Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.
Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER with voiding (URINATION).
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Presence of blood in the urine.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).

Long-term transplantability and morphological stability of three experimentally induced urinary bladder carcinomas in rats. (1/4713)

Three transitional cell carcinomas induced in Fischer 344 rats by a methylcholanthrene pellet or a foreign body inserted locally into the bladder have been serially transplanted in the syngeneic strain for up to 6.5 years. There have been no changes in the individual morphological characteristics of the tumors during this time. Cells cultured in vitro for varying numbers of passages reproduce regularly the morphology of each tumor when they are injected back into the animals and results from a microcytotoxicity assay for cellular immunity indicate that they retain a common, bladder tumor-specific antigen. These tumors are useful for research in turmo biology and are offered to other scientists seeking transplantable carcinomas for experimentation.  (+info)

Natural history of papillary lesions of the urinary bladder in schistosomiasis. (2/4713)

Variable epithelial hyperplasia was observed in urinary bladder of nine capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) when examined at cystotomy 94 to 164 weeks after infection with Schistosoma haematobium. These hosts were followed for 24 to 136 weeks postcystotomy to determine the status of bladder lesions in relation to duration of infection and to ascertain whether lesion samples removed at cystotomy reestablished themselves in autologous and heterologous transfers. There was involution of urothelial hyperplasia in eight of nine animals and no evidence for establishment of transplanted bladder lesions.  (+info)

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (3/4713)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (4/4713)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (5/4713)

The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2.  (+info)

Tumor-induced interleukin-10 inhibits type 1 immune responses directed at a tumor antigen as well as a non-tumor antigen present at the tumor site. (6/4713)

Interleukin (IL)-10 is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine that has been found to be present at the tumor site in a wide variety of human cancers, including transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Using a murine bladder tumor (MB49), which we show to express the male transplantation antigen (HY), we tested the hypothesis that IL-10 at the tumor site can block the generation of a tumor-specific type 1 immune response. We show that, despite its expression of HY, MB49 fails to prime for an HY-specific type 1 (IFN-gamma) response in normal female mice. Although MB49 does not constitutively produce IL-10, our data support a model whereby MB49 induces infiltrating cells to produce IL-10. This feature rendered the IL-10 knockout (KO) mouse, whose infiltrating cells are incapable of IL-10 production, a suitable model in which to study MB49 in the absence of IL-10. When injected into IL-10 KO mice, MB49 does prime for an HY-specific, type 1 immune response. Furthermore, IL-10 KO mice show prolonged survival and an increased capacity to reject tumors as compared with normal mice. We also tested the ability of tumor-induced IL-10 to inhibit immunization to a non-tumor antigen present at the tumor site. When vaccinia virus encoding beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) is injected into the tumors of normal mice, no beta-gal-specific IFN-gamma response is mounted. However, when this same viral construct is injected into the tumors of IL-10 KO mice, it produces a strong beta-gal-specific, IFN-gamma response. These studies demonstrate that tumor-induced IL-10 can block the generation of a tumor-specific type 1 immune response as well as subvert attempts to elicit a type 1 immune response to a non-tumor antigen at the tumor site.  (+info)

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice. (7/4713)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis.  (+info)

Vaginal epithelioid angiosarcoma. (8/4713)

A case of epithelioid angiosarcoma of the vagina is described. Only five cases of angiosarcoma at this site have been reported, three of which followed radiotherapy for other gynaecological malignancies. None is described as an epithelioid angiosarcoma, an unusual and recently described variant which is readily confused with carcinoma. This is thought to be the first reported epithelioid angiosarcoma at this site and highlights the difficulties in diagnosis.  (+info)

Urinary Bladder Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the urinary bladder, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into various types of bladder cancer, such as urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. These malignant tumors often invade surrounding tissues and organs, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasis), which can lead to serious health consequences if not detected and treated promptly and effectively.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a type of cancer that develops in the transitional epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the inner surface of the urinary tract. This includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer and can also occur in other parts of the urinary system.

Transitional cells are specialized epithelial cells that can stretch and change shape as the organs they line expand or contract. These cells normally have a flat, squamous appearance when at rest but become more cuboidal and columnar when the organ is full. Transitional cell carcinomas typically start in the urothelium, which is the innermost lining of the urinary tract.

Transitional cell carcinoma can be classified as non-invasive (also called papillary or superficial), invasive, or both. Non-invasive TCCs are confined to the urothelium and have not grown into the underlying connective tissue. Invasive TCCs have grown through the urothelium and invaded the lamina propria (a layer of connective tissue beneath the urothelium) or the muscle wall of the bladder.

Transitional cell carcinoma can also be categorized as low-grade or high-grade, depending on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope and how likely they are to grow and spread. Low-grade TCCs tend to have a better prognosis than high-grade TCCs.

Treatment for transitional cell carcinoma depends on the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.

Urinary bladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urinary bladder, a muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine before it is excreted from the body. These diseases can impair the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly, leading to various symptoms and complications. Here are some common urinary bladder diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Cystitis: This is an inflammation of the bladder, often caused by bacterial infections (known as UTI - Urinary Tract Infection). However, it can also be triggered by irritants, radiation therapy, or chemical exposure.
2. Overactive Bladder (OAB): A group of symptoms that include urgency, frequency, and, in some cases, urge incontinence. The bladder muscle contracts excessively, causing a strong, sudden desire to urinate.
3. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): A chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, or discomfort in the bladder and pelvic region, often accompanied by urinary frequency and urgency. Unlike cystitis, IC/BPS is not caused by infection, but its exact cause remains unknown.
4. Bladder Cancer: The abnormal growth of cancerous cells within the bladder lining or muscle. It can present as non-muscle-invasive (superficial) or muscle-invasive, depending on whether the tumor has grown into the bladder muscle.
5. Bladder Diverticula: Small sac-like pouches that form in the bladder lining and protrude outward through its wall. These may result from increased bladder pressure due to conditions like OAB or an enlarged prostate.
6. Neurogenic Bladder: A condition where nerve damage or dysfunction affects the bladder's ability to store or empty urine properly. This can lead to symptoms such as incontinence, urgency, and retention.
7. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Although not a bladder disease itself, BPH is a common condition in older men where the prostate gland enlarges, putting pressure on the bladder and urethra, leading to urinary symptoms like frequency, urgency, and hesitancy.

Understanding these various bladder conditions can help individuals identify potential issues early on and seek appropriate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, refer to the formation of solid mineral deposits within the urinary bladder. These calculi develop when urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together, forming a stone. Bladder stones can vary in size, ranging from tiny sand-like particles to larger ones that can occupy a significant portion of the bladder's volume.

Bladder stones typically form as a result of underlying urinary tract issues, such as bladder infection, enlarged prostate, nerve damage, or urinary retention. Symptoms may include lower abdominal pain, difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, and sudden, strong urges to urinate. If left untreated, bladder stones can lead to complications like urinary tract infections and kidney damage. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the stones or using other minimally invasive procedures to break them up and remove the fragments.

Urothelium is the specialized type of epithelial tissue that lines the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It is a type of transitional epithelium that can change its shape and size depending on the degree of distension or stretching of the organs it lines.

The main function of urothelium is to provide a barrier against urine, which contains various waste products and potential irritants, while also allowing the exchange of ions and water. The urothelial cells are joined together by tight junctions that prevent the passage of substances through the paracellular space, and they also have the ability to transport ions and water through their cell membranes.

In addition to its barrier function, urothelium is also involved in sensory and immune functions. It contains specialized nerve endings that can detect mechanical and chemical stimuli, such as stretch or irritation, and it expresses various antimicrobial peptides and other defense mechanisms that help protect the urinary tract from infection.

Overall, urothelium plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of the urinary tract, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various urinary tract disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and bladder cancer.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition characterized by the involuntary contraction of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder, leading to symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia (the need to wake up at night to urinate), with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to void). It is important to note that OAB is not necessarily related to bladder volume or age-related changes, and it can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. The exact cause of OAB is not fully understood, but it may be associated with neurological disorders, certain medications, infections, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options for OAB include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions.

Cystitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection can occur when bacteria from the digestive tract or skin enter the urinary tract through the urethra and travel up to the bladder. This condition is more common in women than men due to their shorter urethras, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder.

Symptoms of cystitis may include a strong, frequent, or urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back. In some cases, there may be blood in the urine, fever, chills, or nausea and vomiting.

Cystitis can usually be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Drinking plenty of water to flush out the bacteria and alleviating symptoms with over-the-counter pain medications may also help. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, wiping from front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and avoiding using douches or perfumes in the genital area.

Urinary bladder neck obstruction is a medical condition that refers to a partial or complete blockage at the bladder neck, which is the area where the bladder connects to the urethra. This obstruction can be caused by various factors such as prostate enlargement, bladder tumors, scar tissue, or nerve damage.

The bladder neck obstruction can lead to difficulty in urinating, a weak urine stream, and the need to strain while urinating. In severe cases, it can cause urinary retention, kidney failure, and other complications. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures.

Neurogenic bladder is a term used to describe bladder dysfunction due to neurological damage or disease. The condition can result in problems with bladder storage and emptying, leading to symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, incontinence, and retention.

Neurogenic bladder can occur due to various medical conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, diabetic neuropathy, and stroke. The damage to the nerves that control bladder function can result in overactivity or underactivity of the bladder muscle, leading to urinary symptoms.

Management of neurogenic bladder typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, bladder training, catheterization, and surgery in some cases. The specific treatment plan depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the symptoms.

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine (OH-BBN or BBN) is a chemical compound that is primarily used in laboratory research as a potent carcinogenic agent. It is known to induce tumors in various organs, particularly in the urinary bladder and liver, when administered to experimental animals.

The IUPAC name for Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine is N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Its molecular formula is C8H19NO3. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water and alcohol.

It is important to note that Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine is not used in human medicine or therapy due to its carcinogenic properties. Its use is restricted to research purposes only, under controlled conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Urination, also known as micturition, is the physiological process of excreting urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra. It is a complex process that involves several systems in the body, including the urinary system, nervous system, and muscular system.

In medical terms, urination is defined as the voluntary or involuntary discharge of urine from the urethra, which is the final pathway for the elimination of waste products from the body. The process is regulated by a complex interplay between the detrusor muscle of the bladder, the internal and external sphincters of the urethra, and the nervous system.

During urination, the detrusor muscle contracts, causing the bladder to empty, while the sphincters relax to allow the urine to flow through the urethra and out of the body. The nervous system plays a crucial role in coordinating these actions, with sensory receptors in the bladder sending signals to the brain when it is time to urinate.

Urination is essential for maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, as well as eliminating waste products such as urea, creatinine, and other metabolic byproducts. Abnormalities in urination can indicate underlying medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, bladder dysfunction, or neurological disorders.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

Cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to examine the lining of the bladder and urethra for any abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can be used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for therapeutic interventions like removing small bladder tumors or performing biopsies. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and pain.

Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss or leakage of urine that is sufficient to be a social or hygienic problem. It can occur due to various reasons such as weak pelvic muscles, damage to nerves that control the bladder, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease.

There are different types of urinary incontinence, including stress incontinence (leakage of urine during physical activities like coughing, sneezing, or exercising), urge incontinence (a sudden and strong need to urinate that results in leakage), overflow incontinence (constant dribbling of urine due to a bladder that doesn't empty completely), functional incontinence (inability to reach the bathroom in time due to physical or mental impairments), and mixed incontinence (a combination of any two or more types of incontinence).

Urinary incontinence can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing embarrassment, social isolation, and depression. However, it is a treatable condition, and various treatment options are available, including bladder training, pelvic floor exercises, medications, medical devices, and surgery.

Urinary catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine. This may be done to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output, or obtain a urine sample for laboratory testing. It can be performed as a clean, intermittent catheterization, or with an indwelling catheter (also known as Foley catheter) that remains in place for a longer period of time. The procedure should be performed using sterile technique to reduce the risk of urinary tract infection.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Urinary retention is a medical condition in which the bladder cannot empty completely or at all, resulting in the accumulation of urine in the bladder. This can lead to discomfort, pain, and difficulty in passing urine. Urinary retention can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-term). Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention, while chronic urinary retention may be managed with medications or surgery. The causes of urinary retention include nerve damage, bladder muscle weakness, prostate gland enlargement, and side effects of certain medications.

Cystectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the urinary bladder is removed. This procedure is often used to treat bladder cancer, but it may also be necessary in cases of severe bladder damage, infection, or inflammation that do not respond to other treatments.

There are several types of cystectomy, including:

1. Radical cystectomy: This is the most common type of cystectomy performed for bladder cancer. It involves removing the entire bladder, as well as nearby lymph nodes, the prostate gland in men, and the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a portion of the vagina in women.
2. Partial cystectomy: In this procedure, only a part of the bladder is removed. This may be an option for patients with early-stage bladder cancer that has not spread deeply into the bladder muscle or to other parts of the body.
3. Urinary diversion: After a cystectomy, the surgeon must create a new way for urine to leave the body. This may involve creating a urostomy, in which a piece of intestine is used to form a stoma (an opening) on the abdominal wall, through which urine can be collected in a bag. Alternatively, the surgeon may create an internal pouch using a segment of intestine, which can then be connected to the ureters and allowed to drain into the rectum or vagina.

As with any surgical procedure, cystectomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to anesthesia. Patients may also experience long-term complications such as urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and changes in bowel habits. However, for many patients with bladder cancer or other severe bladder conditions, cystectomy can be a life-saving procedure.

Urodynamics is a medical test that measures the function and performance of the lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder, urethra, and sphincters. It involves the use of specialized equipment to record measurements such as bladder pressure, urine flow rate, and residual urine volume. The test can help diagnose various urinary problems, including incontinence, urinary retention, and overactive bladder.

During the test, a small catheter is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to measure bladder pressure while filling it with sterile water or saline solution. Another catheter may be placed in the rectum to record abdominal pressure. The patient is then asked to urinate, and the flow rate and any leaks are recorded.

Urodynamics can help identify the underlying cause of urinary symptoms and guide treatment decisions. It is often recommended for patients with complex or persistent urinary problems that have not responded to initial treatments.

'Bufo marinus' is the scientific name for a species of toad commonly known as the Cane Toad or Giant Toad. This toad is native to Central and South America, but has been introduced to various parts of the world including Florida, Australia, and several Pacific islands. The toad produces a toxic secretion from glands on its back and neck, which can be harmful or fatal if ingested by pets or humans.

Intravesical administration refers to the instillation of medication directly into the bladder through a catheter or other medical device. This method is often used to deliver treatments for various bladder conditions, such as interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and chronic bladder infections. The medication is held in the bladder for a specified period, usually ranging from a few minutes to several hours, before being urinated out. This allows the medication to come into close contact with the bladder lining, potentially enhancing its effectiveness while minimizing systemic side effects.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Hematuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in urine. It can be visible to the naked eye, which is called gross hematuria, or detected only under a microscope, known as microscopic hematuria. The blood in urine may come from any site along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Hematuria can be a symptom of various medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney disease, or cancer of the urinary tract. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you notice blood in your urine to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

A urinary bladder fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary bladder and another organ or structure, such as the skin, intestine, or vagina. This condition can result from various factors, including surgery, injury, infection, inflammation, radiation therapy, or malignancy.

Bladder fistulas may lead to symptoms like continuous leakage of urine through the skin, frequent urinary tract infections, and fecal matter in the urine (when the fistula involves the intestine). The diagnosis typically involves imaging tests, such as a CT scan or cystogram, while treatment often requires surgical repair of the fistula.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

However, p16 can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. More than a third of urinary bladder SCCs ... SCCs of urinary bladder express p16 independent of gender. p16 immunohistochemical expression alone cannot be used to ... "Hypermethylation of p16 and DAPK promoter gene regions in patients with non-invasive urinary bladder cancer". Archives of ... discriminate between SCCs arising from uterine cervix versus urinary bladder. Concentrations of p16INK4a increase dramatically ...
Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, ear, sinus(es), urinary bladder, and uterus. They may also occur ... Some polyps are tumors (neoplasms) and others are non-neoplastic, for example hyperplastic or dysplastic, which are benign. The ...
... neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Bladder Consensus Conference Committee". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 22 (12 ... Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. Symptoms include blood in the ... "Cancer of the Urinary Bladder - Cancer Stat Facts". SEER. Retrieved 30 October 2019. "Bladder Cancer Factsheet" (PDF). Global ... Less often, cancer of the urinary bladder is squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or rhabdomyosarcoma. "Bladder Cancer ...
... urinary bladder and part of the urethra. PUNLMP is pronounced pun-lump, like the words pun and lump. As their name suggests, ... Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple- ... MacLennan GT, Kirkali Z, Cheng L (April 2007). "Histologic grading of noninvasive papillary urothelial neoplasms". Eur. Urol. ... PUNLMPs are neoplasms, i.e. clonal cellular proliferations, that are thought to have a low probability of developing into ...
... and urinary bladder or gallbladder, biliary tract, pancreas, ampulla of Vater or uterine cervix. Immunohistochemistry may help ... in diagnosing Krukenberg tumors from primary ovarian neoplasms but needs to be applied with discretion. For example, tumors ...
Also decreased CK1δ mRNA expression levels have been observed in some cancer studies, like urinary bladder cancer, lung ... hematopoietic malignancies and lymphoid neoplasms. ... among them bladder cancer, brain cancer, breast cancer, ...
Cancer of the urinary organs (Bladder cancer, Renal cell carcinoma) Kurman RJ (2013). Blaustein's Pathology of the Female ... A urogenital neoplasm is a tumor of the urogenital system. Types include: Cancer of the female genital organs: (Cervical cancer ... Neoplasm stubs, Disease stubs, Genitourinary system stubs). ...
... papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, papillary renal cell carcinoma, papillary endometrioid carcinoma ... Breast carcinomas Vaginal, cervical and/or endometrial neoplasms Papillary neoplasms of several organs: ... It can be present in: Thyroid neoplasms: It is a characteristic feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma, but has also been seen ... in other types of thyroid neoplasms, as well as in non-neoplastic thyroid lesions. Ovarian tumors including Brenner tumors, ...
Habuchi T (August 2005). "Origin of multifocal carcinomas of the bladder and upper urinary tract: molecular analysis and ... which may be benign neoplasms) or else a malignant neoplasm (cancer). These neoplasms are also indicated, in the diagram below ... In bladder cancer, clones with loss of p16 were observed to have spread over the entire surface of the bladder. Likewise, large ... February 1999). "Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia ...
Intravesical infusion is into the urinary bladder. Intravitreal, through the eye. Subcutaneous (under the skin). This generally ... Intraocular, into the eye, e.g., some medications for glaucoma or eye neoplasms. Intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow) ...
Bladder Pain, and the Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Chapter 48: Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities Chapter 49: ... Neoplasms of the Lung Chapter 75: Breast Cancer Chapter 76: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers Chapter 77: Lower ... Cancer of the Bladder and Urinary Tract Chapter 83: Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate Chapter 84: Testicular Cancer ... Atlas of Urinary Sediments and Renal Biopsies Chapter A4: Atlas of Skin Manifestations of Internal Disease Chapter A5: Atlas of ...
The urinary tract: cystitis, bladder conjugation, bladder tumor, renal tuberculosis, renal stones, renal tumors, congenital ... Small intestine: small intestine neoplasms, smooth muscle tumors, sarcomas, polyps, lymphomas, inflammation, etc. Large ... Examples include the cystoscope (bladder), nephroscope (kidney), bronchoscope (bronchus), arthroscope (joints) and colonoscope ...
It is associated with cystitis glandularis, a precursor to adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is associated with ... Fogg, Lyman B.; Smyth, J. Walter (March 1968). "Pelvic Lipomatosis: A Condition Simulating Pelvic Neoplasm". Radiology. 90 (3 ... appearance of the bladder on CT scan. This condition also causes a straightening and tubular appearance of the rectum. ...
... other male genital organs 188 Malignant neoplasm of bladder 189 Malignant neoplasm of kidney and other and unspecified urinary ... 140 Malignant neoplasm of lip 141 Malignant neoplasm of tongue 142 Malignant neoplasm of major salivary glands 143 Malignant ... of male genital organs 223 Benign neoplasm of kidney and other urinary organs 224 Benign neoplasm of eye 225 Benign neoplasm of ... benign neoplasm of uterus 220 Benign neoplasm of ovary 221 Benign neoplasm of other female genital organs 222 Benign neoplasm ...
... is the single most common recurrent structural chromosomal abnormality in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder, ... However, it may also be active in causing birth defects and neoplasms (e.g. tumors and cancers). The sSMC's small size makes it ... Transitional cell bladder carcinomas associated with this sSMS are more aggressive and invasive than those not associated with ... Surgical removal of the gonads has been recommended to remove the threat of developing these sSMC-associated neoplasms. Tuner ...
H&E stain Histopathology of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Histopathology of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary ... papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential [PNLMP], low grade, and high grade papillary carcinoma). High-grade carcinoma ... meaning a transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary system. It accounts for 95% of bladder cancer cases and bladder cancer is ... Punyavoravut V, Nelson SD (August 1999). "Diffuse bony metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a case ...
... protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cancers including those of the urinary bladder". Pharmacol. Res. 151: ... In the United States it is also indicated for the treatment of relapsed or refractory myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms (MLNs) with ... "FDA approves pemigatinib for relapsed or refractory myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement". U.S. Food and Drug ... for pemigatinib for the treatment of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 ...
... urinary tract infection, medication, porphyria, intra-abdominal bleeding, vaginal bleeding, neoplasm located in either bladder ... For instance, cloudy or milky urine usually accompanied by bad smell possibly indicates urinary tract infection, excessive ... and urinary tract infections. Doctor may prescribe some tests to help get the full picture of the situation, such as blood ... tests, liver function tests, ultrasound for kidneys and bladder, urinalysis, urine culture for infection, and cystoscopy. ...
... urinary bladder, retroperitoneum (i.e. space behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity), endometrium, kidneys, ovaries, and ... of the neoplasms associated with the BRD4-NUTM1 fusion gene. These questions also apply to a wide range of neoplasms that have ... It is generally accepted that the BRD4-NUT protein promotes these neoplasms by maintaining their neoplastic cells in a ... Luo W, Stevens TM, Stafford P, Miettinen M, Gatalica Z, Vranic S (November 2021). "NUTM1-Rearranged Neoplasms-A Heterogeneous ...
... is cancer of the ureters, muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. It is also ... Ureteral neoplasm, a type of tumor that can be primary, or associated with a metastasis from another site Urethral cancer, ... the bladder, and parts of the urethra Bladder cancer, cancer of the bladder Ureter Cancer, Mayo Clinic Ries LG, Young JL, Keel ... After surgery to remove the tumor, a single dose of chemotherapy injected into the bladder is helpful in reducing the rate of ...
Bladder and bowel dysfunction,: 216 caused by decreased tone of the urinary and anal sphincters. Detrusor weaknesses causing ... Chemotherapy can also be used for spinal neoplasms. If the syndrome is due to an inflammatory condition e.g., ankylosing ... Urinary catheterization may help with bladder control. Gravity and exercise can help control bowel movement (Hodges, 2004). ... Changes in bladder function may be changes to stream or inability to fully empty the bladder. If a person progresses to full ...
... , sold under the brand name Myrbetriq among others, is a medication used to treat overactive bladder. Its benefits ... Other significant side effects include urinary retention, irregular heart rate, and angioedema. It works by activating the β3 ... Sinusitis Diarrhea High heart rate Fatigue Abdominal pain Neoplasms (cancers) Rare (. ... Mirabegron is used is in the treatment of overactive bladder. It works equally well to antimuscarinic medication such as ...
Symptoms include: infection, bladder dysfunction, abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and urinary incontinence. It is often ... "Benign Neoplasms of the Vagina , GLOWM". www.glowm.com. Retrieved 2018-03-01. Jaya Prakash, Sheela; M, Lakshmi devi; G, Sampath ... Vaginal cysts can also be congenital and associated with urinary system anomalies The most common type of vaginal cyst are ... large enough to cause urinary incontinence but surgical removal provides treatment and recurrence is unlikely. Diagnosis is ...
Lower urinary tract obstruction (such as that caused by bladder outflow obstruction secondary to prostatic hypertrophy) is ... In older adults, the most common cause of hydronephrosis is benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), or intrapelvic neoplasms such as ... Common causes include bladder dysfunction (such as neurogenic bladder) and urethral obstruction (such as posterior urethral ... Acute obstruction of the upper urinary tract is usually treated by the insertion of a nephrostomy tube. Chronic upper urinary ...
... urinary bladder of infants and young children or the vagina in females, typically younger than age 8. The name comes from the ... Neoplasms of the Vulva and Vagina. in Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine - 6th Ed. Kufe, DW et al. editors. BC Decker Inc., Hamilton ...
... lines the organs of the urinary system and is known here as urothelium (PL: urothelia). The bladder, ... Papillary urothelial lesions Papillary urothelial hyperplasia Urothelial papilloma Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low ... a type of painful bladder syndrome is a chronic disease of the bladder that causes feelings of pressure and pain in the bladder ... Patients with advanced bladder cancer or disease, also often look to bladder reconstruction as a treatment. Current methods of ...
"Primary round cell sarcomas of the urinary bladder with EWSR1 rearrangement: a multi-institutional study of thirteen cases with ... EWSR1-SMAD3-positive fibroblastic tumor: These tumors, which are a recently characterized neoplasm with distinct ... a wide range of soft tissue neoplasms derived from mesencyhmal tissue cells. Detection of a FET gene-containing fusion gene is ... "EWSR1/FUS-CREB fusions define a distinctive malignant epithelioid neoplasm with predilection for mesothelial-lined cavities". ...
It can involve the urinary bladder, but is not bladder cancer in the usual sense. Urachal cancer can occur at any site along ... "Updates in the Pathologic Diagnosis and Classification of Epithelial Neoplasms of Urachal Origin". Advances in Anatomic ... No findings of cystitis glandularis on the bladder surface. These findings can be precursor lesions of a primary bladder ... "The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs-Part B: Prostate and Bladder Tumours". ...
Acquired abnormalities if the FGFR1 gene are found in: ~14% of urinary bladder Transitional cell carcinomas (almost all are ... These neoplasms were initially regarded as eosinophilias, hypereosinophilias, Myeloid leukemias, myeloproliferative neoplasms, ... Unlike many other myeloid neoplasms with eosinophil such as those caused by Platelet-derived growth factor receptor A or ...
Bladder cystoscopy is performed to detect if there is simultaneous bladder cancer. Types of urethral cancer include the most ... The World Health Organization classification of tumours of the urinary system and male genital organs (4th edn) was published ... "Immunochemical and molecular assessment of urothelial neoplasms and aspects of the 2016 World Health Organization ... Risk factors suggested include prolonged irritations of the urethra due to urinary catheterization, chronic inflammation due to ...
Expression of androgen and oestrogen receptors and its prognostic significance in urothelial neoplasm of the urinary bladder - ... CONCLUSIONS: Compared to benign bladders, a significant decrease in the expression of AR, ERα or ERβ in bladder cancer was seen ... We simultaneously analyze three receptors in non-neoplastic bladder tissues as well as in primary and metastatic bladder tumour ... PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression of AR, ERα and ERβ in 188 bladder tumour specimens, as well as matched 141 ...
Neoplasm, Bladder; Cancer, Urinary Bladder; Cancer, Bladder; Bladder Tumor; Bladder Neoplasm; Bladder Cancers; Urinary Bladder ... Bladder Neoplasms; Bladder Cancer; Urinary Bladder Neoplasm; Tumors, Bladder; Tumor, Bladder; Neoplasm, Urinary Bladder; ... Urinary Bladder Neoplasms. Urachal adenocarcinoma 0 *Adenocarcinoma *Urinary Bladder Neoplasms. To share this definition, click ... Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER. coordinate IM with histological type of neoplasm (IM) Other names Cancer of Bladder; ...
"Urinary Bladder Neoplasms" by people in this website by year, and whether "Urinary Bladder Neoplasms" was a major or minor ... "Urinary Bladder Neoplasms" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Urinary Bladder Neoplasms*Urinary Bladder Neoplasms. *Neoplasm, Urinary Bladder. *Urinary Bladder Neoplasm ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Urinary Bladder Neoplasms" by people in Profiles. ...
A non-invasive miRNA based assay to detect bladder cancer in cell-free urine. January 28, 2016 Leave a comment ... profile that could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic assay to detect the presence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder ( ...
Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is essentially similar to the tumors arising in other organs. ... Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignant neoplasm derived from bladder urothelium with pure squamous ... Overview of Squamous Cell Bladder Carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignant neoplasm derived ... encoded search term (Pathology of Urinary Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma) and Pathology of Urinary Bladder Squamous Cell ...
Urinary bladder carcinoma, see Bladder cancer. *Urinary bladder neoplasm, see Bladder cancer ...
Malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder.. * Malignant neoplasm of the kidney.. * Malignant neoplasms of the renal pelvis; ... Malignant neoplasm of the thyroid.. * Malignant neoplasms of the blood and lymphoid tissues (including, but not limited to, ... Malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile duct.. * Malignant neoplasms of the retroperitoneum and peritoneum; ... Malignant neoplasms of the trachea; bronchus and lung; heart, mediastinum and pleura; and other ill-defined sites in the ...
... on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats initiated by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were evaluated. Male F344 ... Urinary Bladder / pathology * Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced* Substances * Diterpenes * Diterpenes, Kaurane ... Effects of three sweeteners on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis initiated by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine Gan. 1984 ... No preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder were observed in rats treated with the test sweeteners only. The ...
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a ... Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / classification* * Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics * Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology* ... Three differentiation states risk-stratify bladder cancer into distinct subtypes Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 7;109(6): ... Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a ...
... lung neoplasms; mineral oil; nitrosamines; polycyclic hydrocarbons; aromatic; urinary bladder neoplasms ... Airborne-particles; Automotive-industry; Biohazards; Biological-monitoring; Biological-systems; Bladder-cancer; Bladder-disease ... Increased bladder cancer risk was associated with straight MWFs but not with any other exposure. The hazard ratio increased ... Occupations with mineral oil exposure have been associated with bladder cancer in population-based case-control studies. The ...
Uroliths, neoplasms and strictures (especially of urethra). *Herniated urinary bladder. *Prostatic cysts, abscesses, or ... Urinary tract infections may be classified on the basis of 1) anatomic location (i.e., kidney, ureter, bladder, and/or urethra ... urinary tract infections from complicated urinary tract infections (Table 65-1 and Table 65-2). ... Urinary excretion of cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide. *Alteration of normal flora of distal urethra, prepuce, and ...
Bladder Neoplasms , Urothelial Cancer , Evaluation of Non-Invasive Assays for the Detection of Urothelial Cancer ... superficial bladder tumors (stages Ta, Tis and T1) account for 75-80% of bladder neoplasms, while the remaining 15-20% are ... Control Group: No known evidence of bladder cancer-one urine sample. Yes for Control Group: No known evidence of bladder cancer ... Yes for Patients scheduled to have a nephroureterectomy, cystectomy, cytoscopy (newly diagnosed bladder cancer and those with ...
However, p16 can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. More than a third of urinary bladder SCCs ... SCCs of urinary bladder express p16 independent of gender. p16 immunohistochemical expression alone cannot be used to ... "Hypermethylation of p16 and DAPK promoter gene regions in patients with non-invasive urinary bladder cancer". Archives of ... discriminate between SCCs arising from uterine cervix versus urinary bladder. Concentrations of p16INK4a increase dramatically ...
Focused Papillary Urothelial Neoplasms II with stained slides of pathology. ... Papillary Urothelial Neoplasms II. Reviewer(s): Dharam M. Ramnani, M.D. Home "> Genitourinary "> Urinary Bladder "> Papillary ... High Quality Pathology Images of Genitourinary: Urinary Bladder of Papillary Urothelial Neoplasms II. ...
Post-radiation Sarcoma of Bladder. Home "> Genitourinary "> Urinary Bladder "> Mesenchymal Neoplasms in Bladder "> Post- ... High Quality Pathology Images of Genitourinary, Urinary Bladder, Mesenchymal Neoplasms in Bladder. ... This undifferentiated sarcoma arose in the urinary bladder of a patient with remote history of radiation therapy for prostate ... He presented with gross hematuria and was found to have a bulky bladder mass. Imaging studies suggested a primary bladder tumor ...
This is a "connection" page, showing publications Sonal Singh has written about Urinary Bladder Neoplasms. ... Pioglitazone Use and Risk of Bladder Cancer. JAMA. 2015 Dec 15; 314(23):2567-8. View in: PubMed ... Thiazolidinediones and associated risk of bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Aug ...
Keywords: Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, Epidemiology, Incidence, Time Series, Iran Abstract View Paper Research/Original Article ... The ASIR of bladder cancer increased from 8.35 in 2003 to 13.57 in 2015 in men. The ASIR of bladder cancer also showed a mild ... Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and also in Iran. Understanding of bladder cancer epidemiology is of ... The province of Yazd had the highest rate of bladder cancer in men, and West Azerbaijan had the highest rate for women (15.13 ...
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms. ELIGIBILITY Subject Inclusion Criteria. In order to be eligible for participation in this trial, the ... Copyright © 2017-2023 Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network. BCAN is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization. ... By submitting this form, you are consenting to receive marketing emails from: Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network. You can revoke ... Example: Yes, I would like to receive emails from Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network. (You can unsubscribe anytime). ...
Uterine Neoplasms, Uterine Cervical Neoplasms, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena, Gynecology, ... Neoplasms, Medical Oncology, Health Policy, Health Programs and Plans, 16672, Therapeutics, Genetic Research, Pathology, ...
2125.0 Cancer, urinary and male genital tract Includes: Bladder Kidney Prostate. 2130.0 Other malignant neoplasms Includes: ... Neurogenic bladder Excludes: Bladder infection (1665.2) Kidney infection, NOS (1670.2) Passed stones (1680.0) Urinary tract ... 2700.0 Cystitis Excludes: Bladder infection (1665.2) 2705.0 Urinary tract disease except cystitis Includes: Urethritis ... 1680.0 Other symptoms referable to urinary tract Includes: Passed stones Excludes: Kidney stones or bladder stones (2705.0). ...
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms (Bladder Cancer) 09/01/2011 - "Bladder cancer: EMDA mitomycin before TURBT is the best treatment for ... the incidence of urinary bladder cancer was dramatically reduced. ". 08/01/2015 - "This study sought to determine if the ... Neoplasms (Cancer) 11/01/1988 - "Mitomycin C is effective for treatment of residual superficial tumor and when instilled ... is superior to TURBT plus BCG alone in high grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). ". 03/01/2004 - "Intravesical ...
Mullerianosis of the Urinary Bladder. 2012-01-01 Kudva R Hegde P Indian J Urol :2012 ; 28:206-7 ... A case of ovarian metastasis of gall bladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm. 2006-01-01 Diagnostic pitfalls and ... Massive Degenerated Leiomyomas masquerading ovarian neoplasm. 2011-01-01 Pandt D Priyadarshini P Feroz MS Roopa PS Kudva R ... Sinonasal - Type Hemangiopericytoma of Nasal Cavity: A Rare Neoplasm- Case Report with a Brief Review of Literature. 2014-01-01 ...
Urinary bladder MR imaging. Part II. Neoplasm. Radiology. 1985 Nov; 157(2):471-7. Fisher MR, Hricak H, Tanagho EA. PMID: ... Functional improvement in spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder by bladder augmentation using bladder acellular matrix ... Bladder neck reconstruction for total urinary incontinence: 10 years experience. J Urol. 1981 Mar; 125(3):321-6. Tanagho EA. ... Urinary bladder and sphincter responses to stimulation of dorsal and ventral sacral roots. Invest Urol. 1979 Jan; 16(4):300-4. ...
... bladder carcinoma; urinary frequency ... Neoplasms Benign, Malignant And. Benign Neoplasm of Skin. 2. 1 ... Nervous System: myelitis; meningitis; CNS neoplasm; cerebrovascular accident; brain edema; abnormal dreams; aphasia; convulsion ... Urogenital System: urogenital neoplasm; urine abnormality; ovarian carcinoma; nephrosis; kidney failure; breast carcinoma; ... Frequent: Amenorrhea, hematuria, impotence, menorrhagia, suspicious papanicolaou smear, urinary frequency, and vaginal ...
Current status of urinary cytology in the evaluation of bladder neoplasms. Hum Pathol. 1990;21:886-96 ... Urinary markers in bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2008;53:909-16 29. Farrow GM. Urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer: a ... neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998;22(12):1435-48 ... Urothelial bladder cancer urinary biomarkers. JIFCC. 2014;25(1):99-114 33. 1. Champoux JJ. DNA topoisomerases: structure, ...
Smoking/epidemiology, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology, Egypt/epidemiology, Female, Humans, Male, Risk Factors, Smoking/ ... Lung Neoplasms/etiology, Models, Biological, Mouth Neoplasms/etiology, Smoking/adverse effects, Humans, Review Literature as ... Neoplasms/epidemiology, Smoking/adverse effects, Tobacco/adverse effects, Behavior, Humans, Lung Neoplasms/etiology, Metals, ... Heavy/toxicity, Reproducibility of Results, Risk Assessment, Smoke/analysis, Smoking/psychology, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/ ...
RESULTS:Compared with the healthy control group, serum GOLPH3 level was distinctly enhanced in bladder cancer patients (P,0.001 ... CONCLUSIONS:GOLPH3 was highly expressed in bladder cancer patients and could be used as a diagnostic tool. ... of bladder cancer patients. The associations of serum GOLPH3 expression with clinicopathological factors and the diagnostic ... ROC analysis showed that serum GOLPH3 exhibited a high diagnostic value to distinguish bladder cancer patients from healthy ...
Diseases of the urinary tract. Urothelial neoplasms: papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential ( ... General features of uncommon carcinomas of the urinary bladder, of mesenchymal tumors, of ureteral and urethral tumor. ... Classification, cystic neoplasms, IPMN (Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm), solid pseudopapillary tumor, ductal and ... Uncommon breast neoplasms: main features.. Breast cancer in young and adolescents: general features and criteria for early ...
  • Targeted sequencing reveals clonal genetic changes in the progression of early lung neoplasms and paired circulating DNA. (uchicago.edu)
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 585 Japanese patients who underwent transurethral resection for bladder tumors at a single center from 2000 to 2016 and were pathologically diagnosed with Ta and T1 NMIBC. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common malignancy. (qxmd.com)
  • Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, which tend to be multifocal and recur but have a relatively good prognosis. (qxmd.com)
  • Mesenchymal tumors represent the remaining 5% of bladder tumors, with the most common types being rhabdomyosarcoma, typically seen in children, and leiomyosarcoma, a disease of adults. (qxmd.com)
  • [ 7 ] notably Sudan and Egypt, where squamous cell carcinoma ranges from two thirds to three quarters of all malignant tumors of the bladder. (medscape.com)
  • For patients with surgically resectable tumors, a partial cystectomy with en-bloc resection of the urachal ligament with the bladder dome and umbilicus is required to appropriately control the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • Urinary cytology is most helpful in diagnosing high-grade tumors and CIS. (medscape.com)
  • Pathology and genetics: Tumors of the urinary system and male genital organs. (springer.com)
  • Bladder Cancer i s an international multidisciplinary journal aiming to facilitate progress in understanding the epidemiology, etiology, molecular genetics, pathogenesis, pathobiology and pharmacology of tumors of the bladder and upper urinary tract with the objective of improving diagnosis, treatment and survivorship in patients. (iospress.com)
  • Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER . (bvsalud.org)
  • Histologic features of urothelial carcinomas involving the upper urinary tract are similar to the tumors seen in the urinary bladder. (webpathology.com)
  • Background: Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Jordan. (who.int)
  • No research on survival from bladder cancer at the national level has been conducted before. (who.int)
  • In this manuscript the histopathology of the various lesions that appear during chemically induced cancer of the liver, pancreas, and bladder in several rodent species has been selected to compare and contrast similarities and differences that exist among them and among the spontaneous premalignant lesions and carcinomas of these organs in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Impact of Bladder Neck Involvement on Recurrence in Patients With Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: An Analysis Based on a Time-dependent Model. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor location in bladder neck has reported to be a prognostic factor for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). (medscape.com)
  • Bladder cancer typically occurs in men aged 50-70 years and is related to smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. (qxmd.com)
  • Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with a family history of bladder cancer or who are older, white, or male have a higher risk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Is Bladder Cancer? (medlineplus.gov)
  • For more information, see Bladder Cancer . (medscape.com)
  • Quantitative exposure to metalworking fluid s and bladder cancer incidence in a cohort of autoworkers. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupations with mineral oil exposure have been associated with bladder cancer in population-based case-control studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors report results from the first cohort study to examine bladder cancer incidence in relation to quantitative exposures to metalworking fluid s (MWFs), based on 21,999 male Michigan automotive workers, followed from 1985 through 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased bladder cancer risk was associated with straight MWFs but not with any other exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Bladder cancer : chromosomes and a major disease / Lyuba Varticovski, Andrea Apolo. (nih.gov)
  • Any patient with gross or microscopic hematuria should undergo urologic evaluation, as hematuria is the most common clinical manifestation in patients presenting with bladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • This suggests that in the diagnosis of bladder cancer, the cytologist's level of experience has an important impact on the clinical value of urinary cytology. (medscape.com)
  • Because cytology is the most reliable urine test for detecting bladder cancer, a positive cytology finding should be treated as indicating cancer somewhere in the urinary tract until proven otherwise. (medscape.com)
  • Only 10% of patients with bladder cancer have a pure CIS. (medscape.com)
  • Cystoscopy is one of the first tests that should be completed in a patient presenting with signs and symptoms suspicious for bladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: To give a comprehensive depiction of the utilization status of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) worldwide. (minervamedica.it)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: A novel functional polymorphism C1797G in the MDM2 promoter is associated with risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population. (duke.edu)
  • We hypothesize that genetic variants in the MDM2 gene are associated with risk of bladder cancer. (duke.edu)
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We first conducted a case-control study of 234 bladder cancer cases and 253 cancer-free controls, using the haplotype-based tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach involving 13 common SNPs initially identified in 100 control subjects. (duke.edu)
  • RESULTS: We found that the C1797G polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter region is an important SNP because its homozygous variant genotype, but none of the haplotypes, was associated with risk of bladder cancer. (duke.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that the novel MDM2 promoter C1797G polymorphism may affect the MDM2 activity by altering the C/EBP alpha binding affinity to the promoter and, thus, may be a marker for genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer in Chinese populations. (duke.edu)
  • To explore gender differences in bladder cancer treatment decision making. (ons.org)
  • As part of the original study, 45 men and 15 women with bladder cancer participated in individual interviews. (ons.org)
  • Women primarily described family members as facilitators of bladder cancer treatment-related decisions, but men were more likely to describe family in a nonsupportive role. (ons.org)
  • The results suggest that influences on the decision-making process are different for men and women with bladder cancer. (ons.org)
  • Family may play a particularly important role for women faced with bladder cancer treatment-related decisions. (ons.org)
  • Clinical nurses who care for individuals with bladder cancer should routinely assess patients' support systems and desired level of family participation in decision making. (ons.org)
  • For some people with bladder cancer, family may serve as a stressor. (ons.org)
  • Every year in the United States, more than 79,000 individuals are diagnosed with bladder cancer (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2017). (ons.org)
  • Although bladder cancer is more common among men, the mortality rate among women is higher (ACS, 2017), and women are more likely to experience disease recurrence after treatment (Fajkovic et al. (ons.org)
  • Likewise, Siegrist, Savage, Shabsigh, Cronin, and Donat (2010) analyzed a series of bladder cancer cases from 1995-2005 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York and concluded that women were less likely to undergo lymph node dissection or receive a continent urinary diversion than men, even when controlling for confounding disease. (ons.org)
  • Considering these findings, the authors suggested that patient or physician treatment preferences accounted for a significant proportion of the difference between men's and women's bladder cancer-related outcomes. (ons.org)
  • Little is known about the decision-making processes of women with bladder cancer, and no systematic decision support has been tested for individuals who are making bladder cancer treatment decisions. (ons.org)
  • 2013). This is particularly concerning given that patients with bladder cancer have been found to report significantly less positive experiences of decision making when compared to patients with other forms of cancer (El Turabi, Abel, Roland, & Lyratzopoulos, 2013). (ons.org)
  • To provide a homogeneous study population, patients with organ metastasis at the time of RC and/or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded from analysis, which resulted in overall 549 bladder cancer (BC) patients from 18 centers of the Prospective Multicenter Radical Cystectomy Series 2011 (PROMETRICS 2011). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • T1 bladder cancer constitutes approximately 25% of incident bladder cancers, and as such carries an important public health impact. (iospress.com)
  • A novel fluidic-based electrochemical ELISA platform is descried for estimation of the bladder cancer protein markers nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NUMA1) and complement factor H-related 1 (CFHR1). (bath.ac.uk)
  • Arya, S & Estrela, P 2018, ' Electrochemical ELISA-based platform for bladder cancer protein biomarker detection in urine ', Biosensors and Bioelectronics , vol. 117, pp. 620-627. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Previous reports suggested that bladder cancer patients who continue to smoke while receiving chemotherapy have poorer outcomes than their nonsmoking counterparts. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The objective of this study was to identify the role of Stat3 in chemoresistance induced by nicotine in human bladder cancer cell line, T24 cells. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Urothelial bladder cancer ranks among the 10 most frequently diagnosed cancers world-wide. (nebraska.edu)
  • In our previous study, the transmembrane protein neuropilin-2 (NRP2) emerged as a predictive marker in patients with bladder cancer. (nebraska.edu)
  • Here, we correlate NRP2 and its two most abundant transcript variants, NRP2A and NRP2B, with the clinical outcome using available genomic data with subsequent validation in our own cohort of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. (nebraska.edu)
  • Only NRP2A emerged as an independent prognostic marker for shorter cancer-specific survival in muscle-invasive bladder cancer in our cohort of 102 patients who underwent radical cystectomy between 2008 and 2014 with a median follow-up time of 82 months. (nebraska.edu)
  • Current best practice for bladder cancer: a narrative review of diagnostics and treatments. (nih.gov)
  • Management of metastatic bladder cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Radical cystectomy versus trimodality therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a multi-institutional propensity score matched and weighted analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Defining cisplatin eligibility in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. (nih.gov)
  • No etiological prediction model incorporating biomarkers is available to predict bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cases were 199 bladder cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical, laboratory and genetic data were predictors in logistic regression models (full and short) in which the dependent variable was 1 for 15 patients with aromatic amines related bladder cancer and 0 otherwise. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integrating clinical, laboratory and genetic factors, we developed the first etiologic prediction model for aromatic amine related bladder cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bladder cancer (BC) accounts for 5-10% of all malignancies among males in Europe and USA [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background Although intravesical BCG is the standard treatment of high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), response rates remain unsatisfactory. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Because many urothelial carcinomas contain a minor squamous cell component, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder should be rendered only when the tumor is solely composed of a squamous cell component in the absence of a conventional urothelial carcinoma component. (medscape.com)
  • Urachal carcinoma is a rare non-urothelial malignancy frequently involving the midline or dome of the bladder due to direct extension from the urachal ligament, the structure from which this tumor arises. (nih.gov)
  • Additional experiments with tumor tissues revealed that the transcriptional activator C/EBP alpha containing the 1797G allele increased levels of the MDM2 mRNA and protein in bladder tumor tissues. (duke.edu)
  • Results of a retrospective single-institution study recently suggested improved prognostic outcomes in patients undergoing photodynamic diagnosis (PDD)-assisted transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) prior to radical cystectomy (RC). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Today, to stage UCB, the procedure known as transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) is employed. (foxchase.org)
  • Worldwide, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder varies. (medscape.com)
  • Cyclophosphamide chemotherapy has also been reported to increase the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. (medscape.com)
  • As previously mentioned, schistosomiasis is the major cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in African countries. (medscape.com)
  • Patients must have a histologically confirmed diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, urethra, ureter, or renal pelvis. (nih.gov)
  • Patient must have a histologically confirmed diagnosis of non-transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, urethra, ureter, or renal pelvis including but not limited to squamous cell, neuroendocrine, adenocarcinoma including urachal and sarcomatoid. (nih.gov)
  • Management of T1 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: What Do We Know and What Do We Need To Know? (iospress.com)
  • Purpose: We tested whether the combination of 4 established cell cycle regulators (p53, pRB, p21 and p27) could improve the ability to predict clinical outcomes in a large multi-institutional collaboration of patients with pT3-4N0 or pTany Npositive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. (wustl.edu)
  • Materials and Methods: The study comprised 692 patients with pT3-4N0 or pTany Npositive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy (median followup 5.3 years). (wustl.edu)
  • Conclusions: While the status of individual molecular markers does not add sufficient value to outcome prediction in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, combinations of molecular markers may improve molecular staging, prognostication and possibly prediction of response to therapy. (wustl.edu)
  • Appropriate staging forms the basis for "life and death" decisions in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). (foxchase.org)
  • 1998) The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology consensus classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. (springer.com)
  • We investigated the impact of bladder neck involvement (BNI) on recurrence in NMIBC using time-dependent covariate analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Mostofi FK, Sobin LH, Tosoni I (1973) Histological typing of urinary bladder tumours. (springer.com)
  • eds) (1999) Histological typing of urinary bladder tumours. (springer.com)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignant neoplasm derived from bladder urothelium with pure squamous phenotype. (medscape.com)
  • Further validation of the functionality of the MDM2 C1797G polymorphism and its association with risk of bladder and other cancers in other ethnic populations is warranted. (duke.edu)
  • In cases of pure CIS, urinary cytology may lead to the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • in these cases the diagnosis is made only when the urologist maintains a high level of suspicion for CIS and obtains random bladder biopsy specimens from patients with worrisome symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • This invention also can be applied to diagnosis and treatment of neoplasms in other hollow viscera (e.g. colon, esophagus, etc. (foxchase.org)
  • Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes. (lookformedical.com)
  • A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. (lookformedical.com)
  • We performed transurethral biopsy of the bladder tumour after obtaining informed consent. (bmj.com)
  • Endoscopic image obtained during cystoscopicguided collection of biopsy specimens from a urinary bladder mass in an 8-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever. (avma.org)
  • Photomicrographs of histologic sections of biopsy specimens obtained from the bladder wall mass in the dog in Figure 1. (avma.org)
  • The novel concept centers on deploying an anchor using image guidance into the bladder wall at a defined depth and then uniting this anchor with a biopsy sheath. (foxchase.org)
  • Such a device that allows for core-biopsy within the bladder lumen previously has never been described. (foxchase.org)
  • The upper urinary tract should be evaluated with contrast imaging and possibly ureteroscopy. (medscape.com)
  • papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential and low-grade carcinomas are seen less frequently in the upper urinary tract. (webpathology.com)
  • In this paper we present the new 2004 WHO classification of urinary bladder tumours emphasizing the changes in relation to the former classifications focusing on histological typing, grading and molecular characterization. (springer.com)
  • Bergkvist A, Ljungqvist A, Moberger G (1965) Classification of bladder tumours based on the cellular pattern. (springer.com)
  • Preventing urinary tract infections starts with practicing a few good bathroom and hygiene habits. (urinaryhealthtalk.com)
  • Urinary tract infections are one of the most common types of bacterial infections worldwide. (urinaryhealthtalk.com)
  • But this new knowledge will only be ground-breaking if it can be correlated with the clinical outcome of urinary bladder tumours and with histopathological findings. (springer.com)
  • Beer's method of transurethral fulguration of bladder tumours, from which arose the operation of transurethral prostatectomy. (argosybooks.com)
  • A higher risk of relapse following surgery has been reported in those with positive margins, lymph node involvement, involvement of the peritoneal surface, or where the umbilicus was not resected en-bloc, and may predict a group of patients where the risk of relapse is sufficiently high enough to consider adjuvant chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • Salicylazosulfapyridine is a suspect carcinogen because reductive cleavage of the azo linkage yields a p-amino aryl sulfonamide (sulfapyridine), and a related p-amino aryl sulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole) has been shown to produce thyroid neoplasms in rats. (nih.gov)
  • A pale pink, polypoid mass with a broad base is seen extending from the dorsal surface of the urinary bladder at the level of the trigone, where it partially obstructs the proximal portion of the urethra. (avma.org)
  • Your pelvic floor muscles surround the bladder and urethra and control the flow of urine as you pee. (urinaryhealthtalk.com)
  • Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2002) Preneoplastic non-papillary lesions and conditions of the urinary bladder: an update based on the Ancona International Consultation. (springer.com)
  • 9 Herein, we describe the first case of primary CD56-positive B cell lymphoma (diffuse large B cell lymphoma, DLBCL) of the urinary system. (bmj.com)
  • Analysis of tissue sampled dictates whether patients undergo a life-saving but life-changing radical operation requiring bladder removal and urinary diversion. (foxchase.org)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma occur in the setting of chronic bladder infection and irritation. (qxmd.com)
  • In the United States, squamous cell carcinoma constitutes around 2%-5% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • In certain parts of the African continent, the majority of bladder carcinomas are of the squamous cell type. (medscape.com)
  • Having bladder diverticula may increase the likelihood that an individual will develop squamous cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • [ 14 ] Bladder exstrophy has been associated with the development of squamous cell carcinoma at a younger age than usual. (medscape.com)
  • Eight cases of Paget's disease of genital mucosa with malignancy of the lower urinary tract are described. (nih.gov)
  • Emerging technologies for the surgical management of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic obstruction. (elsevierpure.com)
  • URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION. (lookformedical.com)
  • A higher degree of adenocarcinoma has also been reported in schistosomal-associated bladder carcinomas. (medscape.com)
  • The bladder is a hollow organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All patients with gross hematuria should undergo cystoscopy, upper tract imaging, and urinary cytology (preferably barbotage urine for cytology). (medscape.com)
  • Muscle weakness in the bladder sphincter muscle can be thereason urine is leaking, but the root cause of the weakness is what needs to beinvestigated. (urinaryhealthtalk.com)
  • One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER. (lookformedical.com)
  • We conducted a follow-up study on 311 patients with urinary bladder neoplasms to investigate the association of polymorphisms in DNA repair and cell growth regulatory genes with the clinical outcomes of this disease. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to determine expression level of autophagic genes p62, LC3 - A and LC3 - B in bladder carcinoma (compared to the healthy bladder tissue). (unist.hr)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measure is a elevated expression of autophagic genes in the bladder carcinoma tissue, which has been detected by RT-PCR approach. (unist.hr)
  • The spread of a malignant neoplasm to the urinary bladder wall from an adjacent or distant anatomic site. (nih.gov)
  • In two patients with bladder malignancy, there was histologic evidence of outward pagetoid extension of this process along urothelium and onto the genital mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • If cystoscopy findings are negative in the setting of positive cytology findings, further evaluation of the urinary tract is required. (medscape.com)
  • Cystoscopy revealed a mass lesion in the urinary bladder. (bmj.com)
  • Our results are consistent with the notion that the XPD (K751Q) polymorphism either individually or in combination with the XPC (K939Q) polymorphism modulates the risk of death in patients with urinary bladder neoplasms. (nih.gov)
  • In one study from Egypt, 82% of patients with bladder carcinoma were found to harbor Schistosoma haematobium eggs in the bladder wall. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, cytology can be used in patients with microhematuria who have irritative urinary symptoms after a negative workup. (medscape.com)
  • BCG-induced cytokines showed a progressive increase in IL-8 (p=0.02) and TNF-α (p=0.04) over time for patients on rapamycin 2.0 mg, whereas patients receiving placebo had no significant change in urinary cytokines. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Compared with placebo, patients receiving 2.0 mg rapamycin had increased urinary 3δT cells at the first week of BCG (p=0.02). (johnshopkins.edu)
  • The patients underwent intra-operative cystoscopic evaluation to verify ureteral permeability and bladder integrity. (lookformedical.com)