Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
I am not aware of any established medical definition for "Iran" as it is primarily used to refer to a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the Islamic Republic of Iran. If you are looking for information on healthcare or medical conditions within Iran, I would be happy to help with that!
Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.

Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (1/306)

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.  (+info)

Unusual case of foreign body-induced struvite urolithiasis in a dog. (2/306)

A 6-year-old, castrated male dog was presented because of inappropriate urination and hematuria. Radiographs indicated a bladder stone with a sewing needle at its center. The urolith was removed and diagnosed as predominantly struvite, most likely a result of the foreign body and a urinary tract infection.  (+info)

Calculus disease of the urinary tract at a district hospital. (3/306)

At a District General Hospital the organization of a clinic for the investigation and treatment of patients with calculus disease of the urinary tract is described. The way in which such a clinic may be orgainzed is discussed and the results presented. In patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria, sodium cellulose phosphate causes a significant reduction in urinary calcium levels when used in such a clinic.  (+info)

Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in urolithiasis. (4/306)

Urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion was measured in children with idiopathic urolithiasis (15 girls and 10 boys; mean (SD) age 6.2 (2.4) years) and in healthy controls (10 girls and 14 boys; mean (SD) age 6.8 (3.8) years). GAG excretion was expressed as a GAG/creatinine (mg/g) ratio and was evaluated using dimethylmethylene blue. In healthy control children, the mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratio was 31.67 (12.76) and it was similar in girls and boys. The children with idiopathic urolithiasis had significantly lower mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratios than controls (22.59 (7.35)). Therefore, urinary GAG excretion may be important in the disease process in children with urolithiasis, as it is in adults.  (+info)

Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation by prothrombin and its fragments in vitro: relationship between protein structure and inhibitory activity. (5/306)

During blood coagulation, prothrombin (PT) is ultimately degraded to three fragments, thrombin, fragment 1 (F1) and fragment 2 (F2), which, collectively, contain all of the structural features of PT. One of these fragments, F1, is excreted in human urine and is the principal protein occluded into calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals precipitated from it. This urinary form of F1, which we have named urinary prothrombin fragment 1 is present in calcium stones and is a potent inhibitor of CaOx crystallization in urine in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether PT itself and its other activation products, namely, thrombin, F1 and F2 also inhibit CaOx crystallization, by comparing their effects in a seeded, inorganic crystallization system. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between the structures of the proteins and their inhibitory activities. PT was isolated from a human blood concentrate rich in vitamin K-dependent proteins. Following initial cleavage by thrombin, the resulting fragments, F1 and F2, were purified by a combination of reversed phase HPLC and low pressure column chromatography. The purity of the proteins was confirmed by SDS/PAGE and their individual effects on CaOx crystallization were determined at the same concentration (16.13 nM) in a seeded, metastable solution of CaOx using a Coulter Counter. [14C]Oxalate was used to assess deposition of CaOx and crystals were visualized using scanning electron microscopy. The Coulter Counter data revealed that the proteins reduced the size of precipitated crystals in the order F1 > PT > F2 > thrombin. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy which showed that the reduction in particle size resulted from a decrease in the degree of crystal aggregation. [14C]Oxalate analysis demonstrated that all proteins inhibited mineral deposition, in the order F1 (44%) > PT (27.4%) > thrombin (10.2%) > F2 (6.5%). It was concluded that the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of PT and F1, which is absent from thrombin and F2, is the region of the molecules which determines their potent inhibitory effects. The superior potency of F1, in comparison with PT, probably results from the molecule's greater charge to mass ratio.  (+info)

National trend of the incidence of urolithiasis in Japan from 1965 to 1995. (6/306)

BACKGROUND: A nationwide survey of urolithiasis in Japan was made in order to evaluate the chronological trend of upper urinary tract stones in the Japanese. It succeeded previous studies done in 1955, 1966, 1979, and 1990. METHODS: All outpatient visits to urologists that resulted in a diagnosis of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in the years 1990 and 1995 were enumerated, irrespective of admission and treatment. The study enrolled all of the Japanese Board of Urology-approved hospitals, thereby covering nearly all urologists practicing in Japan. The annual incidence by sex and age was estimated and compared with the incidences in the previous nationwide surveys. RESULTS: The age-adjusted annual incidence of first-episode upper urinary tract stones in 1995 was estimated as 68.9 per 100,000 (100.1 in men and 55.4 in women), a steady increase from 54.2 in 1965. The annual incidence has increased in all age groups, except in those of the first three decades. The peak age for both sexes has shifted in toward the older population's direction. Estimations of longitudinal changes between 1965 and 1995 showed that the annual incidence has more than doubled for the cohort of the 1965 census population (from 43.7 in 1965 to 110.9 in 1995) and that younger generations have had progressively higher annual incidences. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of upper urinary tract stones in Japan has increased steadily over the past 30 years and will continue to do so in the near future, but it still is lower than in the United States.  (+info)

The prothrombin gene is expressed in the rat kidney: Implications for urolithiasis research. (7/306)

There is considerable interest in determining the role of prothrombin fragments, especially urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1), in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urinary calculi. This fragment is present in abundance in the matrix of CaOx crystals generated in human urine in vitro and has also been detected in human urinary stones containing calcium. More recently, prothrombin gene expression has been reported in the human kidney. However, studies examining the renal biosynthesis of prothrombin or perhaps only its fragments during experimental lithogenesis, and in consequence, the role of UPTF1 in stone formation, cannot be carried out in humans. The aim of this investigation therefore was to determine whether prothrombin gene expression is present in the rat kidney. Total RNA was isolated from the kidneys and livers of 12 rats. Using reverse transcriptase PCR, mRNAs corresponding to the thrombin and fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2) regions of prothrombin were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was also examined to determine whether the quality of the tissue mRNAs was adequate for analyses. The amplified products were identified by sequence analysis. All kidneys displayed evidence of expression of the thrombin and F1+2 domains of the prothrombin gene. Furthermore, the sequences of these PCR-derived products from kidney were identical to those from liver. This suggests that the prothrombins secreted by these two organs are identical. The fact that prothrombin biosynthesis occurs in both the human and rat kidney presents an opportunity for using established rat models of stone disease to evaluate the influence of lithogenic conditions on prothrombin gene expression, and the potential role of UPTF1 in vivo.  (+info)

Study of urinary acidification in patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia. (8/306)

Hypocitraturia (HCit) is one of the most remarkable features of renal tubular acidosis, but an acidification defect is not seen in the majority of hypocitraturic patients, whose disease is denoted idiopathic hypocitraturia. In order to assess the integrity of urinary acidification mechanisms in hypocitraturic idiopathic calcium stone formers, we studied two groups of patients, hypocitraturic (HCit, N = 21, 39.5 +/- 11.5 years, 11 females and 10 males) and normocitraturic (NCit, N = 23, 40.2 +/- 11.7 years, 16 females and 7 males) subjects, during a short ammonium chloride loading test lasting 8 h. During the baseline period HCit patients showed significantly higher levels of titratable acid (TA). After the administration of ammonium chloride, mean urinary pH (3rd to 8th hour) and TA and ammonium excretion did not differ significantly between groups. Conversely, during the first hour mean urinary pH was lower and TA and ammonium excretion was higher in HCit. The enhanced TA excretion by HCit during the baseline period and during the first hour suggests that the phosphate buffer mechanism is activated. The earlier response in ammonium excretion by HCit further supports other evidence that acidification mechanisms react promptly. The present results suggest that in the course of lithiasic disease, hypocitraturia coexists with subtle changes in the excretion of hydrogen ions in basal situations.  (+info)

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, refer to the formation of solid mineral deposits within the urinary bladder. These calculi develop when urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together, forming a stone. Bladder stones can vary in size, ranging from tiny sand-like particles to larger ones that can occupy a significant portion of the bladder's volume.

Bladder stones typically form as a result of underlying urinary tract issues, such as bladder infection, enlarged prostate, nerve damage, or urinary retention. Symptoms may include lower abdominal pain, difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, and sudden, strong urges to urinate. If left untreated, bladder stones can lead to complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the stones or using other minimally invasive procedures to break them up and remove the fragments.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

Ureteral calculi, also known as ureteric stones or ureteral stones, refer to the presence of solid mineral deposits (calculi) within the ureters, the tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These calculi can vary in size and composition, and their formation is often associated with conditions such as dehydration, urinary tract infections, or metabolic disorders. Ureteral calculi may cause symptoms like severe pain, hematuria (blood in the urine), and obstruction of urine flow, potentially leading to serious complications if left untreated.

"Calculi" is a medical term that refers to abnormal concretions or hard masses formed within the body, usually in hollow organs or cavities. These masses are typically composed of minerals such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or magnesium ammonium phosphate, and can vary in size from tiny granules to large stones. The plural form of the Latin word "calculus" (meaning "pebble"), calculi are commonly known as "stones." They can occur in various locations within the body, including the kidneys, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and prostate gland. The presence of calculi can cause a range of symptoms, such as pain, obstruction, infection, or inflammation, depending on their size, location, and composition.

Lithotripsy is a medical procedure that uses shock waves or other high-energy sound waves to break down and remove calculi (stones) in the body, particularly in the kidneys, ureters, or gallbladder. The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and does not require any incisions.

During lithotripsy, the patient lies on a cushioned table while a lithotripter, a device that generates shock waves, is positioned around the area of the stone. As the shock waves pass through the body, they break the stone into tiny fragments that can then be easily passed out of the body in urine.

Lithotripsy is generally a safe and effective procedure, but it may not be suitable for everyone. Patients with certain medical conditions, such as bleeding disorders or pregnancy, may not be able to undergo lithotripsy. Additionally, some stones may be too large or too dense to be effectively treated with lithotripsy. In these cases, other treatment options, such as surgery, may be necessary.

A percutaneous nephrostomy is a medical procedure in which a tube (catheter) is inserted through the skin into the kidney to drain urine. "Percutaneous" means that the procedure is performed through the skin. The term "nephrostomy" refers specifically to the creation of an opening into the kidney.

This procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and imaging guidance, such as ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the catheter. It may be used in cases where there is a blockage in the urinary tract that prevents the normal flow of urine, such as a kidney stone or tumor. By creating a nephrostomy, urine can be drained from the kidney, helping to alleviate pressure and prevent further complications.

Percutaneous nephrostomy is generally a safe procedure, but like any medical intervention, it carries some risks. These may include bleeding, infection, injury to surrounding organs, or failure to properly place the catheter. Patients who undergo this procedure will typically require follow-up care to manage the catheter and monitor their kidney function.

Magnesium compounds refer to substances that contain magnesium (an essential mineral) combined with other elements. These compounds are formed when magnesium atoms chemically bond with atoms of other elements. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and it readily forms stable compounds with various elements due to its electron configuration.

Examples of magnesium compounds include:

1. Magnesium oxide (MgO): Also known as magnesia, it is formed by combining magnesium with oxygen. It has a high melting point and is used in various applications such as refractory materials, chemical production, and agricultural purposes.
2. Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2): Often called milk of magnesia, it is a common antacid and laxative. It is formed by combining magnesium with hydroxide ions.
3. Magnesium chloride (MgCl2): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with chlorine gas. It has various uses, including as a de-icing agent, a component in fertilizers, and a mineral supplement.
4. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4): Also known as Epsom salts, it is formed by combining magnesium with sulfur and oxygen. It is used as a bath salt, a laxative, and a fertilizer.
5. Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3): This compound is formed when magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide. It has various uses, including as a fire retardant, a food additive, and a dietary supplement.

These are just a few examples of the many different magnesium compounds that exist. Each compound has its unique properties and applications based on the elements it is combined with.

Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound with the formula CaC2O4. It is the most common type of stone found in kidneys, also known as kidney stones. Calcium oxalate forms when there is too much calcium or oxalate in the urine. This can occur due to various reasons such as dietary habits, dehydration, medical conditions like hyperparathyroidism, or genetic factors.

Calcium oxalate stones are hard and crystalline and can cause severe pain during urination or while passing through the urinary tract. They may also lead to other symptoms like blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting, or fever. Prevention strategies for calcium oxalate stones include staying hydrated, following a balanced diet, and taking prescribed medications to control the levels of calcium and oxalate in the body.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Dental calculus, also known as tartar, is a hardened deposit that forms on the surface of teeth. It's composed of mineralized plaque, which is a sticky film containing bacteria, saliva, and food particles. Over time, the minerals in saliva can cause the plaque to harden into calculus, which cannot be removed by brushing or flossing alone. Dental calculus can contribute to tooth decay and gum disease if not regularly removed by a dental professional through a process called scaling and root planing.

Urolithiasis is the formation of stones (calculi) in the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These stones can be composed of various substances such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, or struvite. The presence of urolithiasis can cause symptoms like severe pain in the back or side, nausea, vomiting, fever, and blood in the urine. The condition can be managed with medications, increased fluid intake, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove the stones.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

Triazines are not a medical term, but a class of chemical compounds. They have a six-membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. Some triazine derivatives are used in medicine as herbicides, antimicrobials, and antitumor agents.

Uric acid is a chemical compound that is formed when the body breaks down purines, which are substances that are found naturally in certain foods such as steak, organ meats and seafood, as well as in our own cells. After purines are broken down, they turn into uric acid and then get excreted from the body in the urine.

However, if there is too much uric acid in the body, it can lead to a condition called hyperuricemia. High levels of uric acid can cause gout, which is a type of arthritis that causes painful swelling and inflammation in the joints, especially in the big toe. Uric acid can also form crystals that can collect in the kidneys and lead to kidney stones.

It's important for individuals with gout or recurrent kidney stones to monitor their uric acid levels and follow a treatment plan prescribed by their healthcare provider, which may include medications to lower uric acid levels and dietary modifications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iran" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in southwest Asia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Salivary duct calculi, also known as salivary gland stones or salivary duct stones, are small, hard deposits that form in the salivary glands or their ducts. These stones typically consist of calcium salts and other minerals, and they can range in size from tiny grains to larger pebbles.

Salivary duct calculi can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing. They may also lead to infection or inflammation of the salivary glands. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the stones and relieve the associated symptoms.

The formation of salivary duct calculi is thought to be related to a variety of factors, including dehydration, decreased saliva production, and changes in the composition of saliva. People who have certain medical conditions, such as gout or hyperparathyroidism, may also be at increased risk for developing these stones.

Ureteroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of a ureteroscope, which is a thin, flexible or rigid fiber-optic tube with a light and camera at the end, to visualize the inside of the ureters and kidneys. The ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder, and then up into the ureter to examine it for any abnormalities such as stones, tumors, or structural issues.

During the procedure, the doctor can also remove any small stones or take a biopsy of any suspicious tissue. Ureteroscopy is typically performed under general or regional anesthesia and may require hospitalization depending on the complexity of the procedure. It is a minimally invasive alternative to traditional open surgery for diagnosing and treating ureteral and kidney conditions.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

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Urinary tract calculi disorders are more common in men than in women. Men most commonly experience their first episode between ... Supersaturation of the urine is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for the development of any urinary calculus. ... About 10-15% of urinary calculi are composed of struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate, NH4MgPO4·6H2O). Struvite stones (also ... ISBN 978-1-58255-082-4. Pietrow PK, Karellas ME (July 2006). "Medical management of common urinary calculi" (PDF). American ...
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Menon, M; Mahle, C. J. (1983). "Urinary citrate excretion in patients with renal calculi". The Journal of Urology. 129 (6): ... Mahle, C. J.; Menon, M (1982). "Determination of urinary oxalate by ion chromatography: Preliminary observation". The Journal ... "Robotic radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in the management of bladder cancer". Urologic Clinics of North America. 31 (4 ... "A comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in the localization of renal calculi: Experimental and operative experience". ...
Cohen, G. (1958). Deduction of chemical composition of urinary calculi by radiological means. South African Medical Journal, 8 ...
Rincé C, Daudon M, Moesch C, Rincé M, Leroux-Robert C (May 1987). "Identification of flumequine in a urinary calculus". Journal ... Drug-induced calculi (kidney stones) has been associated with such therapy as well. Anaphylactic shock induced by flumequine ... It was occasionally used in France (and a few other European Countries) to treat urinary tract infections under the trade name ... Though used frequently to treat farm animals and on occasion household pets, flumequine was also used to treat urinary tract ...
She studied urinary calculi and searched for ways to prevent them. Sutor had good contacts with hospital staff, and even ... She later worked in the laboratory of Kathleen Lonsdale on the characterisation and prevention of urinary calculi. Sutor was ... Hermon Dowling, R.; Rose, G. Alan; June Sutor, D. (29 May 1971). "Hyperoxaluria and Renal Calculi in Ileal Disease". The Lancet ...
"Clinical value of crystalluria and quantitative morphoconstitutional analysis of urinary calculi". International Journal of ... It is frequently used to help diagnose urinary tract infections and to investigate other issues with the urinary system, such ... Pathologic causes of hematuria are diverse and include trauma to the urinary tract, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, ... such as urinary tract infections. In the absence of recent trauma to the urinary tract, clusters and sheets of transitional ...
This substance was discovered in urinary calculi by Wollaston, who gave it the name of "cystic oxide" because it dissolves as ... Wollaston, William Hyde (1810). "On cystic oxide, a new species of urinary calculus". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ...
ISBN 978-0-12-034226-6. Wollaston WH (1810). "On cystic oxide, a new species of urinary calculus". Philosophical Transactions ...
Chandrajith, R.; Wijewardana, G.; Dissanayake, C.B.; Abeygunasekara, A. (2006). "Biomineralogy of human urinary calculi (kidney ...
For example, the breaking down of Ludus could provide a cure for urinary calculi. The recipe for the theorized alkahest was ...
Education Society's Press, 1872 The microscopic structure and mode of formation of urinary calculi. London: J. & A. Churchill, ... J. W. Parker & Son, London 1858 An account of the calculi contained in the Grant Medical College Museum, with some general ... remarks on calculi in India. 1860. Report on the prevalence & characters of leprosy in the Bombay Presidency, India, based on ...
This is due to possible complications that could occur later in life like urinary calculi. Goats that are banded during the ... However, with some animals such as goats, castrating too early increases the frequency of kidney stones and urinary problems ...
Bartisch is also remembered for his work in lithotomy for the removal of urinary calculi. Despite his skill as a surgeon, ...
However, vaterite does occur naturally in mineral springs, organic tissue, gallstones, urinary calculi and plants. In those ...
Escolar E, Bellanato J (2003). "Analysis of feline urinary calculi and urethral plugs by infrared spectroscopy and scanning ... which lowers urinary pH. By lowering urinary pH, the risk for development of calcium oxalate uroliths increases. By feeding ... Stones can form in any part of the urinary tract in dogs and cats, but unlike in humans, stones of the kidney are less common ... Urinary tract infections are commonly associated with bladder stones. Smaller stones may become lodged in the urethra, ...
Urinary calculi specimens were collected from 15 cases treated in Beijing and were analyzed as unknown objects for their ... "Melamine-induced infant urinary calculi: A report on 24 cases and a 1-year follow-up". Urological Research. 38 (5): 391-5. doi: ... "Diagnosis and treatment of melamine-associated urinary calculus complicated with acute renal failure in infants and young ... Liu, J.-m.; Ren, A.; Yang, L.; Gao, J.; Pei, L.; Ye, R.; Qu, Q.; Zheng, X. (2010). "Urinary tract abnormalities in Chinese ...
Traces of whitlockite have also been found in tuberculous lesions, urinary calculi and even prostatic deposits. Whitlockite can ... It is found primarily in subgingival calculus (as opposed to supragingival calculus). It is also found more in posterior as ... magnesium whitlockite comprises one component of many of the inorganic content of calculus. ... also be found in the oral cavity, where it is a primary component of dental calculi and salivary stones. Lastly, whitlockite ...
Kaszubowski U (2007). "[Physiotherapy in recurring urinary calculus formation and chronic inflammatory kidney and urinary tract ...
On the dissolvent power of water impregnated with fixible air, on the Urinary Calculus. III. On the antiseptic power of water ...
It is widely used to treat urinary calculi (kidney stones), and is often used by patients with cystinuria.[medical citation ... It is also used as an alkalizing agent in the treatment of mild urinary tract infections, such as cystitis. It is also used in ...
On 4 April 1905 he exhibited a prehistoric or predynastic urinary calculus found in Egypt by G. Elliot Smith. In 1909 as ... A Prehistoric or Predynastic Egyptian Calculus. Adlard and Son. 1905; 290 pages{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link) ... A prehistoric or predynastic Egyptian calculus". Transactions of the Pathological Society of London. 56: 275-290. Shattock, S. ...
The technique is most commonly used for lithotripsy of urinary calculi and the treatment of posterior capsulotomy of the lens. ...
... and Extraction of the Urinary Calculus: Being the Essay for Which the Jacksonian Prize for the Year 1833 Was Awarded by the ... Constitution and Extraction of the Urinary Calculus". Short was commissioned to produce the drawings; he included O. Short, del ... following year he was commissioned to illustrate the Norwich surgeon John Green Crosse's prize-winning essay on urinary calculi ...
In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence and urinary tract calculi. In January 1725 he ... The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus, and it was not until 1693 that ... Ostad, Edward; Wise, Gilbert J. (2005). "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641-1727) - health and urological ... in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus ...
They had a son in 1808 whilst living at Deal, On the Comparative Infrequency of Urinary Calculi in Seafaring People, 1818 ... Practical Observations in Surgery (1811) On the Comparative Infrequency of Urinary calculi among Seafaring People (1818) His ... Urinary calculi) totalling eight cases over a 15-year period (1800-1815) within a minimum of 145,000 subjects per year. Taking ...
Preferred examination The goals of imaging of urinary calculi are to determine the presence of stones within the urinary tract ... encoded search term (Urinary Calculi (Urolithiasis) Imaging) and Urinary Calculi (Urolithiasis) Imaging What to Read Next on ... The goals of imaging of urinary calculi are to determine the presence of stones witin the urinary tract, evaluate for ... Urinary Calculi (Urolithiasis) Imaging Updated: Nov 14, 2018 * Author: J Kevin Smith, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Eugene C Lin, MD ...
will be supporting the North American Packgoat Association study on packgoats and urinary calculi. ... Urinary Calculi is a prevalent issue and significant concern for goatpackers. NAPgA has formed a Urinary Calculi Research ... What are Urinary Calculi?. This condition occurs when mineral deposits are formed in the urinary tract. These mineral deposits ... He has since installed a water softener and has not had any additional urinary calculi issues with his goats. When asked to ...
To What Extent does the Influence of Position during the Act of Micturition Affect the Formation of Urinary Calculus? Br Med J ... To What Extent does the Influence of Position during the Act of Micturition Affect the Formation of Urinary Calculus?. Br Med J ... To What Extent does the Influence of Position during the Act of Micturition Affect the Formation of Urinary Calculus? ... To What Extent does the Influence of Position during the Act of Micturition Affect the Formation of Urinary Calculus? ...
Use of tamsulosin in patients with urinary calculi to increase spontaneous stone passage ... Use of tamsulosin in patients with urinary calculi to increase spontaneous stone passage ...
Urinary calculi are solid particles in the urinary system. They may cause pain, nausea, vomiting, hematuria, and, possibly, ...
Preferred examination The goals of imaging of urinary calculi are to determine the presence of stones within the urinary tract ... encoded search term (Urinary Calculi Imaging) and Urinary Calculi Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape ... The goals of imaging of urinary calculi are to determine the presence of stones within the urinary tract, evaluate for ... Helical CT of urinary calculi: effect of stone composition, stone size, and scan collimation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000 Aug. ...
Chandraprabha Vati highly beneficial in UTI, urinary calculi, kidney, pancreas, thyroid glands, etc. ... Chandraprabha Vati an Ayurvedic Medicine for Urinary Calculi. ... treats urinary tract disorders (UTI), urinary calculi, kidney, ... Indications: UTI, urinary calculi, kidney, pancreas, thyroid glands, bloating, anaemia, liver cirrhosis, constipation, hernia, ... Indications: UTI, urinary calculi, kidney, pancreas, thyroid glands, bloating, anaemia, liver cirrhosis, constipation, hernia, ...
It is used in the Ayurvedic treatment of urinary calculi and gravels. ...
B. AXELSSON. (1963). Urinary calculi as a symptom of chronic cadmium ...
Urinary Calculi Stone Syrup, Paracetamol Phenylephrine Chlorpheniramine Maleate Syrup offered by Spackle Biotech Private ... Effective remedy UTI & Urinary Calculi treatment of renal tubular acidosis and kidney stones due to low citric acid levels or ... Wholesale Distributor of a wide range of products which include uti & urinary calculi stone syrup and paracetamol phenylephrine ...
McMaster, Valentine Munbee (1860). "Urinary calculi". Retrieved 8 February 2022. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ...
Chung, S. D., Chen, Y. K., & Lin, H. C. (2011). Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: A 5-year followup ... Chung, SD, Chen, YK & Lin, HC 2011, Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: A 5-year followup study, ... Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: A 5-year followup study. Journal of Urology. 2011 Nov;186(5):1888- ... Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: A 5-year followup study. / Chung, Shiu Dong; Chen, Yi Kuang; Lin, ...
... the proportion of ED visits during this period was higher compared with the prepandemic period for calculus of the urinary ...
Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Partin AW, Dmochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh- ... How well you do depends on the number of stones you have, their size, and where in your urinary system they are. Most of the ...
Packgoats and Urinary Calculi. August 2, 2022Rebecca Kern-Lunbery, MS, MBA, PAS Animal ScientistForage, Hay, Small Ruminants ... To determine why they were developing urinary calculi. Mr. Powell had already lost.... ... a goatpacker from California called our lab regarding his packgoats and urinary calculi. He was reaching out in a last-ditch ...
Urinary calculi; Incontenence; Scrotal surgery; Circumcision; Laser surgery; Adrenal disease; Blood in urine; Bladder and ... Laparoscopic procedures (keyhole surgery); Prostate disease including prostate cancer; Female urology; Elevated PSA; Urinary ...
Urinary Calculi & Removal (1) Affiliated Facility. Affiliated Facility. * Adventhealth Orlando (49) * Orlando Health Orlando ...
Urinary Calculus Formation Theory and Treatments Described By Ahmed Çelebi in 15th Century Turkey. by Nil Sari ... Urinary Calculus Formation Theory and Treatments Described By Ahmed Çelebi in 15th Century Turkey. by Nil Sari ...
Low urinary citrate is associated with renal calculi formation, for example here. Whether urine pH is raised by citrate or ... "Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric ... a) Correlations between protein intake and hip fracture and urinary calcium excretion, which are claimed to be because of the ... and also because high protein diets increase dietary calcium absorption and this is why urinary calcium excretion is increased ...
Calculi (urinary tract stones). *Female Urology (urinary incontinence and pelvic outlet relaxation disorders) ... Urology is the surgical specialty that deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract as well as the male ... urinary tract, endocrine system and neuromuscular systems. Management of these conditions is typically done with diet, exercise ...
... of the analysed samples of urinary calculi in our laboratory were mainly composed of four types of calculi, consisting of the ...
Urinary System Disorders: Polyuria, renal calculus, urinary tract infection. Vascular (Extracardiac) Disorders: Flushing, ...
Calculus - the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration ... ... The varieties commonly met with are: urinary and biliary calculi, stones formed in the kidney, ureters, or urinary bladder or ... urinary calculi, etc. * A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that ... urinary calculi, etc. * A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that ...
Review the presentation of urinary calculi. *Summarize the treatment options for renal calculi ... Define the different types of urinary incontinence. *Discuss the management options for urinary incontinence *Identify the ... Lower Urinary Tract: incontinence and obstruction (includes BPH) and Pelvic Pain Syndromes *Review the appropriate evaluation ... Upper Urinary Tract: hydronephrosis, obstruction, masses and cysts *Outline the broader etiology of hydronephrosis, obstruction ...
Introduction to Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the ... Bacterial urinary tract infections Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) can involve the ... The most common nonbacterial pathogens are fungi Fungal Urinary Tract Infections Fungal infections of the urinary tract ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be divided into upper tract infections, which involve the kidneys (pyelonephritis Acute ...
In addition, in rare cases, urinary calculi (bladder stones) can occur. These may need to be surgically or medically managed. ...
  • In 1817, it was pointed out that the alkalinization that attends putrefaction of urine unavoidably results in crystallization of dissolved urinary phosphate [2]. (who.int)
  • Specimens were urine, urinary calculus, urinary catheter, and the wall of the urinary bladder. (cdc.gov)
  • You had percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures to help drain urine from your kidney and get rid of kidney stones. (limamemorial.org)
  • Most calculi arise in the kidney when urine becomes supersaturated with a salt that is capable of forming solid crystals. (findyourfate.com)
  • Evaluation of urine calcium excretion levels can aid in the differential diagnosis of recurrent renal calculi, as well as in the differentiation of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia from asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion. (medscape.com)
  • Ural Capsule a drug of choice for renal calculi. (ayurvedicstores.com)
  • The formation of the 4 basic chemical types of renal calculi is associated with more than 20 underlying etiologies. (findyourfate.com)
  • 1] They are usually associated with urinary stasis but can form in healthy individuals without evidence of anatomic defects, strictures, infections, or foreign bodies. (medscape.com)
  • Acute pyelonephritis Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) can involve the urethra, prostate, bladder, or kidneys. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Although urethritis and prostatitis are infections that involve the urinary tract, the term UTI usually refers to pyelonephritis and cystitis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Fungal Urinary Tract Infections Fungal infections of the urinary tract primarily affect the bladder and kidneys. (merckmanuals.com)
  • They are exceeded only by urinary tract infections and pathologic conditions of the prostate [1]. (who.int)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. (mdpi.com)
  • Its bark is very effective in treating urinary infections . (planetayurveda.com)
  • Chronic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) secondary to BPH may lead to urinary retention, impaired kidney function, recurrent urinary tract infections, gross hematuria, and bladder calculi. (medscape.com)
  • It was just a little over a year ago that Chuck Powell, a goatpacker from California called our lab regarding his packgoats and urinary calculi. (wardlab.com)
  • The goals of imaging of urinary calculi are to determine the presence of stones witin the urinary tract, evaluate for complications, estimate the likelihood of stone passage, confirm stone passage, assess the stone burden, and evaluate disease activity. (medscape.com)
  • When CT is available, it is now considered the examination of choice for the detection and localization of urinary stones. (medscape.com)
  • Effective remedy UTI & Urinary Calculi treatment of renal tubular acidosis and kidney stones due to low citric acid levels or high uric acid. (spacklebiotech.in)
  • How well you do depends on the number of stones you have, their size, and where in your urinary system they are. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bladder (vesical) calculi are stones or calcified materials that are present in the bladder (or in a bladder substitute that functions as a urinary reservoir). (medscape.com)
  • The presence of upper urinary tract calculi is not necessarily a predisposition to the formation of bladder stones. (medscape.com)
  • The bladder is an uncommon site of urinary tract calculi in most Western countries, but bladder stones result in specific symptoms and are a significant source of discomfort. (medscape.com)
  • Aggressive treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms with alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors should further decrease the overall incidence of bladder stones by improving bladder emptying. (medscape.com)
  • urinary and biliary calculi , stones formed in the kidney , ureters, or urinary bladder or in the bile ducts or gall-bladder. (dictionary.net)
  • ABSTRACT Epidemiology and pathogenesis in urinary stones diagnosed in 184 patients were studied. (who.int)
  • Anatomical distribution of urinary stones was 67.4% renal, 12.5% ureteric and 14.6% bladder. (who.int)
  • Bacteria were isolated from 19 (24.4%) of 78 urinary stones: 14 were urea splitting and 5 non-urea splitting. (who.int)
  • Urinary stones are the third most common affliction of the urinary tract. (who.int)
  • From December 2001 to September 2002, all 184 patients who were diagnosed by the urologist, or paediatrician in the case of children, as having urinary stones were included in this study. (who.int)
  • Dietary management to help dissolve the urinary stones and prevent their recurrence is not practical with hamsters. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • The disease occurs when calculi (stones), usually comprised of phosphate salts, lodge in the urinary tract and prevent urination. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • Cattle occasionally develop urinary calculi - kidney stones or bladder stones that are mineralized clumps in the urinary tract. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Matt Miesner, Kansas State University associate professor, says most animal species are susceptible to urinary calculi under the right conditions, but some animals are more prone to developing stones. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a well known technique that has been used since the early eighties for the treatment of urinary stones [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper these stones will be named upper urinary tract stones (UUTS). (hindawi.com)
  • Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some dietary risk factors for urinary calculi are any diet with mineral imbalances, especially pertaining to calcium, phosphorous, or magnesium, lack of water, or hard water. (wardlab.com)
  • One of the biggest risk factors for urinary calculi in cattle is diet, specifically grain, which is high in phosphorus. (beefmagazine.com)
  • Andrew Niehaus, Ohio State University assistant professor of farm animal surgery, says one of the biggest risk factors for urinary calculi is diet, specifically grain, which is high in phosphorus. (beefmagazine.com)
  • 2, 3] Perhaps surprisingly, patients with uric acid bladder calculi rarely ever have a documented history of gout or hyperuricemia. (medscape.com)
  • The most common factors that promote uric acid stone formations are persistently low urinary pH, dehydration leading to low urinary volume, and high uric acid production. (medscape.com)
  • At persistently low pH uric acid crystals can form and stabilise even with normal urinary urate concentration. (medscape.com)
  • This study was undertaken to determine urinary stone composition and prevalence of stone formers by age and sex among Iraqi patients, and to assess the contribution made by factors such as genetic traits, residence and dietary habits on the etiology of urolithiasis. (who.int)
  • A questionnaire was administered to patients to collect demographic data and information on congenital anomalies, previous urinary stone, family history of urolithiasis and dietary habits. (who.int)
  • The committee has assembled a team of experts to further investigate what commonalities are present when packgoats develop urinary calculi. (wardlab.com)
  • Purina ® Delta Lamb & Ewe Breeder DX30 contains Deccox ® to help control coccidiosis, Ammonium Chloride to help prevent urinary calculi and added Vitamin E and Selenium. (purinamills.com)
  • Like most disease conditions, it is better to prevent urinary calculi than to treat it. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • As a result of dependence upon higher brain centers, certain lesions or diseases of the brain (eg, stroke, cancer, dementia) can result in a loss of voluntary control of the normal micturition reflex as well as symptoms such as urinary urgency. (medscape.com)
  • Most vesical calculi formed de novo within the bladder, but some initially may have formed within the kidneys as a dissociated Randall plaque or on a sloughed papilla and subsequently passed into the bladder, where additional deposition of crystals causes the stone to grow. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Passage of a urinary stone is the single most common cause of acute ureteral obstruction and affects as many as 12% of the population. (medscape.com)
  • IVU is the traditional examination for the assessment of urinary stone disease, and it does provide physiologic information related to the degree of obstruction. (medscape.com)
  • Prostatitis Prostatitis refers to a disparate group of prostate disorders that manifests with a combination of predominantly irritative or obstructive urinary symptoms and perineal pain. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms arise as these calculi become impacted within the ureter as they pass toward the urinary bladder. (findyourfate.com)
  • Renal sonogram demonstrates an echogenic shadowing calculus in the renal collecting system with hydronephrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Contrast-enhanced CT image of the right kidney shows a cluster of calyceal calculi without hydronephrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasonography (abdominal, renal, transrectal) is useful for helping to determine bladder and prostate size and the degree of hydronephrosis (if any) in patients with urinary retention or signs of kidney insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Scout intravenous urogram shows a smooth, dense, round calculus in the left kidney. (medscape.com)
  • Magnified scout intravenous urogram shows a large, relatively lucent calculus in the lower pole of the right kidney. (medscape.com)
  • An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts . (dictionary.net)
  • Starting in the 1980s, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) was used to treat calculi in the renal, urinary, biliary, and salivary systems. (bcmj.org)
  • The use of externally applied acoustic shock waves was established in the 1980s for the treatment of calculi in the urinary, renal, biliary, and salivary systems. (bcmj.org)
  • Gross, painless hematuria should be considered a sign of urinary tract cancer unless proven otherwise. (powershow.com)
  • These mineral deposits, or calculi, can block the urethra. (wardlab.com)
  • When acute flank pain suggests the passage of a urinary stone, many methods of examination can be used. (medscape.com)
  • Urinary calculus is a stone-like body composed of urinary salts bound together by a colloid matrix of organic materials. (findyourfate.com)
  • It consists of a nucleus around which concentric layers of urinary salts are deposited. (findyourfate.com)
  • In women, voiding dysfunction and urinary stasis can occur but are less commonly associated with calculi. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Between November 2014 and July 2016, 114 patients with radiopaque upper urinary tract calculi were randomly assigned to an ultrasound- or fluoroscopy-guided SWL group in a prospective, open-label, single-center study. (hindawi.com)
  • Upper urinary calculi associated with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Yucatán ranks first in the prevalence of urinary calculi (UL), and above the national average of obesity (OB). (nih.gov)
  • Less frequently, bladder calculi are composed of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, ammonium urate, cysteine, or magnesium ammonium phosphate (when associated with infection). (medscape.com)
  • To What Extent does the Influence of Position during the Act of Micturition Affect the Formation of Urinary Calculus? (bmj.com)
  • When normal magnesium levels accompany a vitamin B6 deficiency, urinary citrate and oxalate solubility may decrease, causing formation of urinary calculi. (vitamins-minerals-supplements.org)
  • Conventional radiography, as shown in the image below, is often performed as a preliminary examination in patients with abdominal pain possibly resulting from urinary calculi. (medscape.com)
  • Materials and Methods: A total of 23,569 adult patients with new diagnoses of urinary calculi from 2001 to 2003 were recruited together with 70,707 matched enrollees as a comparison cohort. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Results: Of a total of 94,276 patients 2,921 (12.39%) from the urinary calculi group and 6,171 (8.73%) from the comparison group received a subsequent diagnosis of diabetes mellitus during the followup period. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Chung, SD, Chen, YK & Lin, HC 2011, ' Increased risk of diabetes in patients with urinary calculi: A 5-year followup study ', Journal of Urology , vol. 186, no. 5, pp. 1888-1893. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Urinary sodium excretion in patients with OB was significant. (nih.gov)
  • Une étude a été menée dans des unités de soins intensifs en chirurgie pour adultes de l'hôpital universitaire de Zagazig, (Égypte) auprès de 25 patients atteints de septicémie, de 27 patients atteints d'une septicémie sévère et de 28 témoins. (who.int)
  • Observation : Une patiente de 53 ans, commerçante a consulté en Mars 2022 au Service de Stomatologie et Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale du CHU de Treichville pour une tuméfaction submandibulaire bilatérale. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article discusses the diagnosis and current management techniques for vesical calculus disease. (medscape.com)
  • It is believed that wethers that are castrated at a young age may develop a smaller ureter diameter which increases the chance of blockage caused by urinary calculi. (wardlab.com)
  • Ultrasonography (US) use for initial evaluation of suspected urinary calculi is common outside the United States. (medscape.com)
  • This condition occurs when mineral deposits are formed in the urinary tract. (wardlab.com)
  • In this population based study we examine the relationship between a history of urinary calculi and the risk of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • His water source was very hard, meaning very high in calcium which was likely a contributing factor for the development of urinary calculi in his goats. (wardlab.com)
  • The primary cause of urinary calculi is feeding concentrate diets which are excessive in phosphorus and magnesium and/or have an imbalance of calcium and phosphorus. (naturalhealthtechniques.com)
  • The body normally keeps serum and intracellular calcium levels under tight control through bone resorption and urinary excretion. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to urinary bladder malfunction due to neurologic dysfunction emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury. (medscape.com)
  • Chris has also had two goats with urinary calculi whose lives were saved by undergoing specialized surgical procedures at the Washington State University Veterinarian Teaching Hospital in Pullman, Washington. (wardlab.com)