, apparent stone growth occurred while the urine was sterile. On entering the study 21 of the 22 patients complained of symptoms. After treatment 19 of the 20 patients who were still attending were symptom-free. Six of the 22 patients entered the study with raised levels of serum creatinine; levels fell in four and remained raised in two. This antibacterial regimen, either alone or after surgery, will usually relieve symptoms and may prevent deterioration of renal function.  (+info)

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

Anti-infective agents for the urinary tract are medications used to prevent or treat infections caused by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses) in the urinary system. These agents can be administered locally (for example, via catheter instillation) or systemically (orally or intravenously).

Common classes of anti-infective agents used for urinary tract infections include:

1. Antibiotics: These are the most commonly prescribed class of anti-infectives for urinary tract infections. They target and kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria responsible for the infection. Common antibiotics used for this purpose include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and fosfomycin.
2. Antifungals: These medications are used to treat fungal urinary tract infections (UTIs). Common antifungal agents include fluconazole, amphotericin B, and nystatin.
3. Antivirals: Although rare, viral UTIs can occur, and antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat them. Examples of antiviral agents used for urinary tract infections include acyclovir and valacyclovir.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment for any suspected urinary tract infection. Improper use or misuse of anti-infective agents can lead to antibiotic resistance, making future treatments more challenging.

Urinary catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine. This may be done to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output, or obtain a urine sample for laboratory testing. It can be performed as a clean, intermittent catheterization, or with an indwelling catheter (also known as Foley catheter) that remains in place for a longer period of time. The procedure should be performed using sterile technique to reduce the risk of urinary tract infection.

Bacteriuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine. The condition can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, and it can occur in various populations, including hospitalized patients, pregnant women, and individuals with underlying urologic abnormalities.

There are different types of bacteriuria, including:

1. Significant bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of a large number of bacteria in the urine (usually greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter or CFU/mL) and is often associated with urinary tract infection (UTI).
2. Contaminant bacteriuria: This occurs when bacteria from the skin or external environment enter the urine sample during collection, leading to a small number of bacteria present in the urine.
3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine without any symptoms of UTI. It is more common in older adults, pregnant women, and individuals with diabetes or other underlying medical conditions.

The diagnosis of bacteriuria typically involves a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the type and quantity of bacteria present in the urine. Treatment depends on the type and severity of bacteriuria and may involve antibiotics to eliminate the infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria often does not require treatment unless it occurs in pregnant women or individuals undergoing urologic procedures.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Vesico-Ureteral Reflux (VUR) is a medical condition that affects the urinary system, specifically the junction where the ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) connect with the bladder. In normal physiology, once the bladder fills up with urine and contracts during micturition (urination), the pressure within the bladder should prevent the backflow of urine into the ureters.

However, in VUR, the valve-like mechanism that prevents this backflow does not function properly, allowing urine to flow backward from the bladder into the ureters and potentially even into the kidneys. This reflux can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney damage, and other complications if left untreated. VUR is more commonly diagnosed in children but can also occur in adults.

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that involves the renal pelvis and the kidney parenchyma. It's typically caused by bacterial invasion, often via the ascending route from the lower urinary tract. The most common causative agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli), but other bacteria such as Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas can also be responsible.

Acute pyelonephritis can lead to symptoms like fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. If left untreated, it can potentially cause permanent kidney damage, sepsis, or other complications. Chronic pyelonephritis, on the other hand, is usually associated with underlying structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, urinalysis, and imaging studies, while treatment often consists of antibiotics tailored to the identified pathogen and the patient's overall health status.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Proteus infections are caused by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis or other Proteus species. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Proteus infections are often associated with complicated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and healthcare-associated infections. They can be difficult to treat due to their ability to produce enzymes that inactivate certain antibiotics and form biofilms.

Proteus infections can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, and discomfort in the affected area. In UTIs, patients may experience symptoms like burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine. Wound infections caused by Proteus can lead to delayed healing, increased pain, and pus formation. Bacteremia can cause sepsis, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Treatment for Proteus infections typically involves antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or carbapenems. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status and any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected devices like catheters.

Cystitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection can occur when bacteria from the digestive tract or skin enter the urinary tract through the urethra and travel up to the bladder. This condition is more common in women than men due to their shorter urethras, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder.

Symptoms of cystitis may include a strong, frequent, or urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back. In some cases, there may be blood in the urine, fever, chills, or nausea and vomiting.

Cystitis can usually be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Drinking plenty of water to flush out the bacteria and alleviating symptoms with over-the-counter pain medications may also help. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, wiping from front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and avoiding using douches or perfumes in the genital area.

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are a subgroup of E. coli bacteria that have developed the ability to cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). These infections can affect any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UPEC are responsible for the majority of uncomplicated UTIs in otherwise healthy individuals.

UPEC possess various virulence factors that allow them to adhere to and colonize the urinary tract, evade host immune responses, and cause tissue damage. Some of these virulence factors include fimbriae, which are hair-like structures that help the bacteria attach to host cells; toxins such as hemolysin, which can damage host cells; and polysaccharide capsules, which protect the bacteria from phagocytosis by host immune cells.

UPEC can cause a range of UTI symptoms, including frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, strong-smelling or cloudy urine, and fever. If left untreated, UTIs caused by UPEC can lead to more serious complications, such as kidney damage or bloodstream infections. Treatment typically involves antibiotics that are effective against UPEC, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, or fluoroquinolones. However, the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among UPEC isolates is a growing concern and highlights the need for ongoing research into new treatment strategies.

Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial medication used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the National Library of Medicine, its medical definition is: "Antibacterial agent with nitrofuran ring and furazan moiety. It is used to treat urinary tract infections and is also used for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections."

Nitrofurantoin works by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, leading to bacterial death. It is typically administered orally and is available under various brand names, such as Macrobid® and Furadantin®. The medication is generally well-tolerated; however, potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain), headaches, dizziness, and pulmonary reactions. Rare but severe adverse events include peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity.

It is essential to note that nitrofurantoin's effectiveness depends on the susceptibility of the infecting bacteria, and resistance has been reported in some cases. Therefore, it is crucial to consider local resistance patterns when prescribing this antibiotic.

Pyuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of pus or purulent exudate (containing white blood cells) in the urine. It's typically indicative of a urinary tract infection (UTI), inflammation, or other conditions that cause an elevated number of leukocytes in the urine. The pus may come from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Other possible causes include sexually transmitted infections, kidney stones, trauma, or medical procedures involving the urinary tract. A healthcare professional will usually confirm pyuria through a urinalysis and might recommend further testing to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Urologic diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra in both males and females, as well as the male reproductive system. These diseases can range from relatively common conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), to more complex diseases like kidney stones, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer.

Some of the common urologic diseases include:

1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs are more common in women than men.
2. Kidney Stones: These are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside the kidneys and can cause pain, nausea, and blood in the urine when passed.
3. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause difficulty urinating, frequent urination, and a weak urine stream.
4. Bladder Cancer: This is a type of cancer that begins in the bladder, usually in the lining of the bladder.
5. Prostate Cancer: This is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland, which is a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces seminal fluid.
6. Erectile Dysfunction (ED): This is a condition where a man has trouble achieving or maintaining an erection.
7. Overactive Bladder (OAB): This is a condition characterized by the sudden and strong need to urinate frequently, as well as involuntary loss of urine (incontinence).

Urologic diseases can affect people of all ages and genders, although some conditions are more common in certain age groups or among men or women. Treatment for urologic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Proteus mirabilis is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. In humans, P. mirabilis can be part of the normal gut flora but can also cause opportunistic infections, particularly in the urinary tract. It is known for its ability to produce urease, which can lead to the formation of urinary stones and blockages.

P. mirabilis infections are often associated with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or urinary catheterization. Symptoms of a P. mirabilis infection may include fever, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, and pain or burning during urination. Treatment typically involves antibiotics that are effective against Gram-negative bacteria, although resistance to certain antibiotics is not uncommon in P. mirabilis isolates.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Urography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It involves the use of a contrast material that is injected into a vein or given orally, which then travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys and gets excreted in the urine. This allows the radiologist to visualize the structures and any abnormalities such as tumors, stones, or blockages. There are different types of urography, including intravenous urography (IVU), CT urography, and retrograde urography.

Urinalysis is a medical examination and analysis of urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver problems. A urinalysis can also help monitor medications and drug compliance. The test typically involves checking the color, clarity, and specific gravity (concentration) of urine. It may also include chemical analysis to detect substances like glucose, protein, blood, and white blood cells, which could indicate various medical conditions. In some cases, a microscopic examination is performed to identify any abnormal cells, casts, or crystals present in the urine.

Trimethoprim is an antibiotic medication that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and protein. This leads to bacterial cell death. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX.

Medical Definition:
Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial drug that selectively inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine and purines. By blocking this essential pathway, trimethoprim disrupts bacterial DNA and protein synthesis, leading to bacteriostatic activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX, which inhibits two consecutive steps in the bacterial folate synthesis pathway.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections. It contains two active ingredients: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, which work together to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, a vital component for their survival.

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme needed for bacterial growth, while sulfamethoxazole is a bacteriostatic sulfonamide that inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate by blocking the action of the enzyme bacterial dihydropteroate synthase. The combination of these two agents produces a synergistic effect, increasing the overall antibacterial activity of the medication.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a severe lung infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent PCP in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that compromise the immune system.

As with any medication, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination can have side effects and potential risks, including allergic reactions, skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood disorders. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and report any adverse reactions promptly.

"Vaccinium macrocarpon" is the scientific name for the American cranberry, a type of evergreen shrub that produces berries which are commonly used in food and also have potential health benefits. The active ingredients in cranberries, including proanthocyanidins, are thought to help prevent urinary tract infections by preventing bacteria from adhering to the walls of the urinary tract. However, it is important to note that consuming cranberry products should not be considered a substitute for medical treatment for UTIs or any other health conditions.

Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine imaging procedures. The compound is made up of the radioisotope Technetium-99m, which emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, and dimercaptosuccinic acid, which binds to certain types of metal ions in the body.

In medical imaging, Technetium Tc 99m DMSA is typically used to visualize the kidneys and detect any abnormalities such as inflammation, infection, or tumors. The compound is taken up by the renal tubules in the kidneys, allowing for detailed images of the kidney structure and function to be obtained.

It's important to note that the use of Technetium Tc 99m DMSA should be under the supervision of a trained medical professional, as with any radiopharmaceutical agent, due to the radiation exposure involved in its use.

Urinary bladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urinary bladder, a muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine before it is excreted from the body. These diseases can impair the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly, leading to various symptoms and complications. Here are some common urinary bladder diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Cystitis: This is an inflammation of the bladder, often caused by bacterial infections (known as UTI - Urinary Tract Infection). However, it can also be triggered by irritants, radiation therapy, or chemical exposure.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): A group of symptoms that include urgency, frequency, and, in some cases, urge incontinence. The bladder muscle contracts excessively, causing a strong, sudden desire to urinate.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort in the bladder and pelvic region, often accompanied by urinary frequency and urgency. Unlike cystitis, IC/BPS is not caused by infection, but its exact cause remains unknown.
4. Bladder Cancer: The abnormal growth of cancerous cells within the bladder lining or muscle. It can present as non-muscle-invasive (superficial) or muscle-invasive, depending on whether the tumor has grown into the bladder muscle.
5. Bladder Diverticula: Small sac-like pouches that form in the bladder lining and protrude outward through its wall. These may result from increased bladder pressure due to conditions like OAB or an enlarged prostate.
6. Neurogenic Bladder: A condition where nerve damage or dysfunction affects the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly. This can lead to symptoms such as incontinence, urgency, and retention.
7. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Although not a bladder disease itself, BPH is a common condition in older men where the prostate gland enlarges, putting pressure on the bladder and urethra, leading to urinary symptoms like frequency, urgency, and hesitancy.

Understanding these various bladder conditions can help individuals identify potential issues early on and seek appropriate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Catheter-related infections are infections that occur due to the presence of a catheter, a flexible tube that is inserted into the body to perform various medical functions such as draining urine or administering medication. These infections can affect any part of the body where a catheter is inserted, including the bladder, bloodstream, heart, and lungs.

The most common type of catheter-related infection is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), which occurs when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the catheter and cause an infection. Symptoms of CAUTI may include fever, chills, pain or burning during urination, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine.

Other types of catheter-related infections include catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), which can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter, and catheter-related pulmonary infections, which can occur when secretions from the respiratory tract enter the lungs through a catheter.

Catheter-related infections are a significant concern in healthcare settings, as they can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and even death. Proper catheter insertion and maintenance techniques, as well as regular monitoring for signs of infection, can help prevent these types of infections.

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of clinical symptoms related to the lower urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. These symptoms can be categorized into storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Storage symptoms include frequency, urgency, nocturia, and urinary incontinence. Voiding symptoms consist of hesitancy, slow stream, straining, and intermittent flow. Post-micturition symptoms include a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying and post-void dribbling. LUTS can be caused by various underlying conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), overactive bladder (OAB), urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, or bladder cancer. The evaluation and management of LUTS require a comprehensive assessment of the patient's medical history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause and develop an effective treatment plan.

A urinary catheter is a flexible tube that is inserted into the bladder to drain urine. It can be made of rubber, plastic, or latex and comes in various sizes and lengths. The catheter can be inserted through the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder) and is called a Foley catheter or an indwelling catheter. A straight catheter, on the other hand, is inserted through the urethra and removed after it has drained the urine.

Urinary catheters are used in various medical situations, such as when a person is unable to empty their bladder due to surgery, anesthesia, medication, or conditions that affect bladder function. They may also be used for long-term management of urinary incontinence or to drain the bladder during certain medical procedures.

It's important to note that the use of urinary catheters carries a risk of complications, such as urinary tract infections, bladder spasms, and injury to the urethra or bladder. Therefore, they should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Sulfamethoxazole is a type of antibiotic known as a sulfonamide. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce folic acid, which is necessary for their growth and survival. Sulfamethoxazole is often combined with trimethoprim (another antibiotic) in a single medication called co-trimoxazole, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

The medical definition of Sulfamethoxazole can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical resources, here are some examples:

* According to the Merck Manual, Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial drug that inhibits bacterial synthesis of folic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid for the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase."
* According to the British National Formulary (BNF), Sulfamethoxazole is a "sulfonamide antibacterial agent, active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is often combined with trimethoprim in a 5:1 ratio as co-trimoxazole."
* According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial agent that is used in combination with trimethoprim for the treatment of various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid."

It's important to note that, as any other medication, Sulfamethoxazole should be taken under medical supervision and following the instructions of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects and interact with other medications.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Adhesins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) refer to proteins or structures on the surface of E. coli bacteria that allow them to adhere to host cells or surfaces. These adhesins play a crucial role in the initial attachment and colonization of the bacterium to the host, which can lead to infection and disease.

There are several types of adhesins found in E. coli, including fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbrial adhesins, also known as pili, are hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the bacterium and can bind to specific receptors on host cells. Non-fimbrial adhesins, on the other hand, are proteins located on the outer membrane of the bacterium that can mediate adherence to host cells or surfaces.

One well-known example of an E. coli adhesin is the P fimbriae, which is associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs). The P fimbriae bind to galabiose receptors on the surface of uroepithelial cells, allowing the bacterium to colonize and infect the urinary tract. Other types of E. coli adhesins have been implicated in various extraintestinal infections, such as meningitis, sepsis, and neonatal meningitis.

Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli adhesion is important for developing strategies to prevent and treat infections caused by this bacterium.

Dysuria is a medical term that describes painful or difficult urination. This symptom can be caused by various conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), bladder infections, kidney stones, enlarged prostate, and certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Dysuria can also occur as a side effect of certain medications or medical procedures.

The pain or discomfort associated with dysuria can range from a burning sensation to a sharp stabbing pain, and it may occur during urination, immediately after urination, or throughout the day. Other symptoms that may accompany dysuria include frequent urination, urgency to urinate, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, blood in the urine, and lower abdominal or back pain.

If you are experiencing dysuria, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment. In many cases, dysuria can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other interventions.

Urination disorders, also known as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), refer to a range of clinical conditions that affect the bladder and urethra, resulting in abnormalities in the storage, transportation, and evacuation of urine. These disorders can be categorized into voiding symptoms, such as hesitancy, straining, slow stream, intermittency, and terminal dribble; and storage symptoms, including frequency, urgency, nocturia, and urge incontinence.

The causes of urination disorders are diverse, encompassing congenital abnormalities, neurological conditions, infections, inflammation, medications, and age-related changes. Common underlying pathologies include bladder overactivity, detrusor muscle instability, underactive bladder, and obstruction of the urethra.

Urination disorders can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, causing physical discomfort, sleep disturbances, emotional distress, and social isolation. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management require a comprehensive assessment of the patient's medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, and urodynamic studies. Treatment options may include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, neuromodulation, and surgical interventions.

Bacterial fimbriae are thin, hair-like protein appendages that extend from the surface of many types of bacteria. They are involved in the attachment of bacteria to surfaces, other cells, or extracellular structures. Fimbriae enable bacteria to adhere to host tissues and form biofilms, which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity and survival in various environments. These protein structures are composed of several thousand subunits of a specific protein called pilin. Some fimbriae can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, initiating the process of infection and colonization.

A ureter is a thin, muscular tube that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they are typically about 10-12 inches long. The ureters are lined with a special type of cells called transitional epithelium that can stretch and expand as urine passes through them. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The ureters play a critical role in the urinary system by ensuring that urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it also serves as the conduit for semen during ejaculation. The male urethra is longer than the female urethra and is divided into sections: the prostatic, membranous, and spongy (or penile) urethra. The female urethra extends from the bladder to the external urethral orifice, which is located just above the vaginal opening.

Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss or leakage of urine that is sufficient to be a social or hygienic problem. It can occur due to various reasons such as weak pelvic muscles, damage to nerves that control the bladder, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease.

There are different types of urinary incontinence, including stress incontinence (leakage of urine during physical activities like coughing, sneezing, or exercising), urge incontinence (a sudden and strong need to urinate that results in leakage), overflow incontinence (constant dribbling of urine due to a bladder that doesn't empty completely), functional incontinence (inability to reach the bathroom in time due to physical or mental impairments), and mixed incontinence (a combination of any two or more types of incontinence).

Urinary incontinence can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing embarrassment, social isolation, and depression. However, it is a treatable condition, and various treatment options are available, including bladder training, pelvic floor exercises, medications, medical devices, and surgery.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

Urinary retention is a medical condition in which the bladder cannot empty completely or at all, resulting in the accumulation of urine in the bladder. This can lead to discomfort, pain, and difficulty in passing urine. Urinary retention can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-term). Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention, while chronic urinary retention may be managed with medications or surgery. The causes of urinary retention include nerve damage, bladder muscle weakness, prostate gland enlargement, and side effects of certain medications.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Community-acquired infections are those that are acquired outside of a healthcare setting, such as in one's own home or community. These infections are typically contracted through close contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or animals. Examples of community-acquired infections include the common cold, flu, strep throat, and many types of viral and bacterial gastrointestinal infections.

These infections are different from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are infections that patients acquire while they are receiving treatment for another condition in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or long-term care facility. HAIs can be caused by a variety of factors, including contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment, invasive medical procedures, and the use of certain medications.

It is important to note that community-acquired infections can also occur in healthcare settings if proper infection control measures are not in place. Healthcare providers must take steps to prevent the spread of these infections, such as washing their hands regularly, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and implementing isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Neurogenic bladder is a term used to describe bladder dysfunction due to neurological damage or disease. The condition can result in problems with bladder storage and emptying, leading to symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, incontinence, and retention.

Neurogenic bladder can occur due to various medical conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, diabetic neuropathy, and stroke. The damage to the nerves that control bladder function can result in overactivity or underactivity of the bladder muscle, leading to urinary symptoms.

Management of neurogenic bladder typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, bladder training, catheterization, and surgery in some cases. The specific treatment plan depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the symptoms.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) refer to infections that are localized in the reproductive organs, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and prostate gland. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

RTIs can lead to a range of complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and increased risk of HIV transmission. They can also cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding, and lower abdominal pain.

RTIs are often sexually transmitted but can also be caused by other factors such as poor hygiene, use of intrauterine devices (IUDs), and invasive gynecological procedures. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, good personal hygiene, and timely treatment of infections.

Diagnostic techniques in urology are methods used to identify and diagnose various urological conditions affecting the urinary tract and male reproductive system. These techniques include:

1. Urinalysis: A laboratory examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as infection, kidney stones, or other underlying medical conditions.
2. Urine Culture: A test used to identify and grow bacteria from the urine to determine the type of bacterial infection present in the urinary tract.
3. Imaging Studies: Various imaging techniques such as X-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans are used to visualize the internal structures of the urinary tract and identify any abnormalities.
4. Cystoscopy: A procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the bladder through the urethra to examine the bladder and urethra for signs of disease or abnormality.
5. Urodynamics: A series of tests used to evaluate bladder function, including measuring bladder pressure and urine flow rate.
6. Biopsy: The removal and examination of tissue from the urinary tract or male reproductive system to diagnose conditions such as cancer.
7. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: A blood test used to screen for prostate cancer by measuring the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland.
8. Voiding Diary: A record of urinary habits, including the frequency and volume of urination, that can help diagnose conditions such as overactive bladder or urinary incontinence.

Urodynamics is a medical test that measures the function and performance of the lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder, urethra, and sphincters. It involves the use of specialized equipment to record measurements such as bladder pressure, urine flow rate, and residual urine volume. The test can help diagnose various urinary problems, including incontinence, urinary retention, and overactive bladder.

During the test, a small catheter is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to measure bladder pressure while filling it with sterile water or saline solution. Another catheter may be placed in the rectum to record abdominal pressure. The patient is then asked to urinate, and the flow rate and any leaks are recorded.

Urodynamics can help identify the underlying cause of urinary symptoms and guide treatment decisions. It is often recommended for patients with complex or persistent urinary problems that have not responded to initial treatments.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a type of gram-positive bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. It is a coagulase-negative staphylococci, which means it does not produce the enzyme coagulase, unlike Staphylococcus aureus.

S. saprophyticus is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) in sexually active young women. It is responsible for approximately 5-15% of uncomplicated UTIs in this population. S. saprophyticus UTIs are typically associated with sexual activity, and the bacteria may be introduced into the urinary tract through contamination from fecal flora or during intercourse.

S. saprophyticus is also known to cause other types of infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia, although these are less common than UTIs. The bacterium is generally resistant to penicillin and ampicillin but can be treated with a variety of other antibiotics, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and nitrofurantoin.

Hydronephrosis is a medical condition characterized by the swelling of one or both kidneys due to the accumulation of urine. This occurs when the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder is obstructed, causing urine to back up into the kidney. The obstruction can be caused by various factors such as kidney stones, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. If left untreated, hydronephrosis can lead to serious complications including kidney damage and infection. It is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

Urothelium is the specialized type of epithelial tissue that lines the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It is a type of transitional epithelium that can change its shape and size depending on the degree of distension or stretching of the organs it lines.

The main function of urothelium is to provide a barrier against urine, which contains various waste products and potential irritants, while also allowing the exchange of ions and water. The urothelial cells are joined together by tight junctions that prevent the passage of substances through the paracellular space, and they also have the ability to transport ions and water through their cell membranes.

In addition to its barrier function, urothelium is also involved in sensory and immune functions. It contains specialized nerve endings that can detect mechanical and chemical stimuli, such as stretch or irritation, and it expresses various antimicrobial peptides and other defense mechanisms that help protect the urinary tract from infection.

Overall, urothelium plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of the urinary tract, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various urinary tract disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and bladder cancer.

The Antibody-Coated Bacteria (ACB) test, also known as the Coated Bacteria test, is a urine test that detects the presence of bacteria coated with antibodies. This test is used to diagnose and monitor bacterial infections, particularly urinary tract infections (UTIs).

In this test, a sample of urine is treated with fluorescein-labeled antibodies that bind specifically to the FimH adhesion protein found on the surface of many gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, that commonly cause UTIs. If these bacteria are present in the urine sample, the labeled antibodies will bind to them, forming antibody-coated bacteria.

The urine sample is then analyzed under a fluorescence microscope, which can detect the presence of fluorescing bacteria. The number of antibody-coated bacteria is expressed as a percentage of the total number of bacteria present in the sample. A high percentage of antibody-coated bacteria indicates an ongoing immune response to a bacterial infection.

The ACB test is useful for diagnosing UTIs, particularly in cases where standard urine culture methods may fail to detect the presence of bacteria, such as in patients with chronic or recurrent UTIs, or those who have recently received antibiotic therapy. The test can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and to identify patients who may benefit from longer courses of therapy or alternative treatments.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Amoxicillin pivoxil is not a commonly used medical term, but I believe you are referring to Amoxicillin, which is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. Pivoxil is a form of esterification that is used to improve the absorption and bioavailability of Amoxicillin when administered orally.

Amoxicillin pivoxil is a prodrug, which means it is converted into its active form (Amoxicillin) in the body after ingestion. The pivoxil ester is rapidly hydrolyzed in the intestinal mucosa and liver to release Amoxicillin, making it easier to absorb and more effective at treating bacterial infections.

The medical definition of Amoxicillin is:

A semi-synthetic antibiotic derived from Penicillin, used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and dental infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death. Amoxicillin is available in various formulations, including tablets, capsules, chewable tablets, and oral suspensions.

Therefore, Amoxicillin pivoxil can be considered a specific formulation of Amoxicillin that has been modified to improve its absorption and bioavailability.

Succimer is an medication, specifically a chelating agent, that is used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury. It works by binding to the metal ions in the body and allowing them to be excreted through urine. The chemical name for succimer is dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). It is available in the form of oral capsules and is typically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Pyelitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the renal pelvis, which is the part of the kidney where urine collects before flowing into the ureter. Pyelitis can occur as a result of a bacterial infection, and it is often associated with pyelonephritis, which is an inflammation of the kidney tissue itself.

The symptoms of pyelitis may include fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. The condition can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urinalysis, urine culture, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage any symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of pyelitis, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications, including kidney damage and sepsis.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

"Providencia" is a term that refers to a type of bacteria that can cause infections in humans. The scientific name for this bacterium is "Providencia stuartii." It is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

Providencia stuartii can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. It is often resistant to many antibiotics, which can make it difficult to treat. People who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or use catheters are at increased risk for Providencia infections.

It's important to note that while "Providencia" refers to a specific type of bacteria, the term is not typically used in medical diagnoses or treatment. Instead, healthcare providers would specify the type of infection and the name of the bacterium causing it.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

The Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. This combination therapy combines the antibiotic amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate, which is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The addition of potassium clavulanate helps protect amoxicillin from being broken down by certain types of bacteria that produce beta-lactamases, thus increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotic against a broader range of bacterial infections.

Amoxicillin is a type of penicillin antibiotic that works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall, ultimately leading to bacterial death. However, some bacteria have developed enzymes called beta-lactamases, which can break down and inactivate certain antibiotics like amoxicillin. Potassium clavulanate is added to the combination to inhibit these beta-lactamase enzymes, allowing amoxicillin to maintain its effectiveness against a wider range of bacteria.

This combination medication is used to treat various infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and dental infections. It's essential to follow the prescribed dosage and duration as directed by a healthcare professional to ensure effective treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance.

Common brand names for this combination include Augmentin and Amoxiclav.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Urination, also known as micturition, is the physiological process of excreting urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra. It is a complex process that involves several systems in the body, including the urinary system, nervous system, and muscular system.

In medical terms, urination is defined as the voluntary or involuntary discharge of urine from the urethra, which is the final pathway for the elimination of waste products from the body. The process is regulated by a complex interplay between the detrusor muscle of the bladder, the internal and external sphincters of the urethra, and the nervous system.

During urination, the detrusor muscle contracts, causing the bladder to empty, while the sphincters relax to allow the urine to flow through the urethra and out of the body. The nervous system plays a crucial role in coordinating these actions, with sensory receptors in the bladder sending signals to the brain when it is time to urinate.

Urination is essential for maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, as well as eliminating waste products such as urea, creatinine, and other metabolic byproducts. Abnormalities in urination can indicate underlying medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, bladder dysfunction, or neurological disorders.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Norfloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract, prostate, and skin. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an essential enzyme involved in DNA replication. This leads to bacterial cell death. Norfloxacin is available as a generic medication and is usually prescribed in oral form, such as tablets or suspension.

Here's the medical definition of Norfloxacin:

Norfloxacin (norfloxacinum) - A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is used to treat urinary tract infections, prostatitis, and skin infections. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, which results in bacterial cell death. The drug is available as a generic medication and is usually prescribed in oral form, such as tablets or suspension. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. Norfloxacin may also cause serious adverse reactions, including tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to quinolones or fluoroquinolones.

Sulfisoxazole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic, short-acting, bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of certain bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for their survival. Sulfisoxazole is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.

It's important to note that the use of sulfonamides like sulfisoxazole has declined over time due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of alternative antibiotics with better safety profiles. Additionally, adverse reactions such as rashes, allergies, and blood disorders have been associated with their use, so they should be prescribed with caution and only when necessary.

Gram-positive bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that turn purple when stained using the Gram stain method. This staining technique is used in microbiology to differentiate between two main types of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

Gram-positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Some common examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can range from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. The symptoms of these infections depend on the type of bacteria involved and the location of the infection in the body. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as penicillin, vancomycin, or clindamycin. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Gram-positive bacteria is a growing concern and can complicate treatment in some cases.

Fimbriae proteins are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain bacteria, including some pathogenic species. Fimbriae, also known as pili, are thin, hair-like appendages that extend from the bacterial cell wall and play a role in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells or surfaces.

Fimbrial proteins are responsible for the assembly and structure of these fimbriae. They are produced by the bacterial cell and then self-assemble into long, thin fibers that extend from the surface of the bacterium. The proteins have a highly conserved sequence at their carboxy-terminal end, which is important for their polymerization and assembly into fimbriae.

Fimbrial proteins can vary widely between different species of bacteria, and even between strains of the same species. Some fimbrial proteins are adhesins, meaning they bind to specific receptors on host cells, allowing the bacterium to attach to and colonize tissues. Other fimbrial proteins may play a role in biofilm formation or other aspects of bacterial pathogenesis.

Understanding the structure and function of fimbrial proteins is important for developing new strategies to prevent or treat bacterial infections, as these proteins can be potential targets for vaccines or therapeutic agents.

Fosfomycin is an antibiotic that is primarily used to treat uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the cell wall. The chemical name for fosfomycin is (E)-1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid.

Fosfomycin is available as an oral tablet and as a granule that can be dissolved in water for oral administration. It has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Common side effects of fosfomycin include diarrhea, nausea, and headache. It is generally well tolerated and can be used in patients with impaired renal function. However, it should be avoided in people who have a history of allergic reactions to fosfomycin or any of its components.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics like fosfomycin can lead to the development of bacterial resistance, so they should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Cephalexin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is essential for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacterial cells become unstable and eventually die.

Cephalexin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Like all antibiotics, cephalexin should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalexin include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, severe skin rashes, or liver damage may occur. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction or serious side effect are experienced while taking cephalexin.

A cicatrix is a medical term that refers to a scar or the process of scar formation. It is the result of the healing process following damage to body tissues, such as from an injury, wound, or surgery. During the healing process, specialized cells called fibroblasts produce collagen, which helps to reconnect and strengthen the damaged tissue. The resulting scar tissue may have a different texture, color, or appearance compared to the surrounding healthy tissue.

Cicatrix formation is a natural part of the body's healing response, but excessive scarring can sometimes cause functional impairment, pain, or cosmetic concerns. In such cases, various treatments may be used to minimize or improve the appearance of scars, including topical creams, steroid injections, laser therapy, and surgical revision.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Enterococcus faecalis is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal gut microbiota in humans and animals. It is a type of enterococci that can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.

E. faecalis is known for its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and resist various antibiotics, making it difficult to treat infections caused by this organism. It can also form biofilms, which further increase its resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses. Accurate identification and appropriate treatment of E. faecalis infections are essential to prevent complications and ensure positive patient outcomes.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, refer to the formation of solid mineral deposits within the urinary bladder. These calculi develop when urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together, forming a stone. Bladder stones can vary in size, ranging from tiny sand-like particles to larger ones that can occupy a significant portion of the bladder's volume.

Bladder stones typically form as a result of underlying urinary tract issues, such as bladder infection, enlarged prostate, nerve damage, or urinary retention. Symptoms may include lower abdominal pain, difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, and sudden, strong urges to urinate. If left untreated, bladder stones can lead to complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the stones or using other minimally invasive procedures to break them up and remove the fragments.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Urologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate, and urethra. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of urologic neoplasms include renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and testicular cancer. It is important to note that early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for patients with urologic neoplasms.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

Nitrofurazone is a medication that belongs to the class of antimicrobials known as nitrofurans. It is primarily used for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Medically, it is often applied topically (on the skin) to treat various types of wounds, burns, ulcers, and infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. Nitrofurazone works by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, which ultimately leads to bacterial death.

Please note that nitrofurazone is not typically used for systemic infections (infections inside the body) due to its poor distribution and limited action beyond the skin. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as with any medication, to ensure appropriate use and minimize the risk of adverse effects or antibiotic resistance.

Klebsiella infections are caused by bacteria called Klebsiella spp., with the most common species being Klebsiella pneumoniae. These gram-negative, encapsulated bacilli are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract but can cause various types of infections when they spread to other body sites.

Commonly, Klebsiella infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is a lung infection that can lead to symptoms like cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. It often affects people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Klebsiella can cause UTIs, particularly in individuals with compromised urinary tracts, such as catheterized patients or those with structural abnormalities. Symptoms may include pain, burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and lower abdominal or back pain.

3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia/septicemia): When Klebsiella enters the bloodstream, it can cause bacteremia or septicemia, which can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by an overwhelming immune response to infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing.

4. Wound infections: Klebsiella can infect wounds, particularly in patients with open surgical wounds or traumatic injuries. Infected wounds may display redness, swelling, pain, pus discharge, and warmth.

5. Soft tissue infections: These include infections of the skin and underlying soft tissues, such as cellulitis and abscesses. Symptoms can range from localized redness, swelling, and pain to systemic symptoms like fever and malaise.

Klebsiella infections are increasingly becoming difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the term "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" (CRE) or "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae" (CRKP). These infections often require the use of last-resort antibiotics like colistin and tigecycline. Infection prevention measures, such as contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning, are crucial to controlling the spread of Klebsiella in healthcare settings.

Urethral obstruction is a medical condition that refers to a blockage in the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. This blockage can be partial or complete and can be caused by various factors such as scar tissue, stones, tumors, or enlarged prostate gland in men. Symptoms may include difficulty in urinating, painful urination, frequent urination, and urinary retention. If left untreated, urethral obstruction can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage or infection.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Urinary diversion is a surgical procedure that involves the creation of a new way for urine to leave the body, bypassing the native urinary system. This is typically performed in individuals who have damaged or removed urinary systems due to conditions such as cancer, severe trauma, or congenital abnormalities.

There are several types of urinary diversions, including:

1. Ileal Conduit: A segment of the small intestine (ileum) is used to create a passageway for urine to flow from the ureters to an external collection bag or pouch worn on the abdomen.
2. Continent Urinary Reservoir: A pouch-like reservoir is created using a segment of the intestine, which is then connected to the ureters. The patient periodically empties the reservoir through a stoma (opening) in the abdominal wall using a catheter.
3. Orthotopic Neobladder: A pouch-like reservoir is created using a segment of the intestine, which is then connected to the urethra, allowing for normal urination through the native urethral opening.

These procedures can significantly improve the quality of life for patients with severe urinary system damage or disease, although they do come with potential complications such as infections, stone formation, and electrolyte imbalances.

Mannosides are glycosylated compounds that consist of a mannose sugar molecule (a type of monosaccharide) linked to another compound, often a protein or lipid. They are formed when an enzyme called a glycosyltransferase transfers a mannose molecule from a donor substrate, such as a nucleotide sugar (like GDP-mannose), to an acceptor molecule.

Mannosides can be found on the surface of many types of cells and play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protein folding. They are also involved in the immune response and have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer.

It's worth noting that mannosides can be further classified based on the specific linkage between the mannose molecule and the acceptor compound. For example, an N-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to a nitrogen atom on the acceptor protein, while an O-linked mannoside is one in which the mannose is linked to an oxygen atom on the acceptor protein.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Hematuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in urine. It can be visible to the naked eye, which is called gross hematuria, or detected only under a microscope, known as microscopic hematuria. The blood in urine may come from any site along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Hematuria can be a symptom of various medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney disease, or cancer of the urinary tract. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you notice blood in your urine to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Hemagglutination is a medical term that refers to the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of an agglutinin, which is typically a protein or a polysaccharide found on the surface of certain viruses, bacteria, or incompatible blood types.

In simpler terms, hemagglutination occurs when the agglutinin binds to specific antigens on the surface of RBCs, causing them to clump together and form visible clumps or aggregates. This reaction is often used in diagnostic tests to identify the presence of certain viruses or bacteria, such as influenza or HIV, by mixing a sample of blood or other bodily fluid with a known agglutinin and observing whether hemagglutination occurs.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are also commonly used to measure the titer or concentration of antibodies in a serum sample, by adding serial dilutions of the serum to a fixed amount of agglutinin and observing the highest dilution that still prevents hemagglutination. This can help determine whether a person has been previously exposed to a particular pathogen and has developed immunity to it.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Sulfamethizole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial agent that is chemically related to sulfanilamide and is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Sulfamethizole works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria through interfering with the synthesis of bacterial folic acid.

Here's a brief medical definition:

Sulfamethizole (sul-fa-meth-i-zole): A synthetic antibacterial agent, chemically related to sulfanilamide, used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. It functions as a folic acid antagonist, preventing bacterial growth by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial folic acid.

Please note that this definition is intended to be concise and informative for educational purposes. For more detailed information or medical advice, consult a healthcare professional.

Trimethoprim resistance refers to the ability of certain bacteria to survive and grow in the presence of trimethoprim, a synthetic antibiotic that inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis. This occurs due to genetic changes in the bacteria that make them resistant to the effects of trimethoprim. These genetic changes can include mutations in the target site of the drug or the acquisition of genes that encode for enzymes capable of modifying or degrading the antibiotic.

Trimethoprim resistance is often associated with resistance to sulfamethoxazole, another antibiotic that targets bacterial folate synthesis, as these two drugs are commonly used together in clinical practice. The development and spread of trimethoprim resistance can significantly limit the effectiveness of this antibiotic combination therapy and pose a challenge in the treatment of various bacterial infections.

Urolithiasis is the formation of stones (calculi) in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These stones can be composed of various substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, or struvite. The presence of urolithiasis can cause symptoms like severe pain in the back or side, nausea, vomiting, fever, and blood in the urine. The condition can be managed with medications, increased fluid intake, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove the stones.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

The Urology Department in a hospital is a specialized unit that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and management of benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra) and the male reproductive system. Urologists are the physicians who typically work in this department and have completed additional training and fellowship focused on subspecialties such as endourology, laparoscopy, pediatric urology, urologic oncology, reconstructive urology, and female urology. The Urology Department may also include specialized nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with urological conditions.

Urethral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain or discomfort during urination, difficulty in urinating, blood in urine, and abnormal discharge. Some common urethral diseases include urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra due to scar tissue or inflammation), and urethral cancer. The causes of urethral diseases can vary, including infections, injuries, congenital abnormalities, and certain medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing urethral diseases and preventing complications.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are widely used to treat various types of bacterial infections. They work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to replicate its DNA, which ultimately leads to the death of the bacterial cells. Fluoroquinolones are known for their broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Some common fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. These antibiotics are often used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections, among others.

While fluoroquinolones are generally well-tolerated, they can cause serious side effects in some people, including tendonitis, nerve damage, and changes in mood or behavior. As with all antibiotics, it's important to use fluoroquinolones only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to examine the lining of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for therapeutic interventions like removing small bladder tumors or performing biopsies. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and pain.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

Urinary bladder neck obstruction is a medical condition that refers to a partial or complete blockage at the bladder neck, which is the area where the bladder connects to the urethra. This obstruction can be caused by various factors such as prostate enlargement, bladder tumors, scar tissue, or nerve damage.

The bladder neck obstruction can lead to difficulty in urinating, a weak urine stream, and the need to strain while urinating. In severe cases, it can cause urinary retention, kidney failure, and other complications. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures.

Prostatic hyperplasia, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. When the prostate gland enlarges, it can squeeze or partially block the urethra, causing problems with urination, such as a weak stream, difficulty starting or stopping the flow, and more frequent urination, especially at night. Prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition as men age and does not necessarily lead to cancer. However, it can cause significant discomfort and decreased quality of life if left untreated. Treatment options include medications, minimally invasive procedures, and surgery.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

Female urogenital diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the female urinary and genital systems. These systems include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, vulva, vagina, and reproductive organs such as the ovaries and uterus.

Some common female urogenital diseases include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.
2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other pelvic structures.
4. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries.
5. Uterine fibroids: These are noncancerous growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus.
6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): This is a chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): These are infections that are passed from person to person during sexual contact. Common STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV.
8. Vulvodynia: This is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva, the external female genital area.
9. Cancers of the reproductive system, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and uterine cancer.

These are just a few examples of female urogenital diseases. It's important for women to receive regular medical care and screenings to detect and treat these conditions early, when they are often easier to manage and have better outcomes.

Cefaclor is a type of antibiotic known as a second-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria eventually die. Cefaclor is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, making it a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

Cefaclor is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections (such as bronchitis and pneumonia), ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms.

Like all antibiotics, cefaclor should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can make future infections more difficult to treat. It is important to take cefaclor exactly as directed by a healthcare professional and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

A urinary bladder fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary bladder and another organ or structure, such as the skin, intestine, or vagina. This condition can result from various factors, including surgery, injury, infection, inflammation, radiation therapy, or malignancy.

Bladder fistulas may lead to symptoms like continuous leakage of urine through the skin, frequent urinary tract infections, and fecal matter in the urine (when the fistula involves the intestine). The diagnosis typically involves imaging tests, such as a CT scan or cystogram, while treatment often requires surgical repair of the fistula.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition characterized by the involuntary contraction of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder, leading to symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia (the need to wake up at night to urinate), with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to void). It is important to note that OAB is not necessarily related to bladder volume or age-related changes, and it can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. The exact cause of OAB is not fully understood, but it may be associated with neurological disorders, certain medications, infections, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options for OAB include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions.

Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) is a type of urinary incontinence that occurs when physical activities or movements, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising, or lifting heavy objects, put pressure on the bladder, causing unintentional leakage of urine. It is caused by weakened pelvic floor muscles and/or a malfunctioning urethral sphincter, which normally help maintain urinary continence. SUI is more common in women than men, especially those who have gone through pregnancy, childbirth, or menopause, but it can also affect older men with prostate gland issues.

The kidney pelvis, also known as the renal pelvis, is the funnel-shaped part of the upper end of the ureter in the kidney. It receives urine from the minor and major calyces, which are extensions of the renal collecting tubules, and then drains it into the ureter, which carries it to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body. The kidney pelvis is lined with transitional epithelium, which is designed to stretch and accommodate changes in urine volume.

Enterococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the normal gut microbiota but can also cause a variety of infections, particularly in hospital settings. Enterococci are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments and can be resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat. Some species, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are more commonly associated with human infections.

In medical terms, an "Enterococcus infection" refers to an infection caused by any species of the Enterococcus genus. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, bloodstream, and abdominal cavity. They can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and pain, depending on the location of the infection. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Enterococcus species, although resistance to multiple antibiotics is a growing concern.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Ureteral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign ureteral neoplasms are rare and usually do not pose a significant health risk, although they may need to be removed if they cause obstructions or other complications.

Malignant ureteral neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant ureteral neoplasm is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), which arises from the cells that line the inside of the ureters. Other types of malignant ureteral neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and sarcoma.

Symptoms of ureteral neoplasms may include hematuria (blood in the urine), flank pain, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as urine cytology and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Methenamine is a medication that is used as a urinary antiseptic. It's a chemical compound that, when ingested and enters the urine, releases formaldehyde, which helps to kill bacteria in the urinary tract. Methenamine is often combined with other medications, such as sodium phosphate or hydroxyzine, to make it more effective.

It's important to note that methenamine is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is usually reserved for preventing recurrent UTIs in people who are prone to them. Additionally, methenamine should be taken in adequate amounts and under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excessive formaldehyde release can cause adverse effects.

Drug utilization refers to the use of medications by patients or healthcare professionals in a real-world setting. It involves analyzing and evaluating patterns of medication use, including prescribing practices, adherence to treatment guidelines, potential duplications or interactions, and outcomes associated with drug therapy. The goal of drug utilization is to optimize medication use, improve patient safety, and minimize costs while achieving the best possible health outcomes. It can be studied through various methods such as prescription claims data analysis, surveys, and clinical audits.

Uromodulin, also known as Tamm-Horsfall protein, is a glycoprotein that is primarily produced in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. It is the most abundant protein found in normal urine. Uromodulin plays a role in the protection of the urinary tract by preventing the formation of calcium oxalate and brushite crystals, which can lead to kidney stones. Additionally, it has been implicated in various renal diseases, including chronic kidney disease and kidney transplant rejection.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Clavulanic acid is not a medical condition, but rather an antibacterial compound that is often combined with certain antibiotics to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that have become resistant to the antibiotic alone. It works by inhibiting certain enzymes produced by bacteria that help them to resist the antibiotic, allowing the antibiotic to work more effectively.

Clavulanic acid is typically combined with antibiotics such as amoxicillin or ticarcillin to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It is important to note that clavulanate-containing medications should only be used under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can contribute to antibiotic resistance.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

"Prostatism" is not a formal medical term, but it is often used informally to refer to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that are related to bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland in older men.

The symptoms of prostatism may include:

* Frequency: The need to urinate more often than usual, especially at night.
* Urgency: A strong, sudden need to urinate immediately.
* Nocturia: Waking up frequently during the night to urinate.
* Hesitancy: Difficulty starting the flow of urine.
* Straining: Having to strain or push to start urinating.
* Weak stream: A weak or slow urinary stream.
* Dribbling: Dribbling or leaking after urination is finished.
* Incomplete emptying: Feeling that the bladder is not fully emptied after urination.

It's important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, such as urinary tract infections, prostate cancer, or neurological disorders, so a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Uroplakin Ia is not a medical term itself, but it is a component of uroplakins which are a group of proteins found in the urothelium, the tissue that lines the urinary tract. Uroplakins are involved in the formation of the asymmetric unit membrane (AUM) of the urothelial plaques, which are specialized structures on the apical surface of the superficial urothelial cells. These plaques provide a barrier function and protect the underlying tissues from various harmful substances in urine.

Uroplakin Ia is one of the four major uroplakins (UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIII) that form heterodimers and then assemble into larger complexes to form the urothelial plaques. Specifically, Uroplakin Ia combines with Uroplakin Ib to form a heterodimer, which then associates with UPII and UPIII heterodimers to form a tetraspanin complex. These complexes are then incorporated into the AUM of the urothelial plaques.

Abnormalities in uroplakins have been associated with various urological disorders, including bladder cancer, interstitial cystitis, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

A catheter is a flexible tube that can be inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or to perform certain medical procedures. Catheters are used to drain fluids, deliver medications, or provide access to different parts of the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. They come in various sizes and materials, depending on their intended use.

In a general sense, catheters can be classified into two main categories:

1. **External catheters:** These are applied to the outside of the body and are commonly used for urinary drainage. For example, a condom catheter is an external collection device that fits over the penis to drain urine into a bag. Similarly, a Texas or Foley catheter can be used in females, where a small tube is inserted into the urethra and inflated with a balloon to keep it in place.
2. **Internal catheters:** These are inserted into the body through various openings or surgical incisions. They have different applications based on their placement:
* **Urinary catheters:** Used for bladder drainage, similar to external catheters but inserted through the urethra.
* **Vascular catheters:** Inserted into veins or arteries to administer medication, fluids, or to perform diagnostic tests like angiography.
* **Cardiovascular catheters:** Used in procedures such as cardiac catheterization to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
* **Neurological catheters:** Placed in the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the brain or spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, like draining excess fluid or delivering medication.
* **Gastrointestinal catheters:** Used to provide enteral nutrition, drain fluids, or perform procedures within the gastrointestinal tract.

Proper care and maintenance of catheters are crucial to prevent infection and other complications. Patients with indwelling catheters should follow their healthcare provider's instructions for cleaning, handling, and monitoring the catheter site.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A cystostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening through the wall of the bladder to allow urine to drain out. This opening, or stoma, is usually connected to a external collection device, such as a bag or a tube. The purpose of a cystostomy is to provide a stable and reliable way for urine to leave the body when a person is unable to urinate naturally due to injury, illness, or other medical conditions that affect bladder function.

There are several types of cystostomies, including temporary and permanent procedures. A temporary cystostomy may be performed as a short-term solution while a patient recovers from surgery or an injury, or when a person is unable to urinate temporarily due to an obstruction in the urinary tract. In these cases, the cystostomy can be closed once the underlying issue has been resolved.

A permanent cystostomy may be recommended for individuals who have irreversible bladder damage or dysfunction, such as those with spinal cord injuries, neurological disorders, or certain types of cancer. In these cases, a cystostomy can help improve quality of life by allowing for regular and reliable urinary drainage, reducing the risk of complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage.

It's important to note that a cystostomy is a significant surgical procedure that carries risks and potential complications, such as bleeding, infection, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it's essential to discuss the benefits and risks of a cystostomy with a healthcare provider to determine whether it's the right option for an individual's specific medical needs.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

The urogenital system is a part of the human body that includes the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which work together to produce, store, and eliminate urine. On the other hand, the genital system, also known as the reproductive system, is responsible for the production, development, and reproduction of offspring. In males, this includes the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and penis. In females, it includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and external genitalia.

The urogenital system is closely related anatomically and functionally. For example, in males, the urethra serves as a shared conduit for both urine and semen, while in females, the urethra and vagina are separate but adjacent structures. Additionally, some organs, such as the prostate gland in males and the Skene's glands in females, have functions that overlap between the urinary and genital systems.

Disorders of the urogenital system can affect both the urinary and reproductive functions, leading to a range of symptoms such as pain, discomfort, infection, and difficulty with urination or sexual activity. Proper care and maintenance of the urogenital system are essential for overall health and well-being.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Streptococcaceae is a family of coccoid gram-positive bacteria, many of which are part of the normal human microbiota. They are facultatively anaerobic and generally non-spore forming. Some species are pathogenic and can cause various infections in humans, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. Members of this family are characterized by their ability to form chains during cell division and may be beta-hemolytic, alpha-hemolytic, or non-hemolytic on blood agar plates. The genera in Streptococcaceae include Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Vagococcus, among others.

Ureteral obstruction is a medical condition characterized by the partial or complete blockage of the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. This blockage can be caused by various factors such as kidney stones, tumors, blood clots, or scar tissue, leading to a backup of urine in the kidney (hydronephrosis). Ureteral obstruction can cause pain, infection, and potential kidney damage if not treated promptly.

Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the medical definition, Netilmicin is a sterile, pyrogen-free, pale yellow to light brown, clear solution, available for intramuscular and intravenous administration. It is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from sisomicin that is used against severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The mechanism of action for Netilmicin involves binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and causing bacterial cell death. Similar to other aminoglycosides, Netilmicin is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted unchanged by glomerular filtration in the kidneys.

It's important to note that Netilmicin can cause nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and ototoxicity (hearing loss or balance problems), so it should be used with caution, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment or hearing issues. Regular monitoring of renal function and auditory function is recommended during treatment with Netilmicin.

Ureteral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the ureters, which are the thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain in the side or back, fever, and changes in urinary patterns. Here are some examples of ureteral diseases:

1. Ureteral stricture: A narrowing of the ureter that can be caused by scarring, inflammation, or tumors. This can lead to a backup of urine, which can cause kidney damage or infection.
2. Ureteral stones: Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the ureters and can cause pain, nausea, and blood in the urine.
3. Ureteral cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the ureters and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and bloody urine.
4. Ureteral reflux: A condition in which urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureters, causing infection and kidney damage.
5. Ureteral trauma: Injury to the ureters can occur due to accidents, surgeries, or other medical procedures. This can lead to bleeding, scarring, or blockages in the ureters.

Treatment for ureteral diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures such as stenting or balloon dilation.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

'Student Health Services' is a department or facility within educational institutions, particularly colleges and universities, that provide primary care medical services to students. They are often staffed by healthcare professionals including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, and mental health counselors. The services offered may include diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care, immunizations, sexual health services, mental health counseling, and health education. Student Health Services aim to promote the overall well-being of students and help them maintain good health while pursuing their academic goals.

Prostatitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be caused by bacterial or non-bacterial factors. It can present with various symptoms such as pain in the lower abdomen, pelvis, or genital area, difficulty and/or painful urination, ejaculation pain, and flu-like symptoms. Prostatitis can be acute or chronic, and it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Nitrofurans are a group of synthetic antibacterial agents that have been widely used in the medical field for their antimicrobial properties. The primary use of nitrofurans is to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. Nitrofurantoin is the most commonly prescribed nitrofuran and is available under various brand names, such as Macrobid and Furadantin.

Nitrofurans have a unique mechanism of action that distinguishes them from other antibiotics. They require an aerobic environment with an adequate concentration of oxygen to be effective. Once inside the body, nitrofurans are rapidly metabolized and concentrated in urine, where they exhibit bactericidal activity against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococci.

The antibacterial action of nitrofurans is attributed to their ability to inhibit essential bacterial enzymes involved in nucleic acid synthesis, energy production, and cell wall biosynthesis. This multifaceted mechanism of action makes it difficult for bacteria to develop resistance against nitrofurans.

Common side effects associated with nitrofurantoin include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Less frequently, patients may experience headaches, dizziness, or skin rashes. In rare cases, nitrofurantoin can cause pulmonary reactions, hepatotoxicity, or peripheral neuropathy.

Due to the potential for adverse effects and the risk of developing drug-resistant bacteria, nitrofurans should only be prescribed when there is a strong clinical indication and susceptibility testing has been performed. Patients with impaired renal function, pregnant women in their third trimester, or those with a history of liver or lung disease may not be suitable candidates for nitrofuran therapy due to the increased risk of adverse reactions.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

Gentamicin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of aminoglycosides. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including:

* Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis
* Certain Gram-positive bacterial infections, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Gentamicin works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. It is typically given via injection (intramuscularly or intravenously) and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat serious infections.

Like all aminoglycosides, gentamicin can cause kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used for long periods of time or at high doses. Therefore, monitoring of drug levels and renal function is recommended during treatment.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Serratia infections are caused by bacteria named Serratia marcescens, which belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. These gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacilli can be found in various environments, including water, soil, and food. While they are a part of the normal gut flora in humans and animals, Serratia species can cause infections under certain circumstances, such as impaired immune function or when introduced into sterile sites like the bloodstream, urinary tract, or lungs.

Serratia infections can manifest as:

1. Pneumonia: A lower respiratory tract infection that causes cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Bacterial invasion of the urinary system, leading to symptoms like dysuria, frequency, urgency, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
3. Bloodstream infections (Bacteremia/Septicemia): Invasion of the bloodstream by Serratia species, which can result in fever, chills, and sepsis.
4. Wound infections: Localized infection of wounds or surgical sites, causing pain, redness, swelling, and pus discharge.
5. Eye infections (Conjunctivitis/Keratitis): Bacterial invasion of the eye, leading to symptoms like redness, pain, tearing, and discharge.
6. Central Nervous System (CNS) infections: Rare but severe complications include meningitis or brain abscesses.

Serratia infections can be challenging to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including first-line agents like ampicillin and cephalosporins. Therefore, healthcare providers often rely on carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, or aminoglycosides for treatment. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial to ensure favorable outcomes in patients with Serratia infections.

Pseudohypoaldosteronism is a group of disorders that are characterized by resistance to aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance in the body. In pseudohypoaldosteronism, the kidneys fail to respond to aldosterone, leading to an imbalance of electrolytes in the body.

There are two types of pseudohypoaldosteronism: type I and type II. Type I is further divided into two subtypes: severe neonatal or infantile forms, which are usually caused by genetic mutations that affect the function of the sodium-potassium pump in the kidney; and milder forms, which can be inherited or acquired and may be associated with other medical conditions.

Type II pseudohypoaldosteronism is a rare disorder that typically affects older children and adults. It is caused by genetic mutations that affect the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the kidney, which binds to aldosterone and triggers a response.

Symptoms of pseudohypoaldosteronism may include low sodium levels, high potassium levels, and metabolic acidosis (a buildup of acid in the body). Treatment typically involves supplementation with sodium and/or medications to help regulate electrolyte balance.

Urology is a surgical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions related to the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. This includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate gland, and testicles. Urologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in this field, and they may perform various surgical procedures such as cystoscopy, lithotripsy, and radical prostatectomy to treat conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, enlarged prostate, and infertility.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Clavulanic acid is a type of beta-lactamase inhibitor, which is a compound that is used to increase the effectiveness of certain antibiotics. It works by preventing the breakdown of beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins and cephalosporins) by bacterial enzymes called beta-lactamases. This allows the antibiotic to remain active against the bacteria for a longer period of time, increasing its ability to kill the bacteria and treat the infection.

Clavulanic acid is often combined with amoxicillin in a medication called Augmentin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It may also be used in other combinations with other beta-lactam antibiotics.

Like all medications, clavulanic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those who are allergic to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking clavulanic acid or any medication.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Infectious skin diseases are conditions characterized by an infection or infestation of the skin caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. These organisms invade the skin, causing inflammation, redness, itching, pain, and other symptoms. Examples of infectious skin diseases include:

1. Bacterial infections: Cellulitis, impetigo, folliculitis, and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections are examples of bacterial skin infections.
2. Viral infections: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and molluscum contagiosum are common viruses that can cause skin infections.
3. Fungal infections: Tinea pedis (athlete's foot), tinea corporis (ringworm), candidiasis (yeast infection), and pityriasis versicolor are examples of fungal skin infections.
4. Parasitic infestations: Scabies, lice, and bed bugs are examples of parasites that can cause infectious skin diseases.

Treatment for infectious skin diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include topical or oral antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal treatments, or insecticides to eliminate parasitic infestations. Proper hygiene, wound care, and avoiding contact with infected individuals can help prevent the spread of infectious skin diseases.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Vaginitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the vagina, often accompanied by an alteration in the normal vaginal flora and an associated discharge. It can result from infectious (bacterial, viral, or fungal) or noninfectious causes, such as chemical irritants, allergies, or hormonal changes. Common symptoms include abnormal vaginal discharge with varying colors, odors, and consistencies; itching; burning; and pain during urination or sexual intercourse. The specific diagnosis and treatment of vaginitis depend on the underlying cause, which is typically determined through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Bacterial adhesins are proteins or structures on the surface of bacterial cells that allow them to attach to other cells or surfaces. This ability to adhere to host tissues is an important first step in the process of bacterial infection and colonization. Adhesins can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, such as proteins or sugars, enabling the bacteria to establish a close relationship with the host and evade immune responses.

There are several types of bacterial adhesins, including fimbriae, pili, and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbriae and pili are thin, hair-like structures that extend from the bacterial surface and can bind to a variety of host cell receptors. Non-fimbrial adhesins are proteins that are directly embedded in the bacterial cell wall and can also mediate attachment to host cells.

Bacterial adhesins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A Radioimmunosorbent Test (RIST) is a type of radioimmunoassay (RIA) that uses a radioactively labeled antigen and an immunosorbent to measure the amount of antibodies in a sample. In this test, the patient's serum or plasma is incubated with a solid-phase immunosorbent, such as beads coated with a specific antigen. After washing to remove unbound proteins, a radioactively labeled antigen is added and allowed to bind to any available antibody binding sites on the immunosorbent. The amount of radioactivity that binds to the immunosorbent is then measured and is proportional to the amount of antibodies present in the sample.

RIST is a sensitive and specific method for measuring antibodies, and it has been widely used in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of various autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjogren's syndrome. However, due to concerns about radiation exposure and the availability of non-radioactive alternatives, RIST has largely been replaced by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in many clinical settings.

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Streptococcal infections are a type of infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes). These bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild skin infections to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease).

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

* Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) - an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.
* Impetigo - a highly contagious skin infection that causes sores or blisters on the skin.
* Cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
* Scarlet fever - a streptococcal infection that causes a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and sore throat.
* Necrotizing fasciitis - a rare but serious bacterial infection that can cause tissue death and destruction of the muscles and fascia (the tissue that covers the muscles).

Treatment for streptococcal infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a streptococcal infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Actinomycetaceae is a family of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous growth and the production of branching hyphae. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause disease in humans and animals. They are classified as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic organisms, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen.

The name "Actinomycetaceae" comes from the Greek words "aktis," meaning "ray" or "beam," and "mykes," meaning "fungus." This reflects the filamentous, fungus-like growth of these bacteria.

Some species of Actinomycetaceae are known to produce various antibiotics, including streptomycin, neomycin, and tetracycline. These antibiotics have been widely used in medicine to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

In humans, some species of Actinomycetaceae can cause actinomycosis, a chronic infection that typically affects the face, neck, and mouth. Symptoms of actinomycosis include swelling, pain, and the formation of abscesses or fistulas. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotic therapy and sometimes surgical drainage of any abscesses.

Overall, Actinomycetaceae is an important family of bacteria with both beneficial and harmful effects on humans and other organisms.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Flank pain is defined as discomfort or pain located in the area of the body between the lower ribcage and the pelvis, specifically in the region of the abdomen that lies posterior to the axillary line (the line drawn from the underarm down the side of the body). This region contains several vital organs such as the kidneys, ureters, pancreas, colon, and parts of the reproductive system. Flank pain can be a symptom of various medical conditions affecting these organs, including but not limited to kidney stones, pyelonephritis (kidney infection), musculoskeletal issues, or irritable bowel syndrome. The intensity and character of flank pain may vary depending on the underlying cause, ranging from a dull ache to sharp stabbing sensations.

Staphylococcal infections are a type of infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria, which are commonly found on the skin and nose of healthy people. However, if they enter the body through a cut, scratch, or other wound, they can cause an infection.

There are several types of Staphylococcus bacteria, but the most common one that causes infections is Staphylococcus aureus. These infections can range from minor skin infections such as pimples, boils, and impetigo to serious conditions such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

Symptoms of staphylococcal infections depend on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections. It is important to note that some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to certain antibiotics, making them more difficult to treat.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

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... or urgency caused by urinary tract infections, surgery, or injury to the urinary tract. Phenazopyridine was discovered by ... Skirrow MB (April 1969). "Urinary tract infections". British Medical Journal. 2 (5648): 687-706. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.06.005 ... or urinary bladder surgery which may result in irritation of the epithelial lining of the urinary tract. This medication is not ... It is known that the chemical has a direct topical analgesic effect on the mucosa lining of the urinary tract. It is rapidly ...
Bacterial pneumonia is a bacterial infection of the lungs. Urinary tract infection is predominantly caused by bacteria. ... "Urinary Tract Infections". Retrieved 2010-02-04. Roxe DM. Urinalysis. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Clinical ... These pathogens can cause pneumonia or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease. Other groups of ... "The challenge of urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients". Transplant Infectious Disease. 20 (2): e12828. doi: ...
Clinical Urine Tests Urinary catheterization Urinary tract infection Bhat, RG; Katy, TA; Place, FC (Aug 2011). "Pediatric ... In infants or young children with fever, laboratory analysis of the child's urine is needed to diagnose urinary tract infection ... urine in child less than 2 years of age who is not yet toilet trained in an effort to diagnose a urinary tract infection. ... urinary tract infections". Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 29 (3): 637-53. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2011.04.004. PMID ...
Meyrier A (1999). "Urinary Tract Infection". In Schrier RW, Cohen AH, Glassock RJ, Grünfeld JP (eds.). Atlas of diseases of the ... It is a virulence factor enabling E. coli to sequester iron in iron-poor environments such as the urinary tract. Aerobactin is ...
... respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, infections of areas where surgery occurred, and in extreme cases ... urinary tract infection; opportunist infection". In Greenwood D, Barer M, Slack R, Irving W (eds.). Medical Microbiology ( ... The bacteria can also cause pneumonia, other respiratory illnesses and urinary tract infections. An easy way to differentiate ... Citrobacter species inhabit intestinal flora without causing harm, but can lead to urinary tract infections, bacteremia, brain ...
Litster, A. L.; Moss, S. M.; Trott, D. J. (October 1, 2008). "Urinary Tract Infections in Cats". Journal of Small Animal ... "Prevalence of bacterial species in cats with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease: Recognition of Staphylococcus felis ... S. felis has been isolated from and is associated with skin infections in cats. Higgins, R; Gottschalk, M (May 1991). "Québec. ... as a possible feline urinary tract pathogen". Veterinary Microbiology. 121 (1-2): 182-188. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.11.025. ...
Bagga (2009). Urinary Tract Infections And Anomalies. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 4. ISBN 9788131223710. Hofmann, Walter; ... Leukocyturia is mostly a sign of urinary tract infection, especially if significant bacteriuria is found (for most people, the ... it can be a sign of a bacterial urinary tract infection. Pyuria may be present in people with sepsis, or in older people with ... It may occur in the case of diseases of the urinary tract, reproductive system and diseases of the abdominal organs. ...
It is defined as recurrent urinary tract infections in men originating from a chronic infection in the prostate. Symptoms may ... Najar MS, Saldanha CL, Banday KA (October 2009). "Approach to urinary tract infections". Indian J Nephrol. 19 (4): 129-39. doi: ... Chronic bacterial prostatitis occurs in less than 5% of patients with prostate-related non-BPH lower urinary tract symptoms ( ... Persistent infections may be helped in 80% of patients by the use of alpha blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin), or long term low ...
... close family members with frequent urinary tract infections) Analysis of the urine may show signs of urinary tract infection. ... Risk factors include sexual intercourse, prior urinary tract infections, diabetes, structural problems of the urinary tract, ... The mechanism of infection is usually spread up the urinary tract. Less often infection occurs through the bloodstream. ... "Urinary Tract Infection Common Clinical and Laboratory Features of Acute Pyelonephritis". netterimages.com. Retrieved 14 July ...
... is an antibacterial medication used to treat urinary tract infections, but it is not as effective for kidney ... Lee M, Bozzo P, Einarson A, Koren G (June 2008). "Urinary tract infections in pregnancy". Canadian Family Physician. 54 (6): ... Current uses include the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) and prophylaxis against UTIs in people ... Nitrofurantoin has been available for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) since 1953. Nitrofurantoin is ...
... catheter-associated urinary tract infections; catheter-related blood infections; ventilator-associated pneumonia; and norovirus ... 434 million in 2013/14 treating over 180,000 hospital patients with an unplanned admission for a urinary tract infection; ... The MTG called on the government to develop a strategy for using technology for infection prevention and control. In November ... Infection Prevention and Control - Combatting a problem that has not gone away that revealed that the majority of Trusts were ...
Urinary tract infection Varicose veins. Common complaint caused by relaxation of the venous smooth muscle and increased ... "Urinary tract infections during pregnancy". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. ... There is also an increased susceptibility and severity of certain infections in pregnancy. Miscarriage is the most common ... This is from factors including underdeveloped lungs of newborns, infection due to underdeveloped immune system, feeding ...
A case of hyperammonemia in a patient with urinary tract infection and urinary retention. Urol Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited ... Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136220. Published 2015 Aug 20. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... Urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing organisms (Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Morganella morganii ...
In those with a long term indwelling urinary catheter rates are 100%. Up to 10% of women have a urinary tract infection in a ... Nicolle LE (March 2014). "Urinary tract infections in special populations: diabetes, renal transplant, HIV infection, and ... and infection due to Clostridium difficile. Symptomatic bacteriuria is synonymous with urinary tract infection and typically ... Urinary Catheters and Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Joint Replacement: A Position ...
... recurrent urinary tract infection; urethral discharge and swelling". Other common symptoms associated with ureteral cancer may ... Transitional cell carcinoma is "a common cause of ureter cancer and other urinary (renal pelvic) tract cancers." Because the ... the tissue layer that lines much of the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, the ureters, the bladder, and parts of the ... Ureteral cancer is cancer of the ureters, muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. It is also ...
... and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract ... Liska, D. J.; Kern, H. J.; Maki, K. C. (2016). "Cranberries and Urinary Tract Infections: How Can the Same Evidence Lead to ... Fu, Zhuxuan; Liska, DeAnn; Talan, David; Chung, Mei (18 October 2017). "Cranberry Reduces the Risk of Urinary Tract Infection ... Jepson, RG; Williams, G; Craig, JC (2012). "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections". Cochrane Database of ...
In the US, the most frequent type of hospital infection is urinary tract infection (36%), followed by surgical site infection ( ... with respiratory tract, urinary tract and surgical site infections the most common types of infections reported. In 2018, it ... the most common infection sites were urinary tract infections (30.3%), pneumopathy (14.7%), infections of surgery site (14.2 ... Nosocomial infections can cause severe pneumonia and infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream and other parts of the body. ...
He is known for his research on toxic shock syndrome and urinary tract infections. His parents were Jewish emigrants from ... Kass, Edward H. (1957). "Bacteriuria and the Diagnosis of Infections of the Urinary Tract". A.M.A. Archives of Internal ... Kass, Edward H. (2002). "Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract". Journal of Urology. 167 (2 Part 2): 1016-1020. doi: ... Ed Kass resolved to find a way of making a diagnosis of significant urinary tract infection using an uncatherised specimen of ...
Less than 5% of all bedwetting cases are caused by infection or disease, the most common of which is a urinary tract infection ... Complications can include urinary tract infections. Most bedwetting is a developmental delay-not an emotional problem or ... Four- and five-year-olds develop an adult pattern of urinary control and begin to stay dry at night. Thorough history regarding ... Nocturnal urinary continence is dependent on three factors: 1) nocturnal urine production, 2) nocturnal bladder function and 3 ...
Rossi R, Porta S, Canovi B (September 2010). "Overview on cranberry and urinary tract infections in females". Journal of ... Williams G, Hahn D, Stephens JH, Craig JC, Hodson EM (April 2023). "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections". ... that cranberry juice or capsules may decrease the number of urinary tract infections in women with frequent infections, and a ... "Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and ...
21-6. Putten, P. L. (1979). "Mandelic acid and urinary tract infections". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 45 (4): 622-623. doi:10.1007 ... particularly in the treatment of urinary tract infections. It has also been used as an oral antibiotic, and as a component of ... Engström K, Härkönen H, Kalliokoski P, Rantanen J. "Urinary mandelic acid concentration after occupational exposure to styrene ...
Urinary tract infections are caused by microbes such as bacteria overcoming the body's defenses in the urinary tract. They can ... The urinary tract can be divided into the upper urinary tract and the lower urinary tract. The upper urinary tract consists of ... "Bacterial urinary tract infections in diabetes." Infectious Disease Clinics 11.3 (1997): 735-750. (Articles with TA98 ... but it may affect any part of the GI tract. Crohn's disease affects both the large and small intestine. Infection of the ...
... urinary frequency incontinence increased susceptibility to infections decreased vaginal lubrication urinary tract infections ... Complications may include urinary tract infections. The lack of estrogen typically occurs following menopause. Other causes may ... The former terms do not describe the negative effects on the lower urinary tract which can be the most troubling symptoms of ... If both urinary and genital symptoms exist, local, low-dose estrogen therapy can be effective. Those women who are survivors of ...
... and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract ... Liska, D. J.; Kern, H. J.; Maki, K. C. (2016). "Cranberries and Urinary Tract Infections: How Can the Same Evidence Lead to ... "NICE guideline [NG109]: Urinary tract infection (lower): antimicrobial prescribing". National Institute for Health and Care ... "FDA Announces Qualified Health Claim for Certain Cranberry Products and Urinary Tract Infections". US Food and Drug ...
... and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract ... "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD001321. doi:10.1002 ... clinical evidence that cranberry type-A proanthocyanidins are effective in lowering the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs ... coli binding to urinary tract epithelial cells, whereas B-type proanthocyanidins from grape exhibited minor activity. In humans ...
... and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract ... and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract ... coli fimbriae and were thought to inhibit bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs). Clinical trials have ... "Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: AUA/CUA/SUFU Guideline (2019)". www.auanet.org. American Urological ...
... are a common infection and typically require antibiotics for treatment. ... Urinary Tract Infection. A female urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. This image shows how bacteria from the skin ... and infect the urinary tract. The infections can affect several parts of the urinary tract, but the most common type is a ... What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?. UTIs are common infections that happen when bacteria, often from the skin or rectum, ...
Find out about urinary tract infections (UTIs), including what the symptoms are, when to get medical advice, how theyre ... How to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). There are some things you can try to help prevent a urinary tract infection ( ... Causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the ... Check if its a urinary tract infection (UTI). Symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may include:. *pain or a burning ...
Health Information on Urinary Tract Infections: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Urinary Tract Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones de las vías urinarias: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - ... UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
The incidence of true urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult males younger than 50 years is low (approximately 5-8 per year per ... encoded search term (Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Males) and Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Males What to Read Next on ... The efficacy of silver alloy-coated urinary catheters in preventing urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 1998 ... Androgens Enhance Male Urinary Tract Infection Severity in a New Model. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Oct 8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract ... Cystitis refers to a urinary tract infection that involves the lower urinary tract (bladder). An upper urinary tract infection ... In children when a urinary tract infection is associated with a fever, it is deemed to be an upper urinary tract infection. To ... Urinary tract infections may affect 10% of people during childhood. Among children, urinary tract infections are most common in ...
In the general adult population, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are 30 times more common in women than in men. The female ... Treatment will vary depending on the individual and how serious the infection is. To prevent an infection becoming more serious ... makes it easy for bacteria to travel from the outside of your body into your urinary tract (which includes your kidneys, ... The urethra is the tube connecting your urinary system to the outside of your body. Bacteria can easily travel from the vagina ...
The cost of treating urinary tract infections in the United States alone is about 3.5 billion dollars a year.[2] ... Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are defined as two episodes of acute bacterial cystitis, along with associated ... Review Urinary tract infections in older women: a clinical review.[JAMA. 2014]. Review Urinary tract infections in older women ... Urinary Tract Infection in Children.[Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Dru...]. Urinary Tract Infection in Children.. Leung AKC, Wong ...
Definition: Urinary tract infection is defined by the presence of a pure bacterial growth ,105 colony forming units/ml. Lower ... Urinary tract infection in children BMJ 1999; 319 :1173 doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7218.1173 ... Treating symptomatic acute urinary tract infection in children with an antibiotic is accepted clinical practice and trials ... This review of the effects of treatment for urinary tract infection in children and of preventive interventions is one of over ...
... is an infection in any part of your urinary system: kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Learn about the symptoms, causes, ... What Is a Urinary Tract Infection?. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection in any part of your urinary system, ... American Urological Association: "Urinary Tract Infections in Adults." WebMD Medical Reference: "Home Test for Urinary Tract ... About 1 in 5 women have a second urinary tract infection, and some have them again and again. In most cases, each infection is ...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. Theyre easy to treat and usually clear up in a week or so. ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. They happen when bacteria (germs) get into the bladder or kidneys. ... a problem in the urinary tract (for example, a malformed kidney or a blockage somewhere along the tract of normal urine flow) ... Most UTIs happen in the lower part of the urinary tract - the urethra and bladder. This type of UTI is called cystitis. A child ...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. Theyre easy to treat and usually clear up in a week or so. ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. They happen when bacteria (germs) get into the bladder or kidneys. ... a problem in the urinary tract (for example, a malformed kidney or a blockage somewhere along the tract of normal urine flow) ... Most UTIs happen in the lower part of the urinary tract - the urethra and bladder. This type of UTI is called cystitis. A child ...
... urinary tract infections from complicated urinary tract infections (Table 65-1 and Table 65-2). ... Urinary tract infections may be classified on the basis of 1) anatomic location (i.e., kidney, ureter, bladder, and/or urethra ... Bacterial Infections of the Canine and Feline Urinary Tract: Cause, Cure, and Control. In: Disease Mechanisms in Small Animal ... and proteinuria suggest inflammatory urinary tract disease, but do not indicate its cause or location within the urinary tract ...
Bladder infections can come on quickly and, if untreated, can sometimes move up to the kidneys in a matter of hours or days, so ... If one of our patients calls us with symptoms of a bladder infection, we always ask them to come in the same day. ... Bladder infections are no fun, as any of you who have suffered from the burning pain and nonstop, often urgent, trips to the ... Be sure to chug as much water as you possibly can during an acute bladder infection. Whenever you have any infection, cut out ...
Bladder infection, also called acute cystitis or urinary tract infection affects the lower urinary tract or the bladder. The ... Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. It mainly affects the urinary tract, but may also affect the ... Urinary Tract Infection also known as UTI or Bladder Infections affects not only the bladder, but the urethra and kidneys as ... Bladder Infections as the name suggests is the infection of the urinary bladder. Bladder Infections are mainly caused by the ...
What is the urinary tract? The urinary system (also called the ... Urinary tract infections are responsible for nearly 10 million ... What is a urinary tract infection?. A urinary tract infection (also called a "UTI") is what happens when bacteria (germs) get ... What is the urinary tract?. The urinary system (also called the "urinary tract") is the part of your body that makes urine. It ... Urinary tract infections are responsible for nearly 10 million healthcare visits each year. Heres what you need to know. ...
Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance *National Healthcare Safety Network Data Reporting Web site. The ... Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection-Related Data Collection Tool (Excel, 74.1 KB; Text Version). A spreadsheet that ... Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Case Review Form (Word, 299.4 KB; Text Version). A performance improvement look- ... Quantitative Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection-Related Data Definitions Tool (PDF, 373 KB; Text Version). A visual ...
5 Trevino et al. Perceptions and behaviours of infectious diseases physicians when managing urinary tract infections due to MDR ... Our pipeline includes a vaccine for the treatment and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections and compounds targeting ... Sequoia Sciences Receives FDA Fast Track Designation for Vaccine for Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant ... "Many of my patients with multidrug-resistant recurrent urinary tract infections have tried multiple antibiotics for years ...
Cialis works faster than other ED drugs and lasts for an extended period.S does augmentin work for urinary tract infections. ... Shop with us today to enjoy our . nuestro does augmentin work for urinary tract infections. Cialis works faster than other ED ... Does augmentin work for urinary tract infections. APSIA:Phenazopyridine without a prescription�Spotting during depo provera� ... 4 Mar 2015 does augmentin work for urinary tract infections. We also supply weight loss pills and several other medications ...
What do you know about urinary tract infections in males? Try our short quiz. ... The incidence of true urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult males younger than 50 years is low (approximately 5-8 per year per ... Fast Five Quiz: Are You Familiar With Urinary Tract Infections in Males? - Medscape - May 02, 2016. ... Fast Five Quiz: Are You Familiar With Urinary Tract Infections in Males?. ...
... - ABC Homeopathy Forum. Bioplasma is discussed. 2 replies to 2006-06-13. ... How do I treat my diagnosed urinary tract infection?. Hi I am 51 Caucasian woman who has diabetes 2 for two months. I have ... My Doctor has tested my urine and has diagnosed urinary tract infection and offered Trisul. I cant take medicines because of a ... Berberis Vulgaris 6c in the wet dose taken 3 times daily is your remedy for your urine infection taken with Ferrum Phos 6x ...
... What Are We Measuring?. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common type ... A CAUTI occurs when germs enter the urinary tract through the urinary catheter and cause infection. The risk of CAUTI can be ... Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are able to be minimized when catheter placement can be avoided and when ... Click here for a helpful resource about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections provided by the CDC.. We encourage ...
... and causes of urinary tract infection in adults? Test your knowledge of UTIs and learn how to prevent them. ... What is the most common cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?. The most common cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI) is ... How can women prevent urinary tract infections?. Women can take steps to prevent urinary tract infections. *Urinate when you ... Urinary tract infections are infections that involve the bladder (most common) or the kidneys. Symptoms of a bladder infection ...
Former President Jimmy Carter is back in the hospital, this time for a urinary tract infection Former President Jimmy Carter is ... President Jimmy Carter was admitted to a south Georgia hospital over the weekend for treatment of a urinary tract infection, a ...
Spina Bifida and Urinary Tract Infection Management. Bhandal, Amrinder PharmD Candidate; Muhar, Harleen K. PharmD Candidate ... Pharmacology: Spina Bifida and Urinary Tract Infection Management : Journal of Pediatric Surgical Nursing. ... This can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections and subsequent renal function decline if not properly managed. Proper ... Pharmacology: Spina Bifida and Urinary Tract Infection Management Journal of Pediatric Surgical Nursing12(1):12-16, January/ ...
View Dayton Childrens data on Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections. ... home // about us // why choose us // quality and safety // putting safety first // urinary tract infections ... We measure the number of urinary tract infections in patients with catheters per 1000 catheter days. ... what are we doing to help reduce infections?. *We ask daily if the catheter is still needed and remove it as soon as it is not ...
... in neonates is addressed separately.. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a general term that describes ... N39.0 - Urinary tract infection, site not specified. SNOMEDCT:. 68566005 - Urinary tract infectious disease ... Urinary tract infection in Child. Print Patient Handout Images (3) Contributors: Michael W. Winter MD, Eric Ingerowski MD, FAAP ... This summary discusses urinary tract infection in children. ... Urinary tract infection. Subscriber Sign In Feedback Select ...
UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and ... Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of ... Recent Advances in the Field of Urinary Tract Infections. In Role of Bacterial Biofilms in Catheter-Associted Urinary Tract ...
Lukes pediatric urologists can help identify and treat the causes of your childs recurrent urinary tract infections. ... Urinary infections in children usually go away quickly if you treat them right away. But if your child keeps getting infections ... When germs (bacteria) get into the urinary tract, they can cause an infection. ... Learn more at full Urinary Tract Infections in Children Health Topic page. ...
  • UTIs are common infections that happen when bacteria, often from the skin or rectum, enter the urethra, and infect the urinary tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect your urinary tract, including your bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) or kidneys (kidney infection). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Because urine tests do not always pick up the infection and the symptoms can be similar to other conditions, chronic UTIs can be hard to diagnose. (www.nhs.uk)
  • One of the difficulties in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in males lies in the fact that dysuria, with or without discharge, is the typical chief complaint with urethritis, which is a much more common disease. (medscape.com)
  • Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the general adult population, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are 30 times more common in women than in men. (bcm.edu)
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of morbidity, especially in young women. (nih.gov)
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are defined as two episodes of acute bacterial cystitis, along with associated symptoms within the last six months or three episodes within the last year. (nih.gov)
  • [3] However, more than 100 CFU of E. coli with typical acute urinary symptoms has a positive predictive value of about 90%, suggesting that a lower CFU threshold may be more appropriate in diagnosing simple and recurrent UTIs. (nih.gov)
  • Women with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Califor- nization with extraintestinal E . coli differ from factors as- nia, USA (1999-2001), were infected with closely related or sociated with development of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • UTIs and other extraintestinal infections may be responsi- ble for community-wide epidemics. (cdc.gov)
  • Community-acquired extraintestinal infections with Es- UTIs and septicemia in South London, England ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • If you get frequent UTIs and your doctor suspects a problem in your urinary tract, they might take a closer look with an ultrasound , a CT scan , or an MRI scan. (webmd.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in kids. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most UTIs happen in the lower part of the urinary tract - the urethra and bladder. (kidshealth.org)
  • People with blockages in their urinary tract, such as a kidney stone, are more likely to get UTIs. (kidney.org)
  • Ascending route - In the majority of the UTIs, pathogens gain access to the urinary tract by ascending up the urethra to the bladder. (logicalimages.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. (mdpi.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infections of the kidney, bladder, and urethra. (peacehealth.org)
  • UTIs are generally triggered by bacteria and are more common when there is partial blockage of the urinary tract. (peacehealth.org)
  • Treatments for bladder infections and other UTIs may include antibiotics and drinking plenty of liquids to help flush bacteria from your child's urinary tract. (nih.gov)
  • A vegetarian diet may be associated with a lower risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs), a study in Scientific Reports suggests. (medicalxpress.com)
  • UTIs are usually caused by gut bacteria, such as E. coli, which enter the urinary tract through the urethra and affect the kidneys and bladder. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that cranberries contain substances that prevent E.coli, the bacteria often responsible for UTIs, from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract. (personalcaretruth.com)
  • Acute pyelonephritis Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) can involve the urethra, prostate, bladder, or kidneys. (merckmanuals.com)
  • While these symptoms may also be related to other issues with your urinary system, UTIs are most common, especially in women. (schneckmed.org)
  • If you get UTIs on a frequent basis, your doctor may refer you to a urologist to examine the anatomy of your urinary system to determine if it is a part of the issue. (schneckmed.org)
  • UTIs are caused by bacteria that have entered the urinary tract. (schneckmed.org)
  • Urinary tract infections or UTIs are typically caused by bacteria. (askdocweb.com)
  • Women get UTIs more often than men but men can also get these infections. (askdocweb.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) happen when bacteria find their way into your urinary tract. (upmc.com)
  • Empiric fluoroquinolone therapy should be avoided in the treatment of UTIs due to moderate resistance rates and increased risk of adverse events 8-10 (hypoglycemia 11 , tendonitis 12 , CNS toxicity 12 , aortic dissection 13 and C. difficile infection 14 ). (gov.bc.ca)
  • A female urinary tract, including the bladder and urethra. (cdc.gov)
  • This image shows how bacteria from the skin or rectum can travel up the urethra and cause a bladder infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The female anatomy, especially that of the pelvic floor, makes it easy for bacteria to travel from the outside of your body into your urinary tract (which includes your kidneys, bladder, and urethra). (bcm.edu)
  • The urethra is the tube connecting your urinary system to the outside of your body. (bcm.edu)
  • A urinary tract infection , or UTI, is an infection in any part of your urinary system, which includes your kidneys , bladder , ureters, and urethra. (webmd.com)
  • Urinary Tract Infection also known as UTI or Bladder Infections affects not only the bladder, but the urethra and kidneys as well causi. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Other bacteria including Chlamydia , Mycoplasma , and Gonorrhea , as well as the herpes virus can cause infections of the urethra (urethritis). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters (tubes which carry urine to the bladder for storage), the urinary bladder, the male dog prostate (which encircles the bladder neck),and the urethra which conducts urine outside the body. (marvistavet.com)
  • Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your child's urinary tract can become infected including the urethra, bladder, ureters, or kidneys. (nih.gov)
  • The most common type is a bladder infection, and it usually occurs when bacteria, most commonly E.coli, enter the urethra and travel up into the bladder. (personalcaretruth.com)
  • A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that occurs in your bladder, kidneys, urethra, or other part of the urinary system. (schneckmed.org)
  • There are a few different types of urinary tract infections that are identified by the part of the system they affect: the bladder, kidneys, or urethra. (schneckmed.org)
  • One theory is that bacteria-laden urine in the distal urethra may be milked back into the urinary bladder (urethrovesical reflux). (medscape.com)
  • If a GP thinks you may have a urinary tract infection (UTI), they may do a urine test, although this is not always needed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Short-term antibiotics do not work and urine tests do not show an infection. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Determining the history of urinary and genital tract symptoms and sexual encounters, combined with laboratory testing of urine and urethral swabs, should allow differentiation of the 2 conditions. (medscape.com)
  • It is reasonable to obtain a urine culture in those with signs of systemic infection that may be unable to report urinary symptoms, such as when advanced dementia is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • After several days of antibiotics, your doctor may repeat the urine tests to be sure that the infection is gone. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your infection is severe, you may notice some blood in your urine or feel pain in the mid back, over the kidneys. (boloji.com)
  • Your doctor will take a urine sample and test it for bacteria to make sure it is a bladder infection. (boloji.com)
  • Urine infection is one of the common ones to be seen among people. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • The urinary system (also called the "urinary tract") is the part of your body that makes urine. (kidney.org)
  • A spreadsheet that auto-calculates the indwelling urinary catheter utilization ratio, CAUTI rate, and urine culture collection rate based on resident days, catheter days, CAUTIs identified, and urine culture data you input into the tool. (ahrq.gov)
  • My Doctor has tested my urine and has diagnosed urinary tract infection and offered Trisul. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • I don't have signs of symptoms apart from a very slight uncomfortableness intermittantly inside presumably my tract, but have cloudy urine. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Berberis Vulgaris 6c in the wet dose taken 3 times daily is your remedy for your urine infection taken with Ferrum Phos 6x biochemic dose 2 tablets taken 4 times daily. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, of the UTI's acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with a urinary catheter, which is a tube inserted into the bladder to drain urine. (hendricks.org)
  • The urinary tract is the part of the body that makes urine and carries it out of the body. (stlukesonline.org)
  • The urinary bladder is a muscular little bag which stores the urine until we are ready to get rid of it. (marvistavet.com)
  • Bloody urine (though an infection must either involve a special organism, a bladder stone, a bladder tumor, or be particularly severe to make urine red to the naked eye). (marvistavet.com)
  • Bladder infection results when bacteria from the lower tract climb into the bladder, defeating the natural defense mechanisms of the system (forward urine flow, the bladder lining, inhospitable urine chemicals etc. (marvistavet.com)
  • Diagnosis of infection is done with a urinalysis or urine test. (cat-health-guide.org)
  • The urinary tract is the body's drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of wastes and extra fluid. (nih.gov)
  • Adequate hydration helps dilute your urine and ensures that you urinate more frequently, flushing bacteria out of your urinary system before they can cause an infection. (personalcaretruth.com)
  • They will perform a urine test to see if there is bacteria present that is causing the infection. (schneckmed.org)
  • Dog urinary tract infections occur in the bladder and urinary tract where urine forms and is excreted out of the body. (healthierdogs.com)
  • If you notice that your dog has to make several attempts before he can excrete urine from his body, the chances are your dog is suffering from urinary problems. (healthierdogs.com)
  • So keeping your urine dilute and urinating frequently can help decrease your risk of getting urinary tract infections. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • If you are experiencing the symptoms of urinary tract infections, like burning while urinating, frequent urination, blood in your urine, fevers, or back pain, make sure to see your doctor immediately and get your urine tested. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Elevated postvoid residual urine volume may indicate a bladder-emptying abnormality or incontinence associated with chronic urinary retention. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with diabetes and those with recent urinary tract instrumentation, recent hospitalization, or taking broad-spectrum antibiotics have an increased incidence of resistant organisms. (medscape.com)
  • In those with frequent infections, a short course of antibiotics may be taken as soon as symptoms begin or long-term antibiotics may be used as a preventive measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two small RCTs found that prophylactic antibiotics prevented recurrent urinary tract infection in children, particularly during the period of prophylaxis. (bmj.com)
  • If your physician thinks you need them, antibiotics are the most common treatment for urinary tract infections. (webmd.com)
  • Kids with a more severe infection may need treatment in a hospital so they can get antibiotics by injection or IV (intravenously, given into a vein right into the bloodstream). (kidshealth.org)
  • The sensitivity of the or- prostatic secretion, pregnancy and easy ganisms isolated to various antibiotics was contamination of the urinary tract with fae- also studied. (who.int)
  • Many of my patients with multidrug-resistant recurrent urinary tract infections have tried multiple antibiotics for years without success," said Liz D'Antonio, CRNP, director of clinical research Anne Arundel Urology. (prnewswire.com)
  • The treatment of choice for urinary tract infections is antibiotics. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Most courses last three to seven days, though if you have a kidney infection you may need to take antibiotics for up to two weeks. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Objective To test and compare the efficacy of methenamine hippurate for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections with the current standard prophylaxis of daily low dose antibiotics. (bmj.com)
  • Incidence of antibiotic treated urinary tract infections during the 12 month treatment period was 0.89 episodes per person year (95% confidence interval 0.65 to 1.12) in the antibiotics group and 1.38 (1.05 to 1.72) in the methenamine hippurate group, with an absolute difference of 0.49 (90% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.84) confirming non-inferiority. (bmj.com)
  • To compare the clinical impact of a prophylactic treatment with sublingual immunostimulation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) with the use of antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recurrent use of antibiotics increases your risk of getting another infection and causes the bacteria to become resistant to the antibiotics. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • When we kill off these good bacteria with antibiotics, we increase our risk of developing a secondary infection, sometimes in a different part of the body. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • The antibiotics ZYVOX or Vancomycin combined with topical treatment of Triclosan directly to the skin infections seem to me to produce the best result. (cdc.gov)
  • The infections can affect several parts of the urinary tract, but the most common type is a bladder infection (cystitis). (cdc.gov)
  • When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection (pyelonephritis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The source of these recurrent infections is the same as for any simple cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Homoeopathic remedies are often helpful during bladder infections (cystitis), relieving discomfort and encouraging quick recovery. (boloji.com)
  • Bladder infection, also called acute cystitis or urinary tract infection affects the lower urinary tract or the bladder. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • In women, sexual intercourse can cause these bacteria to be introduced into the urinary tract and lead to a bladder infection (cystitis). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Turck and Stamm, 1981 ), being the bladder the most common site of infection (cystitis). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although urethritis and prostatitis are infections that involve the urinary tract, the term UTI usually refers to pyelonephritis and cystitis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Most often, a UTI occurs in your bladder and is called a bladder infection or cystitis. (upmc.com)
  • This makes it easier for bacteria to enter the urinary tract. (cdc.gov)
  • A CAUTI occurs when germs enter the urinary tract through the urinary catheter and cause infection. (hendricks.org)
  • That allows bacteria to enter the urinary tract more easily. (upmc.com)
  • From there, they can travel up to your bladder and, if the infection isn't treated, can continue on to infect your kidneys. (webmd.com)
  • An infection that travels up the ureters to the kidneys is called pyelonephritis (pie-low-nih-FRY-tis) and is usually more serious. (kidshealth.org)
  • Bladder infections can come on quickly and, if untreated, can sometimes move up to the kidneys in a matter of hours or days, so they are not to be ignored. (boloji.com)
  • If the infection is not treated promptly, the bacteria can travel up to the kidneys and cause a more serious type of infection, called pyelonephritis . (kidney.org)
  • If the infection spreads to the kidneys, the child may also have high fever, back pain, and vomiting. (kidney.org)
  • Urinary tract infections are infections that involve the bladder (most common) or the kidneys. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Because bladder infections are localized to the bladder, there are rarely signs of infection in other body systems: no fever, no appetite loss, no change in the blood tests (if the infection ascends all the way to the kidneys, then we do tend to find other signs and other lab work changes. (marvistavet.com)
  • Fungal Urinary Tract Infections Fungal infections of the urinary tract primarily affect the bladder and kidneys. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presentations may be vague with incontinence, a change in mental status, or fatigue as the only symptoms, while some present to a health care provider with sepsis, an infection of the blood, as the first symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some women with mobility impairments also have neurogenic bladder or have urinary incontinence. (bcm.edu)
  • Functional defects, like overactive bladder and urinary incontinence, tend to lead to recurrent infections. (nih.gov)
  • Urinary pads are designed to provide comfort and discretion to those experiencing urinary incontinence. (personalcaretruth.com)
  • On the other hand, lower urinary tract infection is associated mostly with abnormalities and incontinence or a change in the dog's urinating pattern. (healthierdogs.com)
  • Children with uninhibited detrusor contractions may experience symptoms of voiding dysfunction (eg, urgency, frequency, hesitancy, dribbling, or incontinence) in the absence of infection or local irritation. (medscape.com)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has issued first-time guidelines regarding the evaluation of uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before surgical treatment in women. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Stress Urinary Incontinence: ‏New ACOG Guidelines - Medscape - May 21, 2014. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms from a lower urinary tract infection include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower urinary tract infection is also referred to as a bladder infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • People experiencing an upper urinary tract infection, or pyelonephritis, may experience flank pain, fever, or nausea and vomiting in addition to the classic symptoms of a lower urinary tract infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is upper urinary tract infection and the other is lower urinary tract infection. (healthierdogs.com)
  • Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. (researchsquare.com)
  • The incidence of true urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult males younger than 50 years is low (approximately 5-8 per year per 10,000), with adult females being 30 times more likely than males to develop a UTI. (medscape.com)
  • Main outcome measure Absolute difference in incidence of symptomatic, antibiotic treated, urinary tract infections during treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Infection and blockage of indwelling urinary catheters is significant owing to its high incidence rate and severe medical consequences. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Foxman, 2003, Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: Incidence`, morbidity`, and economic costs} Approximately 150 million people are diagnosed with UTI each year worldwide[3]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Newborn circumcision decreases incidence and costs of urinary tract infections during the first year of life. (medscape.com)
  • The authors note that the incidence of urinary infection in this population is not greater than expected in a population with a history of recurrent urinary tract infection. (cdc.gov)
  • They recommend frequent voiding as a measure for the reduction of the incidence of urinary infections and that employees have adequate bathroom facilities available to use. (cdc.gov)
  • They're less common, but more serious than bladder infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Bladder infections are no fun, as any of you who have suffered from the burning pain and nonstop, often urgent, trips to the bathroom will agree. (boloji.com)
  • As homoeopaths, we have had many, many opportunities to see homeopathy work beautifully for bladder infections. (boloji.com)
  • Bladder Infections as the name suggests is the infection of the urinary bladder. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Bladder Infections are mainly caused by the bacteria c. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Are bladder infections contagious? (marvistavet.com)
  • People with bladder infections typically report a burning sensation during urination. (marvistavet.com)
  • Food choices do not help prevent or treat bladder infections in children, but drinking plenty of liquids may help. (nih.gov)
  • Consume Cranberry - Cranberry extract prevents the bacteria that cause bladder infections from being able to bind to the bladder wall. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Our pipeline includes a vaccine for the treatment and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections and compounds targeting infection and cancer. (prnewswire.com)
  • For these reasons, many doctors recommend a reduced intake of sugar, alcohol, and fat during an acute infection and for prevention of recurrences. (peacehealth.org)
  • I often have women take 2 tablets daily for prevention of urinary tract infections and increase if they are having symptoms. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Association between antibiotic use among pregnant women with urinary tract infections in the first trimester and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study 1997 to 2011. (bvsalud.org)
  • The CDC/STRIVE curriculum was developed by national infection prevention experts led by the Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET) for CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • Courses address both the technical and foundational elements of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, since it is a global public health problem involving several sectors, it also requires a global solution in the context of the One Health approach to achieve adequate control through the prevention, reduction, and mitigation of drug-resistant infections. (who.int)
  • Urinary catheters should be removed when no longer needed. (hendricks.org)
  • We describe the design, synthesis, and in vitro evaluation of the small molecular enzyme inhibitor 2-mercaptoacetamide (2-MA), which can prevent encrustation and blockage of urinary catheters in a physiologically representative in vitro model of the catheterized urinary tract. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In the latter, Bactiguard Infection Protection (BIP) Foley catheters were also assessed to enable benchmark with the traditional antimicrobial coating principle. (sdu.dk)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) provides long-term care facilities with a system to track CAUTI and other infections in a streamlined and systematic way. (ahrq.gov)
  • The greatest risk factor for catheter associated UTI (CAUTI) is the prolonged use of the urinary catheter. (hendricks.org)
  • The risk of CAUTI can be decreased by following sterile technique during insertion of the urinary catheter, keeping the sterile draining system intact, and removing the urinary catheter as soon as possible. (hendricks.org)
  • National reporting databases report CAUTI using a standardized infection ratio (SIR). (hendricks.org)
  • Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are able to be minimized when catheter placement can be avoided and when nurses remove a catheter as soon as possible. (hendricks.org)
  • Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) remains a significant challenge for US hospitals. (nih.gov)
  • Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a frequent community-acquired infection and the most common nosocomial infection. (sdu.dk)
  • In those with vague symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult because bacteria may be present without there being an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in context of diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy, a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) may be viewed as a secondary (or complicating) rather than a primary (or definitive) diagnostic entity. (ivis.org)
  • Are history taking and physical examination accurate and precise for diagnosis of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in women? (bmj.com)
  • Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months. (medscape.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Blood levels of procalcitonin could be used to exclude a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI), but they are less useful for confirming UTI, researchers report. (medscape.com)
  • Procalcitonin can improve the diagnosis of bacterial infections and reduce unnecessary antibiotic exposure in patients with sepsis and pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • More serious side effects can include antibiotic-resistant infections or C. diff infection, which causes diarrhea that can lead to severe colon damage and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion Non-antibiotic prophylactic treatment with methenamine hippurate might be appropriate for women with a history of recurrent episodes of urinary tract infections, informed by patient preferences and antibiotic stewardship initiatives, given the demonstration of non-inferiority to daily antibiotic prophylaxis seen in this trial. (bmj.com)
  • Cranberry preparations reduce chronic recurrent urinary tract infections and may be a solution for the growing rates of antibiotic resistance. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Your doctor will likely prescribe an antibiotic to clear up the infection. (schneckmed.org)
  • In this study, the resistance patterns of urinary isolates to commonly used antimicrobials were determined in order to evaluate the options for empirical antibiotic therapy of UTI in out- and in- patients. (medscimonit.com)
  • For example, many times people who take an antibiotic for a sinus infection also get a urinary tract infection or vaginal yeast infection. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Individual antibiotic recommendations and testing for sexually transmitted infections are out of scope. (gov.bc.ca)
  • Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is another type of UTI. (cdc.gov)
  • Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an infection caused by gas-forming organisms. (medscape.com)
  • While a kidney infection is technically also a "urinary tract infection," we usually use the term " pyelonephritis " to describe a kidney infection. (marvistavet.com)
  • To prevent urinary tract infections, some doctors recommend that people drink which liquid? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Cranberry juice has long been touted as a home remedy of choice to prevent urinary tract infections. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • How can women prevent urinary tract infections? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Women can take steps to prevent urinary tract infections. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • We confi rmed States and Canada, urinary tract isolates of E . coli from out- the presence of drug-resistant, genetically related, and tem- patient clinics showed increased resistance to TMP-SMZ porally clustered E. coli clonal groups that caused commu- and ampicillin ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Often overlooked in its effectiveness, drinking ample water is one of the most accessible ways to alleviate UTI symptoms and prevent recurrent infections. (personalcaretruth.com)
  • Background: Urinary tract infections are associated with substantial morbidity and recurrent infections. (medscimonit.com)
  • Any growth of typical urinary pathogens is considered clinically important if obtained by suprapubic aspiration. (bmj.com)
  • Further ascent of pathogens is the cause of the majority of renal parenchymal infections. (logicalimages.com)
  • This can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections and subsequent renal function decline if not properly managed. (lww.com)
  • Upper urinary tract infection is usually associated with weight loss, anorexia, and vomiting. (healthierdogs.com)
  • About 150 million people develop a urinary tract infection in a given year. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 1.5% of women in the U.S. develop a urinary tract infection during pregnancy. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may sometimes be the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI) is the bacterium Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), which is typically found in the colon. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Colibacillosis is an infection caused by bacteria called Escherichia coli. (askdocweb.com)
  • The strains of UTI-causing E. coli in California with strains caus- main risk factors for UTI are recent and frequent sexual ing such infections in Montréal, Québec, Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • If you experience frequent urinary tract infections, this may be why. (schneckmed.org)
  • Common infections that become chronic or frequent include ear infections, sinus infections, and urinary tract infections. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Why is it Important to Recognize that Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection is not a Primary Diagnostic Entity? (ivis.org)
  • Chlamydia is a bacterial infection of the genital tract by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. (askdocweb.com)
  • Use Probiotics - We have trillions of good bacteria that line our skin, digestive system and also our genital urinary system. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • in the sexually active male with no urinary tract abnormalities, sexually transmitted disease (STD) - related urethritis predominates, although UTI occasionally may be diagnosed. (medscape.com)
  • These data suggest an age-dependent progression of cellular abnormalities in the urinary epithelium that is associated with chronic S. haematobium infection, which becomes independent of concurrent infection intensity as subjects grow older. (ajtmh.org)
  • If you suspect a cat urinary tract infection you should see your veterinarian since not treating the problem could lead to stones which could block the urinary tract (uroliths), inflammation of the prostate gland (chronic prostatitis), and kidney failure. (cat-health-guide.org)
  • People who have recurrent or chronic infections should discuss the possible role of allergies with a doctor, since chronic infections have been linked to allergies in many reports. (peacehealth.org)
  • As a child, I had chronic urinary tract infections. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • In the past, I found chronic urinary tract infections a difficult problem for both myself and my patients. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Now, I am excited when a woman comes to see me with chronic urinary tract infections, because I know that I can help her. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • Whenever you urinate, the bacteria that may be in your urinary tract system are flushed out. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • We found no convincing evidence of benefit from routine diagnostic imaging of all children with a first urinary tract infection, but subgroups at increased risk of future morbidity may benefit from investigation. (bmj.com)
  • Older men can often develop urinary tract infections due to outflow obstruction or neurogenic bladder resulting in urinary stasis and an increased risk of recurrent infection. (nih.gov)
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections may be commonly seen in sexually active women without any identifiable structural abnormality or another predisposing condition. (nih.gov)
  • Infants who are born with an abnormality of their urinary tract have an increased chance of getting a UTI. (kidney.org)
  • People who have a urinary tract abnormality. (upmc.com)
  • Voiding dysfunction is not usually encountered in a child without neurogenic or anatomic abnormality of the bladder until the child is in the process of achieving daytime urinary control. (medscape.com)
  • ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnant woman. (who.int)
  • Describe the etiology of recurrent urinary tract infections. (nih.gov)
  • Summarize the management considerations for patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. (nih.gov)
  • Explain the importance of improving care coordination among the interprofessional team to enhance the delivery of care for patients affected by recurrent urinary tract infections. (nih.gov)
  • If one of our patients calls us with symptoms of a bladder infection, we always ask them to come in the same day. (boloji.com)
  • Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Infection in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Retrospective St. (medscimonit.com)
  • Patients usually present with dysuria, urinary urgency, urinary frequency and suprapubic pain or tenderness. (researchsquare.com)
  • Skill and sensitivity in managing your child's urinary health and conditions such as voiding problems, vesicoureteral reflux, and urinary birth defects. (stlukesonline.org)
  • can be present in the setting of lower urinary tract inflammation in the absence of infection or urethritis. (logicalimages.com)
  • This review of the effects of treatment for urinary tract infection in children and of preventive interventions is one of over 60 chapters in the first issue of Clinical Evidence , published by the BMJ Publishing Group. (bmj.com)
  • The red berry contains a tannin that might prevent E. coli bacteria -- the most common cause of urinary tract infections -- from sticking to the walls of your bladder, where they can cause an infection. (webmd.com)
  • Yen-Chang Chen et al, The risk of urinary tract infection in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a prospective study, Scientific Reports (2020). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus , taken by mouth, have been shown to colonize the vaginal tract and decrease the risk of urinary tract infections. (ultrawellnesscenter.com)
  • People with diabetes may have changes in their body's defense system, making it easier to get urinary infections. (kidney.org)
  • If the organism continues to be the same, this is a relapsing infection and suggests an inadequately treated source such as an abscess, urinary stone, or prostatitis. (nih.gov)
  • Prostatitis Prostatitis refers to a disparate group of prostate disorders that manifests with a combination of predominantly irritative or obstructive urinary symptoms and perineal pain. (merckmanuals.com)
  • These symptoms could mean you have a kidney infection , which can be serious if it's not treated as it could cause sepsis . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney infection, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood-borne infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It mainly affects the urinary tract, but may also affect the bladder. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • In women, they are the most common form of bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most common physical problems faced by people all over the world is Urinary problems. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. (ayurvediccure.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common type of healthcare-associated infection. (hendricks.org)
  • What is the most common cause of a urinary tract infection (UTI)? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The urinary tract infection is one of the most common ailments in small animal practice yet many pet owners are confused about the medical approach. (marvistavet.com)
  • Of the parasitic diseases, only trichomoniasis is common in the US, usually as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Campylobacter jejuni infection is a common food borne bacterial infection, which may vary in severity from mild to severe. (askdocweb.com)
  • Chlamydia infection is one of the most common types of sexually transmitted disease. (askdocweb.com)
  • Dog urinary tract infections are common among nearly 15 per cent of the dog population worldwide. (healthierdogs.com)
  • The most common drug used for treatment of urinary tract infections in Grenada has been amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, followed by enrofloxacin. (scirp.org)
  • Bacterial urinary tract infections are the most common cause of urinary tract disease in dogs. (scirp.org)
  • The most common bacterial infection among children is Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Based on their analysis, they conclude that women who present with ≥1 symptom of UTI (dysuria, frequency, haematuria, or back pain) have a high probability of infection (approximately 50%), and that combinations of symptoms can substantially increase the likelihood of UTI, effectively ruling in the disease based on the history alone. (bmj.com)
  • It results in a necrotizing infection of the renal and perirenal tissue. (medscape.com)
  • caused by a problem that needs to be changed in your cat such as something that is wrong with your cat's body (anatomical problem) or other problems that can cause bacterial infection such as kidney failure (renal), hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus . (cat-health-guide.org)
  • Identification of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Renal Scarring After a First Urinary Tract Infection: A Meta-analysis With Individual Patient Data. (medscape.com)
  • When germs (bacteria) get into the urinary tract, they can cause an infection. (stlukesonline.org)