Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Ureterostomy: Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Urinary Reservoirs, Continent: Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Urinary Retention: Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Urinary Incontinence, Stress: Involuntary discharge of URINE as a result of physical activities that increase abdominal pressure on the URINARY BLADDER without detrusor contraction or overdistended bladder. The subtypes are classified by the degree of leakage, descent and opening of the bladder neck and URETHRA without bladder contraction, and sphincter deficiency.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.AfricaUrinary Bladder Fistula: An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.South AmericaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Bladder Exstrophy: A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.Urinary Incontinence, Urge: Involuntary discharge of URINE that is associated with an abrupt and strong desire to void. It is usually related to the involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle of the bladder (detrusor hyperreflexia or detrusor instability).FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.North AmericaCacodylic Acid: An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Inbred F344Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.EuropeMuscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.CreatinineSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Urinary Fistula: An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Uroplakin II: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Urinary Catheters: Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Flavoxate: A drug that has been used in various urinary syndromes and as an antispasmodic. Its therapeutic usefulness and its mechanism of action are not clear. It may have local anesthetic activity and direct relaxing effects on smooth muscle as well as some activity as a muscarinic antagonist.Urachus: An embryonic structure originating from the ALLANTOIS. It is a canal connecting the fetal URINARY BLADDER and the UMBILICUS. It is normally converted into a fibrous cord postnatally. When the canal fails to be filled and remains open (patent urachus), urine leaks through the umbilicus.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
... neurogenic bladder. This particular urinary diversion results in a continent reservoir that the patient must catheterize to ... Rowland RG; Mitchell ME; Bihrle R; Kahnoski RJ; Piser JE (1987), "Indiana continent urinary reservoir", Journal of Urology, 137 ... a way for the body to store and eliminate urine for patients who have had their urinary bladders removed as a result of bladder ... In contrast to other urinary diversion techniques, such as the ileal conduit urinary diversion, the Indiana pouch has the ...
In the 1960s, Kock experimented on cats and dogs in an effort to develop an internal "continent bladder" which used a reservoir ... Nils Kock performing the first Kock pouch continent ileostomy in 1969..."; retrieved March 2014. Fecal & Urinary Diversions: ... William O. Barnett's development of the Barnett continent intestinal reservoir (or J-pouch) modification of Kock's procedure. ... Aging and the Continent Ostamate; Schiller, Don J., MD, FACS; PDF format; accessed online March 7, 2014. Lepisto AH, Jarvinen ...
2 - those continent for solid and liquid stool but incontinent for flatus (with or without urgency). 3 - those continent for ... Combined urinary and fecal incontinence is sometimes termed double incontinence, and it is more likely to be present in those ... Postcholecystectomy diarrhea is diarrhea that occurs following gall bladder removal, due to excess bile acid.[citation needed] ... Tumors and strictures also may impair reservoir function. Conversely, increased rectal volume (megarectum), may cause fecal ...
Davis, Jon R.; DeNardo, Dale F. (2007-04-15). "The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a ... Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica, although some birds are found on the periphery of ... Turtles have two or more accessory urinary bladders, located lateral to the neck of the urinary bladder and dorsal to the pubis ... In some reptiles, a midventral wall in the cloaca may open into a urinary bladder, but not all. It is present in all turtles ...
A ureterostomy is the creation of a stoma (a new, artificial outlet) for a ureter or kidney. The procedure is performed to divert the flow of urine away from the bladder when the bladder is not functioning or has been removed. Indications may include: bladder cancer, spinal cord injury, malfunction of the bladder, and birth defects such as spina bifida. There are two basic types of urostomies. The first features the creation of a passage called an "ileal conduit." In this procedure, the ureters are detached from the bladder and joined to a short length of the small intestine (ileum). The other type of urostomy is cutaneous ureterostomy. With this technique, the surgeon detaches the ureters from the bladder and brings one or both to the surface of the abdomen. The hole created in the abdomen is called a stoma, a reddish, moist abdominal protrusion. The ileal conduit is not painful; it has no sensation. The ...
... is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Staging of the cancer is typically determined by medical imaging such as CT scan and bone scan. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the ...
When goods are substitutable, the diversion ratio, which quantifies how much of the displaced demand for product j switches to product i, is measured by the ratio of the cross-elasticity to the own-elasticity multiplied by the ratio of product i's demand to product j's demand. In the discrete case, the diversion ratio is naturally interpreted as the fraction of product j demand which treats product i as a second choice,[1] measuring how much of the demand diverting from product j because of a price increase is diverted to product i can be written as the product of the ratio of the cross-elasticity to the own-elasticity and the ratio of the demand for product i to the demand for product j. In some cases, it has a natural interpretation as the proportion of people buying product j who would consider product i their "second choice". Approximate estimates of the cross price elasticities of preference-independent bundles of goods (e.g. food and education, healthcare and clothing, etc.) can be ...
Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J., Kock, D. i Hillman, J. C., 1996. Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7. Revised Checklist, zoogeography and conservation. Tropical Zoology 9(1): 73-164 ...
HUMERUSI eshte kock e gjat tubulare. Eshte i ndertuar prej, kokes-corpus humeri skajit te siperm-ex.proximalis skjit te poshtem-ex.distalis. Ka 3 faqe: faqen e perparme te brendshme-f.anterior medialis faqen e perpareme te jashtme-f.anterior lateralis faqen e pasme-f.poserior. Ka 3 buz: buza e perparme-margo anterior buza e brendshme-m.medialis buza e jashtme-m.lateralis. Extremitas proximais perbehet nga: caput humeri colum anatomicum tuberculum majus tuberculum minus. Exproximalis perbehet nga: condulus humeri epicondulus lateralis epicondulus medialis. Condulus humeri perbehet nga; trochlea humeri condulum humeri. Mbi capitulum humeri gjendet fossa radialis A ne faqen e pasme ne ex.distalis gjendet fossa olecrani.. ...
A ureterostomy is the creation of a stoma (a new, artificial outlet) for a ureter or kidney. The procedure is performed to divert the flow of urine away from the bladder when the bladder is not functioning or has been removed. Indications may include: bladder cancer, spinal cord injury, malfunction of the bladder, and birth defects such as spina bifida. There are two basic types of urostomies. The first features the creation of a passage called an "ileal conduit." In this procedure, the ureters are detached from the bladder and joined to a short length of the small intestine (ileum). The other type of urostomy is cutaneous ureterostomy. With this technique, the surgeon detaches the ureters from the bladder and brings one or both to the surface of the abdomen. The hole created in the abdomen is called a stoma, a reddish, moist abdominal protrusion. The ileal conduit is not painful; it has no sensation. The ...
The Timber Hitches list almost immediately in "CHAPTER 21: HITCHES TO SPAR AND RAIL (RIGHT-ANGLE PULL)", only preceded there by 3 Half Hitch base forms. The context begins with typical Half Hitch#1662 as worst security/nip warnings warning with Skull/Crossbones, but a base structure to build on. Then shows the most security at top nip/opposing the linear load pull position as a safer Half Hitch form#1663 awarding Anchor icon if constant pull. Then introduces Timber Hitch #1665 concept from extension of worst nip Half Hitch tail#1662 . #1666 then shows Fig.8 concept as upgrade to Half Hitch#1662 and shows the nip position pushed to halfway between normal and top nip Half Hitch. Also adds a geometric consideration of:"particularly if the encompassed object is small." of even higher nip. #1668 then shows the Fig.8 Timber Hitch with nip more to side and not bottom as improvement.[1] Next trick is in #1669 Fig.8 Hitch with Round Turn. Where the Round Turn is around the Standing Part and Fig.8 portion ...
... , also known as flow cystometry, is a clinical diagnostic procedure used to evaluate bladder function. Specifically, it measures contractile force of the bladder when voiding. The resulting chart generated from cystometric analysis is known as a cystometrogram (CMG), which plots volume of liquid emptied from bladder against intravesical pressure. Cystometric analysis is used to evaluate the bladder's capacity to contract and expel urine. It helps determine the source of urinary problems. A normal CMG effectively rules out primary vesical dysfunction. It is used as a component for diagnosis of various disorders including urinary tract infections, multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury, urethral obstruction, and overactive bladder, among others. The procedure is relatively short, ranging from fifteen minutes to an hour in duration. It involves the ...
... (OAB) is a condition where there is a frequent feeling of needing to urinate to a degree that it negatively affects a person's life. The frequent need to urinate may occur during the day, at night, or both. If there is loss of bladder control then it is known as urge incontinence. More than 40% of people with overactive bladder have incontinence. About 40% to 70% of urinary incontinence is due to overactive bladder, It is not life-threatening. Most people with the condition have problems for years. The cause of overactive bladder is unknown. Risk factors include obesity, caffeine, and constipation. Poorly controlled diabetes, poor functional mobility, and chronic pelvic pain may worsen the symptoms. People often have the symptoms for a long time before seeking treatment and the condition is sometimes identified by caregivers. Diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms and requires other ...
... is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Staging of the cancer is typically determined by medical imaging such as CT scan and bone scan. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the ...
... is a rare type of infection of the bladder wall by gas-forming bacteria or fungi. The most frequent offending organism is E. coli. Other gram negative bacteria, including Klebsiella and Proteus are also commonly isolated. Fungi, such as Candida, have also been reported as causative organisms. Citrobacter and Enterococci have also been found to cause Emphysematous cystitis (Mokabberi). Although it is a rare type of bladder infection, it is the most common type of all gas-forming bladder infections (Mccabe). The condition is characterized by the formation of air bubbles in and around the bladder wall. The gas found in the bladder consists of nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The disease most commonly affects elderly diabetic and immunocompromised patients (Sereno). The first case was identified in a post-mortem examination in 1888 (Nemati, Basra). Signs and symptoms of emphysematous cystitis include air in ...
... or gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, the ovaries, and the Fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the Pouch of Douglas. The procedure may lead to other medically relevant findings in the pelvis. The examination can be performed by transabdominal ultrasonography, generally with a full bladder which acts as an acoustic window to achieve better visualization of pelvis organs, or by transvaginal ultrasonography with a specifically designed vaginal transducer. Transvaginal imaging utilizes a higher frequency imaging, which gives better resolution of the ovaries, uterus and endometrium (the fallopian tubes are generally not seen unless distended), but is limited to depth of image penetration, whereas larger lesions reaching into the abdomen are better seen transabdominally. Having a full bladder for the transabdominal portion of the exam is helpful ...
Ang pang-ihing pantog (Ingles: urinary bladder) ang organong kumokolekta sa ihing inilalabas ng bato (kidney) bago ang pagtatapon ng ihi sa pamamagitan ng pag-ihi. ...
Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center take a multidisciplinary approach to treating bladder cancer. ... Continent reservoir: Intestinal tissue is used to create an internal pouch that is connected to the navel. The patient uses a ... Reconstructing the Bladder. When the bladder is removed, surgeons use procedures known as urinary diversions to restore urinary ... Types of Urinary Diversion. *Ileal neobladder: Part of the ileum (small intestine) is used to make a new bladder, allowing for ...
Two types of continent urinary tracts include cutaneous reservoir versus orthotopic ileal reservoir. A cutaneous reservoir is ... Bladder reconstruction includes incontinent versus continent urinary tract *Incontinent urinary tract is when urine drains from ... Bladder Preservation Overview[edit]. Success rate of bladder preservation: *TURBT alone - 20% free of invasive bladder ... QoL: Satisfactory bladder function by LENT-SOMA in 100% of preserved bladders at 3 years. Patient satisfaction with bladder ...
Bladder cancer treatment options vary depending on whether the cancer is nonmuscle-invasive or muscle-invasive, and specific ... Catheterizable Continent Diversion Pouch. This is a reservoir of bowel with a stoma that is catheterizable for emptying the ... bladder. The urine is siphoned out of the urinary reservoir with a small catheter every four to six hours. The catheterizable ... Health Home Conditions and Diseases Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer Treatment. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. Bladder ...
What is cancer of urinary bladder? Meaning of cancer of urinary bladder medical term. What does cancer of urinary bladder mean? ... Looking for online definition of cancer of urinary bladder in the Medical Dictionary? cancer of urinary bladder explanation ... Teach the patient the specific procedure to catheterize the continent cutaneous pouch or reservoir. A simple stoma covering ... bladder cancer. (redirected from cancer of urinary bladder) Bladder Cancer. Definition. Bladder cancer is a disease in which ...
... sometimes is a sign of bladder cancer. Learn about other bladder cancer signs and symptoms and explore treatment options. ... Continent urinary reservoir surgery, Bladder removal, Bladder cancer, Testicular cancer, Kidney cancer, Kidney stone, P... ... See a list of publications about bladder cancer by Mayo Clinic doctors on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine ... Mayo Clinic doctors and scientists are studying ways to improve the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Learn more about ...
Bladder Cancer. *Continent urinary reservoir. *urinary tract reconstruction. *testis cancer. *Kidney Cancer ... Since 1982 the Kock ileal reservoir has been the primary form of urinary diversion in patients requiring lower urinary tract ... of locally advanced bladder cancer and is a nationally recognized expert in bladder reconstruction and continent urinary ... Those who are continent post-RP have a fair chance of regaining good urinary control with neobladder reconstruction. Adjuvant ...
Bladder removal. *Continent urinary reservoir surgery. Interests. *Robotic cystectomy. *Laparoscopic urologic surgery ... George Webster and performed animal surgery as part of ongoing research on tumor development in augmented bladders.Duke ...
Symptoms may be similar to those of a bladder infection. Here, gain a detailed understanding of bladder cancer, from prevention ... Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, and around 90 percent of people are older than 55 when the cancer is ... A cutaneous continent urinary diversion, a small reservoir for urine that can be drained through a hole in the abdomen using a ... All about bladder stones Bladder stones are small masses that develop in the bladder, usually when the urine becomes ...
... how MD Anderson can help support your fight against bladder cancer at MDAnderson.org. ... Continent reservoir: Intestinal tissue is used to create an internal pouch that is connected to the navel. The patient uses a ... Bladder Reconstruction Surgery. When the bladder is removed to treat bladder cancer, surgical procedures known as urinary ... Cystectomy, which is removal of the bladder, is often used in more advanced bladder cancer. Usually the entire bladder is ...
... and the most common early and late complications following urinary diversion. ... Urinary diversion is indicated when the bladder can no longer safely function as a reservoir for urine storage. This article ... Urinary diversion is indicated when the bladder can no longer safely function as a reservoir for urine storage. This article ... Continent urinary diversion. The most commonly used bowel segments for continent urinary diversion are either ileum (as ...
The Indiana Pouch continent urinary reservoir - a breakthrough procedure for the reconstruction of the bladder from the colon ... The Indiana Pouch continent urinary reservoir - a breakthrough procedure for the reconstruction of the bladder from the colon ... We treat all types of conditions affecting the urinary tract, including: *Cancers of the urinary tract, including:*Bladder ... We treat all types of conditions affecting the urinary tract, including: *Cancers of the urinary tract, including:*Bladder ...
What is continent urinary reservoir? Meaning of continent urinary reservoir medical term. What does continent urinary reservoir ... Looking for online definition of continent urinary reservoir in the Medical Dictionary? continent urinary reservoir explanation ... A pouch made from the intestines used to hold urine in the abdomen, e.g., in patients who have had the urinary bladder removed ... continent urinary reservoir. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. continent urinary reservoir. ...
Because cystectomy interrupts the normal conduit for urinary flow, a urinary reservoir usually is created. A continent urinary ... Once the entire bladder is removed, the urine must be diverted. A variety of urinary diversion options exist for patients ... "Bladder cancer". Curr Opin Oncol. vol. 18. 2006. pp. 277-83. (An overview of the current treatment of bladder cancer.) Gore, JL ... It may be indicated for neurogenic bladder complicated by frequent urinary tract infections. Initially, simple cystectomy was ...
Discusses the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer. Covers how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including surgery, ... This can be done with a pouch created inside your body from part of your intestines, called a continent reservoir. Or the ... In bladder cancer, these growths happen in the bladder.. The bladder is the part of your urinary tract that stores your urine ... Most bladder cancers are treated without having to remove the bladder.. Sometimes doctors do have to remove the bladder. For ...
Invasive bladder tumors represents a range of diseases that vary clinically from minimally invasive with a low metastatic ... 1978) Urinary diversion via a continent ileum reservoir: clinical experience. Scand J Urol Neprol 49 [Suppl]:23-31Google ... 1990) Clinical cancer progression in urinary bladder tumors evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry with monoclonal ... Droller MJ (1986) Bladder cancer. In: Graham SD (ed) Urologic oncology. New York, Raven, New York, pp 293-321Google Scholar ...
CONTINENT URINARY RESERVOIR USING DILATED RENAL PELVIS OF NON-FUNCTIONING PELVIC KIDNEY IN A GIRL WITH CLOACAL EXSTROPHY ... ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION TO THE URINARY BLADDER ... We performed construction of continent urinary reservoir in an 8-year-old girl with cloacal exstrophy who had double stoma of ... Urinary reservoir was constructed using detubularized colon segment which had been used as the urinary conduit and dilated ...
Botulinum Toxin Type a Injections for the Treatment of Continent Catheterizable Ileal-Colic Urinary Diversion Muscularis ... Clinical Pathways of Third-Line Treatment of Overactive Bladder in the Elderly. Abstract Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome ... can exhibit long-term complications such as high pressures and involuntary unit contractions within the urinary reservoir, ... Annette Fenner OnabotulinumtoxinA improves patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms and objective measures of bladder ...
Contents include epidemiology, lower urinary tract anatomy and physiology. This is followed by coverage of the pathophysiology ... Urinary diversion Véronique Phé and Gilles Karsenty *The trans-appendicular continent cystostomy technique (Mitrofanoff ... Surgery to improve reservoir function John Lavelle *Surgery to improve bladder outlet function ... Part 10: Neurogenic bladders in developping country. *The challenges of management of neurogenic bladders in developping world ...
Urinary drainage was achieved by orthotopic ileal neobladder in 15 patients (50); continent cutaneous reservoir in 11 patients ... Urinary Bladder Carcinoma Cystectomy Nigeria - Abuja. Abstract: Objective: Bladder cancer is the second most common genito- ... Urinary drainage was achieved by orthotopic ileal neobladder in 15 patients (50); continent cutaneous reservoir in 11 patients ... Urinary Bladder Carcinoma Cystectomy Nigeria - Abuja. Abstract: Objective: Bladder cancer is the second most common genito- ...
Bladder neck closure is not a standard part of continent urinary diversion. When bladder augmentation and continent urinary ... undergone a flap vaginoplasty as part of earlier management and more recently a continent right colonic urinary reservoir with ... BLADDER NECK CLOSURE IN ASSOCIATION WITH CONTINENT URINARY-DIVERSION JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Hensle, T. W., Kirsch, A. J., Kennedy, ... Continent urinary diversion has become a common form of bladder management for the female exstrophy patient in whom primary ...
The continent reservoir is formed from a piece of small intestine to hold urine after the bladder has been removed. Continent ... Urologist: A doctor who specializes in diseases of the urinary organs in females and the urinary and sex organs in males. ... Continent catheterizable reconstruction: One of a group of internal reservoirs or new bladders (neobladders) that are not ... Bladder: The organ that stores urine.. *Bladder cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the bladder (the organ that stores ...
... neurogenic bladder. This particular urinary diversion results in a continent reservoir that the patient must catheterize to ... Rowland RG; Mitchell ME; Bihrle R; Kahnoski RJ; Piser JE (1987), "Indiana continent urinary reservoir", Journal of Urology, 137 ... a way for the body to store and eliminate urine for patients who have had their urinary bladders removed as a result of bladder ... In contrast to other urinary diversion techniques, such as the ileal conduit urinary diversion, the Indiana pouch has the ...
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the sixth most commonly diagnosed solid malignancy worldwide [ 1 ]. Survival and health-related quality ... Quality of life after cystectomy comparison between patients with conduit and those with continent caecal reservoir urinary ... continent reservoir or orthotopic neobladder after cystectomy for bladder carcinoma. International Journal of Urology, 6(8), ... 2013). Quality of life in women undergoing urinary diversion for bladder cancer: Results of a multicenter study among long-term ...
Incidence and Mortality Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States after lung cancer, prostate cancer ... Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] ... Fowler JE: Continent urinary reservoirs and bladder substitutes in the adult: part I. Monographs in Urology 8 (2): 1987. ... Fowler JE: Continent urinary reservoirs and bladder substitutes in the adult: part II. Monographs in Urology 8 (3): 1987. ...
Fowler JE: Continent urinary reservoirs and bladder substitutes in the adult: part I. Monographs in Urology 8 (2): 1987. ... Fowler JE: Continent urinary reservoirs and bladder substitutes in the adult: part II. Monographs in Urology 8 (3): 1987. ... Upper urinary tract cancers are more likely to recur in the bladder than bladder cancers are to recur in the upper urinary ... Skinner DG, Boyd SD, Lieskovsky G: Clinical experience with the Kock continent ileal reservoir for urinary diversion. J Urol ...
  • This low-pressure ileal reservoir still needed catheterization through the stoma, which represented a drawback for patients but offered an elegant alternative to wet stoma for the worst cases among them. (canjurol.com)
  • Patients who are unable to perform intermittent self-catheterization may undergo continent catheterizable stomas using the appendix (Mitrofanoff Appendico-vesicostomy). (ispub.com)
  • This opened in 1990 the era of orthotopic bladder replacement, soon accompanied by preservation of the neuro-vascular bundle, enabling nerve sparing cystectomies with an obvious and dramatic impact on a patient's quality of life. (canjurol.com)
  • Ileal orthotopic bladder substitution (N- shaped) with an afferent ileal tubular segment offers good functional results with good preservation of the renal units. (urotoday.com)
  • Editorial: Life is good with orthotopic bladder substitutes! (bjuinternational.com)
  • Home 1 / Article of the Week 2 / Editorial: Life is good with orthotopic bladder substitutes! (bjuinternational.com)
  • Moreover, the postoperative financial burden was significantly lower for patients in the orthotopic bladder group than for those in the ileal conduit group, who required stoma appliances, a finding of particular importance not only in India, where the study was performed, but worldwide. (bjuinternational.com)
  • Quality-of-life assessment at similar follow-up time points, as performed by these authors, is important because, with adequate counselling, the postoperative function of orthotopic bladder substitutes improves over time. (bjuinternational.com)
  • Identification of transcripts associated with renal damage due to ureteral obstruction as candidate urinary biomarkers. (stanford.edu)
  • The upper urinary tract should be imaged with ultrasound or computed tomography to determine whether hydronephrosis, renal parenchymal scarring, or calculous disease exists. (mhmedical.com)
  • As the patient grows older, changes occur in the adult bladder, leading to increases in storage pressure and consequent risk of deterioration of renal function, which may occur insidiously. (biomedcentral.com)
  • En una tomografía computada se encuentra una lesión tumoral extensa del riñón izquierdo compatible con un Angiomiolipoma renal infiltrante e invasión tumoral de la vena renal. (bvsalud.org)
  • Complicaciones intraoperatorias ocurrieron en 2 pacientes: 1 lesión de diafragma y 1 lesión de vena renal, reparadas en el mismo acto quirúrgico. (bvsalud.org)
  • Management of the neuropathic bladder is complex with significant consequences with respect to quality of life and renal health. (pediatricurologybook.com)
  • Risk adapted treatment is ineffective in adults with ui a detailed medical history in a high degree of obesity pseudogynecomastia and the renal continued on the paner grading system in patients with unilateral cryptorchidism is the same patient as the urinary bladder in a. (bvbdallas.org)
  • Don't let your overactive bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Control and Support supplement. (herbalous.com)
  • What are the treatments for overactive bladder? (medicinenet.com)
  • The efficacy of intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BTXA) in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) has been well documented. (bvsalud.org)
  • If the latter occurs, any form of outlet obstruction, such as ileal mucosa protruding in front of the bladder outlet, strictures or growth of inadvertently left prostatic tissue, must be looked for and treated. (bjuinternational.com)
  • The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that in 2001, approximately 54,300 new cases of bladder cancer would be diagnosed (about 39,200 men and 15,100 women), causing approximately 12,400 deaths. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemical exposure at work: About 1 in 4 cases of bladder cancer is caused by coming into contact with cancer-causing chemicals at work. (scripps.org)